WorldWideScience

Sample records for abort vehicle lav

  1. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  2. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  3. Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Trajectory Analysis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is the first crewed capsule design to be developed by NASA since Project Apollo. Unlike Apollo, however, the CEV is being designed for service in both Lunar and International Space Station missions. Ascent aborts pose some issues that were not present for Apollo, due to its launch azimuth, nor Space Shuttle, due to its cross range capability. The requirement that a North Atlantic splashdown following an abort be avoidable, in conjunction with the requirement for overlapping abort modes to maximize crew survivability, drives the thrust level of the service module main engine. This paper summarizes 3DOF analysis conducted by NASA to aid in the determination of the appropriate propulsion system for the service module, and the appropriate propellant loading for ISS missions such that crew survivability is maximized.

  5. A propulsion technology challenge — An abortable. Continuous use vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, Paul A.; Froning, H. David

    1996-02-01

    Propulsion is the enabling technology for an abortable, continuous use vehicle. Propulsion performance purchases margin in the other material, structural, and system requirements. But what is abortability, and continuous use? Why is it necessary? What are its characteristics? And, what specifically is required in the propulsion system to enable these characteristics? Is the cost of the launcher really trivial, or is that the incomplete cost analysis limited to expendables and rebuilt, reusables. This paper identifies what constitutes an abortable, continuous use vehicle, the propulsion characteristics required, and the technology necessary to provide those characteristics. The proposition resulting is that this is not a technology issue, it is a concept of operation and a bureaucratic issue. The required goal is not as distant as some might propose, and the technology not as unprepared for commercial application as some assumed. The conclusion is that clearly we cannot continue to base the next century's orbital operations on an expendable rebuilt for reuse concept. What is required is a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine based on those now in space operation 1,2; not a combination of cycles that remains to be shown as a practical, achievable reality.

  6. Commercial Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Simulation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnam, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    SpaceX and Boeing have been selected to develop and operate crew vehicles to transport astronauts to and from the International Space Station. Their design work is to be analyzed to ensure that they are meeting all of the safety and operational requirements put forth by NASA. Throughout my time here, I worked familiarized myself with the SpaceX Dragon Abort system, as well as the NASA Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). This included understanding the different abort scenarios, and how each one could potentially impact the astronaut crew. In addition, I familiarized myself with the simulation developed my NASA to test and analyze the Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) systems developed by SpaceX and Boeing.

  7. Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2013-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

  8. Orion Pad Abort 1 GN and C Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.

  9. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.

  10. PIV Measurements of the CEV Hot Abort Motor Plume for CFD Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark; Wolter, John D.; Locke, Randy; Wroblewski, Adam; Childs, Robert; Nelson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    NASA s next manned launch platform for missions to the moon and Mars are the Orion and Ares systems. Many critical aspects of the launch system performance are being verified using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. The Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) consists of a tower mounted tractor rocket tasked with carrying the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the launch vehicle in the event of a catastrophic failure during the vehicle s ascent. Some of the predictions involving the launch abort system flow fields produced conflicting results, which required further investigation through ground test experiments. Ground tests were performed to acquire data from a hot supersonic jet in cross-flow for the purpose of validating CFD turbulence modeling relevant to the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). Both 2-component axial plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3-component cross-stream Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements were obtained on a model of an Abort Motor (AM). Actual flight conditions could not be simulated on the ground, so the highest temperature and pressure conditions that could be safely used in the test facility (nozzle pressure ratio 28.5 and a nozzle temperature ratio of 3) were used for the validation tests. These conditions are significantly different from those of the flight vehicle, but were sufficiently high enough to begin addressing turbulence modeling issues that predicated the need for the validation tests.

  11. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is

  12. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  13. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative application of the theory of System Health Management and its operational subset, Fault Management, to the selection of Abort Triggers for a human-rated launch vehicle, the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the theory to assess the effectiveness of candidate failure detection and response mechanisms to protect humans from time-critical and severe hazards. The quantitative method was successfully used on the SLS to aid selection of its suite of Abort Triggers.

  14. [Abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.

  15. Simulation Development and Analysis of Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program is an integral step in its journey to Mars as it would expedite development of space technologies and open up partnership with U.S. commercial companies. NASA reviews and independent assessment of Commercial Crew Program is fundamental to its success, and being able to model a commercial crew vehicle in a simulation rather than conduct a live test would be a safer, faster, and less expensive way to assess and certify the capabilities of the vehicle. To this end, my project was to determine the feasibility of using a simulation tool named SOMBAT version 2.0 to model a multiple parachute system for Commercial Crew Program simulation. The main tasks assigned to me were to debug and test the main parachute system model, (capable of simulating one to four main parachute bodies), and to utilize a graphical program to animate the simulation results. To begin tackling the first task, I learned how to use SOMBAT by familiarizing myself with its mechanics and by understanding the methods used to tweak its various parameters and outputs. I then used this new knowledge to set up, run, and analyze many different situations within SOMBAT in order to explore the limitations of the parachute model. Some examples of parameters that I varied include the initial velocity and orientation of the falling capsule, the number of main parachutes, and the location where the parachutes were attached to the capsule. Each parameter changed would give a different output, and in some cases, would expose a bug or limitation in the model. A major bug that I discovered was the inability of the model to handle any number of parachutes other than three. I spent quite some time trying to debug the code logically, but was unable to figure it out until my mentor taught me that digital simulation limitations can occur when some approximations are mistakenly assumed for certain in a physical system. This led me to the realization that unlike in all of the programming classes

  16. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitive Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    SHM/FM theory has been successfully applied to the selection of the baseline set Abort Triggers for the NASA SLS center dot Quantitative assessment played a useful role in the decision process ? M&FM, which is new within NASA MSFC, required the most "new" work, as this quantitative analysis had never been done before center dot Required development of the methodology and tool to mechanize the process center dot Established new relationships to the other groups ? The process is now an accepted part of the SLS design process, and will likely be applied to similar programs in the future at NASA MSFC ? Future improvements center dot Improve technical accuracy ?Differentiate crew survivability due to an abort, vs. survivability even no immediate abort occurs (small explosion with little debris) ?Account for contingent dependence of secondary triggers on primary triggers ?Allocate "? LOC Benefit" of each trigger when added to the previously selected triggers. center dot Reduce future costs through the development of a specialized tool ? Methodology can be applied to any manned/unmanned vehicle, in space or terrestrial

  17. Overview of Orion Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Donald B.; Aibicjpm. Vamessa V.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is designing a new spacecraft, called Orion, to fly astronauts to low earth orbit and beyond. Characterization of the dynamic stability of the Orion spacecraft is important for the design of the spacecraft and trajectory construction. Dynamic stability affects the stability and control of the Orion Crew Module during re-entry, especially below Mach = 2.0 and including flight under the drogues. The Launch Abort Vehicle is affected by dynamic stability as well, especially during the re-orientation and heatshield forward segments of the flight. The dynamic stability was assessed using the forced oscillation technique, free-to-oscillate, ballistic range, and sub-scale free-flight tests. All of the test techniques demonstrated that in heatshield-forward flight the Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle are dynamically unstable in a significant portion of their flight trajectory. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Orion dynamic aero program and a high-level summary of the dynamic stability characteristics of the Orion spacecraft.

  18. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  19. Analysis of Light Armored Vehicle Depot Level Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullins, Michael; Adams, Troy; Simms, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Depot Level Maintenance is conducted to examine the scheduled maintenance cycle and processes in order to determine potential inefficiencies related to cost or time...

  20. Induction of polyclonal B cell activation and differentiation by the AIDS retrovirus (HTLV-III/LAV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, S.E.; Schnittman, S.M.; Lane, H.C.; Folks, T.; Koenig, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The immune systems of individuals infected with HTLV-III/LAV are characterized by a profound defect in cellular immunity together with paradoxical polyclonal B cell activation. The present study examined the direct effects of HTLV-III/LAV on B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood B cells from healthy donors were incubated with a variety of HTLV-III/LAV isolates for 1 h and 3 H-thymidine incorporation was measured at multiple time points. Responses ranged from 9000-28,000 cpm and peaked on day 4. This B cell activation was not enhanced by the addition of interleukin-2 to culture, was not synergistic with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, was not modulated by the addition of T lymphocytes to culture, and was not associated with B cell transformation. Supernatant Ig could first be detected in virus-activated cultures at day 4, plateaued by day 8, and yielded a mean of 12,500 ng IgG+IgM/ml/50,000 B cells. Thus, HTLV-III/LAV is a potent T cell independent B cell mitogen capable of inducing B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation comparable in magnitude to that of the most potent B cell activators. This biological property of HTLV-III/LAV may help explain the profound polyclonal B cell activation observed in patients with AIDS and may provide investigators with another probe for investigating the mechanisms of B cell activation

  1. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient ... given for the procedure? Before the procedure, local anesthesia is given to numb the cervix. Sedatives may ...

  2. [The aborted abortion counselor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, A

    1983-05-01

    As a psychoanalyst the author takes exception to a paper by Menne and Moersch entitled: "Psychoanalytical Experiences from the Supervision of Pregnancy Counseling," concerning the counseling of abortion applicants under West German Law No. 218. He disagrees with much of the psychoanalytical interpretations of women's desire for children and desire for abortion. Where the authors reason too much from the psychoanalytical viewpoint in the counseling situation this author accuses them of overlooking sociocritical arguments which find more elbow-room in the Law allowing "internal conflict" and "social counseling" as reasons for abortion. He accuses them of adhering too much to the letter of the law and urges them to resolve their not-so-easy task by helping the applicant achieve her desire for abortion as skillfully and responsibly as possible within the letter of that law.

  3. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its own before the 20th week of pregnancy. Surgical abortion uses surgery to end a pregnancy. ... happens, another dose of the medicine or a surgical abortion procedure may need to be done. Physical recovery ...

  4. Hyperfine properties of La(V1-xFex)O3 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupan, L. F. S.; Ivashita, F. F.; Barco, R.; Hallouche, B.; Paesano, A.

    2017-11-01

    LaV1-xFexO3 perovskites were synthesized in the vanadium-rich concentration range (i.e., x properties of the iron nuclear probe. The aim of this investigation was to better understand the physical transformations that take place in the undoped compound (LaVO3) at low temperatures. For that, X-ray diffraction analysis and, more extensively, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied. The results revealed that the LaV1-xFexO3 vanadium-rich perovskites are orthorhombic at RT, and their lattice parameters decrease with increasing vanadium concentration. Lowering the temperature, the system becomes magnetic, with the iron moment freezing progressively. The presence of two magnetic subspectral components obtained at the lowest measurement temperatures suggests that the vanadium-rich samples, including LaVO3, undergo a phase transition from an orthorhombic to a monoclinic structure at low temperatures.

  5. HeLa-LAV, an epithelial cell line stably infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Doe, B; Steimer, K S; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    An HeLa-LAV cell line was established by infecting and subcloning previously described CD4-expressing HeLa cells with HIV-1. Cells of this line stably synthesize all major HIV proteins, release infectious particles of HIV-1, but do not die even after long term culture. More than 90% of the cells express the envelope protein gp120 on the surface. The cells can be easily and efficiently labeled with 51chromium, and exhibit a low spontaneous release. Because they are susceptible to killing by allogeneic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) when targeted to gp120, they ought to be a useful source of target cells in any kind of HIV-specific killing assays. The cells may also help studies on HIV replication in non-lymphatic/non-monocytic cells. The HeLa-LAV cell line will be freely available from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.

  6. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the LAV Mobility and Obsolescence Program by Using U.S. Army Stryker Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    essential to supporting the GCE scheme of maneuver. The biggest enemy to any force in battle is called “the fog of war” (MCWP, p. 1- 1). This term...weaponry, flexibility and communications capabilities. To clear the fog of war, the commander needs to maintain a high degree of situational...LAVs needing to be upgraded (PM-LAV, 2015). The Army is expected to deliver 1,222 Stryker’s to harvest components for the 15 refurbishment process

  7. Induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access. Abortion should be available in the interests of public health and any legal framework should be as permissive as possible in order to promote access. In the absence of legal access, harm reduction strategies are needed to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. Abortion can be performed surgically (in the first trimester, by manual or electric vacuum aspiration) or with medication: both are safe and effective. Cervical priming facilitates surgery and reduces the risk of incomplete abortion. Diagnosis of incomplete abortion should be made on clinical grounds, not by ultrasound. Septic abortion is a common cause of maternal death almost always following unsafe abortion and thus largely preventable. While routine follow-up after abortion is unnecessary, all women should be offered a contraceptive method immediately after the abortion. This, together with improved education and other interventions, may succeed in reducing unintended pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Medical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Edith; Bernardin, Jeanne; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Fitzsimmons, Brian; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Soon, Judith; Trouton, Konia; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Wiebe, Ellen; Gold, Karen; Murray, Marie-Ève; Winikoff, Beverly; Reeves, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the provision of first-trimester medical induced abortion, including patient eligibility, counselling, and consent; evidence-based regimens; and special considerations for clinicians providing medical abortion care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, registered nurses, midwives, residents, and other healthcare providers who currently or intend to provide pregnancy options counselling, medical abortion care, or family planning services. Women with an unintended first trimester pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library between July 2015 and November 2015 using appropriately controlled vocabulary (MeSH search terms: Induced Abortion, Medical Abortion, Mifepristone, Misoprostol, Methotrexate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from June 1986 to November 2015 in English. Additionally, existing guidelines from other countries were consulted for review. A grey literature search was not required. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Medicine rating scale (Table 1). Medical abortion is safe and effective. Complications from medical abortion are rare. Access and costs will be dependent on provincial and territorial funding for combination mifepristone/misoprostol and provider availability. Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, M; Diepersloot, R J

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV) is reviewed. HIV spreads by vertical transmission and by iatrogenic transmission (transfer of blood or blood-containing products), by infected needles among i.v. drug users and, more rarely, among health care workers, but mainly by sexual contact. In Western countries the virus is mainly spread by passive anal intercourse among homosexuals and seldom by heterosexual intercourse. In African countries, however, the virus is mainly spread by heterosexual intercourse, probably because of other, concurring sexually transmitted diseases. Some preventive measures are discussed.

  10. Abortion USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-22

    A historical review of the legislation of abortion in America leads to the paramount 1973 amendment by the Supreme Court to legalize abortion. The 16 year old decision is currently up for reconsideration. As compared to the consensus of other countries who have similar policies, in the United States, the issue of abortion is still highly controversial. The Reagan era reflected an attitude of "anti-choice" that was further propagated by Reagan appointees. However, only 1 in 10 Americans believes abortion is murder as many are pro-choice. It is also observed that women who work outside the home are more likely to favor the right to choose an abortion than women who stay home. Compared to England and Wales, contraceptive measures are more limited and expensive in the U.S., and consequently, the overall ratio of abortions to live births is higher in the United States. As well, contraception remains elusive to the American teenager, and as a result, 80% of the 1.1 million teenage pregnancies are unwanted and 450,000 terminate their pregnancies. The final Supreme Court decision is expected at the end of June, and few expect a reversal of the 1973 decision. A possible decision may turn the authority to dictate the legal status of abortions back to the state. If this would happen, as with the situation of contraception, teenagers would be the hardest hit group and might be forced to seek illegal abortions or cross state lines.

  11. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  12. SemLAV : Interroger le Web profond et le Web des données avec SPARQL

    OpenAIRE

    Folz, Pauline; Montoya, Gabriela; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal; Vidal, Maria-Esther

    2014-01-01

    National audience; SemLAV permet d'exécuter des requêtes SPARQ a travers des sources provenant du Web profond et du Web des données. SemLAV implémente l'architecture médiateur basée sur la définition des vues par rapport aux sources de données distantes. Les requêtes SPARQL sont ex-primées en utilisant le vocabulaire des médiateurs et SemLAV sélectionne les sources pertinentes et les classe. La stratégie de classement est conçue pour délivrer des résultats rapidement en se basant seulement su...

  13. LAV@HAZARD: a web-GIS interface for volcanic hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data, radiative power of hot spots as measured with remote sensing, historical records, on site geological surveys, digital elevation model data, and simulation results together provide a massive data source to investigate the behavior of active volcanoes like Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy over recent times. The integration of these heterogeneous data into a coherent visualization framework is important for their practical exploitation. It is crucial to fill in the gap between experimental and numerical data, and the direct human perception of their meaning. Indeed, the people in charge of safety planning of an area need to be able to quickly assess hazards and other relevant issues even during critical situations. With this in mind, we developed LAV@HAZARD, a web-based geographic information system that provides an interface for the collection of all of the products coming from the LAVA project research activities. LAV@HAZARD is based on Google Maps application programming interface, a choice motivated by its ease of use and the user-friendly interactive environment it provides. In particular, the web structure consists of four modules for satellite applications (time-space evolution of hot spots, radiant flux and effusion rate, hazard map visualization, a database of ca. 30,000 lava-flow simulations, and real-time scenario forecasting by MAGFLOW on Compute Unified Device Architecture.

  14. Antibody response to a synthetic peptide covering a LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB neutralization epitope and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, C. A.; de Wolf, F.; Houweling, J. T.; Bakker, M.; Dekker, J.; Roos, M. T.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sequential sera of homosexual men participating in a prospective study on the incidence of HIV-1 infection and risk factors for AIDS were tested for the presence of antibodies to a synthetic 17-mer (Neu21; KSIRIQRGPGRAFVTIG) representing a neutralization epitope as present on the LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB

  15. DTU’s undersøgelser af lav adhæsion / glatte skinner for Transportministeriet og DSB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Kotwa, Ewelina Katarzyna

    Nærværende undersøgelse af forekomsten af lav adhæsion / ”glatte skinner” er en opfølgning på DTU’s undersøgelser af IC4 togenes bremseadfærd ved Marslev den 7. november 2011, som blev gennemført for Transportministeriet og DSB i perioden april - juni 2012, og som konkluderede at den helt...... overvejende årsag til IC4 togets lange standselængde ved Marslev-hændelsen var lav adhæsion, det vil sige ”glathed” mellem hjul og skinner. Afledt af dette resultat er der opstået en interesse og et behov for en bredere analyse af sikkerhedskritiske faktorer i forbindelse med togdrift, som belyser fænomenet...... at gennemføre nedenstående tre udredningsopgaver, som DTU har gennemført i perioden oktober 2012 – oktober 2013: •En erfaringsindsamling med henblik på, hvordan andre lande i Nord- og Mellemeuropa håndterer lav adhæsion / ”glatte skinner”. •En systematisk kortlægning af hyppighed og omfang af lav adhæsion...

  16. ABORTION PILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Pretnar-Darovec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. This contribution describes the history of the abortion pill, its introduction in the world and in our country. On the basis of the findings of the studies, carried out since the early ’80s, the authors provide the indications and contraindications for the application of the method.Conclusions. The most efficient method for termination of an early pregnancy with least adverse side effects is the combination of drugs, viz. 1 tablet of mifepristone (200 mg administered orally and 4 tablets (4 × 200 mcg of misoprostol applied vaginally.

  17. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  18. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  19. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  20. Abortion - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...

  1. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  2. Abortions at KCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with induced abortion did well after evacuation and antibiotics. Discussion. It has been estimated that up to 20% of reco~ nised pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion , and this usually occurs in the first trimester. The uterus is not efficient at emptying its contents in early pregnancy, so that abortion is often compli-.

  3. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  4. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  5. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  6. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  7. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  8. Adolescent Girls and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [Psychopathology and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaino Lorente, Aquilino

    2009-01-01

    The author explores the possible relationship between psychopathology and abortion. The paper starts with the updating of epidemiological data regarding the incidence of abortion, especially in the current Spanish society. In this partnership there are three sections in the study of these possible relations between the abortion and the psychopathology: (a) in the new emerging sexual behaviour, especially among young people, and psychopathological factors possibly determining their sexual behaviour; (b) in the psychological and psychopathological context that makes the decision to abort, in regard to the factors of the couple and their families of origin and social context, and (c) in the frequent psychopathological disorders that seem to arise from the abortion, according to recent data reported by many researchers in the international scientific community. The study of the so-called Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS) puts an end to this cooperation, distinguishing psychopathological profile characteristic that distinguishes the various stages of this syndrome.

  10. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  11. Misinformation on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam

    2011-08-01

    To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.

  12. Sequential injection analysis with lab-at-valve (SI-LAV) for the determination of solasodine in Solanum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2010-04-15

    The development of sequential injection analysis with lab-at-valve (LAV) semi-automated system on-line liquid-liquid extraction is demonstrated for spectrophotometric determination of solasodine in various Solanum species fruits. The main proposed is semi-automated extractive determination of solasodine using methyl orange as colorimetric reagent. After optimization of the system, sample, reagent and organic solvent were sequentially aspirated into an extraction coil connected to the center of a selection valve, where extraction took place by flow reversal. The aqueous and organic phases were separated in a lab-at-valve unit attracted to one of the ports of the selection valve. The absorption of ion-pair solasodine-methyl orange complex in the organic phase was measured spectrophotometrically at 420 nm. The method performances, including reproducibility, linearity, sensitivity and accuracy, were also evaluated. The proposed method is simple, reproducible and accurate. It was successfully applied to the determination of solasodine in Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., Solanum violaceum Ortega., Solanum melongena Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. fruits in Solanaceae family. Results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by batch wise spectrophotometric method. It is also suitable and useful for determination of solasodine in other medicinal plants. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  14. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  15. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  16. [Induced abortion in Greenland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, P; Kristensen, L M; Kiil-Nielsen, J; Egelund, B; Kollemorten, I K

    1996-10-21

    The purpose of the study was to seek knowledge about the reasons for the very high rate of legal abortions in Greenland. In four municipalities in the Disko Bay region of West Greenland all pregnant women were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Due to organisational problems only 39% of the women were asked to participate and a total of 82 women seeking abortion and 175 women who wished to continue the pregnancy were enrolled in the study. A few Danish women (22) were subsequently removed from the study base. The women who wanted an abortion were more often than the other women single, their knowledge of Danish as a second language was poorer, and they less often had a job. Although the age distributions of the two groups were similar the women who wanted an abortion had more often been pregnant before (more births and more abortions). The women who wanted an abortion more often than the other women reported having been drunk, having had a pelvic inflammation or VD, and having been admitted to hospital. Half of the women who wanted an abortion reported that they had forgotten to use their contraception and one fourth were opposed to the use of contraception. There seems not to be a well defined high risk group for legal abortion but a general need for a more realistic view on contraception.

  17. Medical abortion service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, V; Rogers, M K; Vanderhei, D

    2000-08-01

    Medical abortion with mifepristone and methotrexate regimens may be offered in a variety of American medical practice settings. In this article the new provider will find information on all aspects of the patient care delivery system for medical abortion, including physical space requirements, staffing and training, patient flow, cost, security, marketing, and quality assurance. Because of the limited published data available regarding logistic issues surrounding abortion care, the information in this article derives largely from the experiences of providers who have established medical abortion practices in their offices or clinics. Its goals are to help make the initial start-up phase briefer and more rewarding for new providers, to offer helpful guidelines for incorporation of medical abortion into practice, and to encourage more practitioners to see the benefits of adding this option to their practices.

  18. Counseling for medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, V

    2000-08-01

    Counseling and education are correlated with women's satisfaction with all abortion care. They often assume a larger role in medical abortion because the patient is a more active participant in the abortion process. This article aims to enhance the practitioner's expertise in providing the information and care necessary for women considering early abortion with medical regimens. It offers general counseling guidelines and several likely clinical scenarios regarding the decision-making process, the screening of patients, and the initial and follow-up visits. Through effective communication, practitioners can provide the information and support that patients need to complete the abortion process safely and can help to strengthen women's confidence in managing their reproductive health experiences.

