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Sample records for aboriginal children living

  1. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

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    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  2. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    OpenAIRE

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  3. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

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    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  4. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

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    Stokes Annette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51 of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121 of non-Aboriginal children aged Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78 in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95 in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting.

  5. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Annette; Finucane Janine; Elsbury Dimity; Jacoby Peter; Weeks Sharon; Lehmann Deborah; Monck Ruth; Coates Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed ...

  6. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

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    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  7. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

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    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  8. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

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    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  9. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

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    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  10. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

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    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  11. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS

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    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face...

  12. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

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    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  13. Health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children with respiratory conditions and their parents.

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    Stewart, Miriam; King, Malcolm; Blood, Roxanne; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; Bearskin, Lisa Bourque

    2013-09-01

    Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369

  14. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Misan, G.; Jamieson, L. M.; L. Richards; H. Mills; A. Russell; Shearer, M.; Parker, E J

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencin...

  15. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

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    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities. PMID:26066816

  16. Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people

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    Faye Janice Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal people have among the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD worldwide. We investigated clinical diagnosis, risk factors, comorbidities and vaccine coverage in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal IPD cases. Using enhanced surveillance, we identified IPD cases in Western Australia, Australia, between 1997 and 2007. We calculated the proportion with risk factors and comorbidities in children (<5 years and adults (≥15 years, as well as adults living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. We then calculated the proportion of cases eligible for vaccination who were vaccinated before contracting IPD. Of the 1,792 IPD cases that were reported, 355 (20% were Aboriginal and 1,155 (65% were adults. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (61% of non-Aboriginal and 49% of Aboriginal adult IPD cases in 2001-2007. Congenital abnormality was the most frequent comorbidity in non-Aboriginal children (11%. In Aboriginal children, preterm delivery was most common (14%. Ninety-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 96% of Aboriginal adults had one or more risk factors or comorbidities. In non-Aboriginal adults, cardiovascular disease (34% was the predominant comorbidity whilst excessive alcohol use (66% was the most commonly reported risk factor in Aboriginal adults. In adults, comorbidities were more frequently reported among those in metropolitan regions than those in non-metropolitan regions. Vaccination status was unknown for 637 of 1,082 cases post-July 2001. Forty-one percent of non-Aboriginal and 60% of Aboriginal children were eligible for vaccination but were not vaccinated. Among adults with risk factors who were eligible for vaccination and with known vaccination status, 75% Aboriginal and 94% non-Aboriginal were not vaccinated. An all-of-life immunisation register is needed to evaluate vaccine coverage and effectiveness in preventing IPD in adults.

  17. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

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    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  18. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal ...

  19. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

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    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  20. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  1. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  2. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

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    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  3. Otitis media in young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Silberberg Peter

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Middle ear disease (otitis media is common and frequently severe in Australian Aboriginal children. There have not been any recent large-scale surveys using clear definitions and a standardised middle ear assessment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of middle ear disease (otitis media in a high-risk population of young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia. Methods 709 Aboriginal children aged 6–30 months living in 29 communities from 4 health regions participated in the study between May and November 2001. Otitis media (OM and perforation of the tympanic membrane (TM were diagnosed by tympanometry, pneumatic otoscopy, and video-otoscopy. We used otoscopic criteria (bulging TM or recent perforation to diagnose acute otitis media. Results 914 children were eligible to participate in the study and 709 were assessed (78%. Otitis media affected nearly all children (91%, 95%CI 88, 94. Overall prevalence estimates adjusted for clustering by community were: 10% (95%CI 8, 12 for unilateral otitis media with effusion (OME; 31% (95%CI 27, 34 for bilateral OME; 26% (95%CI 23, 30 for acute otitis media without perforation (AOM/woP; 7% (95%CI 4, 9 for AOM with perforation (AOM/wiP; 2% (95%CI 1, 3 for dry perforation; and 15% (95%CI 11, 19 for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. The perforation prevalence ranged from 0–60% between communities and from 19–33% between regions. Perforations of the tympanic membrane affected 40% of children in their first 18 months of life. These were not always persistent. Conclusion Overall, 1 in every 2 children examined had otoscopic signs consistent with suppurative ear disease and 1 in 4 children had a perforated tympanic membrane. Some of the children with intact tympanic membranes had experienced a perforation that healed before the survey. In this high-risk population, high rates of tympanic perforation were associated with high

  4. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

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    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  5. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

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    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice.

  6. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

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    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  7. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

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    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  8. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR for Aboriginal children

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    Salsberg Jon

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP. Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8 from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR. In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was

  9. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  10. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR ASYMPTOMATIC INTESTINAL MICROSPORIDIOSIS AMONG ABORIGINAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PAHANG, MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Bakar, Nur Hazirah Abu; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Osman, Emelia

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiology and environmental factors affecting transmission of human microsporidiosis are poorly understood. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis among aboriginal school children in the Kuala Krau District, Pahang State, Malaysia. We collected stool samples from 255 school children and examined the samples using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun stain. We also collected demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and personal hygiene information using a pre-tested questionnaire. Sixty-nine of the children was positive for microsporidia: 72.5% and 27.5% were low (1+) and moderate (2+) excretions of microsporidia spores, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed being aged 10 years (p = 0.026), using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water (p = 0.044) and having close contact with domestic animals (p = 0.031) were all significantly associated with microsporidial infection among study subjects. Our findings suggest asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis is common in the study population, more than previously reported. In the study population, control measures need to be implemented, such as good personal hygiene, proper sanitation and safe drinking water supply. PMID:27405127

  11. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sheela Kennedy; Larry L. Bumpass

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children’s family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18% during 1997-2001) or to experience their mother’s entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all chi...

  12. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  13. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  14. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  15. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  16. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  17. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  18. Foucault's Heterotopia and Children's Everyday Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Foucault's notion of "heterotopia"--real places but which exist unto themselves, such as a floating ship. Considers data on children's use of computer and video games to apply "heterotopia" to children's everyday social lives. Argues that childhood is subject to increasing boundaries, and that children create "other" spaces through…

  19. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  20. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  1. Reconstructing the Star Knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    CERN Document Server

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors, and aurorae held cultural, spiritual, and subsistence significance within the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  2. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  3. Memory, Space and Time: Researching Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the research approach in "Pathways through Childhood", a small qualitative study drawing on memories of childhood. The research explores how wider social arrangements and social change influence children's everyday lives. The article discusses the way that the concepts of social memory, space and time have been drawn on to…

  4. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions. PMID:20854319

  5. Coming, Ready or Not: Aboriginal Children's Transition to School in Urban Australia and the Policy Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anthea Jo

    2011-01-01

    Concern that too many Australian children, particularly Indigenous children, are not ready to start school has spurred a series of changes to the pre-school sector. Included among these changes are nationwide mass surveying and the introduction of a unified curriculum framework together with moves towards standardised entry assessment. Focusing on…

  6. Giardiasis and poor vitamin A status among aboriginal school children in rural Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Surin, Johari; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Ariffin W; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 241 primary schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia to update their vitamin A status and to investigate the association of poor vitamin A status with their health and socioeconomic factors. All children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood samples were collected and vitamin A status was assessed. Socioeconomic data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol level...

  7. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  8. Placement Decisions and Disparities among Aboriginal Children: Further Analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part A: Comparisons of the 1998 and 2003 Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fluke et al. (2010) analyzed Canadian Incidence Study on Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) data collected in 1998 to explore the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in an out-of-home placement at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This study…

  9. Implications of the nutrition transition for vitamin D intake and status in Aboriginal groups in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-09-01

    Aboriginal Canadians have low intakes of vitamin D and are shifting away from consumption of traditional foods. Higher body mass index, skin pigmentation, and geographic latitude of residence further predispose Canadian Aboriginal populations to low vitamin D status. Low vitamin D status could compromise bone health and other health outcomes. Studies assessing vitamin D status of different Aboriginal groups are limited. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on vitamin D status and intakes of Canadian Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic. PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1983 to 2013. The prevalence of 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency ranged from 13.9% to 76.0% among children and adults in the summer. Furthermore, mean vitamin D intakes among all age groups were below the estimated average requirement. As vitamin D deficiency has been recently associated with chronic diseases, and Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic are at high risk for low vitamin D status, their vitamin D status should be assessed regularly across seasons.

  10. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  11. Elements in the Sera of Preschool Children Living in Central Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Chien-Yi; LIN,Ding-Bang; CHEN,Wen-Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed elemental concentrations in the serum of 154 preschool children in central Taiwan via instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA).A total of eight elements,Br,Cl,Fe,Na,Rb,Sc,Se and Zn of sera for Taiwanese preschool children living at four residential areas:Taichung city,Taichung urban townships and in a remote area inhabited by two groups of aborigines,Atayal and Bunun were determined.Standard reference materials(tomato leaves,NIST-SRM 1570a,and lichen,IAEA-336)were used as quality control standards to crosscheck the accuracy.Residential area.socioeconomic status and gender were shown to significantly influence serum levels of the eight trace elements.Statistical analysis revealed several different gender patterns via the two-tailed student's test.A quantified index of agreement(AT)was used to classify these elements.Small AT indicated a close consistency,while large AT indicated a larger fluctuation,or less agreement,such that the correlation between the elements could be interpreted using a series of quantified indices at the serum levels of preschool children.

  12. Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159656.html Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children Kids ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The world's most promising malaria vaccine appears to offer short-lived protection, fading ...

  13. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods A survey questionnaire t...

  14. Young Children's Interest in Live Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Bloom Pickard, Megan; Sherman, Kathleen; Axford, Chrystal; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are important stimuli for humans, and for children in particular. In three experiments, we explored children's affinity for animals. In Experiment 1, 11- to 40-month-old children were presented with a free-play session in which they were encouraged to interact with several interesting toys and two live animals--a fish and a hamster.…

  15. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  16. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHER, Alexandre; Guimond. Éric; Robitaille, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Abor...

  17. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  18. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Raymo; Park, Hyunjoon; IWASAWA, MIHO; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers’ time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers cor...

  19. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  1. Aboriginal review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Syncrude Canada Ltd., and the aboriginal people of Northeast Alberta was discussed. In 1970, Syncrude began development of its oil sands mega-project in the Fort McMurray region. Since then, the company has worked in partnership with the aboriginal communities to maximize their productive participation in the oil sands. Syncrude has provided opportunities in employment, education, and business and community development. Their goals for aboriginal employment are: (1) to attain 10 per cent aboriginal employees in the Company's direct workforce, and (2) to attain 13 per cent aboriginal employees in the overall workforce, including contractors. Currently, Syncrude Canada employs 315 aboriginal people in various career positions. The Company is also committed to the protection of the environment. As proof of this commitment, when a mine site is reclaimed, the Company does all that is required to ensure that the land can support both industry and traditional land uses such as hunting, fishing and trapping. Syncrude also works on air quality issues dealing with odors and sulfur dioxide emissions as shown by a two million dollar company-sponsored program to examine local air quality and its effect on people and their health. figs

  2. The lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Myburgh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial.Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow, Johannesburg.Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample was selected through a temporary shelter in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa and consisted of 14 male children living on the streets. Data were collected using drawings, in-depth phenomenological interviews and field notes. The central interview opening statement was: ‘Tell me about your life on the street’.Results: The results obtained indicated that children living on the streets are threatened, exploited and exposed to physical, sexual and emotional abuse on a daily basis by the community, the authorities and other street dwellers. This leads to feelings of sadness, fear, anxiety, misery, despair, hopelessness, helplessness and suicide ideation, which in turn lead to drug abuse and criminal activities. In contrast, positive feelings of sympathy for other children living on the streets emerged and these children also displayed perseverance, resilience and a striving for autonomy.Conclusion: Street life exposes children to a variety of experiences, both positive and negative. A striving after autonomy is clearly depicted by these children, who are able to tap into a range of responses, both on- and off-street.

  3. Introducing Young Children to Live Orchestral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Louie

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the innovative nature of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra's program of concerts designed especially for children ages five through eight that feature children as a participatory audience. The selection of repertoire and the types of support and resources provided for teachers are also discussed. (MDM)

  4. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

  5. Reading Beyond: Children's Lived Spiritual Experiences of Fantasy Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Catherine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe four children's lived spiritual experiences of literary texts as generated through their responses to two toy fantasy novels for children, "The Miraculous Journey of Edward Tulane" by Kate DiCamillo (2006) and "The Mouse and his Child" by Russell Hoban (1967). The…

  6. Children's Behavior toward and Understanding of Robotic and Living Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Gail F.; Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Beck, Alan; Friedman, Batya; Roberts, Trace; Garrett, Erik; Gill, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated children's reasoning about and behavioral interactions with a computationally sophisticated robotic dog (Sony's AIBO) compared to a live dog (an Australian Shepherd). Seventy-two children from three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, and 13-15 years) participated in this study. Results showed that more children…

  7. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  8. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  9. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact. PMID:25125704

  10. Reactogenicity to a Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine in Canadian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Halperin, Scott A.; Scheifele, David

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reactogenicity and safety of a thermostable, high titre, varicella vaccine in healthy infants and children.DESIGN: Open study of 505 children monitored for 42 days after vaccination.SETTING: Three urban Canadian centres (Halifax, Ottawa and Vancouver).PARTICIPANTS: 505 healthy children one to 12 years of age were enrolled and 504 completed the study. All were susceptible to varicella by history.INTERVENTIONS: All participants received one dose of live attenuated varic...

  11. The lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Myburgh; Aneesa Moolla; Marie Poggenpoel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial.Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experien...

  12. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  13. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Shield

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods: Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%; hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%; Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni (25%; S. stercoralis (19%; Rodentolepis nana (16%; and Giardia duodenalis (10%. Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87 than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41, while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91. Discussion: Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species.

  14. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  15. [Kidney transplant from living donors in children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevri, Fabrizio; Dello Strologo, Luca; Guzzo, Isabella; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    A living-donor kidney transplant offers a child at the terminal stages of renal disease better functional recovery and quality of life than an organ from a deceased donor. Before starting the procedure for a living-donor transplant, however, it is necessary to establish if it is really safe. There are diseases, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, atypical HUS and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with dense deposits, for which living donation is not recommended given the high incidence of recurrence of the disease but also the frequent loss of the graft. Regarding the selection of the donor, an increased risk of acute rejection has been reported for donors older than 60-65 years and a worsening of the renal outcome if the donor's weight is equal to or less than the recipient's. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration that complications may arise in the donor both in the perioperative period and in the long term. In conclusion, kidney transplant from a living donor is a natural choice within the pediatric setting. The parents, usually young and highly motivated to donate, are the ideal donors. However, although the risks associated with donation are minimal, they are not totally absent, and consequently it is mandatory to follow standardized procedures according to the guidelines issued by the Centro Nazionale Trapianti. PMID:21341241

  16. The Living Arrangements of Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S.; Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children of immigrants are a rapidly growing part of the U.S. child population. Their health, development, educational attainment, and social and economic integration into the nation's life will play a defining role in the nation's future. Nancy Landale, Kevin Thomas, and Jennifer Van Hook explore the challenges facing immigrant families as they…

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  20. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  1. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  2. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  3. Live attenuated varicella vaccine in children with leukemia in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; Larussa, P; Ferrara, A; Gelb, L

    1984-09-01

    One-hundred-ninety-one children with acute leukemia in remission for at least one year were immunized with 1 or more doses of live attenuated varicella vaccine. All were susceptible to varicella prior to vaccination. The only significant side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen especially in children with maintenance chemotherapy temporarily suspended for one week before and one week after vaccination. Children with rash were at some risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to varicella susceptibles with whom they had close contact.

  4. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  5. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  6. Using Mobile Phone Diaries to Explore Children's Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Lydia; Stevenson, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to experience sampling as a response to the challenges of researching the everyday lives of young children at home. Parents from 11 families used mobile phones to send the research team combined picture and text messages to provide "experience snapshots" of their child's activities six times on each of three…

  7. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  8. Aboriginal secondary education: Non completion and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Donders, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    I use 2001 Canadian Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) Census data to assess two dimensions of Aboriginal educational attainment: (1) what proportion of Aboriginals fail to complete high school; and (2) what is the return to different levels of education for Aboriginals. I find that Aboriginals, for certain age groups, are two times more likely than non Aboriginals to leave high school before completion. Further, I find that in terms of high school completion within the Aboriginal population, ...

  9. Children's Everyday Lives Shadowed by Stalking: Post separation Stalking Narratives of Finnish Children and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikupeteri, Anna; Laitinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses post separation stalking and its implications in children's everyday lives. Based on narratives of 13 Finnish children and 20 women, the research fills a gap in the knowledge regarding the psychosocial, emotional, and physical impacts of stalking on children when their mothers are stalked by a former partner. It identifies four forms of impact: (a) an atmosphere of fear and feelings of insecurity; (b) disguised acts of stalking and the father's performance of care, love, and longing; (c) exploitation of children in stalking; and (d) physical abuse, acts of violence, and threats of death. The findings indicate that stalking severely constrains children's everyday lives and strengthens, yet often distorts, the mother-child bond. The study concludes that in cases where mothers are stalked, professionals in the social and health services, law enforcement, and criminal justice should view the children, too, as victims and construct supportive social relationships for women and children facing threatening life situations. PMID:26299800

  10. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  11. How Do Young Children Deal with Hybrids of Living and Non-Living Things: The Case of Humanoid Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a…

  12. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  13. Living Arrangements of Ever-Married Older Lebanese Women: Is Living with Married Children Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Tohme, Rania A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Eastern countries including Lebanon, the family as a social institution is greatly valued and local norms regarding family ties and living arrangements are especially important for older adults, in particular older women. While the presence of an adult child is often seen as responsive to the financial, health and social needs of older parents, it is not clear whether co-residence with married children offers a similar advantage as in the case of co-residence with unmarried children. Using data from a national Population and Housing Survey, this study examines associations of co-residence with adult children among ever-married women aged 65 years and older in Lebanon. Results showed a considerable proportion of elderly women who were living alone (18%) at the time of the survey. Co-residence was more frequent with unmarried than married children, but the gender ratio of the co-residing child varied with the marital status of both the older woman and the child. Moreover, among those co-residing with married children, results indicate a greater likelihood of co-residence with married sons over married daughters. Co-residence with an adult child associated positively with the availability of surviving children and negatively with the socioeconomic status of the woman and her spouse. Compared to other living arrangements, co-residence with a married child entailed the least advantageous Household Socioeconomic Status (HSES) score in terms of housing characteristics, infrastructure, and material possessions, for both married and unmarried women. PMID:18283537

  14. Mercury Exposure in Young Children Living in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Helen S.; Jeffery, Nancy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Fritz, Pat; Spliethoff, Henry; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Kass, Daniel E.; Caldwell, Kathy; Eadon, George; Rubin, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Residential exposure to vapor from current or previous cultural use of mercury could harm children living in rental (apartment) homes. That concern prompted the following agencies to conduct a study to assess pediatric mercury exposure in New York City communities by measuring urine mercury levels: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s (NYCDOHMH) Bureau of Environmental Surveillance and Policy, New York State Department of Health/Center for Environmental Health (NYSDOHCEH), ...

  15. Forensic pediatric radiology: studies in living and deceased children

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology is an important tool in establishing the diagnosis of physical abuse, as one can objectively depict fractures or internal injuries. In this thesis we have tried to provide some insight into the possibilities and impossibilities of (forensic) pediatric radiology in establishing a diagnosis of physical child abuse, in both living (part 1) and deceased (part 2) children. In the first part we have given an overview of imaging techniques in child abuse, risk factors for and radiological ...

