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Sample records for aboard washington state

  1. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  3. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation.

  4. 2015 State Geodatabase for Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  6. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  7. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  8. Attitudes of Washington State physicians toward health care reform.

    OpenAIRE

    Malter, A D; Emerson, L L; Krieger, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes of Washington State physicians about health care reform and about specific elements of managed competition and single-payer proposals were evaluated. Opinions about President Clinton's reform plan were also assessed. Washington physicians (n = 1,000) were surveyed from October to November 1993, and responses were collected through January 1994; responses were anonymous. The response rate was 80%. Practice characteristics of respondents did not differ from other physicians in the sta...

  9. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  10. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  11. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  12. 76 FR 9051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources... inventory of human remains in the control of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia... control of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources at the time of removal, and as such...

  13. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  14. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's...

  15. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  16. Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Tim

    2013-09-30

    The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.

  17. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains were removed... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  18. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  19. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  20. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  1. Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Citizens of the United States vote today (November 7, 2000) to determine who will be the next president and vice president of the country, as well as who will fill a number of congressional and senate seats that are up for election. This image of the U.S. capital city-Washington, D.C.-was acquired on June 1 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), a Japanese sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The scene encompasses an area 14 km wide by 13.7 km tall, and was made using a combination of ASTER's visible and near-infrared channels. In this image, vegetation appears red, buildings and paved areas appear light blue, and the waters of the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers are dark grey. ASTER's 15-meter spatial resolution allows us to see individual buildings, including the White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. 76 FR 48177 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State Department of Natural Resources and the... Natural Resources. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian...

  3. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 5105-5106, February 1, 2010). In the Federal Register, paragraph number 7... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  4. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum) has completed an inventory of human remains... contact the Burke Museum. Disposition of the human remains and the associated funerary object to...

  5. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum) has completed an inventory of human remains... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Burke...

  6. Measuring the performance of multi-agency programmatic permits for Washington State Department of Transportation activities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Washington State Legislature established the Transportation Permit Efficiency and Accountability Committee (TPEAC) to identify measures to streamline permit procedures for transportation activities and improve environmental outcomes. A programmatic subcommittee was created to develop a multi-agency approach for developing programmatic permits that would cover 60 to 70 percent of Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) activities (mostly maintenance and preservation ...

  7. 75 FR 41883 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University... and control of the Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Museum of...

  8. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  9. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  10. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  11. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  12. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  13. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  14. Priority Training Needs of School District Assessment Coordinators in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Studied basic professional demographic information about school district assessment coordinators and determined the current professional development and training needs of local district assessment coordinators in Washington state through surveys completed by 109 (37% of the sample) Washington assessment coordinators. Results show many differences…

  15. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... the cultural items should contact Mary Collins, Director of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems.

  17. 77 FR 72742 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... for NO X for the TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington... containing the BART determination for NO X at TransAlta. The TransAlta power plant, located in Centralia, Washington, is a two unit coal-fired power plant rated at 702.5 MW each, when burning coal from the...

  18. Detection of a pathogen shift among the pectolytic bacterial pathogens of potato in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial tuber soft rot, aerial stem rot and blackleg are significant diseases of potatoes in Washington State. These diseases are caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, and Dickeya chrysanthemi, all characterized by the ability to produce pectolytic ...

  19. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  20. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  1. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  2. Strain gradients and melt pathways, Twin Sisters complex, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckenberg, S. C.; Newman, J.; Tikoff, B.; Toy, V. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Twin Sisters complex in the North Cascades of Washington state is a large (~6 by 16 km), virtually unaltered ultramafic body that provides information about the relationships between the formation of compositional layering, structural fabrics and the formation of inferred melt pathways in naturally deforming peridotites. Compositional layering is largely defined by alternating layers of orthopyroxene-absent dunite (>95% olivine) and orthopyroxene-present (~15% orthopyroxene; ~85% olivine) harzburgite aligned parallel to a roughly N-S striking and steeply dipping foliation. Orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-bearing dikes occur throughout the Twin Sisters and crosscut the host dunite and harzburgite layering. Orthopyroxene dikes range in thickness from 1 cm to >1 m and are variably oriented and may be folded. Clinopyroxene-bearing dikes are thinner, more consistently oriented (~N-S), and generally more tabular than the orthopyroxene dikes. In the Twin Sisters, cm- to m-scale zones of porphyroclastic dunite cross-cut the main dunite-harzburgite compositional layering and display a variety of relationships with pyroxene dikes in the region. These porphyroclastic dunite bands locally contain single olivine grains >10 cm and likely represent former pathways of melt migration. Transect mapping along an E-W traverse across the Twin Sisters massif reveals that these inferred melt channels form at various angles relative to the main dunite-harzburgite layering. In the west, porphyroclastic olivine layers form at low angle to the main foliation and compositional layering. These zone form at systematically higher angles across the structural section of the Twin Sisters massif to the east and commonly form conjugate cross-cutting sets at high-angle to the main N-S dunite-harzburgite layering. This change in band angle correlates broadly with changes in the intensity of folding of orthopyroxene-bearing dikes, with more intensely deformed dikes in the west to more planar dikes

  3. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  4. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Saganic; Jason Carr; Rosa Solorio; Maria Courogen; Tom Jaenicke; Ann Duerr

    2011-01-01

    As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also con...