  19. Abortion: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  20. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  1. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  2. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  3. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  4. [Post-abortion contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C

    2016-12-01

    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Counselling pregnant women on abortions

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author conducted a survey of one hundred women in Zadar seeking an abortion during the first trimester ofpregnancy. His purpose was to determine the women's motives for seeking abortions and evaluate their knowledge on abortion and the fetus. He found that the majority lacked a clear understanding of abortion techniques as well as fetal development. After an informative conversation, twelve of the women decided against having abortions. The author concluded that great ignorance, inhumane ...

  6. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Shah, Jill; Mandel, Michele G; Krashin, Jamie W; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2017-11-24

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2014. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 652,639 abortions were reported to CDC for 2014. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 48 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2005-2014. Among these 48 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2014 was 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 186 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2013 to 2014, the total number and rate of reported abortions decreased 2%, and the ratio decreased 7%. From 2005 to 2014, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 21%, 22%, and 21%, respectively. In 2014, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2005-2014). In 2014 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2014, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.2% and 26.7% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.3 and 18.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 17.1%, 9.7%, and 3.6% of all reported abortions

  7. Estimation of Avalanche Hazard in the Settlement of Magurka using Elba+ Model / Posúdenie Ohrozenosti Osady Magurky Lavínami S Použitím Modelu Elba+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartík Martin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available V našej študií sme sa zamerali na moderné softvérové aplikácie umožňujúce simuláciu lavíny. Použili sme model ELBA+, pomocou ktorého sme snažili zhodnotiť ohrozenosť horského prostredia v okolí starej banskej osady Magurka (1 036 m n. m., ktorá leží v závere Ľupčianskej doline pod hlavným hrebeňom Nízkych Tatier. Do histórie sa zapísala hlavne lavína v doline Ďurková zo 14. marca 1970, ktorá dodnes patrí medzi najväčšie lavíny zaznamenané na Slovensku. S použitím archívnych údajov Strediska lavínovej prevencie v Jasnej sme sa pokúsili o jej čo najvernejšiu rekonštrukciu. Následne sme sa pokúsili o simuláciu lavíny v doline Viedenka pri použití rovnakej výšky snehu v odtrhovom pásme ako sa predpokladá pri lavíne v roku 1970. Keďže časť osady Magurka je situovaných pri ústí tejto doliny, ktorá má priamejší aj kratší priebeh ako dolina Ďurková, skúmali sme možnosť jej zásahu lavínou.

  8. Abortion and sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S J

    1970-01-01

    This discusses activities current in England under the abortion law of April 1968. In England and Wales in 1969 there were 54,013 recorded abortions and 15 related deaths. Since then both the number of deaths and the number of abortions have been increasing. This abortion increase is partly attributed to the adverse publicity regarding the pill which has caused many women to give up oral contraceptives. Complications have included incomplete removal of the products of conception, sepsis, hemorrhage, and perforation of the uterus. There have been wide variation in interpretations of the law by different hospitals and staffs. Sterilization operations are being done in increasing number for both men and women. Carefully worded consent forms are now in use to insure patient understanding and consent. Psychological changes may follow sterilization, but are relatively uncommon. Physicians should do all possible to help women avoid unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce the demand for termination.

  9. [Illegal abortion in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, E

    1986-09-01

    Because abortion is illegal in Senegal, it is not easy to determine its frequency. Women suffering complications of illegal abortions are often unwilling to aid in their own treatment by divulging the means used to induce the abortion. Clandestine abortions are associated with poor hygienic conditions exposing the woman to risk of infection. Abortion operators are often ignorant of elementary notions of genital anatomy and unskilled in gynecological surgery. Death may result in a few minutes from shock or embolism. The operator is unable to take any action because of the illegal status of the abortion. Secondary complications may appear because of local trauma, infection, or from caustic or toxic agents. Hemorrhage may be external and abundant, originating in the cervix, vagina, or uterine cavity. It may occur within the abdominal cavity if an organ is perforated. In both cases surgical treatment may be required to save the woman's life. An infection or a state of toxicity may result from the abortion, or both may occur simultaneously. Infections of varying degrees of seriousness may be localized in the genital organs (pelviperitonitis), spread throughout the abdomen (general peritonitis), or spread throughout the organism. Pelviperitonitis results from performing abortions under septic conditions and from uterine retention of part of the embryo. Symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and arrest of intestinal transit. Symptoms are often masked by uninformed use of antibiotics, which allows the infection to spread to the other abdominal organs. Generalized peritonitis results from grave lesions of the genital or intestinal tracts produced by traumatizing instruments. In the absence of medical and surgical treatment, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorates and death ensues. Generalized infection may be due to septicemia, tetanus, or hepatonephritis. Hospitalization in a specialized service is required. Thromboembolic complications may also follow

  10. [Induced abortion, epidemiological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasević, M

    1995-01-01

    A large number of induced abortions exist in central Serbia, in spite of the fact that modern science made new methods and devices for the birth control available, which are more acceptable both from the medical and personal point of view. This fact shows contradictory situation and opens several questions. The crucial being: why do wome rely on abortion and do not use modern contraception? In research done in 1991--it refers to Belgrade and it includes four hundred women--confirmed was the accepted hypothesis that the extension of induced abortion developed from the discordance between comprehension of the need of birth control and the way it should be accomplished. The main causes of the discordance are insufficient knowledge about modern contraception, phychological barriers, insufficient cultural level (general, health, sex) of the population and lack of institutionalized contemporary concept fof family planning. Duration of prevalence of induced abortions indicates that underlying causes of frequency are numerous and stable over time. Considering this, and the slowness of any spontaneous change, it may be expected that the problem of abortions will be present in the years to come. However, duration of abortion prevalence will depend, to a large extent, on the ability and willingness of the State to cope with this issue.

  11. Abortion and regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  12. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics

  13. The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori

    2016-12-01

    Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  14. On the Wrongfulness of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arosemena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.

  15. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Cost of abortions in Zambia: A comparison of safe abortion and post abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Divya; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan Fairley; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington

    2017-02-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. We estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, we used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses. We found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.

  17. Sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, P

    1985-01-01

    In the long-term prospective controlled study reported here, 1509 general practitioners and 795 gynaecologists in England, Scotland and Wales are cooperating in providing information on the sequelae of abortion, especially on the problems of later pregnancies, subfertility and all reported morbidity, in particular psychiatric illness. Morbidity within 21 days after induced abortion, and considered to be related to induced abortion, was found in 10% of 6105 women who had an induced abortion in their index pregnancy, and there were major complications in 2.1%. The main factors affecting morbidity were the place of operation, gestation at termination, the method of termination, sterilization at the time of operation, and smoking habits. Several differences between National Health Service and private sector operations were found which could affect the morbidity rates. Possible means of reducing early morbidity are discussed. The outcome of the first post-index pregnancy in 745 women whose index pregnancy had ended in induced abortion and in 1339 controls was also compared. There was no statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Further analysis of a large number of pregnancies is required to permit confident interpretation of these observations.

  18. Abortion in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N B; Franco, K; Jurs, S

    1988-01-01

    Sexual attitudes and behavior of adolescent females have been the topic of much interest over the past decade. Feelings about contraception, conception, and abortion have been described in relation to the adolescents' beliefs about the possibility of becoming pregnant, who will or will not "protect" them, and the influence of significant others on their decision making. This study explores differences in 35 women who had abortions during their teenage years with 36 women whose abortions occurred after the age of twenty. A demographic questionnaire, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory were completed by women who were members of a patient-led support group. Premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and distressing symptoms postabortion are reported. Specific differences in perceptions of coercion, preabortion suicidal ideation, and nightmares post-abortion were found in the adolescent group. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders as well as drug abuse and psychotic delusions were found to be significantly higher in the group who aborted as teenagers. Hypotheses regarding the influences of adolescent development on mother/child relationships, power struggles, and the use of fantasy as a coping device are explored.

  19. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  20. Abortion-related stigma and unsafe abortions: perspectives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Selected public and private health facilities offering post abortion care services in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. Subjects: ... abortion care. Therefore, understanding abortion-related stigma is a critical step to designing measures to address barriers to women accessing safe reproductive health services.

  1. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a

  2. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  4. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  5. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  6. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  7. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  8. [Determinants of induced abortion delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Salvador, Joaquin; Borrell, Carme

    2009-01-01

    In induced abortion, the method, the risk of complications and the economic cost of the abortion are determined by gestational age. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy in Barcelona. We performed a cross-sectional study of induced abortions due to the physical or mental health of the woman (Barcelona, 2004-2005; N=9,175). The city's induced abortion register provided data on gestational age at abortion (dependent variable), educational level, age, cohabitation with the partner, number of children previous abortions, and type of center. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated with log-binomial regression models. A total of 7.7% of induced abortions were second-trimester abortions and 99.3% were performed in private centers. Compared with women with a university education, those with primary education or less had an aPR of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.4-2.2) of delaying the abortion until the second trimester. A higher proportion of second-trimester abortions were also recorded in women aged less than 18 years old (aPR=2.6; 95%CI: 2.0-3.4), women not cohabiting with their partners (aRP=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) and in public centers (aPR=2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.7). No differences were found in induced abortion delay among women with previous abortions and those without. Induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with low educational level, young ages, not cohabiting with a partner, and public centers. This study demonstrates the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in access conditions to abortion services.

  9. [Induced abortion. Legislation, epidemiology, complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, E; Nisand, I

    1995-11-15

    In France, induced abortion was legalized under certain conditions since the January 1975 and December 1979 laws suspended the effects of Article 317 of the French Penal Code that forbade induced abortion. For more than 15 years, induced abortion has been part of current gynecological practice. Adverse effects of abortions have been reduced. In the upcoming years, the interest in drug-induced abortion and abortion under local anesthesia will increase due to a concern for reducing risks that deteriorate physical integrity and women's gynecological/obstetrical future. Induced abortion still remains a very important act, if not serious, in a woman's life. Prevention of induced abortion remains the absolute medical objective and is necessary for information campaigns on contraceptives, especially among youth. If accessible and equal access to induced abortion is becoming a reality in France, abortion will always remain a failure and proof for women that they have recourse to abortion. Induced abortions have remained relatively stable in France (170,000 in 1980; 181,154 in 1991). The abortion rate ranges from 20 to 25 per 100 live births. 50% of women of reproductive age will have an induced abortion in their life. The fertility rate in France has been 1.8 since 1976. First trimester abortion-related mortality is less than 1/100,000. Abortion-related mortality increases with gestational age (0.5/100,000 at 8 weeks vs. 1.1/100,000 at 12 weeks). It is also associated with the anesthesia used (0.15 for local anesthesia vs. 0.58 for general anesthesia). The leading causes of abortion-related mortality are infection, pulmonary embolism, and anesthetic accidents. Immediate complications of induced abortion are anesthetic accidents, hemorrhage, uterine perforations, accumulation of blood in the uterus, cervical tears, and vagal discomfort. In France, the induced abortion related-perforation rate is between 0.2% and 1.2%. Perforation is more likely after 10 weeks and under

  10. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The North...

  11. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  12. INDUCED ABORTION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... unwanted pregnancy, abortion and adoption of children, and the laws relating to them.. Results: Participants felt that ... education of the young girl would be disrupted, if paternity of pregnancy is in dispute, or if it would save the ... Married young women, 15-24 years, rural/urban. 3. Married women, 25-49 ...

  13. ABORTION- A CASE REPORT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...

  14. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-01-01

    This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  15. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  16. INDUCED ABORTION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... unwanted pregnancy, abortion and adoption of children, and the laws relating to them.. Results: Participants felt that there was high .... of cultural differences, formative research was first conducted and a set of ..... paternity, there is a problem of the stigma of bearing a child who would be regarded as a ...

  17. [Complications of induced abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D; Fortuna, P

    1989-02-01

    All physicians should be aware of the possible complications of induced abortions if only because the procedure is so commonplace. Some 250,000 induced abortions occur annually in France, amounting to 24.4 abortions per 100 live births. The rates of different complications of induced abortions before 12 weeks are .5-5/1000 for uterine perforation, .5-3.4% for hemorrhage with or without placental retention, 1% for endometritis, .3% for salpingitis .5% for continuing pregnancy, and .006 to .3/10,000 for death. A well done curettage is preferable to a poorly performed aspiration procedure. If an aspiration is done, the practitioner should bear in mind that retention of 50-200 cc of blood clots may occur if dilatation is insufficient. Symptoms appear 1-5 days after the abortion and end with expulsion of the clots or aspiration. Curettage is useless, as the clots do not represent a true retention. Uterine contractions during the aspiration can occasionally prompt a premature decision that evacuation is complete. Retention is difficult to diagnose immediately after aspiration but can be sonographically confirmed after the 8th day. Aspiration should be done after the 6th week and before the 12th week. Aspiration before the 6th week is often painful and is associated with higher rates of partial retention and of complete failure. Endouterine aspiration, regardless of technical proficiency, establishes a pathway between the vagina and the uterine cavity, which exposes the latter to the risk of trauma, endometrial lesions, and perforation. Induced abortion promotes infection by 2 mechanisms. Latent infections that were not detected in the medical history or physical examination can emerge and cause endometritis, which should be treated by ice, rest, and antibiotics. Or contamination of the passage by an infected cervical mucus can lead to salpingitis, abscess, and pelviperitonitis, or even general peritonitis. More often, these conditions develop from inadequately treated

  18. Profiles of women presenting for abortions in Singapore: focus on teenage abortions and late abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Limin; Wong, Hungchew; Yong, Euleong; Singh, Kuldip

    2012-02-01

    Teenage abortions predispose women to adverse pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies such as anemia, stillbirths, preterm deliveries and low birth weight babies. We aim to profile the women presenting for abortions in our institution and determine risk factors for late presentation for abortions. In this retrospective cohort study, all women who underwent an abortion at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 to 2009 were recruited. Data was obtained from a prepared questionnaire during the mandatory pre-abortion counseling sessions. Profiles of women aged singlehood, nulliparity and lack of prior usage of contraception. Teenagers are more likely to have no prior contraceptive usage and to present late for abortions. Lack of proper sexual education and awareness of contraceptive measures may have a major contributory factor to such a trend in teenage abortions. Recommendations have been made in order to curb this societal problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  1. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  2. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  3. [Abortion using health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritschneder, O

    1984-09-01

    The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.

  4. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  5. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    vehicle that carries a crew of three and six additional Marines. The LAV-25 is armed with a 25 mm chain gun and a 7.62 mm machine gun but is not...stabilized machine gun in order to engage enemy infantry and light vehicles. MPC6 The Marine Corps’ 2011 Request for Information (RFI) 7 to industry...Regulation defines an RFI as “a document used to obtain price, delivery, other market information, or capabilities for planning purposes when the

  6. [Immediate complications of surgical abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulat, C; Gelly, M

    2006-04-01

    While medical abortion is now available in non hospital facilities, abortions by vacuum aspiration remain illegal in non hospital settings. It is therefore important to assess through the literature the real risks associated with this method. All the most recent and large-scale studies showed that legal abortion by vacuum aspiration is an extremely safe procedure. It is less risky than other medical or surgical procedures performed outside the hospital. According to the studies, the death rate varies from 0 to 0.7 per 100,000 abortions, and is smaller when the procedure is done under local anesthesia than general anesthesia. The overall early complication rate (hemorrhage, uterine perforation, cervical injury) is between 0.01 and 1.16%. Complications are not more frequent than with medical abortions. In view of these low complication rates, surgical abortion by vacuum aspiration could be performed outside the hospital setting in France, as it is the case in many other countries.

  7. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  8. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Abortion as an Ethical Problem

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍBAROVÁ, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with ethical aspects of abortion. In the theoretical part, I focus first on the definition of the term abortion and its legal history. I also follow the use and development of contraception and review certain legal and medical conditions necessary for performing the procedure. I try to define ethics, discuss moral judgment and some ethical concepts. I list some of the groups fighting for the annulment of law that legalizes abortion in the Czech Republic. Further, I turn my a...

  10. Beam abort detection of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin

    2010-01-01

    Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)

  11. Second trimester abortions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.

  12. Conducting Collaborative Abortion Research in International Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gipson, Jessica D.; Becker, Davida; Mishtal, Joanna Z.; Norris, Alison H.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 20% of the 208 million pregnancies that occur annually are aborted. More than half of these (21.6 million) are unsafe, resulting in 47,000 abortion-related deaths each year. Accurate reports on the prevalence of abortion, the conditions under which it occurs, and the experiences women have in obtaining abortions are essential to addressing unsafe abortion globally. It is difficult, however, to obtain accurate and reliable reports of attitudes and practices given that abortion is often ...

  13. Disparities in Abortion Experience and Access to Safe Abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra,. Ghana1 ... years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in women's experiences of abortion and access to safe abortion care. ..... cultural and religious attitudes towards induced.

  14. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  15. Fast Calculation of Abort Return Trajectories for Manned Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Juan S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to support the anytime abort requirements of a manned mission to the Moon, the vehicle abort capabilities for the translunar and circumlunar phases of the mission must be studied. Depending on the location of the abort maneuver, the maximum return time to Earth and the available propellant, two different kinds of return trajectories can be calculated: direct and fly-by. This paper presents a new method to compute these return trajectories in a deterministic and fast way without using numerical optimizers. Since no simplifications of the gravity model are required, the resulting trajectories are very accurate and can be used for both mission design and operations. This technique has been extensively used to evaluate the abort capabilities of the Orion/Altair vehicles in the Constellation program for the translunar phase of the mission.

  16. [Abortion explained by a nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastit i Costa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of

  17. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  18. [Surgical methods of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, T

    2016-12-01

    A state of the art of surgical method of abortion focusing on safety and practical aspects. A systematic review of French-speaking or English-speaking evidence-based literature about surgical methods of abortion was performed using Pubmed, Cochrane and international recommendations. Surgical abortion is efficient and safe regardless of gestational age, even before 7 weeks gestation (EL2). A systematic prophylactic antibiotics should be preferred to a targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (grade A). In women under 25 years, doxycycline is preferred (grade C) due to the high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Systematic cervical preparation is recommended for reducing the incidence of complications from vacuum aspiration (grade A). Misoprostol is a first-line agent (grade A). When misoprostol is used before a vacuum aspiration, a dose of 400 mcg is recommended. The choice of vaginal route or sublingual administration should be left to the woman: (i) the vaginal route 3 hours before the procedure has a good efficiency/safety ratio (grade A); (ii) the sublingual administration 1 to 3 hours before the procedure has a higher efficiency (EL1). The patient should be warned of more common gastrointestinal side effects. The addition of mifepristone 200mg 24 to 48hours before the procedure is interesting for pregnancies between 12 and 14 weeks gestations (EL2). The systematic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended for limiting the operative and postoperative pain (grade B). Routine vaginal application of an antiseptic prior to the procedure cannot be recommended (grade B). The type of anesthesia (general or local) should be left up to the woman after explanation of the benefit-risk ratio (grade B). Paracervical local anesthesia (PLA) is recommended before performing a vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia (grade A). The electric or manual vacuum methods are very effective, safe and acceptable to women (grade A). Before 9 weeks gestation

  19. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... elhlcal, legal, religious, social, demographic and humanitarian, ... REASONS FOR CHANGING THE LAW. Criminal Abortion. One of the main arguments in favour of legalizing abortion and of extending ·its indications is that the present .... asking a new attitude of us: that we honestly face and assume.

  20. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  1. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  3. How do women seeking abortion choose between surgical and medical abortion? Perspectives from abortion service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Danielle; Bayly, Chris; McNamee, Kathleen; Hardiman, Annarella; Bismark, Marie; Webster, Amy; Keogh, Louise

    2016-10-01

    Depending on availability, many Australian women seeking an abortion will be faced with the choice between surgical or medical abortion. Little is known about the factors that influence Australian women's choice of method. Through the perspectives of abortion service providers, this study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to Australian women's decision to have a surgical or medical abortion. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Victorian-based key informants (KIs) directly providing or working within a service offering medical abortion. Ten KIs were working at a service that also provided surgical abortion. Interviews were semi-structured, conducted face-to-face or over the telephone, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. KIs described varying levels of awareness of medical abortion, with poorer awareness in regional areas. When it comes to accessing information, women were informed by: their own research (often online); their own experiences and the experiences of others; and advice from health professionals. Women's reasons for choosing surgical or medical abortion range from the pragmatic (timing and location of the method, support at home) to the subjective (perceived risk, emotional impact, privacy, control, and physical ability). Women benefit from an alternative to surgical abortion and are well-placed to choose between the two methods, however, challenges remain to ensure that all women are enabled to make an informed choice. KIs identify the need to: promote the availability of medical abortion; address misconceptions about this method; and increase general practitioner involvement in the provision of medical abortion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module feasibility report. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, B. G.; Joyner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed performance evaluation of the Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module design was provided in support of OFT-1 ascent and OFT-1 intact launch aborts. The evaluation method used compared ARD results against results obtained using the full-up Space Vehicle Dynamic Simulations program under the same conditions. Results were presented for each of the three major ARD math models: (1) the ascent numerical integrator; (2) the mass model, and (3) the second stage predictor as well as the total ARD module. These results demonstrate that the baselined ARD module meets all design objectives for mission control center orbital flight test launch/abort support.

  5. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  6. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  7. Anxieties and attitudes towards abortion in women presenting for medical and surgical abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, E R; Trouton, K J; Fielding, S L; Grant, H; Henderson, A

    2004-10-01

    To examine the differences in anxiety levels and attitudes towards abortion between women having an early medical abortion and women having a surgical (manual vacuum aspiration) abortion. Women who presented for an early medical abortion or a surgical abortion at an urban, free-standing abortion clinic were invited to participate in this study. Fifty-nine women having a medical abortion and 43 women having a surgical abortion answered questionnaires before their scheduled abortion, and again 2 to 4 weeks after the abortion. Thirty women were interviewed about their answers. Anxiety levels were similar in both groups before the abortion procedure. Anti-choice views about abortion were seen in 60.5% of women having a medical abortion and in 37.3% of women having a surgical abortion (P = .027). Women who were pro-choice had a mean anxiety score of 5.0 (range, 0-10) before and 2.7 after the abortion, whereas women who were anti-choice had a mean anxiety score of 5.2 before and 4.4 after the abortion (P = .005). It is important for providers of abortion care to understand that women undergoing a medical abortion may be more ambivalent about abortion than women undergoing a surgical abortion, and women who are anti-choice but having an abortion may have unresolved anxiety after the procedure.

  8. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  10. Czechoslovakia 1991: abortion and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresova, A

    1991-09-01

    In January 1958 the 1st abortion law was passed in Czechoslovakia. At that time it was a progressive law. However, as time went on and other European countries developed their own abortion policies, the law become more outdated. The main failing was that women were not in charge of the final abortion decision, it had to be made by a commission. As a result, a new law went into effect in January 1987 that was more liberal. This new law allowed abortion twice a year for free unless the woman was more than 8 weeks pregnant. Between 8 and 12 weeks there was a fee of 500 crowns. For women under 16 parental permission is required and for women 16-18 parents are notified after the procedure. After the law was passed there was an increase in reported numbers of abortions, but the figures are not very accurate because of unusual recording methods. Abortion (42-55 days) is contrasted with menstrual regulation (42 days) and the figure of 157,912 also includes extrauterine pregnancies. After the democratic reforms of November 1989, strong anti-choice groups began a campaign to end abortion. To date this has resulted in a Advisory Commission that is charged with the responsibility of looking at the abortion issue with the Federal Deputy Prime minister. The commission's recommendations were: 1) the situation is considered critical (that abortion is still allowed and government funded), 2) absolute prohibition of abortion is not recommended, 3) the majority of citizens should be able to adopt any legal measures, 4) abortion should not be government supported except to save the woman's life or in cases of sexual crimes, 5) the law should also serve an educational function, 6) artificial interruption of pregnancy should be renamed to artificial termination of pregnancy. Finally the commission recommended that longterm preventive measures should focus on education. Public opinion indicates that 61% of citizens recognize a woman's right to abortion, while only 4% favor absolute

  11. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  12. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...