  16. Why are children living in poverty getting fatter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Huot, Céline

    2007-10-01

    In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increase in unhealthy weight for both children and adults. The Canadian standard of living has changed in favour of more easily prepared, calorie-dense foods and sedentary practices. Many family characteristics have also changed over the past 50 years. More Canadian families are living in disadvantaged situations, forecasting a host of unhealthy behaviours and attitudes in adults. The poor are not only getting poorer, they are also becoming heavier. Children from disadvantaged families seem to be leading the trend in increasing prevalence of unhealthy weight. Because they live in neighbourhoods that are perceived as unsafe, these children are likely spending more time indoors. This is associated with watching more television, which not only displaces other forms of educational and active entertainment but also places them at risk of learning inaccurate information about proper eating. Social science research helps identify factors contributing most to the rise in excess weight within this population, thus providing essential clues for effective approaches to its eradication. PMID:19030449

  17. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  18. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L

    1986-10-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine has been administered to 307 children with leukemia in remission and to 86 healthy adults. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. The major side effect in leukemic children receiving maintenance chemotherapy was development of a vaccine-associated rash. Vaccinees in whom a rash developed were potentially somewhat infectious to others about 1 month after immunization. Vaccination was not associated with an increase in the incidence of herpes zoster or in relapse of leukemia. Vaccination provided excellent protection against severe varicella. It was associated with a significant decrease in the attack rate of chickenpox following an intimate exposure to varicella-zoster virus, conferring about 80% protection in leukemic children. The cases of breakthrough varicella that occurred were mild. Thus, the vaccine may either prevent or modify varicella in high-risk individuals. It may also have use for prevention of nosocomial varicella.

  19. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  20. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context. PMID:21721304

  1. Living arrangements of older adults in Lebanon: correlates of living with married children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shideed, O; Sibai, A; Tohme, R

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in the proportion of older adults in the population present major challenges to policy-makers worldwide. Using a nationally representative sample from the PAPFAM survey in Lebanon, this study examined the living arrangements of older adults (aged > or = 65 years), and their correlates, with a focus on co-residence with married children. Of 1774 older adults 17.1% co-resided with their married children: 28.1% of the 559 unmarried (widowed/divorced/single) and 11.3% of the 1071 married older adults. Among both the married and unmarried, the likelihood of co-residence was significantly lower in regions outside the capital and decreased with increasing socioeconomic status. Among the unmarried elderly, co-residence with a married child was also significantly associated with increasing age and availability of sons, as well as presence of a vascular disorder and speech problems. While solitary living has traditionally been the focus for policy-makers, older people living with a married child may also be a vulnerable group. PMID:24684101

  2. How Does Homework "Work" for Young Children? Children's Accounts of Homework in Their Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann; Danby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Homework is an increasing yet under-researched part of young children's everyday lives. Framed by the international agendas of starting strong and school accountability, homework in the lives of young children has been either overlooked or considered from the perspective of adults rather than from the perspective of children themselves. This…

  3. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  4. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  5. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  6. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  8. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): a long-term platform for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Darryl; Gordon, Raylene; Carr, Darren; Craig, Jonathan C; Banks, Emily; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wutzke, Sonia; Eades, Sandra J; Redman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The full potential for research to improve Aboriginal health has not yet been realised. This paper describes an established long-term action partnership between Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs), the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AH&MRC), researchers and the Sax Institute, which is committed to using high-quality data to bring about health improvements through better services, policies and programs. The ACCHSs, in particular, have ensured that the driving purpose of the research conducted is to stimulate action to improve health for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This partnership established a cohort study of 1600 urban Aboriginal children and their caregivers, known as SEARCH (the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health), which is now having significant impacts on health, services and programs for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper describes some examples of the impacts of SEARCH, and reflects on the ways of working that have enabled these changes to occur, such as strong governance, a focus on improved health, AH&MRC and ACCHS leadership, and strategies to support the ACCHS use of data and to build Aboriginal capacity. PMID:27421347

  9. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  10. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  11. Identification of risk factors for obesity in children and adolescents living in Tashkent city

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhimov Bakhodir

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the identification of risk factors for obesity in children and adolescents living in Tashkent city in order to form the following prophylactic measures to prevent obesity in children and adolescents at an early age.

  12. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  13. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    OpenAIRE

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "Th...

  14. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  15. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig;

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...

  16. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  17. ABORIGINALITY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism seems to be a buzz-word applied on a widest contexts and studies. The importance West has given to this term is linked to a new process of acceptance of diversity as never before. However, in the core of this discourse, the spirit of colonialism remains. In this conceptual paper, not only the main assumptions of cultural tourism are discussed in depth, but also its connection with colonization. One of main problems of cultural tourism is the conceptual basis on where this theory lies. For one hand, this term is strictly applied on local communities (aboriginals or ethnic minorities that have not sustained the progress on their own. On another one, this type of new paternalism closes the door for a real opportunity of dialogue between centre and periphery. As things being, cultural tourism not only is a concept very hard to be applied on research but also follow to nourish the ethnocentrism of nineteen-century racism.

  18. What Do They Do at Home? The Literacies of Children Living in Residential Care in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the out of school literacy practices of children living in residential care in Malaysia. Although residential homes generate much publicity, especially during the festive seasons, not much is known about the children living within the confines of these homes. Even more lacking is research on their…

  19. Comparison of Video and Live Modeling in Teaching Response Chains to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…

  20. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [ p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [ p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  1. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  2. Is It Better for Older People to Live With Their Children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    EVER since there have been families in China, it has been traditional for the elderly to spend their later years living at home with their children; if the children have married and presented their parents with grandchildren, the household may consist of a large extended family in which three to four generations live under one roof. Nowadays, many elderly Chinese still fit into this mold. According to a sampling survey taken in 1995, among households with older members, 67.64 million seniors—or 74.73 percent of the total—lived with their adult children. Though some older people live apart

  3. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  4. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  5. Bullying and Violence Issues in Children's Lives: Examining the Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    Today's children may be exposed to violence in their environment, through the media, at home, and in school. Some children live in countries at war, while others survive in neighborhoods where street gangs prevail. Most parents and children used to assume they could depend upon schools to be safe places, free from abuse and violence. Now it seems…

  6. "Trees and Things That Live in Trees": Three Children with Special Needs Experience the Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Susan; Elgas, Peg; Konerman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on research conducted during a project investigation undertaken with preschool children, ages 3-5. The report focuses on three children with special needs and the positive outcomes for each child as they engaged in the project Trees and Things That Live in Trees. Two of the children were diagnosed with developmental delays, and…

  7. The Living Arrangements of Children in Immigrant Families in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and a multivariate approach, compared living arrangements of immigrant children to those of U.S.-born white children with U.S.-born parents. Findings show the "downward assimilation" among some second- and third-generation immigrant children fits a theory of segmented assimilation. Discusses…

  8. Protecting Children's Rights: "I Want to Live with BOTH Daddy and Mommy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex S.; Kelly, Kevin R.

    1992-01-01

    Contends that counselors and teachers can promote children's rights to nurturance and self-determination by encouraging parents to respect children's desire to live with both parents after divorce. Attempts to increase awareness among teachers and counselors that children as persons, rather than property, have specific rights in relation to…

  9. Children's living arrangements following separation and divorce: insights from empirical and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B

    2007-03-01

    When parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents or, failing private agreement, as a result of recommendations and decisions by lawyers, therapists, custody evaluators, or family courts. Most of these decisions have been based on cultural traditions and beliefs regarding postseparation parenting plans, visitation guidelines adopted within jurisdictions, unsubstantiated theory, and strongly held personal values and professional opinions, and have resulted since the 1960s in children spending most of their time with one residential parent and limited time with nonresident, or "visiting", parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after divorce. Such research remains largely unknown and untapped by parents and professionals making these crucial decisions about children's living arrangements. This article highlights empirical and clinical research that is relevant to the shape of children's living arrangements after separation, focusing first on what is known about living arrangements following divorce, what factors influence living arrangements for separated and divorced children, children's views about their living arrangements, and living arrangements associated with children's adjustment following divorce. Based on this research, it is argued that traditional visiting patterns and guidelines are, for the majority of children, outdated, unnecessarily rigid, and restrictive, and fail in both the short and long term to address their best interests. Research-based parenting plan models offering multiple options for living arrangements following separation and divorce more appropriately serve children's diverse developmental and psychological needs.

  10. Children Living with HIV-Infected Adults: Estimates for 23 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Short

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa many children live in extreme poverty and experience a burden of illness and disease that is disproportionately high. The emergence of HIV and AIDS has only exacerbated long-standing challenges to improving children's health in the region, with recent cohorts experiencing pediatric AIDS and high levels of orphan status, situations which are monitored globally and receive much policy and research attention. Children's health, however, can be affected also by living with HIV-infected adults, through associated exposure to infectious diseases and the diversion of household resources away from them. While long recognized, far less research has focused on characterizing this distinct and vulnerable population of HIV-affected children.Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 23 countries collected between 2003 and 2011, we estimate the percentage of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult. We assess overlaps with orphan status and investigate the relationship between children and the adults who are infected in their households.The population of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult is substantial where HIV prevalence is high; in Southern Africa, the percentage exceeded 10% in all countries and reached as high as 36%. This population is largely distinct from the orphan population. Among children living in households with tested, HIV-infected adults, most live with parents, often mothers, who are infected; nonetheless, in most countries over 20% live in households with at least one infected adult who is not a parent.Until new infections contract significantly, improvements in HIV/AIDS treatment suggest that the population of children living with HIV-infected adults will remain substantial. It is vital to on-going efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality to consider whether current care and outreach sufficiently address the distinct vulnerabilities of these

  11. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... and connections between the day-care institution and home....

  12. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  13. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152

  14. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  15. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  16. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  17. Oral Health Status of Children with Disability Living in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Gaçe, Eno; Kelmendi, Manola; Fusha, Enika

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out at nine (9) special schools for disabled children in Albania. The aim of the study is to determine the caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of children with different disabilities attending different schools for disabled at Albania. Methods: Participants are grouped according disability Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retarded, Blind, Deaf-Mute and age group (0-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-18 years old children). Caries and...

  18. Revealing lives: a qualitative study with children and young people affected by parental alcohol problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Louise Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been recognition that children and young people have considerable knowledge about their own lives that merits academic attention. The overall aim of this study is to reflexively engage with children and young people who have been affected by parental (or significant carer) alcohol problems and to explore, from their perspectives, the perceived impact on their lives and their experiences of support. Given the common secrecy and potential stigma of pr...

  19. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  20. Creative Living: Inside a Community for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders face a complex set of challenges when they enter the school system. Inspired by the work of D.W. Winnicott and Carl Rogers, the author suggests that facilitative educational settings for these children are those that stimulate creativity, honor a child's strengths, trust the developmental process, and…

  1. Animals in the Lives of Young Maltese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne

    2008-01-01

    Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…

  2. The Educational Needs of Children Living with Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    Abuse is an environmental factor influencing some children's emergent metacognitive processes and perceptions. Because abused children most often remain in regular classrooms, they rely on teachers' ability to apply interventions responsive to their needs. This is accomplished by combining knowledge of educational best practices with knowledge…

  3. Do Live versus Audio-Recorded Narrative Stimuli Influence Young Children's Narrative Comprehension and Retell Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…

  4. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  5. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  6. The Everyday Lives of Children with Cancer in Argentina: Going beyond the Disease and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Most of the literature on paediatric oncology treatment has provided descriptions of children's everyday lives that are circumscribed to periods of hospitalisation. In this paper, I argue that the political and economic context where children receive oncology treatment as well as the particular trajectories of their families influence their…

  7. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives : The room to breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)

  8. Epidemiological Survey of Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children Living in Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyergyay Réka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1 a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2 to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.

  9. Exploring Educational Material Needs and Resources for Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Indramati Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. It was first to find out what the educational materials needs were for children living in poverty, and second, to learn of the challenges, obstacles, and strengths by the programs already in place that were supplying educational materials to these children. This study used interviews and surveys as data…

  10. Quality of life of parents with children living at home : when one parent has cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.A.; Pras, E.; Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Goals of work This study examined the quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients diagnosed 1-5 years previously and their spouses, with children 4-18 years living at home. Relationships between parents' QoL and the children's functioning were explored. Patients and methods 166 cancer patients and thei

  11. Early Feelings about School and Later Academic Outcomes of Children with Special Needs Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Cram, Penny; Durand, Tina M.; Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation we examined the relation of children's reported feelings about school during kindergarten or first grade to their academic achievement at the end of fifth grade. Participants were children (N=103) who lived in poverty during early childhood and who were placed on individualized education programs (IEPs) during their…

  12. Children with learning disabilities: A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of Iranian mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Kermanshahi, S. M.; Z. Vanaki; Ahmadi, F.; A KAZEMNEJAD; Azadfalah, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nursing as a family-oriented profession involves supporting mothers of children with learning disabilities to gain an awareness of their role. However, few studies have explored the whole experience of such mothers. This study embarks on an understanding of lived experiences of Iranian mothers who have children with learning disabilities. A qualitative approach was adopted using the phenomenology of semi-structured interviews carried out with six Iranian mothers whose children attended a spec...

  13. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shafieian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.   Keywords:Malnutrition Prevention, Nutritional Intake, Nutritional Status, Preschool Children.  

  14. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  15. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shafieian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.  

  16. Living with disabled children in Malawi: Challenges and rewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Barlindhaug

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rehabilitation personnel need to be sensitive to the cultural aspects that constitute the environment of a disabled child’s family life.Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain insight on how families experience parenting of disabled children and how the families experience the support provided by the rehabilitation system in Malawi.Method: An anthropological field study combining interviews and observations was conducted in a rural district of Malawi in 2011. Permission was granted to follow four families, and this study presents the stories of two families, whose children have severe disabilities. We used phenomenological and narrative analyses to make sense of the stories. Results: The findings indicate that families with disabled children invest time and emphasise care for their disabled children. They feel enriched by their experience despite challenging situations with little support from the rehabilitation services. High standards of care demonstrating positive and moral attitudes have earned these families respect in their communities. Storytelling has created an opportunity for the families to understand and interpret their challenging situation with inherent contextual meaning.Conclusion: This study shows that families with disabled children draw on cultural and structural strengths that rehabilitation professionals should be aware of in their support to mothers and other caregivers of children with disabilities.

  17. A Study on Anxiety Levels of Children Having Fatherless and Living With Mother and Father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda ÖZDAL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned with the aim of determining the anxiety level of children who live with their parents and children who live with only their mother and of analysing whether or not some variables make difference on the anxiety level. Participants of the study were primary school students (age level is ten-eleven years. The sampleincludes 300 children in order to represent different socioeconomical conditions. Two questionnaires were administered to the participants: “General Information Form” and “Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory” which is developed by Spielberger et.al. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The findings of the study show that those children without father have higher levels of stait and trait anxiety in contrast to those living with parents. Furthermore, it is found that age leads to significannt differences on the stait anxiety scores and that lack of father leads to significant differences on the trait anxiety scores.

  18. Mining information kit for Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The opportunities for building relationships between Aboriginal communities and the mining industry were discussed, along with opportunities for communities to build capacity and to participate in the mining cycle. With nearly 1200 Aboriginal communities located within 200 km of minerals and metals activities in Canada, there is potential for significant economic and business growth in the communities. This educational tool informs Aboriginal communities across Canada about all the stages of the mining cycle, from early exploration to mine closure. Its purpose is to help Aboriginal people to better understand mining activities and identify the many opportunities that mining can bring to their communities. The information kit contains 4 modules corresponding to the main stages of the mining cycle. It provides examples of community experiences, positive relationships, and partnerships with mining companies. It also outlines the regulatory process to ensure Aboriginal peoples are well informed of the economic, social and environmental effects, benefits and opportunities in making decisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  20. Decolonisation: a critical step for improving Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Juanita; Edwards, Tahnia

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal health continues to be in crisis in Australia although expenditure has increased in service provision, strategic planning, research and policy development over the last thirty years. This paper recommends that a shift must occur to make Aboriginal health improvement a reality. This shift requires the decolonising of Aboriginal health so that the experts in Aboriginal health, namely Aboriginal people, can voice and action initiatives that address their health issues. This shift is from the current western dominant approach that continues to manage Aboriginal health in its linear spectrum of illness and disease. Aboriginal people view health differently; their contexts for health issues are also diverse requiring a more holistic and informed response.

  1. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  2. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  3. "I'm thankful for being Native and my body is part of that": the body pride experiences of young Aboriginal women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Coppola, Angela M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-06-01

    Body pride may be a predictor of health and well-being among Aboriginal youth. Body pride could potentially be addressed in health interventions, but it is critical to understand how body pride is conceptualized among Aboriginal youth. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to better understand the experiences of body pride among young Aboriginal women living in urban centers in Alberta, Canada. Eight young Aboriginal women (15-18 years old) participated in one-on-one interviews. A qualitative content analysis highlighted five themes that represent the participants' meanings of body pride. Participants described how body pride is: (a) accepting everything about your body, (b) who you are and how you show it, (c) connected to culture, (d) being healthy, and (e) being thankful to be Native. This research makes a contribution to the growing body pride literature by providing an initial glimpse into the complexities of young Aboriginal women's body pride experiences.

  4. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  5. Vitamin D deficiency among children and adolescents living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the available Danish studies, vitamin D insufficiency, defined as the concentration of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) < 50 nmol/l, is primarily prevalent among teenagers, children from immigrant families, and this especially by the end of winter. Measurement of the 25(OH)D concentr...... deficiency and rickets in Denmark....

  6. Diabetic Children Need Care but Can Lead Normal Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Children with diabetes can take part in normal school activities as long as they maintain control over their blood sugar level through a technique called self blood-glucose monitoring. Parents can work with teachers to see that dietary and medicinal needs are accommodated. (PP)

  7. Supporting the Literacy Development of Children Living in Homeless Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2010-01-01

    There are approximately 1.5 million children in the United States who go to sleep each night without a home of their own (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). In this article, we provide insights into how educators can create greater classroom support, particularly in literacy learning and development, for this population. Drawing from…

  8. Lonely or Bored: Children's Lived Experiences Reveal the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of research on loneliness, the relationship between the phenomena of loneliness and boredom has not been sufficiently addressed, especially in respect to children. The question, "How does the child's experience of boredom stand phenomenologically in relation to the experience of loneliness?" is explored from a…

  9. Aboriginal Knowledge Infusion in Initial Teacher Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mashford-Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the Aboriginal socio-political history in Canada has historically been excluded from public education. In Ontario, public school children learn about Aboriginal people at specific times in the curriculum. However, teachers frequently only teach the bare essentials about Aboriginal people in Canada because they do not have adequate knowledge or feel that they lack the ability to teach about this subject. The Ontario Institute of Studies in Education at the University of Toronto has implemented the Deepening Knowledge Project to provide teacher candidates with an increased awareness and knowledge about Aboriginal history, culture, and worldview for their future teaching careers. This article will provide insight into the project and the curriculum developed for working with teacher candidates.

  10. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  11. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  12. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  13. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  14. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  15. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  16. Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  17. Balancing Culture, Ethics, and Methods in Qualitative Health Research with Aboriginal Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meadows

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Including Aboriginal women in qualitative health research expands our understanding of factors that contribute to their health and well-being. As part of the larger WHEALTH study, we gathered qualitative health data on midlife Aboriginal women living both on and off reserves. Despite careful planning and a commitment to methodological congruence and purposiveness we encountered a number of challenges that raised ethical questions. We present how we addressed these issues as we attempted to produce ethical, culturally sensitive, and sound research in a timely fashion. This article provides important considerations for other researchers and funding bodies while illustrating the benefits of working with Aboriginal women as an under researched population.

  18. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  19. Training nurses to save lives of malnourished children

    OpenAIRE

    T. Puoane; Sanders, D.; Ashworth, A; M Ngumbela

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative study with a pre- and post-intervention component was undertaken among 66 professional nurses at 11 hospitals in the Eastern Cape to assess their perceptions and attitudes towards severely malnourished children and their mothers/ caregivers. Nurses’ attitudes were compared before and after attending a 5-day training course to improve the management of malnutrition along with implementing World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Severe malnutrition is a major cause of death am...