  5. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  6. Effective Tobacco Control in Washington State: A Smart Investment for Healthy Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Dilley, MES

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Following the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry, Washington State dedicated substantial funding to the creation of a statewide, comprehensive tobacco control program. This report documents the history and observed effectiveness of that program.Context In 2000, the Washington legislature allocated $100 million out of the first Master Settlement payment of $320 million to tobacco control. The comprehensive tobacco control program was launched late that same year with an annual budget of $15 million.Methods We used existing data from state and national health behavior surveillance systems to describe smoking prevalence among adults and youth. For adult measures, we used data from the Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the National Health Interview Survey. For youth measures, we used data from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey and the national Monitoring the Future survey. We used the National Cancer Institute’s “Joinpoint” software to compare trends.Consequences Between 1990 and 2001, adult smoking prevalence in Washington was nearly unchanged, as it was in the United States as a whole. However, from 2001, one year after Washington instituted its comprehensive tobacco control program, to 2005, the prevalence of smoking among adults in Washington declined significantly from 22.5% to 17.6%, and by a significantly larger amount than it did nationally during the same period (22.7% to 20.9%. In addition, the prevalence of youth smoking also declined faster in Washington than it did nationally; for example, from 2000 to 2004, smoking prevalence among 8th graders declined from 12.5% in 2000 to 7.8% in 2004 in Washington but only from 12.2% in to 9.3% nationally.Interpretation Significant reductions in smoking prevalence among Washington residents following the implementation of a comprehensive

  7. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  8. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  9. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  10. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich-Thuy L. Eberhart

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA + dinophysistoxins (DTXs/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1 with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2 and yessotoxin (YTX with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2 also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1 and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3 were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound.

  11. NCLB: Local implementation and impact in southwest Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Mabry

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here is from the first two years of an ongoing and largely qualitative study to examine the impact of the No Child Left Behind federal education policy on educational practice and climate in elementary schools in two districts in southwest Washington. Based on systematic drop-in observations in classrooms and interviews with teachers and school and district administrators, data indicated that the policy had partially yielded the intended standards-based reforms but at considerable local cost. While most participating administrators described efforts to use NCLB to leverage needed change, most teachers described struggles to sustain best practice and to avoid some negative consequences to their students and schools. Administrators anticipated that resistant teachers would be nudged from the profession, and the greatest attrition among participating teachers was from the fourth-grade level at which the state’s standards-based test was administered. Fourth-grade teachers particularly expressed concern about test-related stress and test-driven curricula interfering with children’s individual needs and with their own ability to provide developmentally appropriate instruction adapted for their particular students. The validity and utility of test results was a local issue.

  12. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  13. A Future Search Conference: The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Describes a future search conference that addressed the future of school library resource centers and their role in enhancing student learning in Washington State. Highlights include whole systems analysis; and participative planning that included teachers, administrators, librarians, parents, students, business representatives, and consultants.…

  14. The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State: A Future Search Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the process of future search conferences and describes one held to consider the future of school library media centers and information services in the state of Washington. Highlights include participation by students, librarians, teachers, administrators, and others; strategic and participatory planning; and change processes. (LRW)

  15. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  16. Detection, seed transmission, and control of Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  17. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  18. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  19. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated funerary objects and... a cultural affiliation with the human remains and associated funerary objects should contact the... remains were removed by Dr. F.S. Hall of the Washington State Museum from the Pot Holes site or Hall...

  20. 78 FR 57503 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets and Determination of Attainment for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard; Tacoma... November 28, 2012, to establish motor vehicle emission budgets for the Tacoma-Pierce County...

  1. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum... the site to the Eastern Washington State Historical Society (EWSHS), now known as the Northwest Museum... periods'' (Luttrell, 2011). These dates are supported by first-person accounts of the types and styles...

  2. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  3. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  4. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human...

  5. 76 FR 62868 - Washington State University; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Washington State University; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-76... No. R- 76. ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available documents related to this notice using the... License No. R-76, held by the Washington State University (WSU, the licensee), which authorizes...

  6. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  7. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  8. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University on an unknown...