  13. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  14. Medical abortion reversal: science and politics meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2018-03-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  16. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  17. Fathers and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Medical students' intentions to seek abortion training and to provide abortion services in future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myran, Daniel T; Carew, Caitlin L; Tang, Jingyang; Whyte, Helena; Fisher, William A

    2015-03-01

    Lack of providers is a barrier to accessing abortion in Canada. The factors influencing the number of abortion providers are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the attitudes and intentions of medical students towards abortion training and provision to gain insight into the future supply of abortion providers. We surveyed first, second, and third year medical students at an Ontario university to determine their intentions to train in and provide abortion services during different stages of training and in future practice. We assessed students' attitudes and intentions towards training in and providing abortions, their perceptions of social support, their perceived ability to receive training in and to provide abortion services, and their attitudes towards the legality of abortion. Surveys were completed by 337 of 508 potential respondents (66.7%). The responses indicated that the students in the survey held relatively positive attitudes towards the legality and availability of abortion in Canada. Respondents had significantly more positive attitudes towards first trimester medical abortions (and a greater intention to provide them) than towards second trimester surgical abortions. Thirty-five percent of students planned to enter a specialty in which they could perform abortions, but fewer than 30% of these students planned to provide any type of abortion. Intentions to provide abortions were correlated with positive attitudes toward abortion in general and greater perceived social support for abortion provision. A small proportion of students sampled intended both to enter a specialty in which abortion would be within the scope of practice and to provide abortion services. Lack of perceived social support for providing abortions and the perceived inability to obtain abortion training or to logistically provide abortions were identified as two potentially modifiable barriers to abortion provision. We propose increasing education on abortion provision and

  19. Abortion as a medical and spiritual problem

    OpenAIRE

    Purgina, A.; Shmakova, V.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of abortion now has adopted a special social significance. Many countries has the laws regulating an abortion. In Russia this law exists in a very liberal state. Statistics of abortions is disappointing. It is not only a medical but also a social problem which roots lies in the moral aspect of society. The Church considers the abortion as a mortal sin since ancient times. We tried to consider the history of the fight against abortion and its appropriateness.

  20. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  1. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Background: While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major ...

  2. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  3. Initial effects of light armored vehicle use on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jeffrey R; Ayers, Paul D; Lombardi-Przybylowicz, Angela M; Simmons, Katie

    2006-12-01

    Sustainable use of military training lands requires understanding and prediction of the effects of military vehicles on vegetation. We examined the initial impacts of an 8-wheeled, light armored vehicle (LAV) on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington. The LAV drove replicate spiral paths at two starting velocities, 10.3 and 5.1 m s(-1). The disturbed width (width of ground impacted by the tires) increased as turning radius decreased, but was unaffected by vehicle velocity. An inverse-exponential model predicted disturbed width (r(2)=0.68) at all turning radii for both velocities combined. In low-velocity spirals, and for straight tracking (turning radius>40 m) and moderate turns (radius 20-40 m) in high-velocity spirals, all vegetation damage was imprint (plants flattened by wheels). During sharp (radius moderate turns>sharp turns in high-velocity spirals. In low-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of several plant growth forms (non-native species, perennial species, sod-forming grasses) was similar to pre-tracking cover, but in high-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of these growth forms decreased in the order straight > or =moderate=sharp. Cover of native species and forbs decreased more in high- than in low-velocity spirals, but was unaffected by curvature. Pre- and post-tracking cover of annual species, bunchgrasses, and shrubs was < or =3%. The most severe vegetation damage caused by operation of wheeled LAVs on grasslands is associated with sharp, high-velocity turns.

  4. Everything is not abortion stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The topic of abortion stigma has caught the attention of researchers and activists working on reproductive health and rights around the world. But as research on abortion stigma grows, I fear that the concept is in danger of becoming so large and all-encompassing that it may mask deeply rooted inequalities. In addition, abortion stigma may be seen as too complex and tangled an issue, thereby leading to paralysis. It is important that we become more precise in our understanding of abortion stigma so that we can carry out better research to understand and measure it, design interventions to mitigate it, and evaluate those interventions. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of abortions in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlayeva, E M; Nikolaeva, E

    1996-12-01

    In Russia, the fact that many women consider abortion their main or only effective means of fertility regulation has led to prevailing high rates of abortion. A pilot study was undertaken, therefore, to determine why this situation exists and how to decrease the incidence of abortion. Physicians gathered data using a standardized questionnaire administered during interviews with 352 women (221 from Moscow and 131 from rural areas) who had just had an abortion. Most women were employed in the labor force as were most husbands (partners) and parents of the women. Most of the women reported early first coitus, and 49% were married before age 20. More than 80% of the women had children, but only a third of all previous pregnancies had been carried to term. Most abortions occurred because women were worried about their ability to afford another child or about their health status or that of their husband. In fact, approximately 40% of the women presented with inflammatory diseases and infections of the vulva, vagina, uterus, or adnexes. Most women received their first contraceptive counseling after their first delivery or abortion, but only 30% of urban women and 18% of the rural women were using modern contraceptives (condoms) at the time of the unwanted conception. Most women received their information about contraceptives from the mass media, from medical personnel, or from friends although they indicated they would have preferred to have received sex education in school. Most women decided on their own to have an abortion, and 76% experienced psychological pain in conjunction with the procedure. However, 42.3% indicated they would resort to abortion in the future. This study concluded that the Ministry of Health should make provision of information on contraception a priority.

  6. Late abortions and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    1988-02-13

    The Abortion (Amendment) Bill in the British House of Commons would lower the maximum limit for termination of pregnancy from 28 to 18 weeks. Supporters of the bill assert that Britain allows termination of pregnancy later than any other European country, and that in Britain over 90% of all late abortions are of fetuses without phisical abnormality. The 28-week limit is considered anachronoistic by doctors since neonatal care has made possible survival at 24 weeks. A similar bill in the House of Lords would reduce the limit to 24 weeks. Making early abortions more easily available would help reduce late abortions. Statistics indicate that women who have abortions late in their pregnancies tend to be young. In 1986, 172,286 abortions were performed in England and Wales. Of these, 144,857, or 84%, were performed before the 13th week. A total of 8276 (5%) were performed after 18 weeks. Of these, 3688 (45% of late abortions) were on nonresidents who traveled to Britain because of legal restrictions in their own country. This means that 4594 late abortions were performed on residents of England and Wales in 1986. This was 3% of the total, with 14% of this number on grounds of fetal abnormality. About 40% of the rest were in women under the age of 20, with 6% (239) on girls under 16. A 1984 study concluded that more counseling and information should be provided for young women. Education in contraception for young women is less than ideal and likely to become less available as economic restraints reduce the number of family planning clinics. Postcoital contraception should be taught more as an emergency proceedure. Prompt, dispassionate physician counseling, wider provision of National Health Service facilities, and uniform service in all districts would also be beneficial.

  7. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Queering abortion rights: notes from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Barbara; Borland, Elizabeth

    2018-03-06

    In recent years, there have been calls in activist spaces to 'queer' abortion rights advocacy and to incorporate non-normative notions of gender identity and sexuality into abortion struggles and services. Argentina provides an interesting site in which to examine these developments, since there is a longstanding movement for abortion rights in a context of illegal abortion and a recent ground-breaking Gender Identity Law that recognises key trans rights. In this paper, we analyse public documents from the abortion rights movement's main coalition - the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion - alongside interviews with 19 Campaign activists to examine shifts and tensions in contemporary abortion rights activism. We trace the incorporation of trans-inclusive language into the newly proposed abortion rights bill and conclude by pointing to contextual factors that may limit or enhance the further queering of abortion rights.

  10. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  12. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  13. Psychiatrists and access to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, P S

    1992-10-01

    The US Supreme Court's decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey leaves an uncertain future for abortion as a constitutional right. By a vote of 1, Roe v. Wade could be overturned. Without Roe, the states would be free to legislate their own abortion laws, including the outlawing of abortion except when a pregnancy threatens the life or health of the pregnant woman. Psychiatrists could be thrust into the abortion process to certify the threats to life or health on mental health grounds, as they did more than 2 decades ago before Roe. What should psychiatrists' response be? What little empirical data exists reveals almost no basis for individualized determinations of the likelihood of harm if an abortion is denied. There are obvious situations where psychiatry can play a useful role: 1) for women with histories of postpartum depression or psychosis who may be at high risk for a repetition of those conditions, and 2) for women severely mentally disordered who require medications to control their symptoms and are faced with the prospect of decompensation if they terminate their medication to avoid harming the fetus. Some psychiatrists argue that if psychiatric certification provides the only method to obtain abortions, psychiatrists should assist women in whatever way possible, even if that means being dishonest about the likely consequences of a pregnancy, for abortion would be in the longterm psychosocial interest of the woman. In a democratic society, disregarding the laws means disregarding the will of the people. Personal beliefs about social policy also justifies the denial of mental health claims for the psychiatrist who believes that it is in the best interest of the woman to carry the fetus to term. Roe saved psychiatry from this ethical morass; its demise will be unpleasant.

  14. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our

  15. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O

    2015-12-01

    Because of Nigeria's low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country's restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Abortion: articulating a moral view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    2000-01-01

    This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.

  17. Induced abortion and psychological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Destigmatising abortion: expanding community awareness of abortion as a reproductive health issue in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithur, Nana Oye

    2004-04-01

    Traditional and cultural values, social perceptions, religious teachings and criminalisation have facilitated stigmatisation of abortion in Ghana. Abortion is illegal in Ghana except in three instances. Though the law allows for performance of abortion in three circumstances, the Ghana reproductive health service policy did not have any induced legal abortion services component to cover the three exceptions until it was revised in 2003. The policy only had 'unsafe and post-abortion' care components, and abortions performed in health facilities operated by the Ghana Health Service were performed under this component. Though the policy has been revised, women and girls who need abortion services in Ghana more often resort to the backstreet dangerous methods and procedures. Criminalisation of abortion and those who perform abortions has contributed to unsafe abortion, the second leading cause of maternal deaths in Ghana. Most of these are performed outside the formal health service structures. Traditionally, abortion is perceived as a shameful act and the community may shun and give a woman who has caused anabortion derogatory names. Would provision of legal abortion services be culturally acceptable within a Ghanaian community? Yes, if they are made aware of the reproductive health benefits of providing safe abortion services. Three major strategies that would help to destigmatise abortion in the community are (1) the liberal interpretation of the three exceptions to the law on abortion; (2) expanding community awareness of its reproductive health benefits; and (3) improving and increasing access to legal abortion services within the formal health facilities.

  19. Abortion Counseling and the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.

    1974-01-01

    Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)

  20. Storming wombs and Waco: how the anti-abortion and militia movements converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowski, S

    1996-10-01

    This study describes how violent anti-abortion militancy and "Christian Patriot" militia (unregulated private army) activity in the US converge. "Christian Patriots" reject all laws except the US Constitution and its first ten amendments and claim that Anglo-Saxon Christian men are the only true citizens. The convergence of this group with anti-abortion groups can be seen by the fact that militia leaders have been arrested for blocking women's health centers, and anti-abortion leaders have been linked to militia and white supremacist groups. This anti-abortion/militia link has a great potential for violence. The two groups also rallied around standoffs between federal agents and extremist groups such as that which occurred in Waco, Texas. The mainstreaming of militias is seen to be a relatively new phenomenon, and people like Larry Pratt, executive director of Gun Owners of America, are identified as "almost a shadow congressman" in the US. Pratt's organization contributed to 46 Republican campaigns in 1994 and bankrolled Operation Rescue when federal agents seized the organization's bank accounts for failure to pay a court-ordered fine. A chart illustrates the names, state, primary affiliation, secondary affiliations, and actions or statements of 22 of the individuals involved in militias and anti-abortion efforts. It is also noted that anti-abortion militants use private Christian schools as vehicles to spread their views, and the increasing threat to abortion providers of militia violence is reviewed. It is concluded that abortion is a "bridge" issue which allows religious political extremist factions to recruit members. Abortion is being used as a catalyst in the struggle of these white supremacists to replace democracy with a theocracy which seeks to enforce idiosyncratic versions of God's law.

  1. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  2. The incidence of induced abortion in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Mhango, Chisale; Kuchingale, Edgar; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Singh, Susheela

    2013-06-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in Malawi, and no data are available on the incidence of the procedure. The Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology was used to estimate levels of induced abortion in Malawi in 2009. Data on provision of postabortion care were collected from 166 public, nongovernmental and private health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have abortions experience complications and seek care were obtained from 56 key informants. Data from these surveys and from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey were used to calculate abortion rates and ratios, and rates of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy. Approximately 18,700 women in Malawi were treated in health facilities for complications of induced abortion in 2009. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions were performed, equivalent to a rate of 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and an abortion ratio of 12 per 100 live births. The abortion rate was higher in the North (35 per 1,000) than in the Central region or the South (20-23 per 1,000). The unintended pregnancy rate in 2010 was 139 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, and an estimated 52% of all pregnancies were unintended. Unsafe abortion is common in Malawi. Interventions are needed to help women and couples avoid unwanted pregnancy, reduce the need for unsafe abortion and decrease maternal mortality.

  3. Legalized abortion: a public health success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1999-06-01

    60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.

  4. PROGRESS THROUGH SELECTION AGAINST THE ABORTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van Heerden (1964) successfully reduced the abortion rate of a flock, where no system of selection against aborters was practised, by eliminating. Table I. Reproduction dota of normally reproducing and aborting Angora goat does and their progeny. Normal Dams. Aborline Dams. Danr. Progcny l)arn. Progeny. Number of ...

  5. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  6. Abortion Attitudes Among University Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    This report hypothesized that Indian university students approve of abortion, that religiosity neutralizes the influence of education in abortion attitudes, and that Indian students are more liberal in their attitudes on abortion than American Catholic students. To test these hypotheses, the author collected data from 150 students from two…

  7. Is Abortion Incidence Rising In Nigeria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Mifepristone and misoprostol, the two main abortion pills are widely available in Nigeria and have been reported to be highly effective in Nigerian women6. However, the extent to which women use abortion pills to self-induce abortions has not yet been investigated in Nigeria. We believe this would be sizeable in view of the ...

  8. abortion at gondar college hospital, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-05-01

    May 1, 2001 ... magnitude of abortion and abortion-related complications as a reflection of the fertility behaviour of the population impose a great burden on the meagre available resources and poorly functioning health delivery systems. The major complication of both induced and spontaneous abortion is incompleteness ...

  9. Destigmatising Abortion: Expanding Community Awareness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional and cultural values, social perceptions, religious teachings and criminalisation have facilitated stigmatisation of abortion in Ghana. Abortion is illegal in Ghana except in three instances. Though the law allows for performance of abortion in three circumstances, the Ghana reproductive health service policy did not ...

  10. Induced abortion among Jimma comprehensive high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knew the health hazards of abortion, and 69% were not aware of contraceptive methods. Almost 35% had no information on legal issues of induced abortion, 20.72% wished induced abortion be legalized while 67.4% opposed. Based on the study findings, intensification of sex education, and provision of family planning ...

  11. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  12. Conducting collaborative abortion research in international settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Jessica D; Becker, Davida; Mishtal, Joanna Z; Norris, Alison H

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 20% of the 208 million pregnancies that occur annually are aborted. More than half of these (21.6 million) are unsafe, resulting in 47,000 abortion-related deaths each year. Accurate reports on the prevalence of abortion, the conditions under which it occurs, and the experiences women have in obtaining abortions are essential to addressing unsafe abortion globally. It is difficult, however, to obtain accurate and reliable reports of attitudes and practices given that abortion is often controversial and stigmatized, even in settings where it is legal. To improve the understanding and measurement of abortion, specific considerations are needed throughout all stages of the planning, design, and implementation of research on abortion: Establishment of strong local partnerships, knowledge of local culture, integration of innovative methodologies, and approaches that may facilitate better reporting. This paper draws on the authors' collaborative research experiences conducting abortion-related studies using clinic- and community-based samples in five diverse settings (Poland, Zanzibar, Mexico City, the Philippines, and Bangladesh). The purpose of this paper is to share insights and lessons learned with new and established researchers to inform the development and implementation of abortion-related research. The paper discusses the unique challenges of conducting abortion-related research and key considerations for the design and implementation of abortion research, both to maximize data quality and to frame inferences from this research appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Sonya B; Strauss, Lilo T; Parker, Wilda Y; Cook, Douglas A; Zane, Suzanne B; Hamdan, Saeed

    2008-11-28

    CDC began abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions. This report summarizes and describes data voluntarily reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 2005. For each year since 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data by state or area of occurrence. Information is requested each year from all 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. For 2005, data were received from 49 reporting areas: New York City, District of Columbia, and all states except California, Louisiana, and New Hampshire. For the purpose of trends analysis, data were evaluated from the 46 reporting areas that have been consistently reported since 1995. A total of 820,151 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC for 2005 from 49 reporting areas, the abortion ratio (number of abortions per 1,000 live births) was 233, and the abortion rate was 15 per 1,000 women aged 15--44 years. For the 46 reporting areas that have consistently reported since 1995, the abortion rate declined during 1995--2000 but has remained unchanged since 2000. For 2005, the highest percentages of reported abortions were for women who were known to be unmarried (81%), white (53%), and aged abortions for which gestational age was reported, 62% were performed at abortions were first collected) through 2005, the percentage of abortions performed at abortions occurred at >15 weeks' gestation (3.7% at 16--20 weeks and 1.3% at >/=21 weeks). A total of 35 reporting areas submitted data stating that they performed and enumerated medical (nonsurgical) procedures, making up 9.9% of all known reported procedures from the 45 areas with adequate reporting on type of procedure. In 2004 (the most recent years for which data are available), seven women died as a result of complications from known legal induced abortion. One death was associated with known illegal abortion. For the 46 reporting areas that have consistently

  14. Estudio del fenómeno de plastificación en los túneles de O Cañizo, L.A.V. Madrid-Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Los túneles de O Cañizo, situados en A Gudiña (Ourense), forman parte de la LAV Madrid – Galicia tramo Lubián-Ourense, actualmente en construcción. Estos túneles perforan materiales igneos y metasedimentarios, transcurriendo una importante zona de falla (falla de Pentes) en el contacto entre ambos. En esta tesis se procede al estudio del fenómeno de plastificación observado en la perforación al atravesar la zona de falla. La plastificación o squeezing suele producirse generalmente durante ...

  15. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  16. Young Mexicans' hopes and fears about abortion and abortion law: a qualitative study in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Carrie E; Garcia, Sandra G; Yam, Eileen A; Becker, Davida

    2006-01-01

    In Mexico, abortion is legal only in limited, specific circumstances and unsafe abortion complications are estimated to be the fourth leading cause of maternal mortality. Our study sought to understand the opinions Mexicans hold about abortion and sexuality and to learn about their fears and hopes about more liberalized abortion laws in Mexico. We carried out 12 focus groups with a total of 87 women and men, aged 18-24. Six focus groups took place in Mexico City and six in Merida, Yucatan. One reader thematically analyzed and coded discussion transcripts. Participants favoring highly restrictive abortion laws generally felt that pregnant women should "face the consequences" of having a baby, whereas those who favored less restrictive laws focused less on culpability and more on the woman's right to control her future. Mexico City participants generally had more liberal abortion opinions. Most Merida participants thought abortion was never legal, despite the fact that their state has the country's most liberal abortion laws. Many felt that, if abortion were legal, there would be more abortions but that it would likely be a safer procedure. Merida participants' more conservative attitudes may be a reflection of their lower educational levels and largerproportion of Catholic participants compared to the Mexico City groups. It is critical to introduce more balanced information that emphasizes the safety of abortions performed under legal conditions and address fears of greatly elevated abortion rates if abortion laws were liberalized. Mexican young adults need more scientific, balanced sources of information on abortion and abortion law.

  17. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Internationale undersøgelser viser, at sene provokerede aborter skaber en større bekymring hos sundhedspersonale end tidlige aborter. Den største bekymring er risikoen for, at det aborterede foster udviser livstegn efter fødslen. Undersøgelser peger desuden på, at indikationen for abort, religiøs...... tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  18. [Update in current care guidelines: induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rate of induced abortions (9/1000 women aged 15-49 y in 2011) is low in Finland. Ninety-two per cent of them are performed on grounds of social reasons. Use of medical abortion (combination of mifepristone and misoprostol) has increased to nearly 90 % of abortions, also in abortions of 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Intrauterine contraception started at the time of abortion lowers the risk of future unplanned pregnancies. Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended in cases of surgical evacuation of the uterus. Written instructions for patients and professionals are introduced in the guideline.

  19. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  20. Legal Regulation of Adolescent Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.

    1987-01-01

    Legislators often have established special procedures for judicial or parental involvement in adolescent abortion decisions. While ostensibly protecting pregnant minors' psychological health, and increasing the competency of decision making, judicial bypass and parental notification promote neither goal. At best, they are benign but costly and…

  1. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  2. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  3. Contraceptive Provision after Medication and Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Laura; Stumbras, Katrina; Lewnard, Irene; Haider, Sadia

    This study sought to compare contraception provided to patients after medication and surgical abortion. Women who underwent first trimester induced abortion at a university-based urban clinic between May 2009 and May 2014 were identified. Medical records were reviewed to determine the method of contraception provided by the clinic to patients after medication and surgical abortion. Postabortal contraception was defined as any contraception administered or prescribed from our health system within 4 weeks of surgical abortion or mifepristone administration. We reviewed 824 women who were 9 weeks gestational age or less and able to choose between medication and surgical termination of pregnancy. Overall, 587 (71.1%) had a surgical abortion and 237 (28.9%) had a medication abortion. Women who had surgical abortions were more likely to initiate long-acting reversible contraception (41.9% vs. 23.2%; p abortion was 71.7%. Women who had surgical abortions had a greater odds of receiving long-acting reversible contraception than those who had medication abortions. Surgical abortion patients were also more likely to be provided contraception overall. Further prospective research is needed to determine the reasons for this difference and to ensure that all patients obtain the contraception that they desire. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion services at hospitals in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Lou

    2017-04-01

    Despite the existence of a liberal law on abortion in Turkey, there is growing evidence that actually securing an abortion in Istanbul may prove difficult. This study aimed to determine whether or not state hospitals and private hospitals that accept state health insurance in Istanbul are providing abortion services and for what indications. Between October and December 2015, a mystery patient telephone survey of 154 hospitals, 43 public and 111 private, in Istanbul was conducted. 14% of the state hospitals in Istanbul perform abortions without restriction as to reason provided in the current law while 60% provide the service if there is a medical necessity. A quarter of state hospitals in Istanbul do not provide abortion services at all. 48.6% of private hospitals that accept the state health insurance also provide for abortion without restriction while 10% do not provide abortion services under any circumstances. State and private hospitals in Istanbul are not providing abortion services to the full extent allowed under the law. The low numbers of state hospitals offering abortions without restriction indicates a de facto privatization of the service. This same trend is also visible in many private hospitals partnering with the state that do not provide abortion care. While many women may choose a private provider, the lack of provision of abortion care at state hospitals and those private hospitals working with the state leaves women little option but to purchase these services from private providers at some times subtantial costs.

  5. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history.