  20. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  1. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY IN CHILDREN WITH RENAL DISEASES LIVING IN REGIONS WITH UNFAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kudin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Seventy-nine children participated in the study including 33 children living in region with developed cement industry (12 with glomerulonephritis, and 21 with obstructive pyelonephritis. A group of comparison consisted of 46 children living in Moscow, including 17 subjects with glomerulonephritis and 29 children with obstructive pyelonephritis, and control group of 26 healthy children. ELISA method was used to perform immunological studies. The levels of sCD4, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, sICAM-1, TNFα were evaluated in blood sera. The data obtained show significant increase of TNFα levels and decreased IL-6 levels (p < 0,05 in children with nephropathy living in regions with unfavorable environmental conditions as compared with control group. A seven-fold increase in TNFα levels, along with more than twofold decrease in IL-6 was revealed among children with obstructive pyelonephritis, as compared with control group (p < 0,05. In children with glomerulonephritis and obstructive pyelonephritis, a distinct increase of sCD4 , as well as decreased IL-2 level (p < 0,05 was registered, as compared with control group. Meanwhile, IL-10 contents in this group of patients was 22,4 times less than the in controls (p < 0,05. In the main group, no enhanced sICAM synthesis was found, both in children with glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. In children affected by adverse environmental pathogens, we have shown a prevailing immune inflammation due to hyperproduction of TNFα, IL-6, and activation of sCD4 helpers. Adverse environmental effects inhibit cytokine synthesis, thus reducing production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Asylum support for children and young people living in Kirklees: Stories of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kate; Lockwood, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The report is based on a one-year pilot study by academic practitioners at WomenCentre, Kirklees, funded by the Nationwide Children’s Research Centre. This study has taken a localised approach to the Parliamentary Inquiry (2013) into asylum support for children and young people. We have placed the views of mothers of children who live or have lived in receipt of asylum support in Kirklees at the heart of the study. All of the mothers interviewed said that asylum support (accommodation and/or ...

  3. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  4. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 – 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers’ parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) de...

  5. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah; Ayed Yaghi; Yaghi, Abdallah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female)...

  6. Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, K L; Schreibman, L

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of pictorial self-management to teach daily living skills to 3 low-functioning children with autism. Stimulus and response generalization, stimulus control of self-management materials, and maintenance of behavior change were also assessed. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use pictures to manage their behavior in the absence of a treatment provider, generalize their behavior across settings and tasks, and maintain behaviors at follow-up....

  7. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santos Mello; Soraia Tahan; Lígia Cristina FL Melli; Mirian Silva do Carmo Rodrigues; Ricardo Martin Pereira de Mello; Isabel Cristina Affonso Scaletsky; Mauro Batista de Morais

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests.METHODS:This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school,all aged between 6 and 10 years,in Osasco,Brazil.For characterization of the groups,data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected.Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups.All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ≥ 20 ppm or CH4 ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion.RESULTS:Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school.SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P =0.0007).Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P =0.007).A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO.Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001).Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum.Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methaneproducing children (P =0.017).CONCLUSION:Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production.Hydrogen is a substrate for methane

  8. From the children's point of view : power, pragmatism and rights in children's lives in Buganda

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    I left for Uganda in 1996 with two issues I wanted to consider: One, people's comprehension of children's rights; and two, children's perspective of their daily life. As Redd Barna had been working in this particular area of Uganda since the early 1990's I had heard that almost everybody knew about children's rights - or eddembe ly'abaana in Luganda (a translation which literally could mean, and often understood as children's freedom or liberty, and even children's peace). Now, when sumarizin...

  9. Mineral metabolism in European children living with a renal transplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; van Stralen, Karlijn J;

    2015-01-01

    Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant...... recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study included 1237 children (0-17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines...

  10. Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pokharel, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    This thesis entitled ‘Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal’ is based on the idea that children rights, the most basic of human rights need to be discussed and promoted, since children are the future of the community, nation and the world. Indigenous peoples and their struggle for human rights is now a significant force, as the movement moves in a new era. In such a context, the main interest of this research work is the current situation of indigeno...

  11. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  12. Attachment Styles in Children Living in Alternative Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Quiroga, Manuela; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large number of children are currently living in Alternative Care. The relationship they establish with their temporary caregivers can play a significant role in their development. However, little has been published regarding attachment with temporary Caregivers. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the existing published…

  13. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  14. Teachers' Knowledge and Children's Lives: Loose Change in the Battle for Educational Currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Raises the issue of the separation existing between the world of teacher and the world of educational research. Argues that teachers and academic researchers live in two parallel universes, both of which are committed to the improvement of education and the well-being of children, but only one of which is privileged as a source of knowledge about…

  15. Selected Resources on Adult Children Living at Home: An Annotated Bibliography for Researchers, Educators, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Billie H.; Hayes, Kathleen C.

    The resources in this annotated bibliography were selected to help readers better understand what is known about adult children living at home. Data on this subject are scarce. The bibliography is a literature review--a State-of-the-Art report--which is applicable to many professionals and students in the social sciences. It was developed by…

  16. Schooling Options for Muslim Children Living in Muslim-Minority Countries--A Thematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Muhammad Nabeel; Nabeel, Fatima Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Islamic education of children is a common problem faced by Muslims living in western, European and other developed countries as minority. It can be due to a number of factors such as unavailability of Islamic schools at a particular location, lack of enough number of students to warrant opening a full-fledged Islamic school, curriculum legislated…

  17. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D;

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the ...

  18. Children's Stories of Hope: Moving toward an Expanded Understanding of the World Children Live in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Vickie E.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study that allowed children to be the dominant voice examined children's stories of hope. Twenty-nine kindergarten children through to third graders were interviewed using familiar school items: story board, pictures, puppets, and so on. One elementary school, located in a large southwestern metropolitan city, was selected for…

  19. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  20. 當原住民與漢人在教室相遇:不同族群背景的教師與幼兒在教室之言談 Aboriginal and Han People in Classrooms: Discourse Styles between Teachers and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    李萍娜 Pyng-Na Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究探究不同族群師生之教室言談。採質性研究法進入兩個場域觀察:漢人教師與原住民幼兒、原住民教師與漢人幼兒。研究發現,漢人教師在原住民區教導的原住民幼兒,在教室之口說回答簡短、常穿插族語且在團體中交叉共構。漢人教師在原住民區之提問以封閉性問題居多,原住民幼兒被要求來前面單獨回答時則常靜默,但如有媒介物就能敘說;原住民幼兒口說日記遊走在真實和「編說」中,與漢人教師所欲討論真實事件形成雙軌平行之對答。漢人區任教之原住民教師口語表達常重複、補充說明和插入臺語;原住民教師與漢人幼兒之對話以開放性提問居多,提問的內容若為讓幼兒探索教師意圖,則常缺乏線索而造成幼兒隨意猜測;若是提問的內容為幼兒的經驗事件,則提供幼兒社會建構、同儕鷹架之對話關係。此外,在漢人區的原住民教師之言談常過度延伸或轉換主旨,以至於延宕提問結論或沒有結論。 This study explored classroom discourses between teachers and young children with different ethnic groups, adopting an ethnographic approach as the qualitative method. Data were collected from (1 a Han teacher and aboriginal children in a Paiwan tribe; and (2 a Painanese teacher and Han children in a Han area. The results indicated that in the class of the Han teacher, the discourse styles of the aboriginal children included short sentences and interpolating Paiwanese nouns. The aboriginal children were unfamiliar with speaking alone in front of people, and multiple children spoke over each other in group situations. If the aboriginal children had varied media, such as their own drawings, they could express themselves; when they discussed their daily lives based on these drawings, other children frequently participated, generating a story that varied between reality and

  1. [Oral health status in children with intellectual disability living in organized groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Pakhomova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess oral health status in in children with intellectual disability (ID) living in Moscow Orphanage №15. The study involved 91 children aged 12 (39 children) and 15 (52 children). Caries incidence and DMFT index, periodontal disease incidence, OHI-S and PMA index, malocclusions incidence were assessed at baseline examination. Caries incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was moderate (53.85% and 56.0%, correspondingly), as well as DMFT (2.77±0.52 и 2.94±0.53 correspondingly). In 2 children with rumination syndrome all teeth were affected by caries and these children received dental treatment under general anesthesia 7 times during last 60 months. Periodontal disease incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was 89.74% и 86.58%, correspondingly with very high OHI-S indicating unsatisfactory oral hygiene. Malocclusions incidence was 95% and 98%, correspondingly. Thus the main oral problem in children with ID is periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene. Differentiated oral hygiene education approach according to children's physical and intellectual abilities should be considered. Children with rumination syndrome should be addressed by neurologist prior to dental treatment which needs more radical approach. PMID:27367200

  2. [Oral health status in children with intellectual disability living in organized groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Pakhomova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess oral health status in in children with intellectual disability (ID) living in Moscow Orphanage №15. The study involved 91 children aged 12 (39 children) and 15 (52 children). Caries incidence and DMFT index, periodontal disease incidence, OHI-S and PMA index, malocclusions incidence were assessed at baseline examination. Caries incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was moderate (53.85% and 56.0%, correspondingly), as well as DMFT (2.77±0.52 и 2.94±0.53 correspondingly). In 2 children with rumination syndrome all teeth were affected by caries and these children received dental treatment under general anesthesia 7 times during last 60 months. Periodontal disease incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was 89.74% и 86.58%, correspondingly with very high OHI-S indicating unsatisfactory oral hygiene. Malocclusions incidence was 95% and 98%, correspondingly. Thus the main oral problem in children with ID is periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene. Differentiated oral hygiene education approach according to children's physical and intellectual abilities should be considered. Children with rumination syndrome should be addressed by neurologist prior to dental treatment which needs more radical approach.

  3. Putting Children on the Path to Becoming Responsible Adults: The Perspective of One Parent Living in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents seeking a sound education for their children are looking beyond the narrow boundaries of test scores into the realm of character education. This article explores how parenting approaches can help children live fulfilling lives in the present and also prepare them for future adult roles in personal, social, and professional spheres.…

  4. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Camila Amaral; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Damião, Elaine Buchhorn Cintra; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista; Silva, Ellen Maria Reimberg da; Barbosa, Silvia Maria de Macedo; Polastrini, Rita Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget's theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses' understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  5. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Amaral Borghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses’ understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  6. Hygienic assessment of microelementosis in primary school children living on geochemical territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminov B.P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider methods of solving urgent issues of prevention of violations of children’s health those who live in technologically contaminated areas. Content of pollutants in environmental objects of Sosnivka town as geochemical province was conducted. We made a comparative analysis of pre-pathological health indicators of children living on this territory, as well as "conditionally clean territory" by the elemental composition of children’s hair and blood content, intensity of lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidant enzymes, parameters of physical development and condition of their actual nutrition. Correlations between exposure to toxicants of the environment and changes in the health of children was revealed. There was developed integrated scheme of measures for the prevention of technogenic microelementosis among children.

  7. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  8. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most

  9. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group. PMID:27419016

  10. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Golle, Kathleen (Diplom Sportwissenschaftlerin); Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 6...

  11. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Bradman, Asa; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive ...

  12. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Doubova Svetlana V; Santos José; Castillo Raúl; Sandoval Araceli; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Reyes Hortensia; Gutiérrez Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one ur...

  13. Stories from Lake Volta: the lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamenoo, Emma Seyram; Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa

    2015-02-01

    Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of child maltreatment and is often difficult to recognize when it happens intra-country. This paper presents the narratives of children on their experiences as victims of trafficking in fishing communities along the Volta Lake in the Volta region of Ghana. The narratives were co-constructed with the children through child-friendly participatory approaches which involved drawings, writing, and in-depth interviews. The stories reflect the magnitude of maltreatment trafficked children suffer, which ranges from physical to psychological and emotional. The authors recommend commitment by the government to the implementation of the Human Trafficking Act to deter child traffickers. Further studies on the living conditions of rescued children and the need to implement strategies to prevent re-trafficking are suggested. PMID:25015268

  14. Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children. Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source.

  15. Siblings of children with mental retardation living at home or in residential placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, L; Baker, B L; Blacher, J

    1998-03-01

    Severe retardation in a child surely has an effect on all family members. Studies of non-disabled siblings in these families have indicated both emotional risks and perceived benefits. Little is known about how out-of-home placement of the child with retardation affects the siblings. Adolescent siblings of children with retardation living at home (N = 25) or in residential placement (N = 20) were contrasted with siblings of children without retardation (N = 28), on measures obtained from their mothers and themselves. Despite their different situations, these siblings were highly similar on measures of psychological adjustment, self-esteem, and family environment. Sibling relationships, however, were less intense, with less warmth but also lower conflict, in families where the child lived out of the home. Most siblings of children with retardation reported positive personal growth experiences while also expressing realistic concerns about the future. Siblings of children with retardation had beliefs and attitudes about placement that were highly consistent with the child's current living situation. PMID:9670091

  16. The Modes of Communication Used by Children with Cochlear Implants and the Role of Sign in Their Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Merv; Punch, Renee

    2011-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, which included surveys of 247 parents and 151 teachers, the researchers investigated the modes of communication used by children with cochlear implants and the role of signed communication in the children's lives. Findings indicated that 15%-20% of the children in the parent surveys and approximately 30% of the children…

  17. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  18. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  19. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  20. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on haematological parameters in children living in Western Kenya

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    Hongo Gordon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the commonest cause of childhood morbidity in Western Kenya with varied heamatological consequences. The t study sought to elucidate the haemotological changes in children infected with malaria and their impact on improved diagnosis and therapy of childhood malaria. Methods Haematological parameters in 961 children, including 523 malaria-infected and 438 non-malaria infected, living in Kisumu West District, an area of malaria holoendemic transmission in Western Kenya were evaluated. Results The following parameters were significantly lower in malaria-infected children; platelets, lymphocytes, eosinophils, red blood cell count and haemoglobin (Hb, while absolute monocyte and neutrophil counts, and mean platelet volume (MPV were higher in comparison to non-malaria infected children. Children with platelet counts of Conclusion Children infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria exhibited important changes in some haematological parameters with low platelet count and haemoglobin concentration being the two most important predictors of malaria infection in children in our study area. When used in combination with other clinical and microscopy, these parameters could improve malaria diagnosis in sub-patent cases.

  1. Antioxidant status in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) living in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, M; Salem, S; Hassaneen, H; el-Gadban, H; Elwan, N; Awad, A; Basu, T K

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in a select group of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), living in Cairo, Egypt. The plasma concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin C, vitamin E as well as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activities were all significantly decreased in the presence of JRA compared to those without JRA. Unlike these antioxidant factors, vitamin A and its carrier (e.g. retinol binding protein), which have very little or no antioxidant property, remained unaffected by JRA. These results suggest that the children with JRA are subject to oxidative stress.

  2. Caries Prevalence and Caries Associated Measures in Children Living in a Rural Romanian Village

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...

  3. A NARRATIVE: MEDITATION IN THE LIVES OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taunya WIDEMAN-JOHNSTON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic illness in one’s life often entails endless appointments, tests, medications, treatments, and procedures. In the instances of children with chronic illness, they do not know what life consists of without their illness, and consequently, have lived with many restrictions. Children with chronic illness and their families are not only in need of traditional methods and strategies from the medical model but are often in need of additional strategies to support and cope with the nature and effects of the chronic illness. This paper focuses on how mediation, mindfulness, and visualization strategies aid individuals with chronic illness.

  4. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Bumpass; Sheela Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children's family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18Å  during 1997-2001) or to experience their mother's entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all chil...

  5. The forgotten ones: challenges and needs of children living with disabling parental chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Wendy A; Risko, Judy; Covington, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative study explored the challenges and needs of children living with parental chronic pain. Young adult children (n=30) of parents with chronic pain were interviewed. Parents (n=20) with chronic pain participated in four focus groups. Content analysis yielded five categories of child challenges: (a) understanding the big picture; (b) enduring hardships; (c) grieving losses; (d) communicating with parent, and; (e) isolating self from peers. Three categories of child needs emerged: (a) knowledge; (b) skills, and; (c) supervised interaction. Understanding these challenges and needs is a vital step in the process of developing evidence-based interventions for this at-risk group. PMID:25557986

  6. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedmeningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation rates continue to occur among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory. Consideration of the role of age cut-offs and 2-dose versus 3-dose schedules may be necessary. Genotype surveillance is critically important to allow detection of any possible emergence of genotypes for which there is lower vaccine-derived immunity. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b disease rates have decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines in 1993, the plateauing of rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and increasing disparity with other children, are concerning. While it is possible that higher disease rates in young

  7. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female kindergarten children. Data was collected by questionnaire interviews, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count analysis. All iron deficient anemic children were treated using an oral iron formula (50 mg ferrous carbonate + 100 mg vitamin C /5 mL and the complete blood count was reassessed after three months. A univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were constructed; crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results: the overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 33.5% with no significant differences between boys and girls. Significantly different prevalences of iron deficiency anemia were reported between different governorates of the Gaza Strip. Governorate, low education level of the parents and smoking are significant risk factors for children developing anemia. Significantly lower complete blood count parameters, except for WBC, were reported in anemic children. The oral iron treatment significantly improved hemoglobin concentrations, and normalized the iron deficiency marker. Conclusions: iron deficiency anemia is a serious health problem among children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip, which justifies the necessity for national intervention programs to improve the health status for the less fortunate development areas.

  8. Pets, allergy and respiratory symptoms in children living in a desert country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; Naser, K A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of pets and other domestic animals effect on allergic respiratory symptoms among United Arab Emirates primary school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2200 school children living in both urban and rural areas was conducted using self-administered questionnaires between November 1993 and June 1994. The age range of the children studied was 6-12 years, with a mean of 9.23 and standard deviation of 2.14 years; 51% were girls and 49% were boys. Pet ownership was defined by the presence of birds, cats, camels, dogs, goats, poultry and rabbits in the home. One thousand and thirty-six (1036/2090 = 49.6%) of the 2090 families studied had at least one animal at home. However, respiratory symptoms, pet allergy, chronic cough, chronic wheeze, breathlessness or chest tightness, doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and eczema was reported by 633 families (30.3%) from 2090 studied families. The highest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who had pets in the past and currently. The lowest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who never had pets in their lives. Past pets ownership was generally associated with a higher prevalence of pets allergy and respiratory symptoms. No less than 218 (10.4%) reported removing pets in the past because of an allergy or other health problems in the child or in other family members. The risk of having pet allergy in children with animals was found to be twice than that of children without (RR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97; p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7626193

  9. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  10. Rethinking responses to children and young people’s online lives

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Timothy G.; Bhullar, Sangeet; Dowty, Terri

    2011-01-01

    This brief discussion paper shares preliminary work to develop a practical framework for thinking about rights-respecting advocacy, policy and practice responses to support and empower children and young people in their daily encounters with the Internet and other networked digital technologies. Contemporary public service policy and practice responses to the role of the Internet in young people’s lives focus disproportionately on strategies involving web blocking and filtering, restriction o...

  11. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Hills

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16 were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope.

  12. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope. PMID:27291160

  13. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope.

  14. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  15. Increasing uptake of live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in the United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Loren; Pabst, Laura J; Chaves, Sandra S

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends annual influenza vaccination for all persons in the United States aged ≥6 months. On June 25, 2014, ACIP preferentially recommended live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children aged 2-8 years. Little is known about national LAIV uptake. To determine uptake of LAIV relative to inactivated influenza vaccine, we analyzed vaccination records from six immunization information system sentinel sites (approximately 10% of US population). LAIV usage increased over time in all sites. Among children 2-8 years of age vaccinated for influenza, exclusive LAIV usage in the collective sentinel site area increased from 20.1% (2008-09 season) to 38.0% (2013-14). During 2013-14, at least half of vaccinated children received LAIV in Minnesota (50.0%) and North Dakota (55.5%). Increasing LAIV usage suggests formulation acceptability, and this preexisting trend offers a favorable context for implementation of ACIP's preferential recommendation.