  6. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  7. Gynaecologists' attitude to abortion provision in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Wendy Diane; Francome, Colin

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to ascertain the attitude of consultant gynaecologists towards the working of the 1967 Abortion Act, women's choice and decriminalisation of abortion, and whether they had requests on the grounds of foetal sex in the last five years. A postal questionnaire was sent to a 20% random sample of NHS gynaecologists, coded and analysed using SPSS. 286 doctors replied, 78%. 60% considered the abortion act was working satisfactorily. Ninety percent thought the woman should decide whether to continue the pregnancy in consultation with her doctor. However, 15% thought it too easy to obtain. Fifty-six percent of those with an opinion agreed that abortion should be decriminalised and treated like any other medical procedure. It is time to consider decriminalisation of abortion. About half performed abortions and 152 (97%) had never had a request for an abortion on the grounds of foetal sex. Sex selection is not a major problem in the UK.

  8. Orientations toward abortion: guilty or knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T

    1981-01-01

    Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body.

  9. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Prada, Elena; Kestler, Edgar

    2006-09-01

    Although Guatemalan law permits induced abortion only to save a woman's life, many women obtain abortions, often under unsafe conditions and in response to an unintended pregnancy. Recent studies indicate that unsafe abortion is a key factor contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality in the country, but no national data on the incidence of abortion exist. Surveys of all hospitals that treat women for postabortion complications and of 74 professionals who are knowledgeable about the conditions of abortion provision in Guatemala were conducted in 2003. Indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the number of induced abortions performed annually. Abortion rates and ratios and the level of unintended pregnancy were calculated for the nation and its eight regions. Nearly 65,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Guatemala, and about 21,600 women are hospitalized for treatment of complications. Abortions occur at a rate of 24 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and there is one abortion for every six births. The abortion rate is higher than average in the Southwest (less developed, mainly indigenous population) and Metropolitan (more developed, mainly nonindigenous population) regions (29-30 per 1,000 women). Over a quarter of all births are unplanned; combining unplanned births with abortions yields estimates that 32% of pregnancies in Guatemala are unintended, with an unintended pregnancy rate of 66 per 1,000 women. Unsafe abortion has a significant impact on women's health in Guatemala. Comprehensive government programs are needed to address the issues of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, with attention to regional differences.

  11. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  12. [Attitudes of medical students towards abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Gunn Helen; Hage, Christine Ødegaard; Magelssen, Morten; Nortvedt, Per

    2011-09-20

    It is not known whether the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards abortion change in the course of their studies, or whether the attitudes differ among the four Norwegian medical schools. We have investigated attitudes towards abortion and the right to conscientious objection among medical students early and late in their studies at the four medical schools. Student satisfaction with the teaching on abortion was also surveyed. A questionnaire survey was carried out among medical students at the four Norwegian medical schools, first year and fourth/fifth year students respectively. 514 students (58.3 % of the students in the chosen classes) responded. 87.5 % approved of abortion on demand. The students at NTNU were the most liberal (93.5 %). Fourth/fifth year students were more liberal than first year students (91.3 % vs. 84.7 %, p = 0.027). 27.3 % would want to exercise their right to conscientious objection. 41.5 % had been present at a surgical abortion. Of those who had not been present at a surgical abortion, 84.1 % would want to see an abortion being carried out if given the opportunity. 29 % agreed that the teaching did not adequately cover the ethical aspects of abortion. Abortion on demand has wide approval among Norwegian medical students. However, many students would consider exercising their right to conscientious objection. More fourth/fifth year students than first year students approved of abortion.

  13. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  14. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2018-06-01

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  15. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  16. Abortion and the Nigerian woman: a select bibliography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions ...

  17. Counting abortions so that abortion counts: Indicators for monitoring the availability and use of abortion care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J; Otsea, K; Benson, J

    2006-11-01

    Maternal mortality reduction has been a focus of major international initiatives for the past two decades. Widespread provision of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has been shown to be an important strategy for addressing many of the complications that might otherwise lead to maternal death. However, unsafe abortion is one of the major causes of pregnancy-related deaths, and will be only partially addressed by EmOC. This manuscript presents a comprehensive approach to measuring whether abortion-related needs are met. We propose a set of indicators for monitoring the implementation of safe abortion care (SAC) interventions. We build on the model developed for monitoring the availability and use of Emergency Obstetric (EmOC) services. We describe the critical elements ("signal functions") of SAC - including treatment of abortion complications, legal, induced abortion and postabortion contraception - and define the indicators necessary to assess the availability, utilization and quality of abortion-related services. Data from 5 countries suggest there are sufficient service delivery points to provide decentralized abortion care, but that the full range of necessary abortion care services may not be provided at all these sites. Studies from several countries also show that many women receiving services for the treatment of abortion complications accept contraceptive methods when offered prior to discharge. This is an important strategy for reducing unwanted pregnancy, repeat unsafe abortion and risk for abortion-related mortality. Both findings suggest there are considerable opportunities within the present facilities to improve the delivery of abortion care services. This article recommends that the proposed model undergo field-testing on its own or in conjunction with the EmOC indicators, and encourages increased support for this important but often neglected aspect of pregnancy-related health.

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  19. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  20. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  1. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    Background In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. Conclusions The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over

  2. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  4. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Lilo T; Gamble, Sonya B; Parker, Wilda Y; Cook, Douglas A; Zane, Suzanne B; Hamdan, Saeed

    2006-11-24

    CDC began abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions. This report summarizes and describes data voluntarily reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 2003. For each year since 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data by state or area of occurrence. During 1973-1997, data were received from or estimated for 52 reporting areas in the United States: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1998 and 1999, CDC compiled abortion data from 48 reporting areas. Alaska, California, New Hampshire, and Oklahoma did not report, and data for these states were not estimated. During 2000-2002, Oklahoma again reported these data, increasing the number of reporting areas to 49, and for 2003, Alaska again reported and West Virginia did not, maintaining the number of reporting areas at 49. A total of 848,163 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC for 2003 from 49 reporting areas, representing a 0.7% decline from the 854,122 legal induced abortions reported by 49 reporting areas for 2002. The abortion ratio, defined as the number of abortions per 1,000 live births, was 241 in 2003, a decrease from the 246 in 2002. The abortion rate was 16 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for 2003, the same as for 2002. For the same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate remained relatively constant during 1998-2003. During 2001-2002 (the most recent years for which data are available), 15 women died as a result of complications from known legal induced abortion. One death was associated with known illegal abortion. The highest percentages of reported abortions were for women who were unmarried (82%), white (55%), and aged abortions for which gestational age was reported, 61% were performed at abortions were first collected) through 2002, steady increases have occurred in the percentage of abortions performed at abortions were obtained at >15 weeks' gestation, including 4

  5. Standardizing the classification of abortion incidents: the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting and Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Diana; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Fjerstad, Mary; Battistelli, Molly F; Weitz, Tracy A; Paul, Maureen E

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate standardized criteria for assessing abortion-related incidents (adverse events, morbidities, near misses) for first-trimester aspiration abortion procedures and to demonstrate the utility of a standardized framework [the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting & Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework] for estimating serious abortion-related adverse events. As part of a California-based study of early aspiration abortion provision conducted between 2007 and 2013, we developed and validated a standardized framework for defining and monitoring first-trimester (≤14weeks) aspiration abortion morbidity and adverse events using multiple methods: a literature review, framework criteria testing with empirical data, repeated expert reviews and data-based revisions to the framework. The final framework distinguishes incidents resulting from procedural abortion care (adverse events) from morbidity related to pregnancy, the abortion process and other nonabortion related conditions. It further classifies incidents by diagnosis (confirmatory data, etiology, risk factors), management (treatment type and location), timing (immediate or delayed), seriousness (minor or major) and outcome. Empirical validation of the framework using data from 19,673 women receiving aspiration abortions revealed almost an equal proportion of total adverse events (n=205, 1.04%) and total abortion- or pregnancy-related morbidity (n=194, 0.99%). The majority of adverse events were due to retained products of conception (0.37%), failed attempted abortion (0.15%) and postabortion infection (0.17%). Serious or major adverse events were rare (n=11, 0.06%). Distinguishing morbidity diagnoses from adverse events using a standardized, empirically tested framework confirms the very low frequency of serious adverse events related to clinic-based abortion care. The PAIRS Framework provides a useful set of tools to systematically classify and monitor abortion-related incidents for first

  6. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R; Steinberg, Julia R; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-03-01

    Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women's responses to them. Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. Women's reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women's abortion experiences. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  8. A Study of Incomplete Abortion Following Medical Method of Abortion (MMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawde, Anuya A; Ambadkar, Arun; Chauhan, Anahita R

    2016-08-01

    Medical method of abortion (MMA) is a safe, efficient, and affordable method of abortion. However, incomplete abortion is a known side effect. To study incomplete abortion due to medication abortion and compare to spontaneous incomplete abortion and to study referral practices and prescriptions in cases of incomplete abortion following MMA. Prospective observational study of 100 women with first trimester incomplete abortion, divided into two groups (spontaneous or following MMA), was administered a questionnaire which included information regarding onset of bleeding, treatment received, use of medications for abortion, its prescription, and administration. Comparison of two groups was done using Fisher exact test (SPSS 21.0 software). Thirty percent of incomplete abortions were seen following MMA; possible reasons being self-administration or prescription by unregistered practitioners, lack of examination, incorrect dosage and drugs, and lack of follow-up. Complications such as collapse, blood requirement, and fever were significantly higher in these patients compared to spontaneous abortion group. The side effects of incomplete abortions following MMA can be avoided by the following standard guidelines. Self medication, over- the-counter use, and prescription by unregistered doctors should be discouraged and reported, and need of follow-up should be emphasized.

  9. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  10. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  11. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  12. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, April-June 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information received from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources regarding abortions reported to the Center for Disease Control for the April-June quarter of 1971. Data in tabular and narrative form are given for abortion ratios by state, reported abortions by menstrual weeks of…

  13. Why women are dying from unsafe abortion: narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Carolyn M; Debbink, Michelle Precourt; Steele, Ellen A; Buck, Caroline T; Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Harris, Lisa H

    2013-06-01

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the life-threatening impact that stigma, financial restraints, and confusion regarding abortion law have on the women of Ghana who seek abortion. They posit that the vast majority of serious abortion complications arise in the setting of clandestine or self-induced second trimester attempts, suggesting that training greater numbers of physicians to perform second trimester abortion is prerequisite to reducing maternal mortality. They also recognized that an adequate supply of abortion providers alone is a necessary but insufficient step toward reducing death from unsafe abortion. Rather, improved accessibility and cultural acceptability of abortion are integral to the actual utilization of safe services. Their insights suggest that any comprehensive plan aimed at reducing maternal mortality must consider avenues that address the multiple dimensions which influence the practice and utilization of safe abortion, especially in the second trimester.

  14. A simulation model for probabilistic analysis of Space Shuttle abort modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, R. T.

    1993-11-01

    A simulation model which was developed to provide a probabilistic analysis tool to study the various space transportation system abort mode situations is presented. The simulation model is based on Monte Carlo simulation of an event-tree diagram which accounts for events during the space transportation system's ascent and its abort modes. The simulation model considers just the propulsion elements of the shuttle system (i.e., external tank, main engines, and solid boosters). The model was developed to provide a better understanding of the probability of occurrence and successful completion of abort modes during the vehicle's ascent. The results of the simulation runs discussed are for demonstration purposes only, they are not official NASA probability estimates.

  15. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A B

    2002-05-01

    Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs

  16. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking.

  17. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  19. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, William

    2017-08-09

    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  1. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  4. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services......, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications...

  5. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs.

  7. Changing attitudes towards abortion in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, E

    2003-06-01

    To understand how personal and social attitudes are changing regarding more available safe abortion in Europe. Abortion has been commonly practiced for a long time throughout most of the world, either in legal or illegal conditions, but it is a subject that arouses passion and controversy, because abortion raises two important issues, namely sex and life, sometimes mixed with religion and ethics. Over the past few years, we have observed changes in laws, and personal and professional attitudes towards abortion. Social needs modify the attitudes of the authorities and individuals. In many countries where the performance of abortion is illegal, statistics indicate that large numbers of abortions are carried out, but authorities are indifferent, ignore or tolerate it or even unofficially license clinics for the abortion. In some other countries where abortion is technically legal, access to authorized facilities and personnel may be limited, or resources to pay for the abortion may be lacking, resulting in more illegal abortions. There are, therefore, two categories of abortion: legal versus illegal, and safe versus unsafe. However, laws are changing, becoming even more liberal, even if, in certain nations, there are renewed attempts to question the right of women to decide. Practice is changing and in some cases becoming separate from the law. Basic ideas are changing, because, in a large number of European countries, we are moving from a culture of abortion to a culture of contraception and prevention of abortion, through an effort of governments, women, professionals, and non-governmental organizations. Certainly, important steps have been taken in the different ways of performing an abortion. For example, we have seen the arrival of medical abortion, with the use of mifepristone and misoprostol. Finally, there is also a change in the way of supporting women through humane and complete counseling, which includes attention to follow-up services offering a choice of

  8. [Abortion in Brazil: a demographic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, José Guilherme; Guerra, Gláucia Virgínia de Queiroz Lins; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion reported by a sample of Brazilian women interviewed in the National Demographic Health Survey of 1996. This was a secondary analysis of the Brazilian DHS-96 database, with information from interviews with a representative sample of 12,612 women about their reproductive life, focusing on the prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion in the last five years and the associated factors for the various regions of the country and for Brazil as a whole. The sampling method was implemented with a strategy selection in two stages, one for the households and the other for women. The prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion was estimated for Brazil and regions, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the women were analyzed as a function of the abortion's experience. A multinomial regression model analysis was used for the identification of factors independently associated with both types of abortion; their OR and respective 95% CI are reported. The prevalence of reported spontaneous abortion was 14% and the prevalence of induced abortion was 2.4% for the country as a whole. The state with the highest prevalence of induced abortion was Rio de Janeiro with 6.5%, followed by the Northeast region with 3.1%. The places with the lowest prevalence were the state of São Paulo and the South region. Both spontaneous and induced abortion showed higher prevalences with increasing age of the women studied. Being from the urban area (OR=1.5; 95%CI=1.0-2.3), having had more than one live child (OR=2.2; 95%CI=1.5-3.2) and being non-white (OR=1.4; 95%CI=1.0-1.8) were the main risk factors for induced abortion. The non-modifiable risk factors for induced abortion identified in this study indicate the need for improvement of educational and contraceptive actions, with priority for these specific demographic groups.

  9. Enacted abortion stigma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Sarah K

    2017-03-01

    Abortion is a common medical procedure at the center of political debate. Yet, abortion stigma at the individual level is under-researched; the nascent research on abortion stigma has not yet documented enacted (experienced) stigma instead capturing anticipated or internalized stigma. This study documents how women and men who disclosed abortions perceived others' reactions and determinants of those perceptions. The study uses the American Miscarriage and Abortion Communication Survey, a survey representative of American-resident adults. Data from the sub-sample who had personal experience with abortion were analyzed (total sample, N = 1640; abortion disclosure sub-sample, n = 179). The survey captured each disclosure of the most recent abortion. Respondents had eight possible choices for articulating how the listener reacted. Cluster analyses grouped these reactions. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of the perceived reactions. Ordinal logistic regression revealed which disclosers perceived exclusively negative reactions, exclusively positive reactions, and a mix of negative and positive reactions. Each disclosure fell into one of three clusters: negative reaction, supportive reaction or sympathetic reaction. The majority of abortion disclosures received largely positive reactions (32.6% were characterized as supportive and 40.6% were characterized as sympathetic). A substantial minority of disclosures received a negative reaction (26.8%). The perceived valence of the reaction is predicted, in part, by to whom the disclosure was made and why. Across all their disclosures, most people disclosing an abortion history perceived only positive reactions (58.3%). A substantial minority of people perceived either exclusively negative reactions (7.6%) or a mix of negative and positive reactions (34.1%). Ordinal logistic regression (with people as the unit of analysis) showed perceived reactions are predicted by the number of disclosures made and the

  10. The Roman Catholic position on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors.

  11. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  12. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population.

  13. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions.

  14. [Induced abortion in Cartagena, Colombia: estimation using Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel J; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    Estimating induced abortion incidence in a reference hospital and the city of Cartagena, Colombia. This was an ecological study that used Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM). Data from the Rafael Calvo Maternity Clinic (CMRC) was used for estimating post-abortion attention in Cartagena, Colombia. Induced abortion rates and ratios were estimated in the CMRC and the city of Cartagena from CMRC data using the AICM model. The estimated induced abortion ratio in Cartagena was 261/1,000 births in 2005, 244 in 2006 and 259 in 2007. The estimated rate per 1,000 females aged 15-44 for induced abortion was 22 in 2005, 22 in 2006 and 21 in 2007. The estimated rate was similar to the rate found in previous research using Colombian data from 1989. Public health measures should be focused on reducing unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce induced abortion rates.

  15. The Gender Politics of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Scavone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The debates and feminist actions in favor of the legalization of abortion in Brazil were characterized by progresses and regressions, and above all by countless political negotiations. From the omission of the word “abortion”, in the mid-seventies, to the political choice of decriminalization and application of the cases foreseen by law, Brazilian feminism has been marked by the choice of negotiation. The article concludes that these negotiations have succeeded politically but failed to reach society and heighten public awareness at a large scale.

  16. The unmet need for safe abortion in Turkey: a role for medical abortion and training of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar

    2015-02-01

    Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  18. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evacuation of the uterus for incomplete abortion is one of the most common operations performed world-wide. At Harare Central Hospital,. Zimbabwe, over 4 000 patients undergo evacuation for an incomplete abortion each year.' This accounts for. 50% of the emergency gynaecological workload. Most patients satisfy the ...

  19. Abortion and Social Change in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Robert; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Recently collected data from a survey of the attitudes of 1,843 elite members of both traditional and new institutions towards abortion indicate that, barring a major religious revival, a relatively permissive abortion policy will probably continue whether or not the Supreme Court curtails or overturns Roe vs. Wade. (FMW)

  20. What Abortion Counselors Want from Their Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Carole

    1978-01-01

    The moral dilemmas of abortion counseling are exacerbated by client attitudes which do not conform to counselors' needs and expectations. Studies show that counselors expect sobermindedness, are intolerant of cynicism, detest repeat aborters, and expect clients to adopt values and courses of action based on counselor beliefs. (Author/WI)

  1. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  2. Lupus Anticoagulatiuon African Women With Recurrent Abortions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of information on LA in African women where recurrent abortion and obstetrics complications are still common. Our aim therefore is to determine the prevalence of lupus anticoagulant in Nigerian women with recurrent abortion. Subjects and methods: A total of seventy – three pregnant women were studied.

  3. Social Worker's Role in Teenage Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Lillian Pike

    1979-01-01

    An adolescent's request for an abortion raises many ethical and practical issues. The social worker must help the girl weigh the various alternatives, resolve the abortion crisis to her own satisfaction, and view the experience as one episode in her growth toward adulthood. (Author)

  4. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological Perspectives on Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.; Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1987-01-01

    The Supreme Court has relied on psychological assumptions in adolescent abortion cases, but it has failed to consider relevant empirical research. The Interdivisional Committee on Adolescent Abortion provides a model for organized psychology's integration, dissemination, and application of psychological knowledge to promote the public's interest.…

  7. illegal abortions in addis ababa, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected problems the latter represent the majority" WHO estimates Fhatmorc of health care in developing countries and a serious than half of the deaths caused by induced-abortion occur concern to women during their reproductive 1ives(2). It is m South and south ...

  8. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  9. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  10. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  11. The abortion culture issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a large number of abortions in our country was first pointed out as far back as 1935 at the 17th Congress of Yugoslav Physicians. The abortion problem in Serbia is still present today, even though modern science has provided new methods and means which are a logical solution to the dilemma on birth control methods from the health and social aspect. Namely, total abortion rate in Serbia was estimated at 2.76 in the year 2007. It is very high; double the number of the total fertility rate and among the highest in Europe and the world. The term abortion culture was first used, as far as we know, by Henry David in the introduction of the book From Abortion to Contraception - A Resource to Public Policies and Reproductive Behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the Present in 1999, without specifically determining it. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important factors of the deterministic basis of endemic induced abortions in Serbia together with indirectly estimating their connection with the existence, namely nonexistence, of the abortion culture in our country. In that sense, potential factors of abortion incidence in Serbia which emerge from the social system and those connected to the individual level have been considered. In other words, a series of laws and other legal and political documents have been analyzed which are significant for perceiving the abortion matter, as well as institutional frameworks for family planning, health services, educating the youth regarding reproductive health, including findings of numerous researches carried out among women of various age and doctors from 1990 till present day in Serbia. The following most significant factors for the long duration of the abortion problem have been singled out: insufficient knowledge of modern contraception, a belief that modern contraceptive methods are harmful to health and a number of psychological barriers as well as those arising from

  12. Muslim women having abortions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of

  13. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A

    2016-04-12

    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  15. Self-Reports of Induced Abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion......, and phase 2 included 823 such patients. RESULTS: In phase 1, in which cases were classified by clinical criteria and information from the patient, 3.9% to 16.1% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. In phase 2, in which the structured interview was changed to an empathetic dialogue...... and previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion....

  16. Information needs among Italian abortion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson Agostino, M

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds abortion and abortion care in many countries. Information for women who seek abortion is not always as objective and complete as desired. In Italy abortion has been legal for the last decades. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate general information needs among patients in a hospital in Rome. A questionnaire concerning information needs, opinions on information to include in a booklet, and methods of information was distributed among 212 women in a public hospital in Rome. Women answered the questionnaire very differently, and general information needs were not shown to be as essential as expected; their present needs seemed especially underestimated. However, a booklet with information as objective and complete as possible is suggested as a way of giving information to abortion patients.

  17. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  19. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. [Requested abortions in Oslo 2000-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Linda Björk; Qvigstad, Erik; Melseth, Elbjørg; Vangen, Siri; Eskild, Anne

    2006-06-22

    Women of non-Western origin are over-represented among women requesting induced abortion before the end of the 12th week of pregnancy, in Oslo, Norway. Our aim was to find out if that was also the case for women requesting induced abortion after week 12. We assessed differences between Western and non-Western women in duration of pregnancy at request for induced abortion and the proportion accepted for abortion. All women requesting induced abortion after the 12th week of pregnancy at Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo from January 2000 to September 2003 (n = 378) were included. Information about the number of fertile women in Oslo according to ethnic background was found in the municipality of Oslo's statistical office. Other data were obtained from patient medical records. 23% (87/378) of all women requesting late induced abortion and 15.5% (20,636/132,843) of women aged 15-50 years in Oslo had non-Western background (p abortion among non-Western women was 16.4 weeks and among Western women it was 15.6 weeks (p = 0.01). There was a non-significant increased risk of having the abortion request rejected for non-Western as compared to Western women (adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI 0.5-5.5), after control for gestational age and maternal age. It is known that non-Western women in Oslo are over-represented among women giving birth and women requesting induced abortion in general. This study shows that non-western women are also over-represented among women requesting induced abortion after the 12th pregnancy week.

  1. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  2. [Scientific ethics of therapeutic abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2003-05-01

    Therapeutic abortion is proposed when a pregnancy threatens a woman's life and the fetus is not viable ex utero. As the intention is not to kill the fetus, this action should be named "therapeutic interruption of pregnancy". However, in some cases the fetus directly hampers the mother's health. Thus, the removal of the cause of the disease coincides with killing the fetus. Therapeutic abortion has been proposed for several situations. A) When pregnancy and not the fetus, impairs maternal life (e.g. ovular infection, ectopic pregnancy, decompensation of a preexisting disease or diseases of pregnancy as pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP and Ballantyne syndromes, choriocarcinoma). B) A risk for maternal survival caused by the embryo or fetal genetic constitution: autoimmune diseases of the mother generated by fetal antigens, some types of eclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome due to an immune or exaggerated inflammatory response of the mother, Ballantyne syndrome associated to eclampsia due to fetal-maternal genetic incompatibility, the classic fetus-maternal genetic incompatibility, embryo or fetus diseases caused by their genomic constitution, mainly hydatidiform mole and the triploid, or fetal cancer. Scientific knowledge and a prudential Medical Ethics are capable to solve most cases.

  3. Likelihood of repeat abortion in a Swedish cohort according to the choice of post-abortion contraception: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilander, Helena; Alehagen, Siw; Svedlund, Linnea; Westlund, Karin; Thor, Johan; Brynhildsen, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Despite high access to contraceptive services, 42% of the women who seek an abortion in Sweden have a history of previous abortion(s). The reasons for this high repeat abortion rate remain obscure. The objective of this study was to study the choice of contraceptive method after abortion and related odds of repeat abortions within 3-4 years. This is a retrospective cohort study based on a medical record review at three hospitals in Sweden. We included 987 women who had an abortion during 2009. We reviewed medical records from the date of the index abortion until the end of 2012 to establish the choice of contraception following the index abortion and the occurrence of repeat abortions. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. While 46% of the women chose oral contraceptives, 34% chose long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC). LARC was chosen more commonly by women with a previous pregnancy, childbirth and/or abortion. During the follow-up period, 24% of the study population requested one or more repeat abortion(s). Choosing LARC at the time of the index abortion was associated with fewer repeat abortions compared with choosing oral contraceptives (13% vs. 26%, OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.24-0.52). Subdermal implant was as effective as intrauterine device in preventing repeat abortions beyond 3 years. Choosing LARC was associated with fewer repeat abortions over more than 3 years of follow up. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. The after-care of abortion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, J R

    1981-04-01

    One of a systematic series of studies into the provision of induced abortion in the Wessex Health Authority Region provided information about the use of lay and professional services after abortion. Information from this study forms the basis of this discussion. The study sample consisted of each patient having a National Health Service induced abortion in the Southampton Health District during an 8-week period. During this time, 118 patients had an induced abortion, and 102 consented to postabortion followup (87%). There were 3 principal sources of followup data: followup interview; followup data from general practitioners; and hospital and social work record search. Questionnaires were completed for 64 (63%) of the 102 patients who had been willing to be seen for a followup interview. 94 (91%) of the 103 general practitioners involved completed their questionnaires; no data were available for 8 of their patients. Of the 64 patients, 23 had discussed the induced abortion with other patients, and 13 of these patients had found this helpful. In general, the medical and nursing staff were found to have been helpful or very helpful; only 6 patients felt that the staff had been unhelpful. A majority of the patients indicated that they had no preference as to the sex of the physicians whom they had consulted. 61 of the patients (95%) had discussed their abortion with somebody by the time of the followup interview, usually with friends (17%), family doctors (17%), boyfriends (14%), mothers (12%), or husbands (9%). 70% of all discussions (128 out of 182) had been at least some help. The most helpful discussions had been those with husbands, boyfriends, and girlfriends. Of the 86 patients for whom general practitioner data were available, 80 (93%) had consulted their doctor since the abortion. The majority of these consultations concerned matters not directly related to the abortion. Of the 102 patients for whom a record search was possible, 20 had had a gynecological

  5. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  6. Hindsight and the abortion experience: what abortion means to women years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, L

    1999-01-01

    This article provides views on abortion by demonstrating women's retrospective accounts of their abortion experiences. Women's accounts of their abortion experiences are socially constructed both at the time of the abortion and in subsequent years in their lives. Some women reflect on their past abortion as the right decision; however, some also feel varying degrees of pain, grief, and loss. Many view their abortions as mistakes. Profiles of four women are presented in this article to provide several critical points on a continuum pertaining to study participants' retrospective satisfaction with an abortion experience. Based on the profiles, various emotional reactions are possible to occur after abortion and those retrospective interpretations of the experience change as personal growth and circumstances prompt women to reflect about the original experience. It was also documented that the satisfied group in the study was the one composed of women still involved with the partner with whom they became pregnant. With an open conversation on the emotional effects of abortion, women will be able to help inform and transform politicized abortion debates.

  7. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  8. Post-abortion and induced abortion services in two public hospitals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2014-07-01

    Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Launch Vehicle Debris Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an analysis of the loss of crew risk associated with an ascent abort system for a manned launch vehicle, a model was developed to predict the impact risk of the debris resulting from an explosion of the launch vehicle on the crew module. The model consisted of a debris catalog describing the number, size and imparted velocity of each piece of debris, a method to compute the trajectories of the debris and a method to calculate the impact risk given the abort trajectory of the crew module. The model provided a point estimate of the strike probability as a function of the debris catalog, the time of abort and the delay time between the abort and destruction of the launch vehicle. A study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of the strike probability to the various model input parameters and to develop a response surface model for use in the sensitivity analysis of the overall ascent abort risk model. The results of the sensitivity analysis and the response surface model are presented in this paper.

  10. Pattern of Microbial Flora in Septic Incomplete Abortion in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    abortion or during unsafe abortion. Septic abortion is accompanied by significant morbidity, cost and maternal death in Nigeria. Knowledge of the microbial flora causing septic abortion is important in the prevention and treatment of this condition. The aim of this study is to identify the common micro organisms present in the.

  11. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  12. Factors Associated with Choice of Post-Abortion Contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic ...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  14. Contraception and induced abortion in the West Indies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, A A; de Bruijn, J G M

    2011-10-01

    Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion, prevalence, methods and juridical aspects of induced abortion and prevention policies. Articles were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychlNFO and Soclndex (1999 to 2010) using as keywords contraception, induced abortion, termination of pregnancy, medical abortion and West Indies. Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 18 on contraception, 17 on induced abortion and two on both subjects. Main results indicated that healthcare providers' knowledge of emergency contraception was low. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception, but counselling increased its effective use. Exact numbers about prevalence of abortion were not found. The total annual number of abortions in the West Indies is estimated at 300 000; one in four pregnancies ends in an abortion. The use of misoprostol diminished the complications of unsafe abortions. Legislation of abortion varies widely in the different islands in the West Indies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe and St Martin have legal abortions. Barbados was the first English-speaking island with liberal legislation on abortion. All other islands have restrictive laws. Despite high estimated numbers of abortion, research on prevalence of abortion is missing. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception and low use among adolescents. Most West Indian islands have restrictive laws on abortion.

  15. Does abortion reduce self-esteem and life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M A; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Steinberg, Julia R; Foster, Diana G

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of obtaining an abortion versus being denied an abortion on self-esteem and life satisfaction. We present the first 2.5 years of a 5-year longitudinal telephone-interview study that follows 956 women who sought an abortion from 30 facilities across the USA. We examine the self-esteem and life satisfaction trajectories of women who sought and received abortions just under the facility's gestational age limit, of women who sought and received abortions in their first trimester of pregnancy, and of women who sought abortions just beyond the facility gestational limit and were denied an abortion. We use adjusted mixed effects linear regression analyses to assess whether the trajectories of women who sought and obtained an abortion differ from those who were denied one. Women denied an abortion initially reported lower self-esteem and life satisfaction than women who sought and obtained an abortion. For all study groups, except those who obtained first trimester abortions, self-esteem and life satisfaction improved over time. The initially lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction among women denied an abortion improved more rapidly reaching similar levels as those obtaining abortions at 6 months to one year after abortion seeking. For women obtaining first trimester abortions, initially higher levels of life satisfaction remained steady over time. There is no evidence that abortion harms women's self-esteem or life satisfaction in the short term.

  16. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  17. Unsafe Abortions in a Developing Country: Has Liberalisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsafe abortion is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Africa. To assess whether the introduction of legal abortions in South Africa has decreased admissions resulting from mid-trimester abortions, a prospective study of abortion cases admitted to the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over ...

  18. Fertility Profile Following Induced Abortion in Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of induced abortion in Nigeria is high. Pelvic infection as a complication of this abortion is also common and with the rising prevalence of infertility in the population, there is a need to assess the impact of induced abortions on fertility in our women. Objective: To establish the impact of induced abortion ...

  19. Microchimerism after induced or spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Akira; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate fetomaternal microchimerism in women with induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 76 healthy women who underwent dilation and curettage in the first trimester but had never had an abortion or male delivery before. Samples were collected at three time points: just before, 7 days after, and 30 days after abortion. Y chromosome-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) was used to test DNA extracted from buffy coat cells. DNA was also extracted from the chorion to determine sex. The sensitivity of our assay allowed detection of approximately one male cell in 100,000 female cells. Thirty-six male and 40 female chorions were obtained. Male DNA was found in 52.8% of women who had a male chorion before abortion, decreasing to 5.6% at 7 days after abortion. At 30 days after abortion, no male DNA was detected. Male DNA was never detected at any point from women with a female chorion. Fetal cells in the maternal circulation are undetectable 30 days after induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fetal cells may be harbored in maternal organs.

  20. Abortion, embryonic stem cell research, and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David A

    2008-01-01

    Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion--most prominently, many have been abandoned in vitro, and appear to have no reasonably likely meaningful future. On these grounds one might think to maintain a strong position against abortion but endorse killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research and its promising benefits. I will argue, however, that these differences are not decisive. Thus, one who accepts a strong view against abortion is committed to the moral impermissibility of killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research. I do not argue for the moral standing of either abortion or the killing of embryos for stem cell research; I only argue for the relation between the two. Thus the conclusion is relevant to those with a strong view in favor of the permissibility of killing embryos for the sake of research as much as for those who may strongly oppose abortion; neither can consider their position in isolation from the other.

  1. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  2. Legal abortion mortality and general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrash, H K; Cheek, T G; Hogue, C J

    1988-02-01

    Legal abortion-related mortality as reported to the Centers for Disease Control declined eightfold between 1972 and 1981. However, the causes of legal abortion mortality have changed over time. We reviewed all legal abortion-related deaths that occurred between 1972 and 1985 in the United States. We found that, although the absolute number of legal abortion-related deaths caused by general anesthesia complications did not increase, the proportion of such deaths increased significantly, from 7.7% between 1972 and 1975 to 29.4% between 1980 and 1985. Women who died of general anesthesia complications did not differ by age, presence of preexisting medical conditions, or type of facility from women who died of other causes. However, the proportion of deaths from general anesthesia complications was significantly higher among women of black and other races, women obtaining abortions during the first trimester, and women obtaining abortions in the Northeast. Our results indicate that at least 23 of the 27 deaths were due to hypoventilation and/or loss of airway resulting in hypoxia. Persons administering general anesthesia for abortion must be skilled in airway management as well as the provision of general anesthesia.

  3. Adoption Decision Making among Women Seeking Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Ralph, Lauren; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana Greene

    Little is known about how adoption factors into pregnancy decision making, particularly when abortion is unavailable. We used data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking abortion, including 231 women denied abortions owing to gestational limits. Through semiannual quantitative interviews, we assessed the frequency with which women denied abortion consider and choose adoption, and, among adoption participants, decision satisfaction. We compared differences in the demographic profiles of parenting and adoption participants using mixed effects regression models. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 women who received or were denied wanted abortions, including 2 adoption participants, focused on understanding pregnancy decision making and feelings about their choice. Interviews were coded using inductive and deductive methods. Most women who received abortions were aware of but uninterested in adoption. A minority of women denied abortions (n = 231; 14%) were considering adoption at 1 week after denial. Of participants who gave birth (n = 161), most (91%) chose parenting. Parenting participants (n = 146) did not differ from adoption participants (n = 15) on measures of age, race, or poverty status, although adoption participants were somewhat less likely to be employed (20% vs. 43%; p = .1), and somewhat more likely to have completed high school (87% vs. 74%; p = .08). Although satisfaction with their decision was high among adoption participants, in-depth interviews revealed mixed emotions. Among women motivated to avoid parenthood, as evidenced by abortion seeking, adoption is considered or chosen infrequently. Political promotion of adoption as an alternative to abortion is likely not grounded in the reality of women's decision making. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  5. Myths and misconceptions about abortion among marginalized underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.

  6. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Midtrimester Abortion Experience in a Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, George A.

    1981-01-01

    The midtrimester abortion experience in a community hospital serving a population of approximately 250,000 people was reviewed over a four-year period. During the 48-month study period, 744 patients were aborted, utilizing intra-amniotic infusion of hypertonic saline and/or prostaglandins F2A augmented by a weak pitocin infusion. The combination of 20 percent saline, prostaglandins F2A preoperative placement of intracervical laminaria, and pitocin augmentation was found to be most efficacious, resulting in an average injection to abortion time of 10.5 hours and reduction of hospital stay from three to two days. The established protocol is reviewed. PMID:7310923

  8. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  9. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... for abortion, but due to significant interaction with mastitis it was kept in the final model. In general, it is concluded that inclusion of significant interactions in a risk factor analysis as the present is of paramount importance for a correct quantification of the risk factors for a cow with given...

  10. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  11. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in wester...

  13. Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2007-01-01

    There is thus provided an underwater vehicle having facility for maneuvering alongside a retrieving vehicle, as by manipulation of bow and stern planes, for engaging a hull surface of the retrieving...

  14. USA aborts international family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1996-03-02

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  15. Medical Students? Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su?ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowled...

  16. Evidence Supporting Broader Access To Safe Legal Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Faundes; Anibal; Shah; Iqbal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal con...

  17. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Singh, Susheela; Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth; Henshaw, Stanley K; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2012-02-18

    Data of abortion incidence and trends are needed to monitor progress toward improvement of maternal health and access to family planning. To date, estimates of safe and unsafe abortion worldwide have only been made for 1995 and 2003. We used the standard WHO definition of unsafe abortions. Safe abortion estimates were based largely on official statistics and nationally representative surveys. Unsafe abortion estimates were based primarily on information from published studies, hospital records, and surveys of women. We used additional sources and systematic approaches to make corrections and projections as needed where data were misreported, incomplete, or from earlier years. We assessed trends in abortion incidence using rates developed for 1995, 2003, and 2008 with the same methodology. We used linear regression models to explore the association of the legal status of abortion with the abortion rate across subregions of the world in 2008. The global abortion rate was stable between 2003 and 2008, with rates of 29 and 28 abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years, respectively, following a period of decline from 35 abortions per 1000 women in 1995. The average annual percent change in the rate was nearly 2·4% between 1995 and 2003 and 0·3% between 2003 and 2008. Worldwide, 49% of abortions were unsafe in 2008, compared to 44% in 1995. About one in five pregnancies ended in abortion in 2008. The abortion rate was lower in subregions where more women live under liberal abortion laws (pabortion rate observed earlier has stalled, and the proportion of all abortions that are unsafe has increased. Restrictive abortion laws are not associated with lower abortion rates. Measures to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, including investments in family planning services and safe abortion care, are crucial steps toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals. UK Department for International Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and

  18. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, Joanna N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, healt...

  19. Why don?t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors? observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ?There?s no need?; ?Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises?; ?Donors don?t fund abortion services?; and ?Abortion is illegal?. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  20. Induced abortion in developed countries:trends and law

    OpenAIRE

    Pachlová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    Induced abortion in developed countries: trends and law Abstract The objective of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of law and trends in induced abortion in developed countries and to analyse and to evaluate patterns, which are typical for selected countries. In the first part, approaches to induced abortion are discussed and development in abortion law is described, in the second part, trends of induced abortion are analysed over time and by age of woman. As a tool, methods of d...

  1. Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreza, Abolghasem; Batebi, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and h...

  2. Putting abortion pills into women's hands: realizing the full potential of medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, Kinga; Yanow, Susan

    2018-02-01

    The promise of medical abortion to both reduce maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion and to expand the reproductive rights of women can only be realized if information and reliable medicines are available to all women, regardless of their location or the restrictions of their legal system. Activist strategies to actualize the full potential of abortion pills are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. A comparison of women with induced abortion, spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J

    2011-07-01

    Despite having one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, complications from induced abortion are the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Ghana. The sample is composed of patients with pregnancy termination complications in Ghana between June and July 2008. The majority of patients report having had a spontaneous abortion (75%; n=439), while 17% (n=100) and 8% (n=46) report having had an induced abortion or an ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Factors associated with women in each of the three groups were explored using multinomial logistic regression. When compared to women with spontaneous abortions, women with induced abortions were younger, poorer, more likely to report no religious affiliation, less likely to be married, more likely to report making the household decisions and more likely to fail to disclose this pregnancy to their partners. Within the induced abortion subsample, failure to disclose the most recent pregnancy was associated with already having children and autonomous household decision making. Identifying the individual and relationship characteristics of induced abortion patients is the first step toward targeted policies and programs aimed at reducing unsafe abortion in Ghana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge and perception of the Nigerian Abortion Law by abortion seekers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B; Ugboaja, J; Iwuoha, C; Akiode, A; Oji, E; Okoh, M

    2011-11-01

    One in four pregnancies worldwide is voluntarily terminated. Approximately 20 million terminations are performed under unsafe conditions, mostly in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. A total of 100 consecutive abortion-seekers were interviewed, to ascertain their knowledge and perceptions on the Nigerian Abortion Law. The majority (55.0%) of the respondents were students. Most of them (97%) had at least secondary education and the majority (62.0%) were within the 20-24 years age range. Only 31.0% of the women interviewed were aware of the Nigerian Abortion Law. While 16% perceived the law as being restrictive, 2% opined that' it was alright'; 1% perceived it as very restrictive and 12% had no opinion on the abortion law. Knowledge of the abortion law had no significant relationship with either the educational level of the respondent or the number of previous pregnancy terminations and overall demand for abortion services. It is necessary to ensure a wide dissemination of the abortion law and its provisions to the Nigerian public, in order to arm them with the necessary information to participate actively in debates on abortion law reforms.

  6. Stigma and abortion complications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2012-12-01

    Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women.

  7. Abortion as agentive action: reproductive agency among young women seeking post-abortion care in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Cleeve, Amanda; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Nalwadda, Gorette; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Unsafe abortion in Africa continues to be a major contributor to the global maternal mortality which affects young women in particular. In Uganda, where abortion is legally restricted and stigmatised, unsafe abortion is a major public health issue. We explored reproductive agency in relation to unsafe abortion among young women seeking post-abortion care. Through in-depth interviews we found that reproductive agency was constrained by gender norms and power imbalances and strongly influenced ...

  8. [Some signs of women applying for abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonová, D; Fait, T; Weiss, P

    2010-05-01

    To discover the motivation of women for abortion. Prospective questionary study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University and General Faculty Hospital Prague. Special questionnaire centered on the social situation, sexual behavior, knowledge about contraception and the use of contraception, and a motivation for abortion was given to one hundred women attending our clinic for abortion for non-medical reasons. Results were discussed in comparison with population survey data. Although education and acces to modern contraceptive methods have induced the great progress in the area of family planning, abortion is still an important psychosocial problem. In our sample an earlier start of sexual intercourse, higher number of sexual partners, and substantialy lower number of hormonal contraception users were found.

  9. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings.

  10. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins — Gynecology and the Society of Family Planning. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 143: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2014;123:676. Reaffirmed 2016. Frequently ...

  11. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  12. Commentary: imagine a world without abortion stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This commentary explores what a world without abortion stigma might look like at the individual, community and institutional level. The article further articulates the need for interdisciplinary collaboration for developing a vision, research agenda, and intervention strategy for change.

  13. Commentary: abortion provider stigma and mainstream medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Carole

    2014-01-01

    This commentary describes the various manifestations of the stigmatization and marginalized status of abortion providers in relation to mainstream medicine. The article also addresses some of the current efforts to respond to this stigmatization.

  14. Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana; Centro de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos (PROMSEX). Lima, Perú. Licenciada en obstetricia; maestra en salud pública; especialista en políticas públicas en salud sexual y reproductiva.

    2014-01-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women’s right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not appr...

  15. Polemics in perinatology: the abortion thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, B S

    1990-03-01

    This article discusses the debate over abortion in a vary informal and literary style. While is may have a grand image, do not think it is lacking in substance for all the important arguments and positions are considered. It is admitted early on in the essay that this issue is partially over fundamental differences in view points. This is reflected in the choice of words used by members of both sides. Antiabortionists call themselves "pro life" or "right-to-life" advocates, while proabortionists call themselves "pro-choice" advocates. Clearly the debate is over the legal status of abortion, not over whether some people think life is important or not, we all think life is important. And no one is anti-choice, we all want to be given freedom to chose how we live. The issue is about the legal status of abortion and the author makes this fact quite clear. The author also points out that no one wants to see "back-ally" abortions destroy the bodies and lives of women, yet that is what will happen if abortion is criminalized. The author also points out that some antiabortionists seem to be unconcerned with the physical and psychological suffering of women that goes along with having an abortion. They seem more concerned with the doctors and the fetuses. Ultimately the author concludes that policy makers must consider the abortion issue in terms of its sociological effect. It is better to eliminate unwanted pregnancies than to give abortions, yet our President wants to deny us of both.

  16. Er fri abort stadig er feministisk krav?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørup, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Bliver den fri abort snarere brugt til at tæmme kvinden og hendes fertilitet, så hun kan yde en effektiv indsats i uddannelsesræset og på arbejdsmarkedet?......Bliver den fri abort snarere brugt til at tæmme kvinden og hendes fertilitet, så hun kan yde en effektiv indsats i uddannelsesræset og på arbejdsmarkedet?...

  17. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Mifepristone-induced abortion and vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Gao, Er-sheng; Chen, Ai-min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-min; Yuan, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion on vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. This observational cohort study was conducted during 1998-2001 at antenatal clinics in Beijing, Chengdu, and Shanghai, China. The study enrolled 4,931 women with one previous mifepristone-induced abortion, 4,925 women with no history of induced abortion, and 4,800 women with one previous surgical abortion and followed them through pregnancy and childbirth. The rates of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women with a history of medical abortion, no abortion, and surgical abortion were 16.5%, 13.9%, and 17.3%, respectively. The women with medical abortion had a higher risk (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.29) of vaginal bleeding compared with those with no abortion but similar risk to prior surgical abortion. When the correlation between medical abortion and vaginal bleeding was examined by period, increased risk was observed only in the early period (abortion and no abortion showed that the observed risks increased particularly in those with abortion at gestational age ≤ 7 weeks (aRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.49), those followed by a postabortion curettage (aRR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.84) or complications (aRR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.37). There was no difference between women with medical abortion and women with surgical abortion in the occurrence of vaginal bleeding for either period. One previous mifepristone-induced abortion increased the risk of vaginal bleeding in early gestation period of subsequent pregnancy compared with no abortion, especially if abortion occurred before 7 weeks of gestation and was followed by a curettage or complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abortion for fetal CNS malformations: religious aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2003-08-01

    Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.

  20. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  2. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1991-01-01

    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths.

  3. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. [The context of abortion in adolescents or abortion at 15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivelet, G; Masclaux, D

    1988-04-01

    31 adolescents aged 13-18 years who requested legal abortions at a center in France were studied during their preliminary interviews and asked to draw pictures of their own bodies. All were single and were students. The majority were the youngest children in the family. 1/3 used withdrawal and none used an effective contraceptive method. They came from varied sociocultural levels and 1/3 were in homes broken by divorce or death of a parent. In 8 cases the pregnancy resulted from the 1st sexual relations. As is common with adolescents, 1/2 did not make the connection between sex and pregnancy and did not anticipate the possibility of becoming pregnant. Only 1/2 were able to furnish drawings of themselves. The multiple physiological, psychological, and anatomic changes of adolescence left the other 1/2 with an insufficient feeling of what they were like to draw pictures of themselves. Few could explain the functioning of the menstrual cycle and 17 were unable to draw the female genital organs. The drawings did not suggest bodies that could become pregnant. There was seldom any sort of connection between the diagrammed organs and seldom a place for implantation of the egg.