  16. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  17. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  18. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  19. Predictors of developmental status in young children living in institutional care in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupina, Maria G; Toemen, Liza; Aidjanov, Musa M; Georgieff, Michael; Hearst, Mary O; Himes, John H; Johnson, Dana E; Miller, Bradley S; Syzdykova, Aigul M; Sharmanov, Toregeldy S

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the developmental status of children living in the severely adverse environment of institutional care and the examination of risk factors with regard to developmental status, including degree of stunting and emotional-behavioral and anemia status. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess development status in 103 children aged 14.9 months (SD = 6.8) in six Kazakh institutions. The Behavioral Rating Scales were used to assess emotional-behavioral regulation. Physical growth measures were converted to z scores using World Health Organization growth charts. Venous blood was collected for assessment of anemia. Our findings indicated that young children in institutions were developmentally compromised, with duration of institutional care correlated with the severity of delay. Negative predictors of developmental status included: Poor emotional-behavioral regulation, degree of stunting and age at assessment. A particularly large percentage of children were found to be anemic. Additionally, low birth weight was found to be a significant negative predictor of development. Our findings indicate that institutional care has a detrimental impact on the development and emotional regulation of young children. Time in institutional care is a negative predictor for cognitive status for children placed at birth. Moreover stunting was found to be a useful indicator of the degree of impact of early adversity on cognitive development. Particular attention is needed for special-needs children such as those with low birth weight, since their development was found to be more sensitive to early adversity than that of normal birth weight children.

  20. Gudaga Goes to School Study: Methods Used in Understanding School Transitions and Early Education Experiences of an Urban Aboriginal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, Cathy; Knight, Jennifer; Grace, Rebekah; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Comino, Elizabeth; Jackson-Pulver, Lisa; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Gudaga Goes to School Study described the transition to school and early education experiences of 117 urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper outlines the methods and design of the study. A life course approach, employing multidimensional and multi-theoretical frameworks was used to capture the complexity of issues surrounding…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

  2. Women at greatest risk: Reducing injection frequency among young Aboriginal drug users in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Margo Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates why some young Aboriginal people inject opiates at higher frequency than others and suggests policies to address high frequency opiate injection. Multivariate logistic regression is used to analyze data gathered between 2003-04 in Vancouver and Prince George Independent variables include those shown as significant in relevant literature, demographics factors associated with severe addiction, and HCV imd HIV serostatus. Career injectors, females, those living in Vancouv...

  3. [Special features of actual nutrition and nutritional status of children living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, A V; Iudina, T V; Mikhaĭlov, I G; Raengulov, B M

    2000-01-01

    Actual nutrition of children living at boarding-school of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district and also characteristics of their health, such as capacity for work, vitamin metabolism, physical development and activity of bio-oxidant systems of organism have been studied. The obtained results have become the basis for developing scientifically substantiated principles of creating balanced nutrition ration with antioxidant properties for the children living at the Far North.

  4. Live attenuated varicella vaccine. Efficacy for children with leukemia in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; LaRussa, P; Farrara, A

    1984-07-20

    One hundred ninety-one varicella-susceptible children with leukemia in remission were immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. There was serological evidence of an immune response in approximately 80% after one dose and in more than 90% after two doses. The major side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen especially in children with maintenance chemotherapy suspended for one week before and one week after vaccination. Children with rash had higher antibody titers than those without rash, but those with rash were also at risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to others. Twenty-two vaccinees subsequently had household exposures to varicella or zoster. The attack rate of clinical varicella in these vaccinees was 18%, significantly lower than the attack rate of approximately 90% in varicella-susceptible persons with household exposures. All cases of clinical illness were extremely mild, with an average of about 50 vesicles. The mild character of the illness was clearly different than varicella in unimmunized children receiving chemotherapy for leukemia. Varicella vaccine was approximately 80% effective in preventing clinical varicella in children with leukemia and completely effective in preventing severe varicella in this high-risk group.

  5. Burden among caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chand Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9% of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4% reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients′ behavior, and caregivers′ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as

  6. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

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    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  7. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Eskenazi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.

  8. Living with childhood obesity: the experience of children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Veridiana Zamparoni Victorino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of obesity from the perspective of obese children enrolled in a multidisciplinary monitoring program. Descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature. Data collection occurred in December 2013, along with eight children accompanied by a child and adolescent obesity group in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews. Data were submitted to content analysis, from which four categories emerged: “Obesity in children’s perspective”; “Being an obese child”; “Eating and the practice of physical exercise in the routine of obese children”; and “Living with obesity: social and family implications for children.” It was verified the negative impact of obesity on children’s lives, justifying the importance of multidisciplinary follow-up through group activities, seeking a comprehensive care. Nursing is accountable for planning activities of health promotion and control of this disease, in order to improve the quality of life.

  9. Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  10. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  11. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  12. How Can Children Tell Us about Their Wellbeing? Exploring the Potential of Participatory Research Approaches within "Young Lives"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Gina; Camfield, Laura; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    "Wellbeing" is a key concept in the study of children's lives over time, given its potential to link the objective, subjective, and inter-subjective dimensions of their experiences in ways that are holistic, contextualized and longitudinal. For this reason wellbeing is one of the core concepts used by Young Lives, a 15-year project (2000-2015)…

  13. Predicting Early Fatherhood and Whether Young Fathers Live with Their Children: Prospective Findings and Policy Recommendations. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Taylor, Alan; Dickson, Nigel

    This prospective, birth cohort study addressed three questions: Which individual and family-of-origin characteristics predict the age at which young men make the transition to fatherhood? Do these characteristics predict how long young men live with their children? Are individual differences in the amount of time fathers spend living with their…

  14. Children Writing "Hard Times": Lived Experiences of Poverty and the Class-Privileged Assumptions of a Mandated Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutro, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Dutro discusses an analysis of the disconnect between the material realities of the lives of a group of third-grade children living in poverty and the middle-class assumptions of a district-mandated unit within a literacy curriculum. The analysis arose in the context of an ethnographic study of identity and classroom literacy practices; it was…

  15. Mental health in Swedish children living in joint physical custody and their parents' life satisfaction: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Fransson, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Köhler, Lennart; Wallby, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the psychological symptoms of 129 children in joint physical custody with children in single care and nuclear families, using a nationally representative 2011 survey of 1,297 Swedish children aged between four and 18 years. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its association with three dimensions of parental life satisfaction was investigated. Linear regression analyses showed higher SDQ-scores for children in joint physical custody (B = 1.4, p joint physical custody. Parental life satisfaction should be investigated further as a possible explanation of differences in symptom load between children in different living arrangements.

  16. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Indonesian children living with a sputum smear-positive case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherford, M.E.; Hill, P.C.; Maharani, W.; Apriani, L.; Sampurno, H.; Crevel, R. van; Ruslami, R.

    2012-01-01

    SETTING AND OBJECTIVES: Young children living with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases are at high risk of infection and disease, and screening is recommended. This is rarely conducted in resource-limited settings. Identifying children most at risk of infection may be useful for setting practical scr

  17. Managing Mobile Relationships: Children's Perceptions of the Impact of the Mobile Phone on Relationships in Their Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English children's use of mobile phones in managing and maintaining friendships and relationships in their everyday lives. Based on the accounts of 30 young people aged between 11 and 17, this research adopts a social constructivist perspective to offer a theoretical framework which explores how children themselves actually…

  18. Active Living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Jansen, M.W.J.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The worldwide increase in the rates of childhood overweight and physical inactivity requires successful prevention and intervention programs for children. The aim of the Active Living project is to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior of Dutch primary school children

  19. Maids or Mentors? The Effects of Live-In Foreign Domestic Workers on Children's Educational Achievement in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sam Hak Kan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of live-in foreign domestic workers (FDWs) on school children's educational outcomes using samples from two population censuses and a survey data set. The evidence consistently points to Filipino FDWs improving the educational outcomes of school children by decreasing their probability of late schooling or increasing…

  20. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate...

  1. Femicide and murdered women's children: Which future for these children orphans of a living parent?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, P; Caporale, O.; Cutrona, C.; Sbordone, A.; Amato, M.; Spina, G.; Ianniello, F.; Fabrizio, G.; Guadagno, C.; Basile, M.; Miconi, F.; Perrone, G; RICCARDI, R; Verrotti, A.; Pettoello-Mantovani, M

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of femicides in Italy over the last three years and the potential long lasting effects of these traumatic events for the children of a woman who dies a violent death. Methods The data used in this study come from an internet search for the number of femicides occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2012 and 31st October, 2014. Results The total number of femicides was 319; the average age of murdered women was 47.50 ± 19.26. Cold arms in the form of sharp o...

  2. The Meaning of Musical Instruments and Music Technologies in Children's Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I will investigate the role of musical instruments in children’s lives. A musical instrument is a thing which has the capacity to produce a variation of sounds perceived as music when the musician follows certain conventions and rules. The child who learns to play a musical...... instrument involves him/herself both with music as a cultural field and with the steady technical and expressive requirements from the particular musical instrument. However, whereas music accompanies very many activities in everyday life of children, fewer children have such an active relationship...... with a musical instrument. The more so when what is practiced by the instrument is classical music. This gap between music as consumed (listening to) and music as practiced (playing) is interesting from a developmental perspective: what does it mean for a child to play a musical instrument? And in which ways may...

  3. An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis -a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denegri Federica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocysticercosis represents an important cause of seizures in children in endemic countries, such as Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while in Europe, especially in Italy, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anectodal. We report the case of a 6 year old boy, born and lived for four years in Cameroon, who presented a right emiconvulsion. The diagnosis was neurocysticercosis. This case accentuates the need to consider neurocysticercosis in a child presenting with non febrile seizures, mainly if he emigrated from an area of high prevalence or if he had long-term stay in endemic regions.

  4. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services

    OpenAIRE

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...

  5. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  6. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  7. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M.; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient a...

  8. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  9. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  10. The periodontal health of lead-exposed children living in a shipyard industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youravong, Nattaporn; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2015-05-01

    In a cross-sectional design, 292 schoolchildren living around a shipyard area, known to be contaminated with lead from shipyard industry, were examined to verify the association between lead exposure and periodontal health. The probing pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing, plaque and calculus, and the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in subgingival crevices were recorded. Gingival inflammation was the most common (98%) among children in the area. No significant difference in gingival inflammation was observed between high blood lead (PbB) and low PbB children. The prevalence rate of probing PD of ≥5 mm was 14%. The high PbB group showed more deep pockets at tooth 16 (upper right first permanent molar) and tooth 46 (lower right first permanent molar) than the low PbB group. The odds ratios (ORs) for having probing PD ≥5 mm after adjusting for other factors were 3.63 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-10.61; p = 0.02) for tooth 16 and 3.93 (95% CI, 1.18-13.00; p = 0.02) for tooth 46. The presence of Aa was observed in 17% of the children and it significantly increased in high PbB compared with low PbB children at tooth 46 (OR = 5.53, 95% CI: 1.68-18.15; p = 0.005). This study may suggest no association between lead exposure and gingival inflammation, yet there was the involvement of deeper periodontal tissue in lead-exposed children.

  11. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  12. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  13. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  14. PROBLEM OF METABOLIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS LIVING IN THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA

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    A. V. Krasnopolskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, as many other rheumatic diseases, is in close pathogenic connection with metabolic disorders and early atherosclerosis. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components both in healthy Finno-Ugrian children and teens and JIA patients is unknown.Objective of the present work was to study the prevalence of metabolic disorders in children with JIA, living in the Republic of Mordovia.Subjects and methods. Authors have examined 82 children (among them 44 girls with JIA aged 10–18 years. Results. Full complex of metabolic syndrome symptoms was revealed in 36.6% of patients, most of which had arthritis. Dyslipidaemia, obesity and arterial hypertension were recorded most frequently and correlated with activity of the disease and the dose of systemic glucocorticoids.Conclusion. JIA is associated with high prevalence of metabolic disorders which only partially (arterial hypertension and carbohydrate metabolism disorders are connected with glucocorticoid therapy and mainly determined by the high inflammatory activity of the disease.

  15. A multicentre trial of live attenuated varicella vaccine in children with leukaemia in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S; Gelb, L; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; LaRussa, P; Ferrara, A

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred forty children with acute leukaemia in remission for at least 1 year were immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. All were susceptible to varicella before immunization. There was a seroconversion to varicella-zoster virus in approximately 85% after 1 dose, and in 97% after 2 doses. The major side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen mainly in children with maintenance chemotherapy suspended for 1 week before and 1 week after vaccination. Vaccinees with rash were at some risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to varicella susceptibles with whom they had close contact. Twenty-nine vaccinees were subsequently exposed to varicella in their households. The attack rate of clinical varicella in these vaccinees was 21%, which is significantly lower than the 80%-90% attack rate occurring in varicella susceptibles after household exposure. All these breakthrough cases of varicella were mild, even in leukaemics receiving chemotherapy. Varicella vaccine was approximately 80% effective in preventing clinical varicella in children with leukaemia and completely effective in preventing severe varicella in this high-risk group.

  16. Children and teenagers living in orphanages victims of violence: dilemmas and nursing perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Reschke Salomão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to understand the nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence living in orphanages and to identify the strategies used on the treatment of these individuals when they arrive at the institution. Qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study conducted from March to April 2012, at the headquarters of the Fundação de Proteção Especial do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [Special Protection Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul] in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data were collected through focus group in three meetings with seven nurses from the mentioned institution. The analysis of the information followed the proposed theme, identifying three categories: violence conceptions and vulnerability factors, nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence and violence prevention in orphanages. Conclusions point out that attendance protocols are fundamental for integral care and that recreational content may be a strategy for taking care of children/teenagers victims of violence.

  17. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  18. New estimates of the number of children living with substance misusing parents: results from UK national household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Nathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing estimates of there being 250,000 - 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK (ACMD, 2003 and 780,000 - 1.3 million children of adults with an alcohol problem (AHRSE, 2004 are extrapolations of treatment data alone or estimates from other countries, hence updated, local and broader estimates are needed. Methods The current work identifies profiles where the risk of harm to children could be increased by patterns of parental substance use and generates new estimates following secondary analysis of five UK national household surveys. Results The Health Survey for England (HSfE and General Household Survey (GHS (both 2004 generated consistent estimates - around 30% of children under-16 years (3.3 - 3.5 million in the UK lived with at least one binge drinking parent, 8% with at least two binge drinkers and 4% with a lone (binge drinking parent. The National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS indicated that in 2000, 22% (2.6 million lived with a hazardous drinker and 6% (705,000 with a dependent drinker. The British Crime Survey (2004 and NPMS (2000 indicated that 8% (up to 978,000 of children lived with an adult who had used illicit drugs within that year, 2% (up to 256,000 with a class A drug user and 7% (up to 873,000 with a class C drug user. Around 335,000 children lived with a drug dependent user, 72,000 with an injecting drug user, 72,000 with a drug user in treatment and 108,000 with an adult who had overdosed. Elevated or cumulative risk of harm may have existed for the 3.6% (around 430,000 children in the UK who lived with a problem drinker who also used drugs and 4% (half a million where problem drinking co-existed with mental health problems. Stronger indicators of harm emerged from the Scottish Crime Survey (2000, according to which 1% of children (around 12,000 children had witnessed force being used against an adult in the household by their partner whilst drinking alcohol and 0.6% (almost 6000

  19. Strongyloidiasis: an issue in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Page, W; Speare, R

    2003-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a disease caused by the parasitic gut nematode (roundworm), Strongyloides stercoralis, has the highest prevalence in the world in rural and remote Aboriginal communities of northern Australia. With prevalences greater than 25%, these communities have rates of strongyloidiasis higher those in the worst affected developing countries where surveys have been recently conducted. Available data indisputably support that strongyloidiasis is more prevalent in rural and remote Aboriginal communities than in the mainstream Australian community. However control of strongyloidiasis has not been given a high priority by government health departments, with the result that Aboriginal people in remote and rural communities in Northern Australia are still suffering from a preventable and treatable disease. This article suggests that the only way to address the strongyloidiasis problem in Indigenous communities is to have strongyloidiasis recognised and addressed at the national level. One component of this must be making health departments responsible for establishing appropriate systems of effective treatment for and monitoring of patients with strongyloidiasis. PMID:15877491

  20. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  1. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  2. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. PMID:27101890

  3. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Vanessa M Boulanger; Falb, Kathryn L; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult famil...

  4. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Vanessa M Boulanger; Falb, Kathryn L; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings: Adult fam...

  5. PECULIARITIES OF CURRENT DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines peculiarities of current dose assessment for the children living in the territories radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The results of annual exposure dose assessment for the children of various age groups and adult population of three subject territories of the Russian Federation referred to the zones of radioactive contamination are presented. A comparison of obtained estimations is done.

  6. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  7. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner

    2013-01-01

    The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will prove to be of a private law natu

  8. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong;

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori...

  9. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  10. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XN25 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  11. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  12. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  13. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  14. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will pro

  15. Influence of music lessons on the vocabulary of bilingual children : a study among 16 bilingual children living in mixed communicative environment in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of bilingualism and early childhood education have been made. Very few studies, from the ones I found, focus specifically on using music activities with the bilingual children, which raises interest for this particular research. Being a teacher of music myself it made me especially interested in such kind of research. The study may lead to a better understanding of influence of music lessons on extending of vocabulary of children living in mixed commu...

  16. Children Living near a Sanitary Landfill Have Increased Breath Methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in Their Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bezerra de Araujo Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher P<0.05 concentrations in those who lived in the slum near the landfill (3.16×107 CFU/g of feces, comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05×106 CFU/g of feces and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93×105 CFU/g of feces. The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  17. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter F.; Hoen, Anne G.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Brown, Eric P.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I.; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods. Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results. Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions. The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge.

  18. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter F; Hoen, Anne G; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C; Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J

    2016-04-01

    Background.  The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods.  Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results.  Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions.  The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  19. Giardiasis in children living in post-earthquake camps from Armenia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Maria

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake in the coffee growing region of Colombia on January 25, 1999 destroyed 70% of the houses in Armenia city. Transitory housing camps still remained until two years after the disaster. Parasitological studies found that, in this population, giardiasis was the most frequent parasitic infection. This study was carried out in order to determine the epidemiological risk factors associated with this high prevalence. Methods Fecal samples were obtained from 217 children aged between 3 and 13 years. Stool samples were studied by direct wet examination and stained with ferric hematoxilin for microscopical examination. Epidemiological data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by using the Epi-info software (CDC, Atlanta 2001. Results Giardia cysts were observed in 60.4% of the samples presented and trophozoites in 4.6%. The following epidemiological and laboratory factors were significantly associated with Giardia infection: 1. Use of communal toilet (vs. individual toilet OR: 3.9, CI95%: 1.2–16; 2. water provision by municipal ducts (vs. water provision by individual tanks OR: 3.5, CI95% 1.1–14, and 3. presence of mucus in stool OR: 2.3, IC95%: 0.9–6.7. Conclusions A high prevalence of giardiasis was found in children living in temporary houses after the 1999 earthquake in Armenia (Colombia. Giardiasis is an emerging disease in post-disaster situations and adequate prevention measures should be implemented during these circumstances.