  5. Confronting the challenge of unsafe second-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H; Grossman, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Unsafe abortion accounts for approximately 13% of maternal deaths worldwide-roughly 47,000 deaths per year. Most deaths from unsafe abortion occur in low-resource countries. Second-trimester abortion carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with first-trimester abortion and, although the former comprises the minority of abortion procedures worldwide, it is responsible for the majority of serious complications and death where unsafe abortion is prevalent. Therefore, improving access to safe second-trimester abortion must be a priority in low-income regions of the world if the majority of deaths from unsafe abortion are to be prevented. In the present paper, we consider a variety of barriers to second-trimester care, including healthcare provider training and abortion stigma, which may lead to neglect of unmet need for second-trimester services. Copyright © 2011 International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Gregory; Finkelstein, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    Many real-world critical systems, e.g., aircrafts, manned space flight systems, and submarines, utilize mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a rescue or recovery procedure is then initiated. For systems exposed to external impacts, the malfunctions are often caused by the consequences of these impacts. Traditional system reliability models typically cannot address a possibility of mission aborts. Therefore, in this article, we first develop the corresponding methodology for modeling and evaluation of the mission success probability and survivability of systems experiencing both internal failures and external shocks. We consider a policy when a mission is aborted and a rescue procedure is activated upon occurrence of the mth shock. We demonstrate the tradeoff between the system survivability and the mission success probability that should be balanced by the proper choice of the decision variable m. A detailed illustrative example of a mission performed by an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Characteristics of private abortion services in Mexico City after legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Collado, Maria Elena; Troncoso, Erika; Soto Sánchez, José Ezequiel; Zorrilla, Gabriela Otero; Palermo, Tia

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, first trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City, and the public sector rapidly expanded its abortion services. In 2008, to obtain information on the effect of the law on private sector abortion services, we interviewed 135 physicians working in private clinics, located through an exhaustive search. A large majority of the clinics offered a range of reproductive health services, including abortions. Over 70% still used dilatation and curettage (D&C); less than a third offered vacuum aspiration or medical abortion. The average number of abortions per facility was only three per month; few reported more than 10 abortions monthly. More than 90% said they had been offering abortion services for less than 20 months. Many women are still accessing abortion services privately, despite the availability of free or low-cost services at public facilities. However, the continuing use of D&C, high fees (mean of $157-505), poor pain management practices, unnecessary use of ultrasound, general anaesthesia and overnight stays, indicate that private sector abortion services are expensive and far from optimal. Now that abortions are legal, these results highlight the need for private abortion providers to be trained in recommended abortion methods and quality of private abortion care improved. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abortion and public health: Time for another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A

    2016-02-01

    Four decades after Roe v. Wade , abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly supportive of its wide availability. Absence of substantive debate on abortion separates the public health community from the public we serve, jeopardizing the trust placed in us. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable groups and opposition to the politicization of science-together with the principle of reciprocity weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. Lay Summary: Four decades after Roe v. Wade , abortion remains highly divisive. Public sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split, yet fundamental debate is largely absent in the public health community, which supports abortion's wide availability. Absence of substantive debate separates the public health community from the public it serves. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable populations and opposition to politicization of science-and the principle of reciprocity ("the Golden Rule") weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life.

  9. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma.

  10. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  11. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  12. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su'ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M S L; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  13. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  14. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Ethiopia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Fetters, Tamara; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Abdella, Ahmed; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Kumbi, Solomon; Audam, Suzette

    2010-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is an important health problem in Ethiopia; however, no national quantitative study of abortion incidence exists. In 2005, the penal code was revised to broaden the indications under which induced abortion is legal. It is important to measure the incidence of legal and illegal induced abortion after the change in the law. A nationally representative survey of a sample of 347 health facilities that provide postabortion or safe abortion services and a survey of 80 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision were conducted in Ethiopia in 2007-2008. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to calculate the incidence of induced abortion. Abortion rates, abortion ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for the nation and for major regions. In 2008, an estimated 382,000 induced abortions were performed in Ethiopia, and 52,600 women were treated for complications of such abortions. There were an estimated 103,000 legal procedures in health facilities nationwide--27% of all abortions. Nationally, the annual abortion rate was 23 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, and the abortion ratio was 13 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in Addis Ababa (49 per 1,000 women) was twice the national level. Overall, about 42% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 101 per 1,000 women. Unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women in Ethiopia. To reduce rates of unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increased access to high-quality contraceptive care and safe abortion services is needed.

  15. Abortion related stigma: a case study of abortion stigma in regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abortion accounts for 35% of maternal mortality in Kenya. Kenya has reported an increase in the rate of unsafe abortions from 32 to 48 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 and 2012 respectively. During the same period, women presented in public health facilities with severe complications indicating ...

  16. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  17. Attitudes of Scottish abortion care providers towards provision of abortion after 16 weeks' gestation within Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Rosemary A; Cameron, Sharon T

    2013-06-01

    In Scotland, in contrast to the rest of Great Britain, abortion at gestations over 20 weeks is not provided, and provision of procedures above 16 weeks varies considerably between regions. Women at varying gestations above 16 weeks must travel outside Scotland, usually to England, for the procedure. To determine the views of professionals working within Scottish abortion care about a Scottish late abortion service. Delegates at a meeting for abortion providers in Scotland completed a questionnaire about their views on abortion provision over 16 weeks and their perceived barriers to service provision. Of 95 distributed questionnaires, 70 (76%) were analysed. Fifty-six respondents (80%) supported a Scottish late abortion service, ten (14%) would maintain current service arrangements, and five (7%) were undecided. Forty (57%) of the supporters of a Scottish service would prefer a single national service, and 16 (22%) several regional services. Perceived barriers included lack of trained staff (n = 39; 56%), accommodation for the service (n = 34; 48%), and perception of lack of support among senior management (n = 28; 40%). The majority of health professionals surveyed who work in Scottish abortion services support provision of abortion beyond 16 weeks within Scotland, and most favour a single national service. Further work on the feasibility of providing this service is required.

  18. Characteristics of Pakistani women seeking abortion and a profile of abortion clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, N; Inayatullah, A; Chaudhary, I

    2001-10-01

    A study of the characteristics of Pakistani women seeking abortion and a profile of abortion clinics was conducted in 32 abortion clinics in three provincial capitals of the country. All 452 women who had their pregnancies terminated between October and December 1997 were interviewed. Except for 39 women (8.6%), all study subjects were married. A majority of the women (36.6%) were aged >35 years, 61.0% had given birth to > or =5 children, and 40.2% were illiterate. The predominant reasons for abortion were "too many children" (64.4%), contraceptive failure (20.3%), premarital affairs (8.6%), medical reasons (5.4%), and extramarital affairs (1.3%). Nearly two thirds of the abortions were induced by inadequately trained persons. Only 22% of the abortion clinics met the World Health Organization (WHO) standards required for safe termination of pregnancy. At all these clinics, the procedure used to terminate the pregnancy was dilatation and curettage (D&C). Only one clinic was using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). Induced abortion seems to be fairly common among married women of high parity, advanced age, and low educational status. Keeping in view the large number of terminations, new medical and surgical techniques of pregnancy termination should be introduced to those already providing abortion services.

  19. [Evaluation of the effect of post-abortion counseling and education among unmarried abortion adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-pu; Chen, Shan; Di, Na; Yang, Yong-ping; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Di-kai

    2010-03-01

    To find out the requirement and to evaluate the effect of post-abortion counseling and education (PACE) among unmarried abortion adolescents. The subjects of the study were unmarried adolescents from 10 to 24 years of age who wanted induced abortion in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from December 2007 to April 2008. Totally 122 subjects received the intervention of PACE were considered as intervention group. Meanwhile, 67 subjects refused the intervention of PACE were considered as no intervention group. Two groups were both investigated the requirements of PACE before abortion and were followed-up at one year after abortion. 97.4% (184/189) of 189 unmarried abortion adolescents were willing to receive PACE, 48.1% (91/189) of them hoped to receive PACE when saw the doctor, 72.0% (136/189) of them required face-to-face counseling during PACE. During the year after abortion, 74% (57/77) cases in intervention group and 24% (10/41) cases in no intervention group took effective contraception (P abortion adolescents, the intervention of PACE may markedly increase the rate of effective contraception used and decrease the rate of another unwanted pregnancy.

  20. Beliefs about abortion risks in women returning to the clinic after their abortions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Lisa L; Jacobs, Adam; Negron, Rennie; Shochet, Tara; Gold, Marji; Cremer, Miriam

    2014-07-01

    Misinformation regarding the risks of abortion is prevalent and commonly includes medical inaccuracies about health, depression, infertility and breast cancer. This pilot study sought to assess misinformation among abortion clients as well as the origin(s) of their abortion knowledge. Women who presented to the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Family Planning Division for postabortion follow-up were recruited for participation. Participants completed a researcher-administered survey regarding knowledge and beliefs about abortion. Sixty-seven women completed the survey between 1/11/10 and 8/6/12. Common sources of abortion information included clinicians (79.1%), Web sites (70.1%), friends (50.7%) and family (40.3%). Over two thirds of women (77.6%) overestimated the health risks, and close to half (43.3%) overestimated the risk of depression after a first trimester abortion. Misperceptions about the health risks of abortion were prevalent among this sample. Education tools should be developed to provide accurate information about the risks of abortion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Induced abortion and relevant factors among women seeking abortion in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Tian, Linwei; Xu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. The average age of the participants was 26.0 ± 4.5 years. Of the 462 abortion seekers, 95.9% had one previous induced abortion. The majority (49.6%) of the ever-married women were in the age group of 25-29 while the majority (76.9%) of the unmarried women were aged 20-24 years. Unprotected intercourse (53.6%) and contraception failure (43.9%) were the primary reasons given for the current induced abortion for ever-married women. Unmarried women terminated their current pregnancies mainly because they did not want children (62.1%). Of the 182 unmarried subjects, 86.8% had psychological problems in their premarital pregnancy. Education and communication about sexual morality, contraception and reproductive health, as well as post-abortion counseling and services, especially for young women, are needed to reduce the rate of induced abortions. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Melese

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care

  3. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamberlin Nina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1 a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2 complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it

  4. [Role of ultrasound in elective abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylomanski, S; Winer, N

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound plays a fundamental role in the management of elective abortions. Although it can improve the quality of post-abortion care, it must not be an obstacle to abortion access. We thus studied the role of ultrasound in pregnancy dating and possible alternatives and analyzed the literature to determine the role of ultrasound in post-abortion follow-up. During an ultrasound scan, the date of conception is estimated by measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL), defined by Robinson, or of the biparietal diameter (BPD), as defined by the French Center for Fetal Ultrasound (CFEF) after 11 weeks of gestation (Robinson and CFEF curves) (grade B). Updated curves have been developed in the INTERGROWTH study. In the context of abortion, the literature recommends the application of a safety margin of 5 days, especially when the CRL and/or BPD measurement indicates a term close to 14 weeks (that is equal or below 80 and 27mm, respectively) (best practice agreement). Accordingly, with the ultrasound measurement reliable to±5 days when its performance meets the relevant criteria, an abortion can take place when the CRL measurement is less than 90mm or the BPD less than 30mm (INTERGROWTH curves) (best practice agreement). While a dating ultrasound should be encouraged, its absence is not an obstacle to scheduling an abortion for women who report that they know the date of their last menstrual period and/or of the at-risk sexual relations and for whom a clinical examination by a healthcare professional is possible (best practice agreement). In cases of intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability or of a pregnancy of unknown location, without any particular symptoms, the patient must be able to have a transvaginal ultrasound to increase the precision of the diagnosis (grade B). Various reviews of the literature on post-abortion follow-up indicate that the routine use of ultrasound during instrumental abortions should be avoided (best practice agreement). If it becomes

  5. Abortion attitudes as determinants of perceptions regarding male involvement in abortion decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P K; Nelson, E S

    1999-01-01

    Abortion decisions have a potentially meaningful effect on the lives of men. Previous research suggests that both men and women generally believe that men have the right to be involved in such decisions. However, very little research attention has been devoted to identifying individual difference correlates of discrepant levels of endorsement for male involvement in abortion decisions. The extent to which abortion attitudes (on a pro-choice to pro-life continuum), conceptualization of abortion as strictly a female issue, and interest in the issue operate as effective predictors of the appropriate level of male involvement in abortion decisions was examined in a sample of 1,387 college students. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that 44% of the variance in male involvement scores was explained by the predictor variables.

  6. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles.

  7. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  8. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey-4. We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million-17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2-52·1) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. 3·4 million

  10. Induced abortion in Tehran, Iran: estimated rates and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is severely restricted in Iran, and many women with an unwanted pregnancy resort to clandes-tine, unsafe abortions. Accurate information on abortion incidence is needed to assess the extent to which women ?experience unwanted pregnancies and to allocate resources for contraceptive services. Data for analysis came from 2,934 married women aged 15-49 who completed the 2009 Tehran Survey of Fertility. Estimated abortion rates and proportions of known pregnancies that end in abortion were calculated for all women and for demographic and socioeconomic subgroups, and descriptive data were used to examine women's contraceptive use and reasons for having an abortion. Annually, married women in Tehran have about 11,500 abortions. In the year before the survey, the estimated total abortion rate was 0.16 abortions per woman, and the annual general abortion rate was 5.5 abortions per 1,000 women; the general abortion rate peaked at 11.7 abortions among those aged 30-34. An estimated 8.7 of every 100 known pregnancies ended in abortion. The abortion rate was elevated among women who were employed or had high levels of income or education, as well as among those who reported a low level of religiosity, had two children or wanted no more. Fertility-related and socioeconomic reasons were cited by seven in 10 women who obtained an abortion. More than two-thirds of pregnancies that were terminated resulted from method failures among women who had used withdrawal, the pill or a condom. Estimated abortion rates and their correlates can help policymakers and program planners identify subgroups of women who are in particular need of services and counseling to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  11. Incidence of emergency department visits and complications after abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Desai, Sheila; Zlidar, Vera; Weitz, Tracy A; Grossman, Daniel; Anderson, Patricia; Taylor, Diana

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a retrospective observational cohort study to estimate the abortion complication rate, including those diagnosed or treated at emergency departments (EDs). Using 2009-2010 abortion data among women covered by the fee-for-service California Medicaid program and all subsequent health care for 6 weeks after having an abortion, we analyzed reasons for ED visits and estimated the abortion-related complication rate and the adjusted relative risk. Complications were defined as receiving an abortion-related diagnosis or treatment at any source of care within 6 weeks after an abortion. Major complications were defined as requiring hospital admission, surgery, or blood transfusion. A total of 54,911 abortions among 50,273 fee-for-service Medi-Cal beneficiaries were identified. Among all abortions, 1 of 16 (6.4%, n=3,531) was followed by an ED visit within 6 weeks but only 1 of 115 (0.87%, n=478) resulted in an ED visit for an abortion-related complication. Approximately 1 of 5,491 (0.03%, n=15) involved ambulance transfers to EDs on the day of the abortion. The major complication rate was 0.23% (n=126, 1/436): 0.31% (n=35) for medication abortion, 0.16% (n=57) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 0.41% (n=34) for second-trimester or later procedures. The total abortion-related complication rate including all sources of care including EDs and the original abortion facility was 2.1% (n=1,156): 5.2% (n=588) for medication abortion, 1.3% (n=438) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 1.5% (n=130) for second-trimester or later procedures. Abortion complication rates are comparable to previously published rates even when ED visits are included and there is no loss to follow-up. II.

  12. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  13. Indberetning af provokerede aborter i 1994. En sammenligning mellem data i Registeret over Legalt Provokerede Aborter og Landspatientregistere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1997-01-01

    Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact...

  14. Women's experiences in connection with induced abortion - a feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2004-06-01

    Although abortions are common, few researchers have explored the experiences of women related to abortions. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse women's experiences of induced abortion from a feminist perspective. Five women aged 19-33 years were interviewed about 1 month after their abortion. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis from which the following themes were identified: experiences connected with the decision-making process, experiences connected with the abortion and experiences after the abortion. Childhood experiences of divided families, financial problems, being too young, and an insecure partnership influenced the women's decision to have an abortion. Ambivalence about abortion was strongly expressed throughout the process. Despite positive attitudes towards abortion in general, the women had negative attitudes towards their own abortion. They described receiving most support from their mothers and friends, in the decision-making process, and least from their partners. After the abortion the women gained a feeling of maturity and experience although their ambivalence persisted. One conclusion drawn from our study is that nurses and midwives need to be aware of women's complex experiences with abortions in order to support and empower women who seek an abortion.

  15. Abortion policy and practice in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, E

    1996-02-01

    Despite its illegality until recently, abortion is estimated to have been responsible for almost half of the sharp postwar decline in the Greek birth rate. This article examines abortion as a part of a Greek contraceptive culture which has taken shape during the postwar period both in response, and in resistance to, a variety of macro- and micropolitical institutions and forces. During much of this period, pronatalist policies and discourses of both state and church combined to foreclose most medical contraceptive alternatives. In contrast, illegal abortion was a relatively safe, medicalized procedure widely practiced by doctors. Even after being legalized in 1980, female medical contraceptive methods continue to be rejected by the great majority of Greek women, and abortion and male methods of birth control remain the principal means of controlling fertility. The article focuses on the specific abortion practices and meanings of three generations of married women living in the city of Rhodes, capital of the Dodecanese Province of Greece's Eastern Aegean, and explores the ways in which they have been shaped by, and reflect, local cultural understandings of the body, health, sexuality, morality, motherhood and childhood, as well as micropolitical relations within the family.

  16. Induced abortion and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-10-01

    Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and intrusive legislation in several states and in proposed federal legislation. It is essential for gynecologists to have accurate information, as clinicians, for their patients, and, as key experts, for policy makers. New articles concluding that there are adverse psychological outcomes from induced abortion continue to be published. The methodological flaws in these articles are so serious as to invalidate those conclusions. Several recent scholarly analyses detail these flaws. Methodologically sound studies and reviews continue to demonstrate that psychosocial problems play a role in unwanted conception and the decision to abort unwanted pregnancies but are not the result of abortion. Clinicians may have to reassure patients making decisions about their pregnancies that abortion does not cause psychiatric illness. They can do so on the basis of recent analyses substantiating that finding. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  17. Against the law: Irish women and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In both the Republic of Ireland and the North of Ireland, it is impossible to obtain a legal abortion unless the life of the mother would otherwise be lost. Thus, an estimated 10-12,000 women travel from Ireland to England each year to have an abortion. These women can receive support from the Irish Women's Abortion Support Group (IWASG) which is made up of volunteer women who are Irish or of Irish descent. The IWASG provides accommodations, emotional and practical support, and information about how to obtain an abortion in the UK. It makes appointments, negotiates fees, and monitors services offered. The group can also provide financial assistance to women in need. IWASG liaises with pro-choice groups in Ireland, such as the underground Women's Information Network (WIN), which has branches in Dublin, Galway, and Cork. WIN provides confidential, nondirective counseling to women in need. Abortion is a very difficult choice for Irish women because of the legal strictures and because of the guilt which often results from government and religious propaganda. The prospect of finding their way around London is often as daunting to the Irish women as the procedure itself, and many of the women travel to England absolutely alone with no one at home even aware of what they are doing. IWASG is seeking new members to help them support these women. For information, write IWASG, 52 Featherstone Street, London ECIY 8RT.

  18. Abortion Law and Policy Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538

  19. Serbian gynaecologists' views on contraception and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Jelena; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitrovic-Jovanovic, Ana

    2015-04-01

    To examine Serbian gynaecologists' attitudes and practices related to contraception and abortion, as the principal alternative to contraception. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of gynaecologists attending educational meetings of a medical society from October 2012 to October 2013. The data gathered were assessed by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. Almost half of the respondents had ethical objections and would refuse to provide certain contraceptives to patients. Two thirds of the gynaecologists (63%) considered fertility awareness methods to be a poor option for most women. Twenty-three percent objected to abortion. Those who objected to contraceptives were less likely to object to abortions (OR: 0.422). This attitude was more prevalent in Southern and Eastern Serbia, where gynaecologists were more likely to object (OR: 4.892) and to refuse to prescribe contraceptives (OR: 4.161), but less likely to object to abortion (OR: 0.278) than in other regions. A large proportion of Serbian gynaecologists objected to some contraceptive methods and were more in favour of abortions, especially in the least developed regions.

  20. Abortion and women's roles in society: opinions from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tia M; Wilson, Kate S; García, Sandra G; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    We aim to assess the opinions of Mexicans in the state of Tlaxcala on abortion and other topics concerning women's reproductive health and status in society. We summarize opinions on abortion and women's roles in society and perform logit regressions to assess characteristics correlated with support for abortion rights. A majority of respondents were against a woman's right to abortion when asked generally, but when asked about specific circumstances, a majority supported the right to abortion in five of the nine hypothetical circumstances proposed. In multivariate analysis, age, education, religion, religious service attendance, and views regarding women's roles in society had significant effects on support for the right to abortion. Our results demonstrate that residents of Tlaxcala view abortion as a personal decision and support a woman's right to abortion in more circumstances than currently allowed under state law.

  1. Pathology of Abortion-Related Deaths in Port Harcourt Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Of the 81 autopsies done following maternal deaths during the study period, 38 were abortion- related. The deaths followed 15 and 23 first and second trimester abortions respectively. Majority of the victims (68.3%) were aged between 15 ...

  2. Therapeutic abortion and its psychological implications: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenglass, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly. PMID:803127

  3. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  4. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  5. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  6. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  7. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  8. Student Nurses View an Abortion Client: Attitude and Context Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two studies of the relationship between student nurses' attitudes and patient perception with regard to abortion. Results indicate that the student nurses' judgments were related to their prevailing attitude toward abortion and to their religiosity. (Author/MA)

  9. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  10. Policy on Abortion in the Nigerian Society : Ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Ilobinso, Louis-Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Abortion is clearly one of the most controversal and divisive contemporary moral problems. This thesis is an investigation upon significant number of important, fundemental ethical questions in relation to policy of abortion in Nigeria.

  11. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 613: Increasing access to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Safe, legal abortion is a necessary component of women's health care. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the availability of high-quality reproductive health services for all women and is committed to improving access to abortion. Access to abortion is threatened by state and federal government restrictions, limitations on public funding for abortion services and training, stigma, violence against abortion providers, and a dearth of abortion providers. Legislative restrictions fundamentally interfere with the patient-provider relationship and decrease access to abortion for all women, and particularly for low-income women and those living long distances from health care providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists calls for advocacy to oppose and overturn restrictions, improve access, and mainstream abortion as an integral component of women's health care.

  12. Constructing abortion as a social problem: "Sex selection" and the British abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellie

    2017-02-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering "feminised" re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about "gendercide" as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of "medical power" in the light of what took place.

  13. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  14. Medical abortion for Australian women: it's time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Caroline M

    2005-10-03

    Medical termination of pregnancy with mifepristone, a progesterone antagonist, is available to women in North America, the United Kingdom, much of Western Europe, Russia, China, Israel, New Zealand, Turkey and Tunisia, but not Australia. Experience of mifepristone use in around two million abortions has shown that it is safe, effective, cheap to produce, and highly acceptable to women. Mifepristone is usually used in combination with a prostaglandin analogue, such as misoprostol; these drugs have been added to the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines for developing countries. Availability of this drug in Australia might largely overcome many of the inequities of access to abortion, and is critical for many women in rural areas and women in some ethnic groups whose access to surgical abortion is limited.

  15. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    . The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  16. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  17. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks....... The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  18. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.