  20. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  1. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  2. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. METHODS: The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. FINDINGS: Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  3. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  4. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der H.; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M.; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T.; Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.; Papoutsou, S.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Ruprich, J.; Serra-Majem, L.; Tornaritis, M.; Turrini, A.; Urtizberea, M.; Verger, E.; Westerlund, A.; Kersting, M.; Henauw, de S.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to

  5. The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosegood, Victoria; Floyd, Sian; Marston, Milly; Hill, Caterina; McGrath, Nuala; Isingo, Raphael; Crampin, Amelia; Zaba, Basia

    2007-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from three demographic surveillance systems (DSS) and a retrospective cohort study, we estimate levels and trends in the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood in South Africa, Tanzania, and Malawi in the period 1988-2004. The prevalence of maternal, paternal, and double orphans rose in all three populations. In South Africa - where the HIV epidemic started later, has been very severe, and has not yet stabilized - the incidence of orphanhood among children is double that of the other populations. The living arrangements of children vary considerably between the populations, particularly in relation to fathers. Patterns of marriage, migration, and adult mortality influence the living and care arrangements of orphans and non-orphans. DSS data provide new insights into the impact of adult mortality on children, challenging several widely held assumptions. For example, we find no evidence that the prevalence of child-headed households is significant or has increased in the three study areas.

  6. Adolescents' and children's knowledge about rights: some evidence for how young people view rights in their own lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, M D; Keating, D P; Abramovitch, R; Koegl, C

    1998-06-01

    The present study examined the development of knowledge about rights from childhood to adolescence. One hundred and sixty-nine 8-16-year-olds participated in individual semi-structured interviews assessing knowledge and importance of rights both generally and in children's and adolescents' lives. Detailed content analyses indicated that a global stage account may not capture key features of the development of young people's knowledge about rights. Even the oldest adolescents consistently "defined" rights in concrete rather than abstract terms. In contrast, by 10 years of age the majority of subjects were aware of the universal nature of rights. These results suggest that what adolescents and children think about rights appears to be influenced by how they view rights in their own lives. The findings are discussed in terms of developmental theory and in relation to practical implications for children's rights.

  7. Children living near chipboard and wood industries are at an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Paolo, Girardi; Guarda, Linda; Pironi, Vanda; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants emitted from wood processing factories may be harmful to the health of the population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether proximity to wood factories was associated with the risk of hospital admissions in children living in the Viadana district (Italy), where two big chipboard industries and other smaller wood factories (sawmills, multi-strata layer manufacturing) are located. In 2006, children (3-14 years) living in the Viadana district were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854), their home/school addresses were geocoded and the distances to the wood industries were calculated. Hospital discharge records for the years 2007-2009 were obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between hospitalization rates and distance to the factories, adjusting for sex, age, nationality, parents' education, exposure to passive smoking and reported traffic near home. During the 3-year follow-up, the risk of hospitalization for all diagnoses (Hospitalization Hazard Ratio, HHR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) and for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.86) was greater in the children living close (factory. The children living close to the smaller wood factories were also at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.85). This study highlights a health problem for the children living close to chipboard and wood factories in the Viadana district. Further research should develop accurate exposure models based on objective measurements of air pollution in order to confirm these findings. PMID:23628305

  8. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  9. Petrol-inhalation in aboriginal towns. Its remedy: the homelands movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, H D

    1979-09-01

    Regular petrol-inhaling involves 50 children ("sniffers"), aged nine to 14 years, at the Aboriginal town of Maningrida--over one-third of resident children of this age. Children of two closely related clan-language groups comprise the majority of inhalers. Similarly, at the town of Galiwinku the children of two deprived clans are involved almost exclusively. These are the only clans in eastern Arnhem Land without outstations on their homelands. Revitalization of these clans appears the only effective method of containing the practice. Petrol-inhaling is associated with delinquency, low body weight, venereal disease, and elevated levels of blood lead. The effectiveness of past remedial action is in doubt. PMID:514145

  10. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  11. Children living near a sanitary landfill have increased breath methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in their intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Filho, Humberto Bezerra; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Mello, Carolina Santos; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher (P landfill (3.16 × 10(7) CFU/g of feces), comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05 × 10(6) CFU/g of feces) and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93 × 10(5) CFU/g of feces). The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  12. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  13. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  14. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  15. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  16. 'A tale of two cases:' the health, illness, and physical activity stories of two children living with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moola, Fiona J; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-01-01

    Storytelling is perennial, and central to the human condition. Although illness may shatter identity and one's role and place in the broader social world, narrative may aid in the process of self-reparation. Despite the merits of the narrative approach, it has been underutilized with children who are living with cystic fibrosis (CF). The role that illness narratives may play in influencing CF youths' physical activity also remains poorly investigated. This article drew on the qualitative case study methodological tradition to narrate the stories of two children living with CF at a children's hospital in Canada. The findings beg researchers to consider (a) how children with life-limiting diseases borrow multiple illness narrative types, (b) the role of development in influencing the kinds of stories that children can tell, and (c) the impact of illness narratives on physical activity. By rendering the tales of two CF youth in this study, we respond to Aurthur Frank's call; taking a multiple narrative turn, we listen to stories of a different kind of suffering. PMID:23172873

  17. Urban Natural Environments, Obesity, and Health-Related Quality of Life among Hispanic Children Living in Inner-City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin

    2016-01-01

    Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited from Houston, Texas, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to capture the children's HRQOL. The quality of urban natural environments was assessed by quantifying the landscape spatial patterns, using landscape indices generated by Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. From the bivariate analyses, children's body mass index showed a significantly negative association with their HRQOL. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, the results revealed that larger and more tree areas were positively correlated with children's HRQOL. In addition, those children living in areas with tree patches further apart from each other showed higher HRQOL. This research adds to the current multi-disciplinary area of research on environment-health relationships by investigating the roles of urban greeneries and linking their spatial structures with children's HRQOL.

  18. HEALTH STATUS OF THE CHILDREN AND THE ADULT MEMBERS OF THE LARGE FAMILIES LIVING IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shishkina Irina Vladimirovna; Kapitonov Vladimir Phedorovih; Susloparova Rimma Yevgenyevna

    2012-01-01

    To study the health status of the children and the adult members of the large families living in rural areas we surveyed 770 children and 393 their parents of 204 large families. From among surveyed families 87,7 % made traditional families, and 12,3 % made single-parent families. It was found out that: - the level of general and primary morbidity of the mothers of single-parent families in 1.1 times exceeds the level of traditional families and earlier known in 1,2 times; the rank structure ...

  19. [Understanding and support for children with autism spectrum and developmental disorders--looking steadily at peaceful lives in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masami

    2010-05-01

    For a long time autism spectrum and developmental disorders have not been well understood. Treatment and education for children with this disorders have been inappropriate in many ways. Although this fact was not obvious until many such children began to demonstrate secondary emotional disturbances including social withdrawal, social aggression, delinquency, domestic violence and momicide. This discourse describes advances in research and practice of clinical and psycho-neurological for autism spectrum in recent years. In addition, I suggest policies and measures for therapeutic education that will avoid secondary symptoms allowing these individuals to conduct their lives in socially independent directions. PMID:23858573

  20. The health of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGiudice, Dina

    2016-06-01

    The health of Aboriginal Australians is poorer than that of all other Indigenous cultures in developed nations, and recent studies suggest high rates of dementia and other conditions that are common in old age. This has implications for health promotion, provision of services and planning for older age in these communities. This article provides an overview on the health of Older Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27155822

  1. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  2. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions. PMID:10459151

  3. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions.

  4. Tympanic membrane temperature in adopted children associated with sleep problems and pre-adoption living arrangements: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Damsteegt, Rani C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Out, Dorothée; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) has been proposed as an indicator of cerebral activation and TMT asymmetry may indicate lateralization, which has been associated with specific (problem) behaviors in children and adults. The current study explored the relations between pre-adoption living arrangements, TMT, and behavior and sleep problems in a sample of adopted toddlers. Methods Ninety-two families who had adopted a Chinese girl who had previously been placed in an institution o...

  5. Border-line neuro psychic disturbances in children and teenagers living on the territory contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spread of the border-line neuro psychic disturbances in children and teenagers aged 10-16 living in the districts contaminated with radionuclides was studied. A marked increase of psychic disturbances, particularly in girls, attributed to the growth of neurotic and neurosis-like disorders as compared with the control group was revealed. Asthenic type disorders prevailed in derangement structure. 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der, Monique; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De, M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T. (Teemu); Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to allow for linkage with lead concentration data in a standardised way. Two different models were used for the calculations: the beta-binomial-normal (BBN) model and the observed individual means (OI...

  7. Social support as a protective factor for children impacted by HIV/AIDS across varying living environments in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenbaum, Edna; Smith, Tamarah

    2016-03-01

    The literature on the psychological well-being of children impacted by HIV/AIDS in Africa highlights increased vulnerability due to loss of parents and environmental stressors (e.g., hunger). Research shows that the lack of attachment and social support due to loss limits the grieving process in children. Access to trusting adults and social support through caregivers can be an important protective factor to allow for coping and better emotional adjustment in the future. This study examined social support systems across varying living environments to determine if social support promoted higher levels of well-being in children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. The participants included 100 children from a small targeted population in southern Africa who receive varying levels of support from a private not-for-profit organization. Children's well-being was assessed through the Psycho-Social Adjustment Scale-Adolescents developed specifically for vulnerable child populations in Africa. Children were individually interviewed either on their homestead, school or hostel. Data demonstrated that children who do not share their feelings had significantly lower measures of positive well-being (M = 2.61 (0.87) vs. M = 3.10 (0.57), d = 0.60). Children with trusted adults were significantly more likely to share their feelings and had lower incidence of hunger (49.1% vs. 62.5%), suicide ideation (15.1% vs. 62.5%) and witnessing violence (69.8% vs. 87.5%). Sharing feelings with caregivers was more pronounced among children who had greater access to trusted adults and correlated with stronger attachment scores (r = .30, p < .01). An important component to decrease levels of anxiety and depression in this vulnerable population is providing access to trusted individuals. Social support interventions are discussed. PMID:27392004

  8. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. PMID:22530862

  9. Oral health status of children living in Gorom-Gorom, Oudalan District, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo;

    2010-01-01

    .3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children...

  10. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Living With Addicted Family Members: Prevention Challenges in an Underprivileged Suburban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Reis Vilela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children living with substance abusers are more likely to experience negative outcomes. Our goal was to compare caregivers' reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and a socioeconomic and risk form of psychological aspects of children exposed to substance abuse assisted versus not assisted by a preventive intervention program in an underprivileged community. This observational intervention study was conducted with 66 caregivers of children who attended the program and 35 caregivers of children from the same community who did not attend. Ages ranged between six and 11 years old. Chi-square and logistic regression tests indicate that children exposed to substance abusers have more mental health problems than the general population and those who did not participate in the preventive intervention program presented worse outcomes, with higher rates of behavioral/emotional problems and exposure to risk situations. Results suggest that preventive actions might be helpful to promote the mental health of children at risk, validating the need for public policies and services.

  12. Morbidity among children living around clinical waste treatment and disposal site in the Northwest region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. K. Mochungong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical waste is ineffectively treated and disposed in Cameroon. Disposal sites have unrestricted access and are located within communities. We hypothesize that vector proliferation and exposure to chronic low-level emissions will increase morbidity in children living around such sites. Self-reported disease frequency questionnaires were used to estimate the frequency of new episodes of intestinal, respiratory and skin infections among exposed children less than 10 years. Data was simultaneously collected for unexposed children of the same age, using the same questionnaire. Data reporting by the parents was done in the first week in each of the 6 months study period. The risk ratios were 3.54 (95% CI, 2.19-5.73, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60 and 1.35 (95% CI, 0.75-2.44 for respiratory, intestinal and skin infections respectively. Their respective risk differences were 0.47 (47%, 0.18 (18% and 0.08 (8%. The study revealed that poor treatment and disposal of clinical waste sites enhance morbidity in children living close to such areas. Simple health promotion and intervention programs such as relocating such sites can significantly reduce morbidity.

  13. Effect of living donor liver transplantation on outcome of children with inherited liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçay, Figen; Canan, Oğuz; Bilezikçi, Banu; Torgay, Adnan; Karakayali, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    We described six children with heritable liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma treated with living-related liver transplantation. Underlying liver diseases were type-1 tyrosinemia (three patients), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II (two patients), and Wilson's disease (one patient). Two of the tumors were found incidentally during liver transplantation. Number of nodules was 12, 15, 3, 2, and 1 (in two patients). Three patients were treated with chemotherapy before the procedure. Chemotherapy was not given to any patient after liver transplantation. The mean follow-up was 17.7 +/- 6 months (range: 7-24). All patients are tumor recurrence free. Both graft and patient survival rates are 100% at a median of 18.5 months follow-up. Physicians in charge of treating children with heritable liver disease should screen them periodically for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver transplantation may offer these children better survival rates.

  14. Help bring back the celebration of life: A community-based participatory study of rural Aboriginal women’s maternity experiences and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varcoe Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite clear evidence regarding how social determinants of health and structural inequities shape health, Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes are not adequately understood as arising from the historical, economic and social circumstances of their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand rural Aboriginal women’s experiences of maternity care and factors shaping those experiences. Methods Aboriginal women from the Nuxalk, Haida and 'Namgis First Nations and academics from the University of British Columbia in nursing, medicine and counselling psychology used ethnographic methods within a participatory action research framework. We interviewed over 100 women, and involved additional community members through interviews and community meetings. Data were analyzed within each community and across communities. Results Most participants described distressing experiences during pregnancy and birthing as they grappled with diminishing local maternity care choices, racism and challenging economic circumstances. Rural Aboriginal women’s birthing experiences are shaped by the intersections among rural circumstances, the effects of historical and ongoing colonization, and concurrent efforts toward self-determination and more vibrant cultures and communities. Conclusion Women’s experiences and birth outcomes could be significantly improved if health care providers learned about and accounted for Aboriginal people’s varied encounters with historical and ongoing colonization that unequivocally shapes health and health care. Practitioners who better understand Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes in context can better care in every interaction, particularly by enhancing women’s power, choice, and control over their experiences. Efforts to improve maternity care that account for the social and historical production of health inequities are crucial.

  15. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children. PMID:24147448

  16. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Walker, Roz; de Klerk, Nick; Shepherd, Carrington

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aborigin...

  17. Dizzying Dialogue: Canadian Courts and the Continuing Justification of the Dispossession Of Aboriginal People

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arcy Vermette

    2015-01-01

    Since Aboriginal rights have found protection within Canada’s Constitution, a new relationship has emerged between Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and the Crown. This relationship is characterized by the need for “reconciliation.” In its growing jurisprudence, the Supreme Court of Canada applies reconciliation doctrine to several important Aboriginal claims. Each application, however, brings with it a restriction on Aboriginal rights. This paper argues that the Court’s conception of reconciliatio...

  18. Validation of the Actical Accelerometer in Multiethnic Preschoolers: The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ettienne, Reynolette; Nigg, Claudio R.; Li, Fenfang; Su, Yuhua; McGlone, Katalina; Luick, Bret; Tachibana, Alvin; Carran, Christina; Mercado, Jobel; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Actical accelerometer for measuring physical activity (PA) in preschool children of mixed ethnicity, compared with direct observation via a modified System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) protocol and proxy parental reports (PA Logs). Fifty children in Hawai‘i wore wrist-mounted accelerometers for two 7-day periods with a washout period between each week. Thirty children were concurrently observed using SOFIT. Pa...

  19. Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, Eleonor T; Belizario, Vicente Y.; de Leon, Winifreda U.; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2004-01-01

    A small scale survey was performed to know the infection status of intestinal parasite in children of the residential institutions and street communities in Metro Manila, Philippines. A total of 284 stool samples from 11 institutions and 3 street communities was examined by the formalin-ether concentration method. The scotch tape anal swab was adapted to 121 children to investigate the infection status of Enterovius vermicularis. It was found out that 62.0% of the children examined were posit...

  20. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25729180

  1. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

  2. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  3. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25819433

  4. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  5. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  6. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  7. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  8. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  9. Reducing occurrence of Giardia duodenalis in children living in semiarid regions: impact of a large scale rainwater harvesting initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Evangelista Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Brazil, about two million people living in rural semiarid regions were benefited with the construction of rainwater cement cisterns, as an initiative from the program "One Million Cisterns" (P1MC. Nevertheless, few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess health risks or protection effects associated with consumption of this water source. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether access to rainwater harvesting cisterns is associated with the decrease in the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis infections in children, compared to other children living in households supplied by other water sources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quasi-experimental study with two concurrent cohorts was developed in two rural municipalities of the semiarid region of Brazil. A sample of 664 children, aged between 4 months and 5 years old, was followed up, of which 332 had access to rainwater cisterns (cistern group and 332 did not, having water supplied from alternative sources (comparison group. In a period of approximately one year (2010 intestinal parasites were investigated in feces three times. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in children from the cistern group ranged from 4.8 to 10.5%, while the prevalence in the comparison group ranged from 7.6 to 16.7%. Multivariate analysis (GEE showed a higher risk of G. duodenalis infection in children who did not have access to rainwater cisterns, when compared to children who did (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.14-2.59. The other variables associated with G. duodenalis infection were: number of rooms per house (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-0.99; family income (OR0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.88; birth order (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.17-2.51; preterm children (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19-2.43; and improper hand hygiene prior to food preparation (OR 4.78; 95% CI 1.95-11.76. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ownership of a rainwater cistern is associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in children after adjustment for

  10. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  11. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India- a Pilot Study

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    Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L and Bhuj (0.5mg/L were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis.Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P0.05.Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  12. Feeling Good, Living Life: A Spiritual Health Measure for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    Following previous work on the spiritual health of secondary students, the author wondered if it was possible to develop a spiritual health measure for younger children. Taking Fisher's model of spiritual health as the basis, items were developed to reflect relationships with self, with others, with the environment and with a god. The children's…

  13. Expanding Supports to Improve the Lives of Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Mary Bower; Matthews, Amy L.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience increased stress and challenges compared with families of typically developing children. We highlight the need for family-centered approaches to reduce family stress, and we elaborate on some of the most central universal needs for families with a child…

  14. Book review of: Newnes, C. & Radcliffe, N. ( 2006). Making and Breaking Children's Lives. UK: PCCS Books

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, ALAN

    2006-01-01

    The central message of this book is that distressed children who display distressing behaviour and their families are often involved with significant psychosocial challenges like poverty, unemployment, domestic violence, child abuse, inadequate educational resources, neighbourhood crime and other adversities. These children and families should be helped through thoughtful psychosocial interventions and community development initiatives which address their unique needs and requirements, not by...

  15. Health status of children with cerebral palsy living in Europe: a multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckung, E; White-Koning, M; Marcelli, M;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this report is to describe the health status of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP) of all severities in Europe using the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). METHOD: A total of 818 children with CP from nine centres in defined geographical areas participated. CP type...

  16. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  17. Brightening Lives: How Early Childhood Educators Can Bring Everyday Experiences to Children in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Karin

    2009-01-01

    More than one million children are homeless in the United States, and more than half of those are age 6 or younger. As the recession continues, even more families are finding themselves homeless. Studies have shown that children of all ages thrive when they have a safe space in which to explore the world around them, filled with spaces for play…

  18. Reliable partners : Aboriginal businesses growing along with oilsands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radison, T.

    2007-11-15

    The development of Alberta's oilsands industry offers significant opportunities to Aboriginal communities located at the centre of development. Although resource development poses challenges in terms of traditional lifestyles and the environment, it has also resulted in the creation of thriving companies offering economic advantages to individuals and communities. The Northeastern Alberta Aboriginal Business Association (NAABA) has stated that between $400 and $500 million work of Aboriginal business is being conducted annually in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. This article described success stories of the labour, products and services targeted at the oilsands industry that these businesses provide. The operations of the Fort McKay Group of Companies (FMGC), Cold Lake First Nations, and Primco Dene were highlighted. It was shown that joint ventures have helped many Aboriginal companies diversify and grow. Partnerships were shown to be a viable way to share the wealth of the oilsands with Aboriginal communities, many of which are remote and have high unemployment rates and few opportunities for development. Some opportunities for development include band-owned mines, and progress in biofuels. 4 figs.