  19. Induced abortion frequency in Ankara, Turkey, before and after the legal regulation of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maral, Işil; Durukan, Elif; Albyrak, Selda; Oztimur, Neşe; Biri, Aydan; Bumin, M Ali

    2007-09-01

    To determine the effects of the 1983 law that legalized induced abortion on the number and place of abortions, and on the use of family planning (FP) methods before and after abortion, and to determine the demographic characteristics and reproductive health features according to the order of abortion. This study included 2455 married, widowed or divorced women presenting at Mother and Child Health-Family Planning Centres in Ankara. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Nearly three out of 10 (28.7%) of the women had undergone at least one induced abortion. In the age groups 45-54 and 55-64, 49 and 37.3%, respectively, had had one or more terminations of pregnancy (TOPs). The induced abortion rate increased following the enacting of the law. In the 15-24 and in the 55-64 age group, 55.6 and 89%, respectively, of the women had been aborted by a private physician. Before the index pregnancy, 63.1% were not using contraception compared with 37.3% thereafter. The rate of use of FP increased after the law was passed. Although the most common reason for having an abortion was unwanted pregnancy in all age groups and nearly 60.0% of the women aged less than 55 reported that they were not using any FP method at the time of the TOP, the proportion of women having undergone at least one of these procedures increased after the law was passed, indicating that abortion is used as a FP method.

  20. TRAP laws and the invisible labor of US abortion providers

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP laws) are proliferating in the United States and have increased barriers to abortion access. In order to comply with these laws, abortion providers make significant changes to facilities and clinical practices. In this article, we draw attention to an often unacknowledged area of public health threat: how providers adapt to increasing regulation, and the resultant strains on the abortion provider workforce. Current US legal standards for aborti...

  1. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrić, Bisera

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challan...

  2. Factors associated with repeat induced abortion in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M

    2015-10-12

    Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.

  3. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  4. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...

  5. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in ...

  6. Describing abortion attitudes among young, African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Elisabeth J; Hill, Brandon J; Fabiyi, Camille; Gilliam, Melissa

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes African American teenaged males' attitudes and perspectives on abortion. Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional survey of African American males aged 14-19, living in the south side of Chicago. Acceptability of abortion varied by partner type, such that 60% of teenagers felt abortion was acceptable with a casual partner while 37% found it acceptable with committed partners (pattitudes toward abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Community health nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and involvement in abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I; Swanson, J; Oakley, D

    1994-01-01

    To learn more about the abortion-related experiences and value orientation of nurses, questionnaires were mailed to 1900 randomly selected community health nurses in the US; 844 (45%) responded. Although only 7% worked in settings where abortions are performed, half provide abortion counseling or referral. Their knowledge about the epidemiology of abortion in the US and recent abortion-related legislation was inadequate, and only 28.6% had received training about the clinical aspects of abortion in nursing school. Respondents' attitudes toward induced abortion were generally supportive; 82.0% believed federal funds should be provided for the procedure, 81.6% agreed women in the first trimester of pregnancy should have the right to choose abortion, and 70.3% supported abortion on demand. However, 27.8% indicated that abortion services in their communities were being negatively impacted by anti-abortion groups; only 9.7% felt that pro-choice groups were having a significant impact in their area. 56.0% reported they had been involved in some political activity relating to abortion, largely voting for a pro-abortion rights candidate or writing letters to legislators. 56.4& indicated they would vote against a candidate they otherwise supported if his or her views on abortion were unacceptable. 21.9% and 16.8% of nurses were involved with local or national Planned Parenthood; under 3% were members of anti-abortion groups. In-service training programs on the abortion issue are recommended to enable community health nurses to expand their counseling and political advocacy skills.

  8. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  10. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beam of about1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I /SUB max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has /SUP max/ left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of about20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  11. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Manufacturing mental illness (and lawful abortion): doctors' attitudes to abortion law and practice in new South Wales and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather; Black, Kirsten; de Costa, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Around one-quarter of Australian women will have an abortion during their lifetime but access is affected by the way health care providers interpret the law about abortion. In Queensland and New South Wales abortion is a criminal offence although it is defensible in certain circumstances. Drawing on interviews with 22 doctors who provide abortion services to women in New South Wales and Queensland, this article examines doctors' responses to two common scenarios in which women may request an abortion. The two scenarios discussed in this article are a request for a first trimester abortion in circumstances where the woman does not feel ready to have a baby; and a request for abortion in the second trimester where the fetus has been diagnosed with an abnormality. This article explores doctors' understanding of the law related to the provision of abortion in these two States and their views about the effect of the law on their practice.

  13. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion question though not directly related to current time, however, it provides a proxy for the analysis in such context where abortion is highly restrictive with high possibility of underestimation. The association between relationship quality and abortion risk was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate (logistic ...

  14. Global policy change and women's access to safe abortion: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research on the magnitude of unsafe abortion, women's experiences, and the availability and quality of services.39 Previously scattered efforts in abortion research in Africa were brought together for dissemination and discussion at a regional meeting in March 2006, “Linking. Research t0 Action to Reduce Unsafe Abortion.

  15. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...

  16. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... purchase of health benefits coverage that includes coverage of abortion services unless the abortion...

  17. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion | Buga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare ...

  18. Factors Associated with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment ...

  19. Characteristics of patients presenting with complications of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Abortion is associated with significant healthproblem with short- and long-term complications that affect the quality of life of those who are fortunate enough to escape mortality. This study evaluated the population of patients with complications of abortion, identified the abortion providers and the pattern of ...

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Unsafe Abortion and Alternative First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three ...

  1. Pattern and outcome of induced abortion in Abakaliki, southeast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe abortion accounts for a greater proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often not adequately considered in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of unsafe abortion and the extent to which unsafe abortion contributes to maternal morbidity and ...

  2. Factors Associated with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; ...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  4. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing secondtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively ...

  5. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide...... emergency treatment as well as implementing misoprostol as a treatment strategy for complications after unsafe abortion....

  6. Women's perspectives on ultrasound viewing in the abortion care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Preskill, Felisa; Cockrill, Kate; Weitz, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, states have passed a range of regulations regarding ultrasound procedures in abortion care. Abortion rights opponents have promoted ultrasound viewing, believing that women who view their own ultrasound images are likely to be dissuaded from abortion. Abortion rights advocates, in contrast, routinely oppose these regulations, citing concerns that ultrasound viewing in the abortion context will be emotionally difficult for women. However, no empirical research has examined the effects of ultrasound viewing in unwanted pregnancies. We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 respondents who received an ultrasound as part of their abortion care in one of two states in the American heartland. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory and a matrix technique for discussion of ultrasound viewing and regulations about ultrasound viewing. Respondents' accounts offer support for anti-abortion claims that ultrasound viewing can dissuade women from abortion, as well as support for abortion rights claims that viewing an ultrasound can cause emotional difficulty for a woman planning to abort. Interviews point to unexpected outcomes of ultrasound viewing, including reports that viewing better enabled respondents to cope with their abortion. Ultrasound viewing does not have a singular effect. These data suggest that current assumptions about viewing effects are inaccurate, or at the least incomplete. We do not find support for legislating mandatory ultrasound viewing in abortion care. Questions about clinical care practices are best address in the medical context, not the legislative arena. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Global Politics of Abortion. Worldwatch Paper 97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jodi L.

    Locating the issue of abortion in a global public policy context, with the array of public health, human rights, and social questions that are implicated, is the aim of this paper. Abortion laws around the world have been liberalized since the 1950s, with a resultant decrease in abortion-related mortality among women. The proportion of the world's…

  8. Characteristics of patients presenting with complications of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... Every year, 40-million induced abortions occur globally, of which 19 million are unsafe. Approximately 68 000 women die from abortion-related complications. Between 2- to. 7-million women survive, but with long-term sequelae.1. Septic abortion is an important problem in many resource- poor settings.

  9. Determinants of immediate complications of abortion: A study done ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications of abortions in the hospital. 2. To determine the association of the following risk factors with immediate complication of abortions: Delay in arriving to the hospital (W 1 day or > 1 day),delay in initiating treatment after arrival to the hospital (W 1hour or > 1 hour) ,mode of onset of the abortion (spontaneous or ...

  10. 20 POST-INDUCED ABORTION MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients requiring immediate and sympathetic help in procuring induced abortion because the pregnancy was. “unwanted” at the time. Inspite of this, abortion law in Nigeria is still restrictive2 , hence abortions are clandestinely and illegally undertaken everyday by those least qualified to do so3,4 and in substandard medical.

  11. Women and abortion: the religious challenges | Yemisi | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a passionate issue within the society. This paper discussed different perceptions about abortion, and since it is a medical issue there is discussion on abortion from the health angle, this work also consists of ethical arguments from different scholars., there is evaluation of issues such as the relation of the foetus ...

  12. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  13. Determinants of abortion decisions among Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Sorkpor, Constance; Ofori-Mensah, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Unsafe abortion accounts for a significant proportion of maternal and reproductive health related mortalities and complications in developing countries. In Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa in general, abortion remains a significant barrier to achieving the health related MDGs. Yet, there exist a dearth of information on the determinants of abortion decisions among adolescents, students and other populations at risk. This study explores the factors that are likely to influence abortion decisions among University students in Ghana. It also explores their knowledge and perceptions on abortion. Data were collected from 142 randomly sampled students of the University of Ghana through focus group discussions. Questions focused on their knowledge on abortion and the key determinants of their decisions to abort. The results were recorded, transcribed, and analysed qualitatively using the thematic analysis approach. The students were knowledgeable on abortion. In making decisions on abortion, the students considered their education, religious beliefs, health, economic factors, and family. Factors such as societal pressure and peer influence that, to date, have been the backbone of sexual and reproductive health, anti-abortion stigma, and unsafe abortion education and interventions have minimal influence on abortion decisions among the students. Rather, these interventions must focus on their education, religious beliefs, health, economic factors, and family to make maximum impact.

  14. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, M; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evalu...

  15. The epidemiology of incomplete abortion in South Africa | Rees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Incomplete abortions and, in particular, unsafe abortions are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in South Africa. The methods used in this study underestimate the true incidence for reasons that are discussed. A high priority should be given to the prevention of unsafe abortion.

  16. Women and abortion: attitudes, social networks, decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, G; Barrett, E; Goodman, L M

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of 517 women seeking abortion are presented regarding attitudes about abortion in general, feelings about the specific decision to have an abortion and the social networks utilized in the decision-making process. Areas of potential conflict related to decision-making are identified along with the implications for social work practice.

  17. Acute pancreatitis following medical abortion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Hashem

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis rarely complicates pregnancy. Although most pregnant women with acute pancreatitis have associated gallstones, less common causes such as drugs have been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who underwent medical abortion with mifepristone and gemeprost and received codeine as pain-relief during the induction of abortion. She developed a severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis which required 14 days of intensive care. Other possible etiological factors, i.e. gallstone, alcohol intake and hyperlipidemia, were excluded. Conclusions The reported case of acute pancreatitis was most likely drug-induced.

  18. Feminism, Abortion and Disability: irreconcilable differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Keith; Earle, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion of the political allegiance between the feminist and disability movements, but the question of abortion remains a thorny one. Disability rights advocates have been keen to demonstrate that it is possible to believe in a woman's right to sovereignty over the body and, yet, be opposed to the selective abortion of an impaired foetus – describing the latter as a form of 'weak' eugenics.\\ud \\ud The aim of this paper is to show that whilst there may be some po...

  19. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAHN, H.; DAVINO, D.

    2002-01-01

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit

  20. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  1. Fallacies in ethical argumentation on abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a case study of the types of fallacies that may occur in the argumentation stage of an ethical dispute over abortion. The theoretical framework I use is the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, 2004 which conceives of fallacies as violations of the rules for critical discussion. I will focus on the fallacies resulting from the violation of the relevance rule in two fragments of argumentative texts illustrating opposing positions on abortion. I claim that these fallacies function as winning strategies in the ethical dispute in case.

  2. Infanticide and the liberal view on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, R F

    2000-10-01

    Mary Anne Warren provides a well-known defense of the liberal position in the abortion debate, yet her argument is subject to the objection that it implies that infanticide is morally permissible. In a postscript to her original article, Warren argues that her position does not commit her to the moral acceptability of infanticide. I argue that the reasoning Warren presents in her postscript on infanticide undermines her original main argument in support of the liberal view: she cannot use this argument to both defend the liberal view on abortion and establish that infanticide is morally wrong.

  3. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  4. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC.We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews.Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence.Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  5. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  6. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  7. Connecting knowledge about abortion and sexual and reproductive health to belief about abortion restrictions: findings from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Bessett, Danielle; Littman, Lisa L; Norris, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine individuals' knowledge about abortion in the context of their knowledge about other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues, including contraception, abortion, pregnancy, and birth. During August 2012, we administered an online questionnaire to a randomly selected sample of 639 men and women of reproductive age (18-44 years) in the United States. Respondents reported the highest levels of perceived knowledge about SRH in general (81%), followed by pregnancy and birth (53%), contraception (48%), and abortion (35%); knowledge of specific items within each of these areas paralleled this pattern. Respondents who believe that abortion should be allowed in at least some circumstances were more likely to be correct regarding the safety and consequences of contraception and abortion. Characteristics associated with higher levels of knowledge regarding abortion-related issues included having higher levels of knowledge about non-abortion-related SRH issues and having less restrictive abortion beliefs. Women and men are not well-informed about the relative safety and consequences of SRH-related experiences. Many overestimate their knowledge, and personal beliefs about abortion restrictions may influence their knowledge about the safety and consequences of abortion and contraception. Providers of SRH services should provide comprehensive evidence-based information about the risks and consequences of SRH matters during consultations, particularly in the case of abortion providers serving women who hold more restrictive abortion beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Yoosefian, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Kalankesh, Leila R

    2017-03-01

    Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide. Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women and identifying needs for appropriate related health policies and programs. Researchers searched Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Iranian biomedical journals (Iranmedex), and Iranian Research Institute of Information and Documentation (Irandoc) between January 2000 and June 2013, which reported induced abortion. Search terms from two categories including abortion and termination of pregnancy were compiled. The search terms were "induced abortion", "illegal abortion", "illegal abortion", "unsafe abortion", and "criminal abortion". The search was also conducted with "induced termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "unsafe termination of pregnancy" and "criminal termination of pregnancy". Meta-analysis was carried out by using OpenMeta software. Induced abortion rates were calculated based on the random effect model. Overall induced abortion rate was obtained 58.1 per 1000 women (95%CI: 55.16-61.04). In continental level, rate of induced abortion was 14 per 1000 women (95%CI: 11-16). Nation-wide and local rates were obtained 67.27 per 1000 women (95% CI: 60.02-74.23) and 148.92 (95% CI: 140.06-157.79) respectively. Induced abortion is a major public health problem that occurs worldwide whether under the legal restriction or freedom, and it remains as reproductive health concern globally. To eliminate the need for induced abortion is at the core of any effort for preventing this issue. Option with the highest priority is to prevent unwanted pregnancies through promoting reproductive health plans for women of reproductive age. In case the prevention strategies fail, universal provision of

  9. Robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  10. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.

  12. [Post-abortion depression: study of cases and controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturo Roizblatt, S; Ruby Baño, A; Germán Cueto, U

    1983-01-01

    The MMPI depression scale and a subjective depression test were administered to 80 patients who had aborted between 1 and 5 days before they were interviewed at 2 hospitals in Chile. A higher level of depression was found among patients who aborted, particularly in patients who had self inflicted abortions, than in the control group. Abortion is illegal in Chile and is condemned by the church; therefore, the study results may have been influenced by the cultural environment. Psychotherapy for women who abort is recommended. (author's modified)

  13. EDITORIAL UNSAFE ABORTION AND MATERNAL MORTALITY: IS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    February 2004. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 61. EDITORIAL. UNSAFE ABORTION AND MATERNAL MORTALITY: IS AFRICA PREPARED. TO FACE THE REALITY? Sub-Saharan Africa has, by far, the highest maternal mortality ratio today. It is estimated that the risk of dying from pregnancy-related cause for a girl ...

  14. Emergency Contraception Among Women With Abortion At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be obtained free of charge at public health institutions and also as an over the counter drug. Objective: To determine knowledge, Practice and attitude towards Emergency Contraception (EC) among women with abortion at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka, Zambia. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive ...

  15. Buffalo City learners' knowledge of abortion legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act legalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient) requirement for women to exercise ...

  16. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  17. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  18. [Chapter 2. The embryo in abortion legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Daniel

    2018-03-07

    For a long time, the legal condition of the child conceived, the embryo or the human fœtus, to use the language of biomedicine, was dominated by two main principles : one, having its roots in Roman law, made it possible to count it, by anticipation, among beings with a legal existence, so as to grant it its rights, as if it was already born (the infans conceptus maxim) : the other, protecting its life in utero, and so its chances of being born, by the penal incrimination of abortion. The legalisation of abortion by the ?Veil? law of 17 January 1975 upset this traditional approach of the law. The subsequent evolution of the legislation has accentuated the phenomenon. The promotion of the freedom of women to obtain an abortion has been accompanied by a correlated decline in the protection of the embryo. At the same time, abortion resting on medical techniques has become a means, precious for research, to obtain embryo or foetal cells or tissues. Eliminated on the one hand, the embryo has finally become on the other hand the object of medical and scientific stakes.

  19. Exploring South African adolescents' knowledge of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored adolescents' knowledge of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (No 92 of 1996) and attitudes toward abortion. A sample of 150 secondary school learners (aged 15 - 19 years), from a low socioeconomic area in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa was surveyed. Twenty percent of the ...

  20. Counseling View of Abortion in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwokhademhe, M. C.; Sowho, Paulina O.

    2015-01-01

    Guidance and counseling are twin words that help people adjust to their psychological, emotional, social and psychosocial problems which tend to occur in human life. Abortion, which is a prevalent problem in Nigeria mostly among the teenage girls, has drawn the attentions of the counselors, teachers, guardians, administrators, researchers and the…

  1. How Attitudes Toward Abortion are Changing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elise F.; Westoff, Charles F.

    1978-01-01

    Data were obtained from the 1975 National Fertility Study concerning the acceptability of abortion, based largely on reinterviews with respondents from the 1970 sample. Using these data, aggregate trends over time and patterns of change for individuals have been analyzed. (BB)

  2. Shifts in Abortion Attitudes: 1972-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs; Haney, C. Allen

    1980-01-01

    While there has been an increasing liberalization of attitudes toward legalized abortion in the past 15 years, by 1975 the trend began to change and attitudes became slightly more conservative. By 1978, the conservative trend was pronounced. These changes are a function of selected demographic variables. (Author)

  3. Psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the psychosocial factors capable of influencing abortion among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Two hundred (200) students consisted of 63(31.5%) males and 137(68.5%) females participated in the survey. The study adopted ex-post facto design. Their age ranged between 16 to 40 years with ...

  4. Another Look at Nigeria's Abortion Laws

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... leading to rather unfortunate consequences – Human Rights desecration inclusive. This paper aims to appraise Nigeria's legal position on abortion. With comparative analysis of the legal positions in other jurisdictions and relevant human rights provisions, critique and recommendation for reforms of Nigeria's stance will ...

  5. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…

  6. EDITORIAL UNSAFE ABORTION AND MATERNAL MORTALITY: IS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Almost all (95%) unsafe abortions occur in developing countries because the developed world has made it possible for women to easily prevent unwanted pregnancy by using contraceptives and having access to safe legal termination when needed(3,7). When carried out according to appropriate clinical guidelines and ...

  7. Cohort Changes in Attitudes About Legalized Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephen J.; And Others

    Cohort changes in attitudes about the availability of legal abortions are traced over a 12-year period using data from seven national surveys. Contrary to the aging-conservatism hypothesis, trends in the direction of increasingly favorable attitudes between 1965 and 1973 and general stability thereafter characterize all cohorts. On this issue,…

  8. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...

  9. Exploring South African adolescents' knowledge of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the results need to be considered in terms of levels of opposition rather than in terms of support – translating into lower levels of opposition among the sexually active individuals. This trend is in keeping with public surveys which reveal strong public opposition to the availability of legal abortion in this country. Conclusion.

  10. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  11. The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

  12. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  13. Women with Disabilities: Abortion and Liberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alison

    1987-01-01

    The paper argues that the women's movement has failed to adequately take account of women with disabilities. By supporting women's right to abortions for handicapped fetuses, the movement denies disabled women an identity as equal human beings worthy of respect. (JDD)

  14. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Pourreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  15. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  16. Is support of abortion political suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, J I

    1975-01-01

    A systematic review of national and local press coverage of congressional races makes possible a general appraisal of the significance of the abortion issue in the 1974 general election; analysis of polls conducted by congresspersons offers further clues to voter sentiment regarding this issue. Congressional initiatives in regard to abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision fell into 3 major categories: 1) introduction of proposals for constitutional amendments to reverse the Supreme Court decision; 2) efforts to exempt both individuals and institutions from having to perform or to allow the performance of abortion; 3) attempts to prohibit or restrict the use of federal funds for abortion in domestic or foreign programs. Many districts are so "safe" that the incumbent is virtually assured of election without campaigning, so a more reliable test of the importance of the abortion issue is to examine what happened to those incumbents whose hold over their districts was generally acknowledged to be insecure or who faced especially strong challengers. The voting records and election outcomes of 119 incumbents were scrutinized. Incumbents from unsafe districts fared considerably more poorly than those from safe areas in the 1974 elections. 1% of the safe incumbents lost compared to 31% of those whose races were considered close. Antiabortion candidates from unsafe districts had a much higher casualty rate (39%) than proabortion candidates (8%); while those with mixed records fared about the same as congresspersons from unsafe districts generally. Among Republicans running in close races, 42% of the antiabortion incumbents were defeated, about the same porportion of casualties as among Republicans in unsafe districts generally. Among Democrats, all of the 12 proabortion incumbents from unsafe districts were reelected, while 2 of the 8 who voted consistently in opposition were defeated. When party affiliation is controlled and attention is on those districts where

  17. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2017-06-01

    The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, health, and justice. With respect to morality, the article concludes that collective faith and trust should be placed in the moral judgment of those most affected by the passage of time in pregnancy and by later abortion-pregnant women. With respect to health, abortion law as health regulation should be evidence-based to counter the stigma of later abortion, which leads to overregulation and access barriers. With respect to justice, in recognizing that there will always be a need for abortion services later in pregnancy, such services should be safe, legal, and accessible without hardship or risk. At the same time, justice must address the structural conditions of women's capacity to make timely decisions about abortion, and to access abortion services early in pregnancy.

  18. Medical students' attitudes towards abortion: a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, R; Forde, E; Bates, E; Powell, S; Eadon-Jones, E; Draper, H

    2008-11-01

    There is little research into medical students' or doctors' attitudes to abortion, yet knowing this is important, as policy makers should be aware of the views held by professionals directly involved in abortion provision and changing views may have practical implications for the provision of abortion in the future. We surveyed 300 medical students about their views on abortion, their beliefs about the status of the fetus and the rights of the mother, their attitude towards UK law and their willingness to be involved in abortion provision as qualified doctors. 62% of medical students were pro-choice, 33% pro-life and 7% undecided. Students' views correlated with gender, year of study and holding a religious belief. Their beliefs about abortion, the status of the fetus and the rights of women significantly correlated with their attitudes towards the UK law and their willingness to be involved in abortion provision. Students' willingness to be involved in abortion provision was related to their views on abortion, the extent of participation required, the circumstances of the pregnancy and the stage of pregnancy. The percentage of pro-choice students was lower than that found in research on general practitioners' attitudes to abortion. It is unclear whether this is because students become more pro-choice as they progress through their medical career or because there is genuinely a change in attitudes to abortion.