  19. Memorialising the Past: Is there an 'Aboriginal' Way?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Batten

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is debate about how the Aboriginal past can and should be memorialised. This paper utilises a series of example memorials to discuss the ways in which Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia are choosing to depict – in a physical, public form – Aboriginal perspectives of the past. The paper focuses on the issues of cultural evolution and the adoption of so-called ‘European’ ways of memorialising. It also looks at the role of landscapes and natural materials in memorials to the Aboriginal past and the evolving role of counter- and anti-memorials to commemorate the past. The examples of memorials from around Australia suggest that, above all, we must be open-minded about what constitutes an ‘Aboriginal’ memorial. Ways of memorialising the Aboriginal past can range, for example, from natural to constructed, from created by Indigenous people exclusively to otherwise, and from targeting an exclusively Indigenous audience, a non-Indigenous audience, or both. There is more than one way of memorialising the Aboriginal past.

  20. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  1. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and refugee camps. The findings of the study suggest that tackling childhood stunting is a high priority, and there should be fostered efforts to ensure that malnutrition

  2. The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M

    2012-06-14

    This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women's agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie's notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity.

  3. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  4. The developmental consequences for asylum-seeking children living with the prospect for five years or more of enforced return to their home country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalverboer, M.E.; Zijlstra, A.E.; Knorth, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the European legal framework and policy on children's rights and on the development and developmental risks of children from asylum-seeking families who have lived in asylum centres for over five years with the prospect of being forced to return to their home country. The legal p

  5. "MSN Was the next Big Thing after Beanie Babies": Children's Virtual Experiences as an Interface to Their Identities and Their Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author explores the seamlessness between children's online and offline worlds. For children, there is no dichotomy of online and offline, or virtual and real; the digital is so much intertwined into their lives and psyche that the one is entirely enmeshed with the other. Despite early research pointing to the differences that…

  6. The Everyday Costs of Poverty in Childhood: A Review of Qualitative Research Exploring the Lives and Experiences of Low-Income Children in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Tess

    2011-01-01

    This review of 10 years of qualitative research with disadvantaged children in the UK shows that despite some gaps in the knowledge base, there is now a substantive body of evidence exploring children's lives and experiences from their own perspectives. The review reveals that poverty penetrates deep into the heart of childhood, permeating every…

  7. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  8. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Ted

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413 and qualitative interviews (n = 28. Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years. Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6% or pregnancy (35.4% while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3% or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%. Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5% and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0% had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others

  9. On the significance of saying “sorry” – politics of memory and Aboriginal Reconciliation in Australia

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    Isabelle Auguste

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 2007 marked the 40th anniversary of the 1967 Referendum. Back on May 27th 1967, more than 90% of Australian eligible voters said “yes’ to two changes of the Australian Constitution considered discriminatory to Aboriginal people. This event is often considered as the first stage of Reconciliation in Australia. 2007 also marked the 10th Anniversary of the release of the Bringing Them Home Report that highlighted the forced removal of Aboriginal children from their family as part of an assimilation policy. From 1997, the issue of an apology became a sine qua non condition to Reconciliation. It was an important element of the recommendations the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation submitted to Parliament in 2000. But, Liberal Prime Minister John Howard, in office for more than ten years, refused to say the word “sorry” on the basis that Australians of today are not responsible for the actions of the past and that guilt is not hereditary. His focus was on what is called “practical reconciliation”. Some changes are now on the way as Labor leader, Kevin Rudd, who defeated him at the last federal election in November 24th 2007, has promised to make a formal apology to the stolen generation. Why is it important to say “sorry”? At a time of dramatic developments in Indigenous Affairs, this paper deals with the significance of an apology for Reconciliation in Australia.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  11. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  12. [Genome sensitivity and genotoxic effects features in children-teenagers affected by radon radiation in living and educational environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, V G; Akhmat'ianova, V R; Golovina, T A; Volkov, A N; Minina, V I; Larionov, A V; Makeeva, E A

    2009-01-01

    The results of chromosomal aberration level and spectrum study in 48-hours peripheral blood lymphocytes cultures of 10-19 years old children-teenagers (n = 132, mean 14.2 +/- 0.16 years old) living in the south part of Kemerovskaya area Gornaya Shoria are presented. Mean metaphases with aberrations were 4.74 +/- 0.21% in studied group that is significantly higher (p polycentric, ring chromosomes and multiple pair dot fragments. The reasons of chromosomal aberrations frequency increasing in this mountain area inhabitants are discussed (ultrahigh radon radiation doses influence are included). PMID:19947520

  13. A nationwide survey of heavy metal absorption in children living near primary copper, lead, and zinc smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E L; Hayes, C G; Landrigan, P J; Handke, J L; Leger, R T; Housworth, W J; Harrington, J M

    1977-10-01

    Arsenic, lead, and cadmium absorption levels were determined in 1774 children 1-5 years old living in 19 USA towns with primary nonferrous metal smelters. Results were compared with data on 258 children of the same age in three communities without smelters. Increased systemic absorption of arsenic, as reflected by urine arsenic content, was noted in children near 10 of 11 copper smelters. Blood lead levels were also modestly elevated near two copper smelters. Near lead and zinc smelters, elevated levels of lead and cadmium in hair provided evidence of external exposure to these elements. Levels of lead in blood were not, however, elevated near any of three lead smelters and were elevated near only two of five zinc smelters. Blood cadmium levels were high near one lead and two zinc smelters. The apparent sources of exposure (except in one community with elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water) were air, soil, and dust contaminated by smelting operations. While the full biologic significance of these findings is not known exposure of children to toxic heavy metals emitted by smelters should be reduced to a minimum. PMID:910795

  14. Responses to Toll-like receptor ligands in children living in areas where schistosome infections are endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kleij, Desiree; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Kruize, Yvonne C M; Retra, Kim; Fillie, Yvonne; Schmitz, Marion; Kremsner, Peter G; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2004-03-15

    To study the effect of repeated challenge of the innate immune system with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokine responses to schistosomal lipids and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in schoolchildren living in an area in Gabon where schistosomiasis, a helminth infection that is chronic in nature, is endemic. A schistosomal phosphatidylserine (PS) fraction containing the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 ligand lyso-PS stimulated the production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in children without Schistosoma haematobium infection. However, in infected children, the responses to this stimulus were lower, in particular for production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha. Responses to the TLR4 ligand, LPS, followed a similar pattern. In contrast, schistosomal adult worm glycolipids that did not stimulate any of the TLRs tested induced IL-8 and IL-6 responses that were significantly higher in schistosome-infected children than in schistosome-uninfected children. These results indicate that relentless exposure to pathogens can lead to altered responses to TLR ligands. PMID:14999608

  15. High occurrence of giardiasis in children living on a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Aparecido de Lima Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteric parasitosis remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world including in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. Research carried out over the course of a year revealed that 96.6% (28/29 of children randomly selected from a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, aged 4 - 15 years, presented Giardia intestinalis cysts. After referral to the neighborhood Health Office, all the children received tinidazole, given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg and 12 months later, new fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Despite the low adherence to the study, a high percentage (64.3% - 9/14 of the children remained positive for the parasite. This study showed a high positivity of giardiasis in child residents of the settlement, even after treatment; adults were not sensitized to the study and did not collected and/or deliver children fecal samples. The precarious living conditions are consistent with a high susceptibility to parasitic diseases, suggesting that the treatment of the infected individuals without identifying and eradicating the means of contamination is simply a palliative measure.

  16. Impact of severe disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children living in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Eric A; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Among industrialized nations, the rate of rehospitalization in the United States for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is approximately 30 per 1000, exceptions being noted for American Indians and Alaskan natives, two ethnic groups who tend toward higher rates of RSV hospitalization. In distinction Japan reports an admission rate of 60 per 1000 for RSV disease. Yet Japan ranks considerably lower than many of its western counterparts in premature births. Whether an RSV subtype, a new viral genotype or some other unifying characteristic exists that might explain the severity of adenovirus, parainfluenza and RSV infections in this region of Asia remains to be determined. Outcomes trials in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark and Japan all identified crowding and exposure to tobacco smoke as significant and independent risk factors for disease severity of RSV. The epidemiology of RSV is largely consistent throughout Europe, with peak outbreaks occurring in December and January. In Europe RSV accounts for 42 to 45% of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 2 years of age, and inpatient populations tend to be younger and to experience greater disease severity. For RSV bronchiolitis lengths of stay in European hospitals range from a low of 4 days to a high of 10 days. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial Study Group in Spain conducted 2 prospective observational studies in 14 and 26 neonatal units, respectively, on nonprophylaxed neonates to determine hospitalization rates for respiratory syncytial viral illness during 2 consecutive RSV seasons. Throughout each respiratory season the study group followed premature infants of < or =32 weeks gestational age at birth, representing an annual birth cohort of approximately 100 000 infants. A total of 584 infants who were < or =32 weeks gestational age in the first season and 999 in the second season were followed at monthly intervals

  17. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao-Fong; ZHANG HaiGuo; LAI Chun-Hung; LU ZhenYu; WANG ZhuGang

    2007-01-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population.

  18. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  19. The Australian Aboriginal People: How to Misunderstand Their Science

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    Just one generation ago, schoolkids were taught that Aboriginal people couldn't count beyond five, wandered the desert scavenging for food, had no civilization or religion, had no agriculture, couldn't navigate, didn't build houses, and peacefully acquiesced when Western Civilisation rescued them in 1788. How did we get it so wrong? Here I show that traditional Aboriginal people knew a great deal about the sky, knew the cycles of movements of the stars and the complex motions of the sun, moon and planets. I argue that school students studying science today could learn much from the way that pre-contact Aboriginal people used observation to build a self-consistent picture of the world around them, with predictive power and practical applications.

  20. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p crisis. The predominance of stunting in older children indicates failure in growth and development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and refugee camps. The findings of the study suggest that tackling childhood stunting is

  1. MapSense: Multi-Sensory Interactive Maps for Children Living with Visual Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Brulé, Emeline; Bailly, Gilles; Brock, Anke M.; Valentin, Frédéric; Denis, Grégoire; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience We report on the design process leading to the creation of MapSense, a multi-sensory interactive map for visually impaired children. We conducted a formative study in a specialized institute to understand children’s educational needs, their context of care and their preferences regarding interactive technologies. The findings (1) outline the needs for tools and methods to help children to acquire spatial skills and (2)provide four design guidelines for educational as...

  2. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...

  3. Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with Gender Identity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Giordano

    2008-01-01

    Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical is...

  4. Linked Lives: Adult Children's Problems and Their Parents' Psychological and Relational Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined associations between adult children's cumulative problems and their parents' psychological and relational well-being, as well as whether such associations are similar for married and single parents. Regression models were estimated using data from 1,188 parents in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the United States whose youngest child was at least 19 years old. Participants reporting children with more problems indicated moderately poorer levels of well-being across ...

  5. Our lives, our say: Street and working children talk about their rights in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Couch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently a “new sociology of childhood” has been proposed arguing that childhood must be seen as a social construct and considered like race, class and gender as an important analytical variable. It is asserted that children and their life worlds are  topics worthy of study and that children must be seen as active agents in creating their own social worlds and society at large. The main implication of such a conceptualization is that childhood takes a multiplicity of forms over time and across cultures.  Essentially these approaches privilege the perspectives of children and reject the representation of them as passive vessels into which the rules of society are poured as merely adults in training. This paper examines this new discourse by drawing upon the experiences of Butterflies, a non-government organization working for the empowerment of street and working children in Delhi. In particular the paper will explore Butterflies’ rights-based approach to working with street and working children and give space to children’s own experiences and perceptions in regards to this approach. The article focuses on four key areas: the right to participation; the right to freedom of assembly; the right to protection from economic exploitation and the right to work. Keywords: children, work, rights, poverty, marginalisation, participation

  6. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Risk of Dental Caries among Children Living in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Taeko; Imai, Hiroki; Sakurai, Atsuo; Dong, Hongwei; Shi, Sizhen; Yakushiji, Masashi; Shintani, Seikou

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries has been decreasing among kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, over recent years, although it still remains at an unacceptably high level. The purpose of this study was to identify which factors were important in providing oral health guidance and achieving further improvement in the oral health status of kindergarten children in urban China. A survey was conducted on dental caries in 128 Japanese and 368 Chinese kindergarten children and a questionnaire given to their parents/guardians on each child's lifestyle and dietary habits from birth to the present. Correlations between responses to each questionnaire item and the status of dental caries were statistically analyzed. The dft index score (p=0.0016), prevalence of dental caries (p=0.0002), and percentages of children with decayed (untreated caries-affected) teeth (phealth guidance for kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, should focus on control of dietary habits, including control of inter-meal snacking, and breastfeeding practices. The results of this study may help improve the status of dental caries among Chinese children. PMID:27665692

  7. Vaccination of children with a live-attenuated, intranasal influenza vaccine – analysis and evaluation through a Health Technology Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersohn, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Influenza is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease of the respiratory tract annually causing high morbidity and mortality in Germany. Influenza is preventable by vaccination and this vaccination is so far recommended by the (STIKO as a standard vaccination for people from the age of 60 onwards. Up to date a parenterally administered trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV has been in use almost exclusively. Since 2011 however a live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV has been approved additionally. Consecutively, since 2013 the STIKO recommends LAIV (besides TIV for children from 2 to 17 years of age, within the scope of vaccination by specified indications. LAIV should be preferred administered in children from 2 to 6 of age. The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA is to address various research issues regarding the vaccination of children with LAIV. The analysis was performed from a medical, epidemiological and health economic perspective, as well as from an ethical, social and legal point of view.Method: An extensive systematic database research was performed to obtain relevant information. In addition a supplementary research by hand was done. Identified literature was screened in two passes by two independent reviewers using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included literature was evaluated in full-text using acknowledged standards. Studies were graded with the highest level of evidence (1++, if they met the criteria of Results: For the medical section, the age of the study participants ranges from 6 months to 17 years. Regarding study efficacy, in children aged 6 months to ≤7 years, LAIV is superior to placebo as well as to a vac-cination with TIV (Relative Risk Reduction – RRR – of laboratory confirmed influenza infection approx. 80% and 50%, respectively. In children aged >7 to 17 years (= 18th year of their lives, LAIV is superior to a vaccination with TIV (RRR 32%. For this age group, no

  8. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  9. ETHNICITY AND INCOME IMPACT ON BMI AND STATURE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SOUTHERN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Nina; Barrera-Pérez, The Late Mario; Palma-Solis, Marco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Dickinson, Federico; Azcorra, Hugo; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6-12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, pMexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income. PMID:26041567

  10. Validation of the Actical Accelerometer in Multiethnic Preschoolers: The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettienne, Reynolette; Nigg, Claudio R; Li, Fenfang; Su, Yuhua; McGlone, Katalina; Luick, Bret; Tachibana, Alvin; Carran, Christina; Mercado, Jobel; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Actical accelerometer for measuring physical activity (PA) in preschool children of mixed ethnicity, compared with direct observation via a modified System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) protocol and proxy parental reports (PA Logs). Fifty children in Hawai'i wore wrist-mounted accelerometers for two 7-day periods with a washout period between each week. Thirty children were concurrently observed using SOFIT. Parents completed PA Logs for three days. Reliability and validity were measured by intra-class correlation coefficient and proportions of agreement concurrently. There was slight agreement (proportion of agreement: 82%; weighted Kappa=.17, P SOFIT as well as between the accelerometer and the PA Logs (proportions of agreement: 40%; weighted Kappa=0.15, P <.001). PA logs underestimated the PA levels of the children, while the Actical was found to be valid and reliable for estimating PA levels of multiethnic, mixed ethnicity preschoolers. These findings suggest that accelerometers can be objective, valid, and accurate physical activity assessment tools compared to conventional PA logs and subjective reports of activity for preschool children of mixed ethnicity. PMID:27099804

  11. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  12. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  13. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with gender identity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, S

    2008-08-01

    Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical issues, and experts dissent as to when treatment should be commenced and how children should be followed up. This paper argues that suspension of puberty is not only not unethical: if it is likely to improve the child's quality of life and even save his or her life, then it is indeed unethical to defer treatment. PMID:18667644

  15. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  16. FLUORIDE INTAKE FROM DRINKING WATER AND DENTIFRICE BY CHILDREN LIVING IN A TROPICAL AREA OF BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Omena, Leila Maria F.; Silva, Milton F. de A.; Cleone Calheiros Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Jairo C.; Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoride (F-) intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. METHODS: Children (n=58) aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from ...

  17. The ‘Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Duff; Brittany Bingham; Annick Simo; Delores Jury; Charlotte Reading; Kate Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vanco...

  18. Caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment and care in Nigeria and equity implications for children living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamla, Dick; Asadu, Chukwuemeka; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Davies, Abiola; Ugochukwu, Ebele; Umar, Lawal; Oluwafunke, Ilesanmi; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onubogu, Chinyere; Tunde-Oremodu, Immaculata; Madubuike, Chinelo; Umeadi, Esther; Epundu, Obed; Omosun, Adenike; Anigilaje, Emmanuel; Adeyinka, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Caregiver satisfaction has the potential to promote equity for children living with HIV, by influencing health-seeking behaviour. We measured dimensions of caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment in Nigeria, and discuss its implications for equity by conducting facility-based exit interviews for caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in 20 purposively selected facilities within 5 geopolitical zones. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were performed. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, multilevel regression modelling was performed to investigate relationships between satisfaction factors and socio-demographic variables. Of 1550 caregivers interviewed, 63% (95% CI: 60.6-65.4) reported being very satisfied overall; however, satisfaction varied in some dimensions: only 55.6% (53.1-58.1) of caregivers could talk privately with health workers, 56.9% (54.4-59.3) reported that queues to see health workers were too long, and 89.9% (88.4-91.4) said that some health workers did not treat patients living with HIV with sufficient respect. Based on factor analysis, two underlying factors, labelled Availability and Attitude, were identified. In multilevel regression, the satisfaction with availability of services correlated with formal employment status (p attitude of health workers (p attitudes of the health workers (p < .01), but not availability of services. We conclude that high levels of overall satisfaction among caregivers masked dissatisfaction with some aspects of services. The two underlying satisfaction factors are part of access typology critical for closing equity gaps in access to HIV treatment between adults and children, and across socio-economic groups. PMID:27392010

  19. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  20. Typologies of Risk and Protection in the Lives of Filipino Street Children in Manila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sta. Maria, Madelene A.; Martinez, Carmelo L.; Diestro, Jose Maria A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group discussions with the youth living and working in the streets of Manila as well as interviews with key informants involved in intervention programs for these youth reveal several ways by which the youth may be protected from engaging in problem behaviors in and out of the streets. Findings reveal that conditions which promote the…

  1. Children born after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. A review of 13 live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Silber, Sherman; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2011-01-01

    of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation. We report 13 live births after orthotopic transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in cancer patients (n = 8) and in patients treated with high doses of chemotherapy for benign diseases (n = 2) (microscopic polyangiitis, sickle cell anemia). Interpretation...

  2. Relationships between children and their grandparents and importance of older generations in lives of todays'families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasova L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of relationships among contemporary generations. It is devoted to the specific communication and relationships development between today's children and their grandparents. What is the role played by grandparents in lives of their grandchildren? Is the generation gap so powerful to destroy the traditionally strong relationships in families? Our text stresses the importance of an intergenerational socializations influence and its positives for individuals and the whole family system. The article is based on the empirical survey among the 202 respondents in the age group 12–17. The data tried to show that there are differences in relationships in families where the generations are living together and the families with separate living of generations. However, this presumption was not confirmed and our data show that there is no difference in frequency and quality of relationships between both groups of families. The important question is, if the face-to-face communication has been replaced by other means of communication, especially through modern media, or not. The data show the intensity and content of intergenerational meeting in family. It brings some view on the attitudes of young Czech people towards their grandparents. The results show the mostly positive intergenerational relationships and the value of older generations for young people. Interesting are expressions of appreciation of grandmothers and grandfathers from their grandchildren. The relationships to grandparents are mostly influenced by the whole family climate and are closely connected with the parental attitudes toward the older generations.

  3. Nutritional status among the Shabar tribal children living in urban, rural and forest habitats of Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chakrabarty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The current trend towards increasing urbanization due to urban migration among the scheduled tribes in developing countries like India should be reflected in differential nutritional outcomes and its associated factors. The aims of the present study are to investigate the nutritional status amongst Shabar children living in urban, rural and forest habitats and factors associated to nutritional state.

    Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 577 Shabar children (boys and girls aged 5 to 19 years (258 urban, 195 rural and 124 forest. The anthropometric nutritional indices, socio-economic condition and disease prevalence were used to evaluate the present conditions.

    Results: The results revealed that children from forest regions had the highest prevalence of under-nutrition followed by their rural and urban counterparts, 33.87%, 24.62% and 20.16%, respectively. Malaria prevalence in forest areas and economic conditions in rural and urban habitats might have been significantly related to underweight and stunting.

    Conclusions: To reduce the prevalence and the extent of under-nutrition, it is essential to improve the economic conditions and to simultaneously carry out measurements for reducing malaria specifically in forest habitats.

  4. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M;

    1997-01-01

    , splenomegaly, and packed cell volume (PCV) was investigated in a cohort of 249 children (126 receiving D-P and 123 receiving placebo) aged 1-9 years. The case definition of clinical malaria (malaria fever) was measured axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C and/or reported fever, and P. falciparum asexual...... parasitaemia > or = 5000/microL. Children aged 1-4 years given D-P experienced 1.56 episodes of clinical malaria per year, whereas children on placebo experienced 2.55 episodes (relative rate [RR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.80). Thus, D-P protective efficacy against clinical malaria......, in this age group, was 39% (95% CI 20%, 53%; P = 0.0002). The annual incidence of clinical malaria among children aged 5-9 years was 0.16 episodes in the D-P group and 0.26 episodes in those receiving placebo (RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.26, 1.28; P = 0.17). Increased malaria transmission and drug resistance, during...

  5. Breakfast barriers and opportunities for children living in a Dutch disadvantaged neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood

  6. Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

  7. Expanding Our View on Separation in the Lives of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kofi; Goldman-Fraser, Jenifer; Fernandez, Mari T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this article suggest a number of areas worthy of further research regarding family disruptions that lead to children's separation from their primary caregivers. They survey the existing data and suggest questions for new research on the effects of marital divorce, maternal incarceration, maternal depression and substance…

  8. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  9. A trip that can be controlled: drug consumption among homeless children living in the streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Valencia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was made with homeless children of Medellin, Colombia. Objective: to understand from the children’s view the meaning of drug and the process of consumption. Method:qualitative ethnographic research. Results: the process of drug consumption, what they call “the trip”, can bring benefit or trouble, depending on the control the children have on the drug. Conclusion: curiosity, inducement, others’ example, and family conflict contribute to the beginning of consumption. Whether they have control over the drug, the “trip” can be or cannot be “good”; the drug control involves coherence between the things they have on their minds and the action they do. Reflection: To encourage the qualitative research in this field in order to have the view of the children, and be able to design programs according to their reality. Institutions must accompany the children because one of the reasons to start consuming is the seeking of company. In these circumstances, but that to suppress the drug consumption we have to teach how to control drug consumption instead of eliminating it.

  10. Libraries, Churches, and Schools: The Literate Lives of Mothers and Children in a Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question, "How do mothers and children in a homeless shelter interact with literacy?" We drew on the theoretical framework of social literacy practices in which cultural context is foregrounded. Data for this qualitative study included participant observation in one homeless shelter and interviews with one shelter's…

  11. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  12. Enterovirus D68-associated community-acquired pneumonia in children living in Milan, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Ruggiero, Luca; Madini, Barbara; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children infected by enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and affected by severe respiratory illness, muscle weakness and paralysis were described in the USA and Canada in 2014 Objectives: To investigate the potential involvement of EV-D68 in determining community-acquired pn

  13. Lived Experiences of Adult Children Who Have a Parent Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Amy; Hodgson, Jennifer; Lamson, Angela; Dosser, David

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to…

  14. An Aboriginal game plan - a plan for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is included of some of the more intangible and hands-on types of advice that a corporation should consider when they decide to do business with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Although there are numerous areas of business concern (both legally and culturally) to consider when working with Aboriginal people and communities, developing a proactive strategy and approach to this segment of Canadian society is just as important and compelling as environmental or gender-related issues because they too can be seen to affect the company operations at any level. Having good corporate business relations with Aboriginal communities is going to take some thinking 'outside of the box,' but with committed understanding and focus on open communications, there is no reason why a company should not be able to develop a corporate-wide approach with relative ease. By being open to learning and listening, companies can begin to develop 'Aboriginal Relations' strategies that will become an automatic inclusion item at corporate strategy meetings and planning discussions. This would be in keeping with the corporation's choice to negotiate and not litigate

  15. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  16. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  17. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  18. Social Indicators in Surveys of Urban Aboriginal Residents in Saskatoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alan B.; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The Bridges and Foundations Project on Urban Aboriginal Housing, a Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) project financed primarily by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), has been operational in Saskatoon since early 2001. During these past 5 years…

  19. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  20. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitrattana J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Juthasiri Rohitrattana,1 Wattasit Siriwong,1,2 Mark Robson,2–4 Parinya Panuwet,5 Dana Boyd Barr,5 Nancy Fiedler3,6 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Thai Fogarty (ITREOH International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Environmental and Occupational Health Science Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 4School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 5Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 6Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Pyrethroid insecticides (PYR are commonly used in rice farms and household pest control in Thailand. No investigative study has yet been made regarding factors associated with PYR exposure among Thai children. Objective: This study aimed to compare the levels of PYR exposure between children living in rice farms (high-intensity PYR used and aquacultural areas (low-intensity PYR used during the wet and dry seasons in Thailand, during which different amounts of PYR are applied. Environmental conditions and common activities of children were used to identify factors associated with PYR exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 53 participants aged between 6 and 8 years old were recruited from rice farms and aquacultural areas. A parental-structured interview was used to gather information about PYR use, household environments, and participants' activities. First voided morning urine samples were collected for PYR urinary metabolites (ie, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid [3-PBA] and cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid [DCCA] measurements. Hand wipe samples were collected during home visits, to measure PYR residues on the hands. Results and discussion: The

  1. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Phillips

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina.  The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education.  Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “special needs” attending schools on reserves throughout Canada.  There was also concern over difficulties with the current special education system, e.g., funding, assessment, and service issues.  It was believed that the Aboriginal worldview of students with special needs as having special gifts from the Creator was not integrated into the curriculum or into teaching practices.  The article concludes with suggestions for educators on how to address exceptionalities in Aboriginal communities. Keywords: Aboriginal education, Elders, exceptionality, special education, Aboriginal special   education.

  2. The effects of live music groups versus an educational children's television program on the emergent literacy of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Dena

    2004-01-01

    Research suggests that music is beneficial in teaching both social and academic skills to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a music therapy program designed to teach reading skills versus the "Between the Lions" television program on the early literacy behaviors of Kindergarten children from a low socioeconomic background. Subjects (n = 86) were children, aged 5-7 years, enrolled in one of four different Kindergarten classes at a public elementary school in Northwest Florida. Each class was assigned one of four treatment conditions: Music/Video (sequential presentation of each condition), Music-Only, Video-Only, and no contact Control group. Growth in early literacy skills was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and 3 subtests of the Test of Early reading Ability-3rd edition (TERA-3). Teachers' perceptions of classroom literacy behaviors were measured using a pre and poststudy survey. This study also compared on- and off-task behavior of students during video versus music conditions. Results of the 7 subtests measuring early literacy were varied. The Music/Video and Music-Only groups achieved the highest increases in mean scores from pre to posttest on 4 of the 7 subtests. Students in the Video-Only group scored significantly better on the phonemic segmentation portion of the DIBELS than peers in the Music/Video condition. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between the Letter Naming, Initial Sounds Fluency tests, and total raw score of the TERA-3 tests for both pre and posttesting. Additionally, graphic analysis of mean off-task behavior per session indicated that students were more off-task during both video conditions (video alone and video portion of Music/Video condition) than during the music conditions. Off-task behavior was consistently lower during music sessions for the duration of the study. This study confirmed that music increases the on-task behavior of students

  3. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  4. At the edge of vulnerability—lived experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy going through surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Solveig Iversen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy undergoing surgery as they describe them from a lived experience perspective. When children undergo surgical procedures, they have to stay at hospital for a long time, which represents a great challenge for the children as well as their parents. We collected data by using open-ended interviews with 12 parents of 9 children and analyzed these data in accordance with Max van Manen's methodological themes. Based on the parents’ stories, the essential theme is: At the edge of vulnerability—being parents at hospital to a child with CP undergoing surgery, which consisted of three subthemes: establishing trust, awareness of a child who cannot speak, and sensing bodily reactions. Parents experienced demanding challenges as they entered the hospital, in a situation that meant both familiarity and unfamiliarity. Judgments about how to care for the child relied on what they normally did. Sitting bedside for hours and days, thoughts about the legitimacy of letting their child go through the suffering surgery were tormenting the parents. They felt vulnerable and very much dependent on health care workers’ competence and at the same time doubting them in seeing and taking care of their child's specific needs. It was experienced as an ambivalent situation, and even more so for the parents of a child without speech. The findings indicate that establishing trust implies being met at an existential level and a deeply felt need for health care workers that are really engaged in taking care of their child and their parents.

  5. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  6. Changes in social inequality with respect to health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany after re-unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Germany re-unified in 1990, substantial social and economic changes have happened in East Germany, the former socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these socio-economic changes in East Germany on the association between social status, measured by parental educational level, and health-related living conditions of children during the ten-year period after re-unification. Methods In total, 25,864 6-year-old school beginner children (51.2% male and 48.8% female participated in cross-sectional studies which have been repeated every year from 1991 to 2000 in East Germany. Parental educational level as a social indicator was the independent variable. Dependent variables included not employed parents, small living space and health-related living conditions (e. g. damp housing, single oven heating and living at busy road. The relationships were described by odds ratios using logistic regression. Results A large overall effect of parental educational level on health-related living conditions was observed. The time trends showed that the situation regarding small living space, damp housing conditions and single oven heating improved from 1991 to 2000, while regarding not employed parents (1996–2000 and living at busy road (1991–2000 did not, but even deteriorated. 6-year old children with low parental educational level, who lived at the time of re-unification, were often under damp housing conditions and with single oven heating at homes. Nevertheless, this social inequality has almost vanished ten years later. In contrast, we found an increasing gap between low and high parental educational level with respect to the proportion of parents who were not employed (22%: 4% gain, or lived under cramped housing conditions (22%: 37% reduction, or close to a busy road (7% gain: 2% reduction. Conclusion The social inequalities which already existed under the socialist

  7. Violence in the Lives of Children and Youth in “Post-Conflict” Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McAlister, Siobhan; Haydon, Deena; Scraton, Phil

    2013-01-01

    While Northern Ireland experiences relative peace and political stability, its violent past is normalized in murals and commemorations, the language and posturing of opposition politics, segregated communities and social life. In “post-conflict” Northern Ireland, children and youth disproportionately experience paramilitary-style attacks and routine sectarian violence. The violence of poverty and restricted opportunities within communities debilitated by three decades of conflict is masked by...

  8. Single-parent immigrant families in Iceland : lives and educational experiences of their children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Fuhui 1986; Hanna Ragnarsdóttir 1960

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore what situations immigrant single-parent families face in Iceland, their process of integration into Icelandic society and the educational experiences of their children. This is a qualitative interview study where 11 participants were recruited through a purposive sampling strategy. Data was collected in 2012 through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The main significance of the study is to give a minority group a voice while also providing...

  9. Internet in the lives of children and adolescents: problems and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina A.B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of training and personality development of adolescents as regular Internet-users and, namely , social networkers. It discusses two commonly studied questions, concerning the use of data resources: children and young people in social networks and online technologies in teaching. The main aspects discussed in the article are: the issues related to modalities of development of communication skills, security, risk of adolescents’ Internet addiction and the role of social networking in training.

  10. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Meneses, F; Ruiz, S; Sienra, J J; Huerta, J; White, M C; Etzel, R A

    1996-08-01

    The relation between air pollution and the exacerbation of childhood asthma was studied in a panel of 71 children (aged 5 to 7 yr) with mild asthma who resided in the northern part of mexico City. During the follow-up, ambient measures of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10, 24-h average) and ozone (1-h maximum) frequently exceeded the Mexican standards for these contaminants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was strongly associated with PM10 levels and marginally with ozone levels. Respiratory symptoms (coughing, phlegm production, wheezing, and difficulty breathing) were associated with both PM10 and ozone levels. An increase of 20 micrograms/m3 of PM10 was related to an 8% increase in lower respiratory illness (LRI) among children on the same day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15), and an increase of 10 micrograms/m3 in the weekly mean of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was related to a 21% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.08-1.35). A 50 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone was associated with a 9% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.03-1.15) on the same day. We concluded that children with mild asthma are affected by the high ambient levels of particulate matter and ozone observed in the northern part of Mexico City.

  11. Living with muscular dystrophy: health related quality of life consequences for children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boone Judith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscular dystrophies are chronic diseases manifesting with progressive muscle weakness leading to decreasing activities and participation. To understand the impact on daily life, it is important to determine patients' quality of life. Objective To investigate Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of children and adults with muscular dystrophy (MD, and to study the influence of type and severity of MD on HRQoL in adult patients. Methods Age-related HRQoL questionnaires were administered to 40 children (8–17 years, and 67 adult patients with muscular dystrophies. Results Significant differences in HRQoL were found in children and adults with MD compared to healthy controls. Patients with Becker muscular dystrophy reported a better HRQoL on the several scales compared to patients with other MDs. Severity was associated with worse fine motor functioning and social functioning in adult patients. Conclusion This is one of the first studies describing HRQoL of patients with MD using validated instruments in different age groups. The results indicate that having MD negatively influences the HRQoL on several domains.

  12. Teacher perceptions of communication impairment at screening stage in preschool children living in Patras, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, A; Kampanaros, M

    2001-01-01

    The general aim was to obtain piloting data for a series of experiments about the prevalence of communication impairment in preschool children in Greece. At this screening stage of the overall project, teacher perceptions of communication impairment in 57 kindergartens servicing 1113 children were examined via a questionnaire distributed in the urban region of Patras. The specific research goals were (1) to screen for specific categories of communication impairment such as articulation/phonology, receptive language, expressive language and pragmatics, hearing, stuttering, and voice, as they appear in the mainstreamed kindergarten population and (2) to offer comparative information on sex differences in communication impairment(s). The information was gathered by administration of a Greek-adapted version of the Communication Checklist for Pre-school Teachers, which was administered three times to obtain validity and reliability measures. The results were analysed separately for two studies (original and follow-up) and indicated teacher estimates of 14.4-18.7% for communication impairment in kindergarten children of the Patras region. Prevalence was higher for boys than for girls. Analysis of specific communication areas revealed that prevalence varies according to gender and category of communicative impairment. The limitations and follow-up needs of this study are discussed.

  13. The constitutional duty to consult aboriginal peoples in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the presentation would be to share our views that the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, as a court of record and an administrative tribunal with powers of quasi-judicial nature, is empowered to satisfy the constitutional duty to consult with Aboriginal people in Canada for nuclear related projects that fall within its mandate. We would also touch on the fact that the Commission is also responsible to conduct environmental assessments of uranium and nuclear related projects that may affect Aboriginal peoples, their traditional territories or their traditional way of life. Recent Canadian court decisions have recognized that administrative tribunals, such as the Commission, may be the appropriate agencies to address the duty to consult Aboriginal peoples on behalf of the Crown under section 35 of the Canadian Constitution (1867). The Supreme Court of Canada has also recognized that administrative tribunals such as the Commission may have the statutory authority to decide questions of law for subject matters that fall within their mandate and expertise. Consequently, it is now generally accepted that the Commission has jurisdiction to consider if the duty to consult with Aboriginal Peoples is indeed satisfied. This is of particular importance given that the Commission has the exclusive jurisdiction in Canada to regulate all matters related to nuclear including the implementation of international obligations Canada has agreed to. Failure to appropriately consult with Aboriginal peoples may also result in a constitutional challenge where Canadian courts may reverse a licensing decision in relation to major projects such as a uranium mine, a nuclear power facility or a deep geologic repository. (author)

  14. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  15. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection.

  16. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection

  17. Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained before switching on the VDT. Various effects related to the irradiation time were demonstrated, i.e. growth delay in algae and Drosophila, a body weight deficiency in rats, abnormal peaks of mortality in Daphnia and Drosophila, teratological effects in chick embryos and behavioural disturbances in rats. The embryonic and neonatal periods showed a high sensitivity to the VDT radiation. In humans, after 4 h of working in front of a VDT screen, an increase in tiredness and a decrease in the resistance of the immune system were observed in workers. In prepubertal children, 20 min of exposure were sufficient to induce neuropsychological disturbances; pre-pubertal young people appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of the radiation. In human testicular biopsies cultured in vitro for 24 h in front of a VDT screen, mitotic and meiotic disturbances, the appearance of degeneration in some aspects of the cells and significant disorganisation of the seminiferous tubules were demonstrated and related to modification of the metabolism of the sample. An experimental apparatus has been developed and tested that aims to prevent the harm from VDT radiation. Known commercially as the 'emf-Bioshield', it ensures effective protection against harmful biological effects of VDT radiation. (author)

  18. Cities for children: the effects of car use on their lives

    OpenAIRE

    Mackett, R.L.; LUCAS, L; Paskins, J.; Turbin, J.

    2004-01-01

    9-11 June 2004 In Britain, children are walking less than they used to. A major factor causing this decrease is the growth in car use. These trends are reducing children’s quantity of physical activity, with serious implications for their health. The purpose of this paper is to explore these themes using results from a 3-year research project entitled ‘Reducing children’s car use: the health and potential car dependency impacts’ which has been carried out in the Centre for Transport Studies a...

  19. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos; Ana Maria Tavares Borges; Paulo Sérgio Sucasas da Costa; José Marcus Sócrates Teixeira; Loreny Gimenes Giugliano; José Paulo Gagliardi Leite; Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília) and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília), and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astro...

  20. Immunity to diphtheria in children three-to-six year of age in four counties of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H F; Wang, M C; Tseng, L R; Lu, C F; Hsu, H M; Horng, C B

    1995-02-01

    An immunization program against diphtheria has been implemented in Taiwan since 1955, using combined diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccine. Diphtheria immunoglobulin (DIG) level was assessed in serum samples obtained from 1138 children, aged 3-6 years from north, south, east and central part of Taiwan by the VERO cell neutralization method. Specimens were collected by simple random sampling of residents from Hsinchu, Taichung, Pingtung and Hwalien counties, including both aborigines and non-aborigines. The former lived in one or two villages in each county, and the latter lived in a single village next to the former. Ninety-five percent (1086/1138) had a DIG titre > or = 0.01 IU/ml. There was no significant difference by sex, or by residential area. Seventy-nine percent (901/1138) of the children had completed the primary immunization schedule (at the age of 2, 4, 6 and 18 months), and the prevalence of DIG titre > or = 0.1 IU/ml considered to be long-term protective was as follows: 74.6% for 3-year group; 74.5% for 4-year group; 67.9% for 5-year group; 84.7% for 6-year group (including 52.2% who had had a booster shot at early primary school). These findings show that the diphtheria vaccination program provides good immunity in childhood.