  19. Abortion practice in Mexico: a survey of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Haider, Sadia

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about abortion practice in Mexico postlegalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. In 2009, we anonymously surveyed 418 Mexican health care providers at the Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia meeting using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. The majority of respondents were obstetrician gynecologists (376, 90%), Catholic (341, 82%), 35-60 years old (332, 79%) and male (222, 53%) and worked with trainees (307, 74%). Prior to 2007, 11% (46) and 17% (71) provided medical and surgical abortions; now, 15% (62) and 21% (86) provide these services, respectively. Practitioners from Mexico City were more likely to provide services than those from other areas. Most medical abortion providers (50, 81%) used ineffective protocols. Surgical abortion providers mainly used either manual vacuum aspiration (39, 45%) or sharp curettage (27, 32%). Most abortion providers were trained in residency and wanted more training in medical (54, 87%) and surgical (59, 69%) abortion. Among nonproviders, 49% (175) and 27% (89) expressed interest in learning to perform medical and surgical abortion, respectively. Given the interest in learning to provide safe abortion services and the prevalent use of ineffective medical abortion regimens and sharp curettage, abortion training in Mexico should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developments in laws on induced abortion: 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Reed; Katzive, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Women's lack of access to legal abortion is a major contributing factor to high rates of worldwide maternal mortality and morbidity. This article describes changes in the legal status of abortion in countries around the world since 1998. The complete texts of new abortion legislation, most often obtained directly from government Web sites, were reviewed to determine changes. Background information was, where possible, also based on a review of complete legal texts. Other sources include the International Digest of Health Legislation (published by the World Health Organization) and Abortion Policies: A Global Review (published in 2002 by the Population Division of the United Nations). Since 1998, 16 countries have increased the number of grounds on which abortions may be legally performed; in two other countries, state jurisdictions expanded grounds for abortion. Two countries have removed grounds for legal abortion. Other countries maintained existing indications for abortion but adopted changes affecting access to the procedure. The worldwide trend toward liberalization of abortion laws observed in 1998 has continued. Recognition of the impact of abortion restrictions on women's human rights has played an increasing role in efforts to provide access to abortion.

  1. Misoprostol and the politics of abortion in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Misoprostol, a WHO essential medicine indicated for labour induction, management of miscarriage and post-partum haemorrhage, as well as for induced abortion and treatment of post-abortion complications, came up for registration in Sri Lanka in December 2010. The decision on registration was postponed, indefinitely. This has wide-ranging implications, as misoprostol is widely available and used, including by health professionals in Sri Lanka, without guidance or training in its use. This paper attempts to situate the failure to register misoprostol within the broader context of unsafe abortion, drawing on data from interviews with physicians and health policymakers in Sri Lanka. It demonstrates how personal opposition to abortion infiltrates policy decisions and prevents the issue of unsafe abortion being resolved. Any move to reform abortion law and policy in Sri Lanka will require a concerted effort, spearheaded by civil society. Women and communities affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion need to be involved in these efforts. Regardless of the law, women will access abortion services if they need them, and providers will provide them. Decriminalizing abortion and registering abortion medications will make provision of abortion services safer, less expensive and more equitable. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge of medication abortion among adolescent medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Mandy S; Makino, Kevin K; Phelps, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy and abortion. The purpose of this study was to understand whether providers caring for adolescents have the knowledge to counsel accurately on medication abortion, a suitable option for many teenagers seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Using an online questionnaire, a survey related to medication abortion was administered to U.S. providers in the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. We conducted χ(2) analyses to evaluate the knowledge of medication abortion by reported adolescent medicine fellowship training, and to compare responses to specific knowledge questions by medication abortion counseling. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between providers' self-assessed and actual knowledge using ANOVA. We surveyed 797 providers, with a 54% response rate. Almost 25% of respondents incorrectly believed that medication abortion was not very safe, 40% misidentified that it was abortion are rare. Those who counseled on medication abortion had more accurate information in all knowledge categories, except for expected outcomes. Medication abortion knowledge did not differ by adolescent medicine fellowship completion. Only 32% of respondents had very good knowledge, and self-assessed knowledge minimally predicted actual knowledge (r(2) = .08). Knowledge regarding medication abortion safety, effectiveness, expected outcomes, and complications is suboptimal even among adolescent medicine fellowship trained physicians, and self-assessment poorly predicts actual knowledge. To ensure pregnant teenagers receive accurate counseling on all options, adolescent medicine providers need better education on medication abortion. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Induced abortion in Iran: prevalence, reasons, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranji, Azar

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the prevalence of illegal induced abortion among participants, the factors that influence decision making to have an abortion, and the health consequences of abortion in Iran. Women who attended health centers or an antenatal clinic in Iran were interviewed to complete a questionnaire. Among the 2705 participants, 17% had experienced at least 1 illegal induced abortion. Education level, family income, religion, ethnicity, number of children, and age at marriage are associated with having an induced abortion. One-third of abortions (33%) were performed by nonmedical providers. The desire to stop or postpone childbearing and family economic problems were the most common reasons for having an abortion. Most women (84%) experienced a complication of abortion that required hospitalization. Strategies to prevent abortion complications are needed and could include training midwives and general physicians to perform abortions and promoting the availability of post-abortion care. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Women's stories of abortion in southern Gabon, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons women in rural, southern Gabon, Africa, chose to terminate their pregnancies, the methods used to induce abortions, and postabortion effects experienced by these women. Abortion is illegal in this country. A descriptive qualitative design guided the methodology for this study. Five women with a history of induced abortion were interviewed in-depth for their abortion story. Reasons cited for an abortion included lack of financial and partner support. Abortion methods included oral, rectal, and vaginal concoctions of leaves, bark, and water and over-the-counter medications, including misoprostol. Affects were physical, spiritual, and relational. Health care professionals need to provide women with guidance for appropriate contraceptive usage. Abortion after-care of women with physical and spiritual needs is important. Future research is suggested on the use of misoprostol in Gabon to understand its affects on women's reproductive health.

  5. Unsafe Abortion- A Tragic Saga of Maternal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Regmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite provision of adequate care and legalization of abortion. The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of unsafe abortion in maternal mortality and its other consequences. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in BPKIHS between 2005 April to 2008 September analyzing all the unsafe abortion related admissions. RESULTS: There were 70 unsafe abortion patients. Majority of them (52.8% were of high grade. Most of them recovered but there were total 8maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe abortion is still a significant medical and social problem even in post legalization era of this country. Keywords: abortion, legalization, maternal death, unsafe.

  6. [Spountaneous and induced abortion: anxiety, depression and guilty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy has a symbolic meaning for each woman. It varies according to personality structure and is related to women's previous life experiences. the aim was to characterize the women that suffered abortion, asking about anxiety and depression, looking for guilty feelings after abortion, and to compare results between women who suffered spontaneous abortion and those who had intentional abortion. fifty women with spontaneous and fifty with induced abortion were interviewed 30 days after the procedure. A semistructured questionnaire with open and closed-end questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. woman who induced abortion revealed to be more anxious (mean 11) and depressed (mean 8.3) than woman with spontaneous abortion (means 8.7 and 6.1 respectively, pabortion were more anxious and depressed, as shown by later life events, full of problematic feelings and the need for psychological support.

  7. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated development of light armored vehicles based on wargaming simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarini, Marc; Rapanotti, John

    2004-08-01

    Vehicle (LAV) variants including: armoured personnel carriers and direct-fire support vehicles. OneSAF will be used to assess the performance of these DAS-equipped vehicles on a virtual battlefield.

  9. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  10. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgh, G; Filippi, V; Owolabi, OO; Singh, SD; Askew, I; Bankole, A; Benson, J; Rossier, C; Pembe, AB; Adewole, I; Ganatra, B; MacDonagh, S

    2016-01-01

    : Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. ...

  11. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manniche, E

    1982-10-01

    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.

  12. Roe v. Wade and the history of abortion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, P B

    1989-01-01

    In "Roe," the Supreme Court found that the privacy right in the 14th amendment's view of "personal liberty" encompasses a woman's right to choose an abortion. The Court found that "abortion is a fundamental right." These conclusions are mistaken. The Court's analysis of "the history of abortion regulation" had a lot of errors and did not consider the state of technology in which abortion evolved. Sir Edward Coke, a 16th and 17th century jurist, said that abortion was a "great misprison." Quickening, the point at which a woman feels life, was used to determine fetal viability. State courts, therefore, viewed "abortion after quickening as common law crime." By the end of 1868, 30 to the then 37 states had passed laws restricting abortion. The Supreme Court said that the 19th century laws were passed to guard the mother's health "against the dangers of unsafe operation." In the 15 months before "Roe," 5 state courts said that their abortion laws were constitutional. They said that this was "intended to protect the lives of unborn children." Therefore, the Court's belief that "the state courts focused on the State's interest in protecting "the health of the mother" was unexplainable. The Court said that in many states the woman couldn't "be prosecuted for self-abortion." 17 states did "incriminate the woman's participation in her own abortion," but the Court did not note this. The Court's premise about the greater hazards of late abortions is mistaken. The states were concerned, in the late 19th century, about whether the attempted abortion caused the death of a child. The "right to an abortion" can only be seen as "fundamental" if it is "implicit" in the "ordered liberty" concept or "deeply rooted" in US tradition and history. "Roe" struck down the abortion laws of all 50 states and should be overturned.

  13. Correlates of individual-level stigma and unsafe abortions among women seeking abortion care in Trans Nzoia and Machakos Counties, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Kiprotich Yegon; Peter Kabanya Mwaniki; Elizabeth Echoka; Joachim Osur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of abortion stigma in regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion in Kenya to explore whether abortion-related stigma is associated with incidence of unsafe abortion. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey of 759 women receiving abortion services in private and public health facilities in two counties located in regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion regions of Kenya. Results: Of the total respondents, 424 sought postabortion care (...

  14. The story of abortion: issues, controversies and a case for the review of the Nigerian national abortion laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omo-Aghoja, L O; Omo-Aghoja, V W; Feyi-Waboso, P; Onowhakpor, E A

    2010-12-01

    Abortion continues to be a major public health issue that evokes social, political, legal, cultural and religious sentiments and debates in all societies. This is particularly so in countries with restrictive abortion laws. It is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite variations in the legal status of abortions in favor of restrictiveness in developing countries compared with developed countries, overall rates are quite higher in the developing countries. This review article therefore, examines the historical perspectives of induced abortion as well as the issues and controversies associated with induced abortion. Also, a review of the Nigeria national abortion law is made. We believe that this is capable of identifying useful interventions for designing programs that will lead to a reduction in the burden of unsafe abortion in developing countries.

  15. D & E midtrimester abortion: a medical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, S

    1982-01-01

    With the advent of legalized abortion in the US in 1973, the innovation, adoption and dissemination of new and improved medical procedures for the voluntary termination of pregnancy became an important objective. 3 principal techniques were introduced: suction curettage, instillation procedures using saline solution or prostaglandin, and dilatation and evacuation (D and E). Suction curettage in the 1st trimester was readily adopted because the procedure was less traumatic than the traditional dilatation and curettage. Instillation procedures for abortions in the 2nd trimester were also readily adopted. Physicians preferred them to surgical procedures, were familiar with the delivery simulation, and were comfortable with the hospital setting in which the procedure was performed. D and E, an extension of the suction procedure to abortions in the 2nd trimester has lower complication rates than instillation procedures and can be performed early in the midtrimester. A 1981 membership survey conducted by the National Abortion Federation found that about 1/3 of the members performed D and E midtrimester abortions, a wider acceptance than was expected. In 1978, of the 2nd trimester abortions, 85% of the early midtrimester and 25% of the 16 weeks gestation or later abortions were done by D and E. Acceptance in some other countries is also increasing. A study of the relationship of a history of 2nd trimester abortions and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes was unable to identify any statistically significant relationship with the possible exception of low birth weight infants. According to a 1976 survey of teaching hospitals, less than 1/4 require their residents to perform midtrimester abortions. Very few medical schools include D and E procedures in their residency training programs. Residents should use the D and E technique only under supervision and after becoming experienced in 1st trimester suction curettage. A survey reported that D and E techniques can be learned

  16. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  17. Gynecologists and the abortion issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional inefficient contraception, incorporated to a large extent in the system of values, has become a natural part of sexual relations in Serbia and represents a rational preventive choice from the individual standpoint. However, when pregnancy is unwanted or cannot be accepted out of any reasons abortion is used as a resort. For this reason there is a long history of a large number of abortions in Serbia. Research findings in our country identify the following, as the most important factors for not accepting modern values in this sphere: traditional contraception and abortion have a firm social confirmation; there is a trans-generational transfer of psychological resistance towards the use of combined oral contraception pills and intrauterine devices; sexual education has never become a natural way of growing up in the family, nor is a constituent part of school programs and that distinct obstacles of various nature exist regarding contraception availability. A developed network of various types of family planning counseling is an important determinant of the accessibility of contraceptive means and methods. There are, however, numerous conditions which have to be fulfilled in order for the contraception counseling services to function properly. Among them, motivated personnel who acquired general and specific knowledge for work in this field are an especially important prerequisite. This theoretical assumption opens the question -whether gynecologists represent an important factor of slow transition of birth control in Serbia? We searched for the answer in the research analyses obtained through two in-depth surveys which either had to do with this theme or tried to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of gynecologists. The first research regarding the determination of the causes for a large number of abortions in our country, was directed towards women who decided on abortion. Gynecologists were the target group in the second

  18. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera Mavrić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challanging topic for those who find themselves facing the moral dilemma of whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Problems of controversy are numerous. Is abortion a murder or not? Is fetus a person or not? When it becomes the one if ever till the birth? If abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion. If abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it is always impermissible to have an abortion. The comon dilema is whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives. These are some of the questions this paper deals with.

  19. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-04-01

    Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women's health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion.

  20. A six month prospective study on different aspects of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madebo, T; G/Tsadic, T

    1993-07-01

    A six month prospective study on various aspects of abortion was conducted from April 1, 1991 to Sept. 30, 1991 in Sidamo Regional Hospital (Yirgalem). A total of 185 cases of abortion were seen. Of these, 64 (35%) were induced and 121 (65%) were spontaneous. There were 2 deaths in the illegally induced group abortion, 1 death in the other group. Induced abortion was higher in age group 20-24 (61%), single (65%), unemployed (70%), nulliparous (48%) and 7-12 grade educational level (67%). The pregnancy was unwanted in all cases of induced abortion and in 50 (41%) of the spontaneous cases. The common instruments used for inducing abortion were plastic catheters (58%) and metallic instruments (32%). The abortionists were mainly health workers (55%). The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days for illegally induced and 2.1 days for spontaneous abortions. The incidence of septic abortion was found to be statistically significantly higher in induced than in spontaneous abortion (p 0.05). The type of anaesthesia and required procedure are also analyzed in this study. Eighty-eight percent of the study population did not use any type of contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is discussed.

  1. Brazilian abortion law: the opinion of judges and prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.

  2. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  5. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, health, and justice. With respect to morality, the article concludes that collective faith and trust should be placed in the moral judgment of those most affected by the passage of time in pregnancy and by later abortion—pregnant women. With respect to health, abortion law as health regulation should be evidence-based to counter the stigma of later abortion, which leads to overregulation and access barriers. With respect to justice, in recognizing that there will always be a need for abortion services later in pregnancy, such services should be safe, legal, and accessible without hardship or risk. At the same time, justice must address the structural conditions of women’s capacity to make timely decisions about abortion, and to access abortion services early in pregnancy. PMID:28630539

  6. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  7. Abortions bring economic pressure to bear on hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravella, S

    1989-08-25

    The current abortion controversy has serious potential economic consequences for U.S. hospitals, from boycotts and other political actions, but also because of lack of reimbursement for procedures performed on indigent women. An example was given of a threatened boycott of a private hospital in Washington state by evangelical residents and their physicians. Another example of boycott of hospital blood donations was cited. 1078, or 28.7%, of 3752 U.S. hospitals that are equipped to perform abortions do so. 90% of abortions are done by 31% of U.S. hospitals. 90% of these are 1st trimester abortions, costing $200-300. Many employer-sponsored health insurance plans pay for abortions, but Medicaid programs pay for limited numbers of abortions: all abortions for poor women in 13 states, but only those need to save the woman's life in most states. The federal government paid $62,235 for 84 abortions in 13 states in 1988. California and New York have extensive abortion programs for the poor. Hospitals keep a low profile about abortion services, declining to advertise their activity.

  8. A pilot survey on abortions among young Armenian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolian, G

    1997-12-01

    This article summarizes findings from a pilot survey study among women from Armenia. The survey aimed to determine the reasons for use of abortion as a method of fertility regulation and to develop a comprehensive policy for preventing abortion, unwanted pregnancy, abortion complications, and secondary infertility due to abortion. Findings indicate that 75% of women aged 15-25 years had used abortion for fertility regulation. 91.1% were married, and 8.9% were single. 93.8% of the pregnancies were unplanned, and 94.6% were unwanted. 86.6% had not used contraception during the month of conception. The average number of abortions was 2.3 among women aged 15-20 years and 2.4 among women aged 21-25 years. 37% of abortions occurred due to lack of financial means of support for a child. 38% of women did not want a child due to difficult or complicated social and economic circumstances. 46.7% used abortion as a means of fertility regulation due to lack of information on contraceptives, 30.7% used abortion because others did, and 13.3% used abortion because of lack of knowledge of another contraceptive method. 24% reported that contraceptive methods were not available or were expensive. Only 9% were fearful of side effects. 96.0% of married women did not receive contraceptive counseling before their marriage, 97.3% did not receive post-delivery contraceptive counseling, and 93.3% did not have post-abortion contraceptive counseling. 72.0% reported a fear of pregnancy at each time of sexual intercourse. 44.0% reported an intention after an abortion to never have an abortion again.

  9. Abortion training in Canadian obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liauw, J; Dineley, B; Gerster, K; Hill, N; Costescu, D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the current state of abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs. Surveys were distributed to all Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residents and program directors. Data were collected on inclusion of abortion training in the curriculum, structure of the training and expected competency of residents in various abortion procedures. We distributed and collected surveys between November 2014 and May 2015. In total, 301 residents and 15 program directors responded, giving response rates of 55% and 94%, respectively. Based on responses by program directors, half of the programs had "opt-in" abortion training, and half of the programs had "opt-out" abortion training. Upon completion of residency, 66% of residents expected to be competent in providing first-trimester surgical abortion in an ambulatory setting, and 35% expected to be competent in second-trimester surgical abortion. Overall, 15% of residents reported that they were not aware of or did not have access to abortion training within their program, and 69% desired more abortion training during residency. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, and residents desire more training in abortion. This suggests an ongoing unmet need for training in this area. Policies mandating standardized abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are necessary to improve delivery of family planning services to Canadian women. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, does not meet resident demand and is unlikely to fulfill the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada objectives of training in the specialty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes toward Abortion among Providers of Reproductive Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Laura E; Haider, Sadia; Hacker, Michele R

    2016-01-01

    Access to abortion continues to decrease in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes toward abortion among clinicians who provide reproductive health care. Clinician members of several reproductive health professional organizations completed a self-administered survey that assessed their attitudes toward abortion. A total of 278 clinicians who provided clinical reproductive health services within the United States were included. Nearly all strongly agreed that abortion should be available in cases of rape (89.6%), incest (89.2%), life endangerment (93.2%), health endangerment (91.0%), and fetal anomaly (85.9%). Although most strongly disagreed that spousal notification (81.3%) and spousal consent (86.6%) should be required for married women, fewer strongly disagreed that parental notification (57.6%) and parental consent (66.9%) should be required for minors. Respondents were generally supportive of private insurance coverage (70.1% strongly agreed) and Medicaid coverage (65.0% strongly agreed) for abortion services. Support for legal abortion and public funding of abortion were significantly associated with being female (both p ≤ .03) and having no personal religious affiliation (both p ≤ .04). Younger respondents and men were more supportive of third-party involvement and mandatory counseling (all p ≤ .02). Abortion providers were significantly more supportive of abortion access (legality of abortion, public and private funding, no third-party involvement, and no mandated counseling) than nonproviders (all p abortion and funding for abortion, lower support among younger respondents may indicate future difficulties in maintaining a clinical workforce that is willing to provide abortion care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induced abortion as a public health problem in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    The complex and multiple aspects of induced abortion are reflected in the report of a working group on induced abortion as a public health problem which was convened in Helsinki by the WHO Regional Office for Europe in April 1971. Wide variations exist in legislaion on abortion in the countries of western and southern Europe, those of eastern Europe, and those of northern Europe. Except for Romania, the numerical relationship between induced abortion and fertility is not known. The frequency of induced abortion in married women suggests that it is used in some countries for the desired spacing of children. The group noted that the decrease in fertility in Europe has been chiefly achieved by means of coitus interruptus and abortion. Over the period 1957-1959, the reported number of legally induced abortions increased in many European countries. Information from 4 European countries on the number of legally induced abortions showed that the highest rates were found in the age-group 20-34. While in most countries the number of abortions is highest in the age group 20-34, the number of legally induced abortions per 1000 live births increases with the age of the woman, the highest ratios being found in women over 35 years of age. The legal and administrative situation, the ethnic structure, religion, the extent of industrialization, and urbanization, educational resources, and the availability of medical and social services influence the abortion behavior of the community. Conflicts between individuals' needs and society's needs must be resolved. In the view of the group, the most efficient and the safest means of preventing unwanted births is by contraception or by legal abortion carried out by doctors in the hospital. Education for responsible parenthood is essential if contraception is to be fully exploited and the use of legally induced abortion reduced to a minimum.

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  13. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  14. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  15. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  16. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to safe abortion access: uterine rupture as complication of unsafe abortion in a Ugandan girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rose McKeon; Kamurari, Solomon

    2017-10-20

    A 15-year-old girl at 18 weeks gestation by the last menstrual period presented to a rural Ugandan healthcare facility for termination of her pregnancy as a result of rape by her uncle. Skilled healthcare workers at the facility refused to provide the abortion due to fear of legal repercussions. The patient subsequently obtained an unsafe abortion by vaginal insertion of local herbs and sharp objects. She developed profuse vaginal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock. She was found to have uterine rupture and emergent hysterectomy was performed. Young and poor women are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and subsequent mortality during pregnancy and childbirth. Unsafe abortion is a leading and entirely preventable cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Multiple barriers restrict access to safe abortions including social and moral stigma, gender-based power imbalances, inadequate contraceptive use and sexual education, high cost and poor availability, and restrictive abortion laws. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. [Abortion: legal, deontological and ethical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view.

  19. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  20. Increased risk of premature death following teenage abortion and childbirth-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalanko, Eerika; Leppälahti, Suvi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika

    2017-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of premature death. However, it is not known whether the outcome of pregnancy, i.e. induced abortion or childbirth, affects this risk. A Finnish population-based register study involving a cohort of 13 691 nulliparous teenagers who conceived in 1987-89; 6652 of them underwent induced abortion and 7039 delivered. The control group consisted of 41 012 coeval women without teenage pregnancy. Follow-up started at the end of pregnancy and lasted until 6th June 2013. Women with teenage pregnancy had a higher risk of overall mortality vs. controls (mortality rate ratio [MRR] 1.6, [95% CI 1.4-1.8]) and were more likely to die prematurely as a result of suicide, alcohol-related causes, circulatory diseases and motor vehicle accidents. A low educational level appeared to explain these excess risks, except for suicide (adj. MRR 1.5, [95% CI 1.1-2.0]). After adjusting for confounders, the childbirth group faced lower risks of suicide (adj. MRR 0.5, [95% CI 0.3-0.9]) and dying from injury and poisoning (adj. MRR 0.6, [95% CI 0.4-0.8]) compared with women who had undergone abortion. A low educational level is associated with the increased risk of premature death among women with a history of teenage pregnancy, except for suicide. Extra efforts should be made to encourage pregnant teenagers to continue education, and to provide psychosocial support to teenagers who undergo induced abortion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.