  1. The case for addressing primary resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to treat children born from mothers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khady Kébé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs was estimated in 25 untreated infants who were living with HIV-1, younger than 13 months and living in Senegal. Antiretroviral DRMs were detected in 8 of 25 (32% children. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI DRMs were present in all (100% children whose viruses harboured DRMs: K103N in 43%; Y181C, K101E and V106M each in 29%; and Y188L in 14%. The D67N thymidine-analogue mutation was observed in only two children whose mothers had received chemoprophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. The proportion of children whose viruses harboured DRMs was then 6.5-fold higher in children whose mother–child couples had received nevirapine (NVP-based chemoprophylaxis than in other couples without prophylaxis [7 of 13 (53.8% vs. 1 of 12 (8.3%]. These findings point to the absolute need to address primary resistance mutations in case of virological failure in young children treated by antiretroviral drugs, and to make more effective treatment regimens available to NVP-exposed infants living with HIV-1 in Senegal.

  2. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  3. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  4. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  5. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  6. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  7. Motor development in children living within resource poor areas of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1986, Irwin-Carruthers tested 681 BlackAfrican babies from the Western Cape and concluded that the South African sample was in advance of the Denver sample both in fine and gross motor behaviour. This study was to determine whether the motor development of isiXhosa speaking children from the same area was still advanced compared to their North American counterparts.Method: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were administered to 86 children attending well baby clinics, between the ages of 1-36 months.Results: The mean motor developmental quotient was 92 (SD=15. Twenty eight percent of the sample was either significantly or mildly delayed. No socio-economic or maternal characteristics were associated with this score.Conclusion: The reasons for the decrease in performance are not clear. The socio-economic situation of the mothers was poor and there were a large number of single mothers whose sole source of income was government child support grants.  It is likely that the cause of the decrease is multi-factorial. The mothers are clearly in need of emotional and financial support. It is suggested that the introduction of stimulation programmes might be useful inreducing the long term impact of this delayed development.

  8. Professional engagement in child protection: promoting reflective practice and deeper connection with the lived reality for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jocelyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses first person inquiry and presentational form to argue the case for a sensory approach to understanding professional connection and disconnection with children who may be being abused. The approach is underpinned by an epistemology or theory of knowledge which stems from a participatory world-view where appearances are not permanent or separate from us: the act of perception takes place between the active sensible world and our own bodies, where ‘otherness’ expresses itself directly to our senses. Thus perception, conceived in this way, can lead to right action in the moment; or discounting what is actually being said by a child and disconnection. Buber’s notion of the ‘I-You’ is used to explore feelings and the movement to relation when professionals witness children’s ‘stories of suffering’ (Buber, 1965; Laub, 1992; Jones, 2008. The paper concludes by arguing the case for practitioners to become researchers of their own practice in rigorously facilitated inquiry groups. It is argued that this form of practitioner-research serves to quality assure frontline practice, and create new knowledge (or practice wisdom such that feelings can be constructively worked with to improve connection with the lived reality for children.

  9. What do we know about children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-ill adults in Sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Millions of children in Sub-Saharan Africa live with adults, often parents, who are HIV-infected or ill due to AIDS. These children experience social, emotional, and health vulnerabilities that overlap with, but are not necessarily the same as, those of orphans or other vulnerable children. Despite their distinctive vulnerabilities, research aimed at understanding the situation of these children has been limited until very recently. This review summarizes the state of knowledge based on a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science that identified 47 empirical research articles that examined either the population prevalence of children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-sick adults, or the consequences of adult HIV infection or AIDS illness for child well-being. This review confirms that this population of children is substantial in size, and that the vulnerabilities they experience are multi-faceted, spanning physical and emotional health and schooling. Mechanisms were examined empirically in only a small number of studies, but encompass poverty, transmission of opportunistic infections, care for unwell adults, adult distress, AIDS stigma, lack of social support, maternal breastfeeding issues, and vertical HIV transmission. Some evidence is provided that infants, adolescents, children with infected or ill mothers, and children living with severely ill adults are particularly vulnerable. Future research would benefit from more attention to causal inference and further characterization of processes and circumstances related to vulnerability and resilience. It would also benefit from further study of variation in observed associations between adult HIV/AIDS and child well-being based on characteristics such as age, sex, kinship, severity of illness, TB co-infection, disclosure, and serostatus awareness. Almost one-quarter of the studies reviewed did not investigate variation based on any of these factors. More nuanced understanding of the short- and long

  10. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  11. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  12. Sweating it Out: Facilitating Corrections and Parole in Canada Through Aboriginal Spiritual Healing

    OpenAIRE

    David Milward

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples continue to be subjected to drastic over-incarceration. Much of the existing literature explores contemporary adaptations of Aboriginal justice traditions that resemble restorative justice as a solution. There is by comparison a lack of literature that considers searching for solutions during the correctional phase of the justice system, after Aboriginal persons have already been convicted and imprisoned. The objective of this paper is to explore a number of reforms in orde...

  13. Closing the Aboriginal Education Gap in Canada: The Impact on Employment, GDP, and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Calver

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements between 2001 and 2011, Canada’s Aboriginal population continues to underperform in the labour market. The Aboriginal educational attainment gap is often seen as the major source of these disparities. Using data from the 2011 National Household Survey, projections of Aboriginal population growth, and forecasts of aggregate economic conditions, we estimate the economic impact of closing the educational attainment gap by 2031. We find that the benefits of achieving such a fe...

  14. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Hasanain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ score. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7–8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September–October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Results Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  15. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  16. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

  17. Arsenic microdistribution and speciation in toenail clippings of children living in a historic gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dora C; Dowling, Kim; Gerson, Andrea R; Sim, Malcolm R; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Russell, Robert; McOrist, Gordon

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic is naturally associated with gold mineralisation and elevated in some soils and mine waste around historical gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. To explore uptake, arsenic concentrations in children's toenail clippings and household soils were measured, and the microdistribution and speciation of arsenic in situ in toenail clipping thin sections investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. The ability to differentiate exogenous arsenic was explored by investigating surface contamination on cleaned clippings using depth profiling, and direct diffusion of arsenic into incubated clippings. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 2.1 microg/g (n=29) in clipping samples and from 3.3 to 130 microg/g (n=22) in household soils, with significant correlation between transformed arsenic concentrations (Pearson's r=0.42, P=0.023) when household soil was treated as independent. In clipping thin sections (n=2), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping showed discrete layering of arsenic consistent with nail structure, and irregular arsenic incorporation along the nail growth axis. Arsenic concentrations were heterogeneous at 10x10 microm microprobe spot locations investigated (XRF and XANES analyses of thin sections of clippings incubated in dry or wet mine waste, or untreated, suggested direct diffusion of arsenic occurred under moist conditions. These findings suggest that arsenic in soil contributes to some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures among children resident in areas of historic gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. Future studies are required to ascertain if adverse health effects are associated with current levels of arsenic uptake. PMID:20067849

  18. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J.; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875

  19. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  20. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  1. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systema

  2. Application of Universal Design for Learning (Udl1) and Living (Udl2) in Virtual Dolphin-Assisted Intervention (Vdai) for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Kee, Norman Kiak Nam

    2014-01-01

    In Singapore, the Special Education for Autism (SEA) calls for a more focused, systematically structured framework to cater to the needs of children with autism in schools. As autism is a syndrome with co-morbid subtypes and different degrees of severity, a universal design for both learning and living becomes necessary to meet all the various…

  3. Early Indications of Resilience and Their Relation to Experiences in the Home Environments of Low Birthweight, Premature Children Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined caregiving environments for 243 premature, low birthweight infants living in poverty to determine effects on health and development. Found that children's health and development benefited significantly from six protective caregiving factors: (1) increased parental responsiveness; (2) availability of toys and learning materials; (3)…

  4. Greek Children Living in Rural Areas Are Heavier but Fitter Compared to Their Urban Counterparts: A Comparative, Time-Series (1997-2008) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare 12-year (1997-2008) trends in the distribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) status and physical fitness test performances among 8- to 9-year-old Greek children living in rural and urban areas. Methods: Population data derived from 11 national school-based health surveys conducted from 1997 to 2008. Anthropometric measurements and…

  5. Living with Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  6. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aborig- inal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral ...

  7. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  8. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  9. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  10. Aboriginal Placenames : Naming and re-naming the Australian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hercus, Luise; Koch, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal approaches to the naming of places across Australia differ radically from the official introduced Anglo-Australian system. However, many of these earlier names have been incorporated into contemporary nomenclature, with considerable reinterpretations of their function and form. Recently, state jurisdictions have encouraged the adoption of a greater number of Indigenous names, sometimes alongside the accepted Anglo-Australian terms, around Sydney Harbour, for example. In some cases,...

  11. Insufficient Portal Vein Inflow in Children without Major Shunt Vessels During Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshiharu; Yoshimaru, Koichiro; Yanagi, Yusuke; Esumi, Genshiro; Hayashida, Makoto; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Liver cirrhosis is frequently accompanied by insufficient portal vein inflow (IPVF) with large portosystemic shunts. However, pediatric cases often manifested IPVF without any apparent major portosystemic shunts. Although IPVF is a very critical issue, the intraoperative assessment has not been well established. In this study, we reviewed the intraoperative approach and the outcome of the IPVF cases at our department. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-three living donor liver transplantations (LDLT) were performed from 1996 to 2014. The IPVF occurred in 5 cases and necessitated some additional assessments and intraoperative PV flow modulations. We retrospectively reviewed the operative records and analyzed the risk factors and the outcome of the IPVF. RESULTS All 5 IPVF cases were biliary atresia and the mean age at LDLT was 0.74±0.19 years old. The mean recipient PV diameter was 4.3±0.8 mm and the donor IMV patch grafts were applied. To increase the PV inflow, the collaterals around the spleen were ligated in all cases. Intraoperative portal venography was performed in 1 case for selective shunt vessel ligation. In 1 case, the graft was removed and returned to the back table to prevent graft loss during the IPVF. As a result, the final PVF/GV increased to 66.4±20.0 ml/min/100 g. CONCLUSIONS IPVF is a very critical problem. Intraoperative portal venography is helpful and collateral veins ligation is crucial. In some cases, returning the graft to the back table during the PV inflow modulation can prevent graft loss. PMID:27306916

  12. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  13. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3% of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01 and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04, and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06 in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia.

  14. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  15. Living-related liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Uemoto, S; Inomata, Y; Tokunaga, Y; Ueda, M; Tokka, A; Sato, B; Yamaoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Liver transplantation is increasingly accepted as a choice of treatment for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) since it has been proved to significantly improve the survival rate in these patients compared with other therapeutic modalities. We have successfully performed a total of 76 living related liver transplantations (LRLT) three of which were for FHF. The first case was an 11-year-old boy with FHF due to an unidentified cause. He had required plasmapheresis a total of 24 times and haemofiltration to save his life before LRLT. He was transplanted with a left lobe (420 g) graft, calculated as 1.05% of his weight (40 kg). He recovered hepatic function uneventfully and was discharged from hospital after 7 weeks. The second case was a 13-year-old girl who developed FHF with grade III encephalopathy due to acute Wilson's disease, and was referred to us. She underwent LRLT with a left lobe graft (440 g), estimated as 0.95% of her weight (47 kg), which functioned well after surgery. The third case was a 13-year-old girl with grade II encephalopathy due to acute Wilson's disease. She was 27% obese with a body weight of 58 kg. She underwent LRLT with ABO blood group incompatibility with a left lobe (352 g), estimated as 0.80% of her weight (modified 44 kg). She was discharged with sensorimotor neuropathy due to vitamin B deficiency. The present results suggest that LRLT is feasible for FHF both clinically and ethically, and that a partial liver graft weighing around 1% of the recipient's weight can maintain the recipient's life. We limit the diagnostic indication for LRLT to chronic liver disease, since an urgent situation may affect a voluntary decision for the patient's parents to donate the partial liver. However, LRLT is thought to be an acceptable choice of treatment provided it is requested by the patient and family. Furthermore, it is a potential option for resolving the graft shortage in paediatric liver transplantation, being independent of cadaver donor

  16. Anthropometric measures of 9-to 10-year-old native tibetan children living at 3700 and 4300m above sea level and han Chinese living at 3700m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba, B.; Yangzong, Y.; Gonggalanzi, G.;

    2015-01-01

    A high residential altitude impacts on the growth of children, and it has been suggested that linear growth (height) is more affected than bodymass. The aimof the present study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, underweight, and stunting in groups of native Tibetan children...... school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age-And sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-Age z-scores (2.0). The prevalence...... found in 14.6%and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR]=3.3; 95% confidence interval...

  17. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  18. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  19. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  20. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  1. Telling stories: nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Sue

    2007-02-01

    The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians.

  2. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  3. The Changing Face of Aboriginal Education in Rural and Northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2003-01-01

    Canada Natives have experienced many educational changes. Their traditional education and culture were negated by Euro-Western schooling, leaving Aboriginal people in a deficit position without a strong voice for many years. Only recently have Aboriginal people strengthened their voice in calling for their cultural values and beliefs to be the…

  4. Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Denis, Verna

    2007-01-01

    A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

  5. Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

  6. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

  7. Visual Attending Preferences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison between Live and Video Presentation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa; Azuma, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the…

  8. The Impact of Divorce on the Lives of Children: Alleviating the Trauma of the Divorce Experience Through Adult Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    This paper reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of divorce on children and makes suggestions regarding general ways in which parents and other adults may assist children in coping with divorce. The population of children towards which this study is directed includes preschool through latency age children. All inferences made in…

  9. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL−1. Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3–10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5–200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10−4. The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities. - Highlights: • The health risks of children living around a typical lead-acid battery was analyzed. • The exposure pathways of children to 12 heavy metal(loid)s were assessed. • Courtyard soil and indoor dust and duplicate food were contaminated by metal(loid)s. • Food ingestion was the major pathway for children's exposure to most metal(loid)s. • Higher potentially non-cancer and cancer risks happened to the local children. - The children living around a typical lead-acid battery plant suffered from serious health risks, which mainly attributed to food ingestion and air inhalation exposure

  10. FACTORS DETERMINING DISCLOSURE BY PARENTS AMONG CHILDREN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN KIGALI UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    SP. Ingabire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART and survival of HIV-infected children has raised challenges on disclosing HIV diagnosis to children. Many parents and guardians are reluctant to allow children living with HIV to know their status, arguing that they are too young and will not understand fully their circumstances causing emotional disturbances as a result. There are further concerns that children may blame their parents and ask questions on how they got the disease, even inadvertently “blurting out the secret” and thus exposing the family to stigma and discrimination. In this cross-sectional study, eligible children were recruited to participate. Data on these children was obtained from the electronic databases and completed with data extraction from the individual patient fie. A sample of both parents and guardians who disclosed and those who did not disclose have been interviewed to identify the factors and reasons behind their decision-making process in addition to what they believe would improve their disclosure. A total of 64% of HIV positive (HIV+ children had their status disclosed to them by parents while 35.8% did not. The majority of parents or guardians (80% found that disclosing status improved adherence. A large number of parents or guardians (67% attended psychosocial support groups and accordingly disclosure status was highly associated with psychosocial support group attendance (p<0.05. Disclosure and statistical tests showed that disclosure status was highly associated with CD4 outcomes (p<0.05. In addition, disclosure status was highly associated with viral load outcome (p<0.05. Moreover, 64.4% of children living with HIV underwent an increase of weight greater or equal 4 kg after disclosure and statistically disclosure status was highly associated with weight outcomes (p<0.05.

  11. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities

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    Leroux Brian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting

  12. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  13. Characteristics and outcome of type 2 diabetes in urban Aboriginal people: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M E; McAullay, D; Davis, W A; Bruce, D G

    2007-01-01

    We analysed data from Aboriginal patients with type 2 diabetes recruited to the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study and compared them with those from the Anglo-Celt participants. Diabetes prevalence among Aboriginal people in the Fremantle area was more than double that of Anglo-Celts and the average age at diagnosis was 14 years or younger. Glycaemic control, urinary albumin :creatinine and the proportion of smokers were all higher in the Aboriginal group and there was evidence of lower diabetes-related quality of life and high rates of disability at a young age. The Aboriginal patients died 18 years or younger than their Anglo-Celt counterparts. Specialized, culturally-sensitive and sustainable programmes are urgently needed to improve the management of diabetes in urban Aboriginal communities.

  14. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

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    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  15. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; <1.0 µg l(-1)). Similarly, Mn levels in sediments were also increased (3090 to 4086 µg g(-1)). Median values of MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  16. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

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    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  17. Intestinal parasites and malnutrition in children of Urabá (Colombia interpreted according to the Colombian living conditions: isolation and abandonment

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    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIntestinal parasites, hunger and malnutrition are manifestations of prevalent health inequalities, determined by social, economic and political inequities. Indeed, such public health problems are evident worldwide and few measures are being taken to overcome them, despite the existence of the scientific knowledge and technological tools to address them.ObjectiveTo measure the prevalence of malnutrition and pathogenic intestinal parasites in children of the Urabá region of Antioquia, Colombia, and to relate these factors to prevailing living conditions.MethodologyThe study was carried out in Turbo (Urabá, among children <15 years of age, applying a prospective descriptive design (prevalence survey. Children were recruited at home or at school. Tests were performed for the following: stool examination, hemogram, ferritin, retinol and C-reactive protein (CRP.ResultsA total of 1600 children were evaluated, with the following findings: 25% had chronic malnutrition; 45% had a detected hemoglobin value <11 g/dL; 20% low ferritin levels; 26% low retinol levels; and 87% had confirmed pathogenic intestinal parasites.ConclusionsThese findings confirm the poor living conditions of children and their families in Urabá, compared to those generally reported in Antioquia and the rest of Colombia. There are high levels of malnutrition, anemia, and iron and vitamin A deficiencies. In Urába, hunger, malnutrition and parasites co-exist in children <15 years of age. Living conditions prevalent in Urabá generate and perpetuate this situation, while the necessary resolution of the underlying problems is not being tackled.

  18. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  19. Friendship quality in 8 to 10 years old children who live in a public institution of Lima

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    Doris Argumedo Bustinza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies friendship relationships in institutionalized children according to friendship’s quality and reciprocity. The participants were 33 institutionalized children (boys and girls, whose age range was 8 to 10. The control group consisted of 41 noninstitutionalized children with similar characteristics. Results show that institutionalized children have less reciprocal friendships than non-institutionalized children. Institutionalized children give more support and share the ir intimate experienc es in their reciprocal friendships than non-institutionalized children. Moreover, friendship quality of non-reciprocal friendships in the institutionalized group is almost equivalent to reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships in the non-institutionalized one. This evidence shows that the majority of institutionalized children establish friendship bonds with similar characteristics, as do other children of the same age range.

  20. Between a rock and a hard place: stigma and the desire to have children among people living with HIV in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher G; Earnest, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma, among other factors, has been shown to have an impact on the desire to have children among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our objective was to explore the experiences of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region of high HIV prevalence, high infant and child mortality and low contraception use, and to describe how stigma affected the desires of PLHIV to have children in the future. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The interviews, conducted in Luo, the local language, were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Thematic data analysis was undertaken using NVivo8 and was underpinned by the “Conceptual Model of HIV/AIDS Stigma”. Results HIV-related stigma continues to affect the quality of life of PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda, and also influences PLHIV's desire to have children. PLHIV in northern Uganda continue to experience stigma in various forms, including internal stigma and verbal abuse from community members. While many PLHIV desire to have children and are strongly influenced by several factors including societal and cultural obligations, stigma and discrimination also affect this desire. Several dimensions of stigma, such as types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma), stigmatizing behaviours (abusing and desertion) and agents of stigmatization (families, communities and health systems), either directly, or indirectly, enhanced or reduced PLHIV's desire to have more children. Conclusion The social-cultural context within which PLHIV continue to desire to have children must be better understood by all health professionals who hope to improve the quality of PLHIV's lives. By delineating the stigma process, the paper proposes interventions for reducing stigmatization of PLHIV in northern Uganda in order to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for PLHIV and their children