  9. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  10. Sampling Buprestidae (Coleoptera in Washington state with Cerceris californica Cresson (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle-hunting habits of ground nesting wasps in the genus Cerceris Latreille have been recently exploited as a survey technique for exotic and native Buprestidae, particularly Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash-borer. While such methods have been developed for the wide-ranging eastern Cerceris fumipennis Say, the survey potential of western buprestid-hunting Cerceris spp. has not been explored. Cerceris californica Cresson is the most well-studied of the western buprestid feeders, and the only one known to occur in Washington state. Here we report the results of surveys conducted in Washington in 2012–2013 for C. californica colonies, and numbers of buprestid beetles collected from monitored colonies. Eight C. californica colonies were found through visual search of 228 baseball fields and sandy clearings, but only four were large enough to monitor. Fifty-four beetles were recovered from the four colonies, comprising five native species. Four of these are new prey records for C. californica, and one (Chrysobothris quadriimpressa Gory & Laporte is newly recorded from Washington. Cerceris californica colonies do not appear to be large or common enough in Washington to be a significant exotic buprestid survey strategy. However, even the limited monitoring resulted in more buprestid captures than nearby purple sticky traps, and monitoring C. californica nests may be a locally useful supplement for general buprestid surveys.

  11. Washington State Department of Transportation Bridge Maintenance and Inspection Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Protected wildlife species that utilize the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridges and structures may be susceptible to impacts from routine maintenance and inspection activities. In response to community-driven concerns related to the conservation of protected terrestrial species and due to the lack of existing guidance for bridge related activities, WSDOT expanded their Highway Maintenance Environmental Compliance Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species to include ...

  12. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Leveille, S.G.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Koepsell, T. D.; Beresford, S. A.; BELLE, G.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary vitamin C and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study using retrospective diet and vitamin supplement data. SETTING: The Seattle area of Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Screenees for a clinical trial of a drug to prevent osteoporotic fractures; 1892 women aged 55-80 years who had hip bone densitometry and osteoporosis risk factor information. MAIN RESULTS: Mean energy adjusted...

  13. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  14. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  15. Applying downscaled climate data to wildlife areas in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, A.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Helbrecht, L.; Pelltier, R.; Thompson, B.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers require information about potential climate change effects for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future climate and bioclimate changes for wildlife areas in Washington State (USA) using five climate simulations for the 21st century from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset run under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. These data were downscaled to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Washington by calculating and interpolating future climate anomalies, and then applying the interpolated data to observed historical climate data. This climate data downscaling technique (also referred to as the 'delta' method) is relatively simple and makes a number of assumptions that affect how the downscaled data can be used and interpreted. We used the downscaled climate data to calculate bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Washington species and habitats of management concern. Multivariate descriptive plots and maps were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which managed areas experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations. We discuss these changes while accounting for some of the limitations of our downscaling technique and the uncertainties associated with using these downscaled data for conservation and natural resource management applications.

  16. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  17. A survey of tractors and rollover protective structures in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielholz, P; Sjostrom, T; Clark, R E; Adams, D A

    2006-11-01

    A survey of farms in Washington State was conducted to determine tractor characteristics and the presence of rollover protective structures (ROPS) in a state with more inclusive rules on tractor retrofitting than federal regulations. A total of 544 valid surveys were completed from a proportional random sample across different types of farms. Responders indicated that 58% of tractors overall were equipped with ROPS, and 42% of the tractors without ROPS were exempt from the state rules. Seatbelts on tractors equipped with ROPS were reportedly used "sometimes" or more 30% of the time, and 17% of these tractors had no seatbelt installed. Tractors used for row crop farming were significantly more likely to be equipped with ROPS than those used for tree, vine, or hops farming. Older tractors were used for fewer hours, were less likely to be ROPS-equipped, and were less likely to be operated while wearing a seatbelt. The results were consistent with a positive effect of the Washington State ROPS requirements, demonstrated by the increased percentage of ROPS-equipped pre-1976 tractors, as compared to other states, and by the difference between ROPS-equipped tractors in exempt and non-exempt types of farming. The results point to the need for prevention activities to increase seatbelt use on ROPS-equipped tractors, and for further development of practical protection for tractors operating under overhead obstacles.

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  19. Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Georgina E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Roberts, Helen M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Westgate, John A.; Gaylord, David R.; Sweeney, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km3, and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

  20. Developing hydropower in Washington state. Volume 2: An electricity marketing manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. W.; McCoy, G. A.

    1982-03-01

    An electricity marketing manual for the potential small and micro-hydroelectric project developer within the state of Washington is presented. Public utility regulatory policies (PURPA) requires electric utilities to interconnect with and pay a rate based on their full avoided costs for the purchase of electrical output from qualifying small power production facilities. The determination of avoided costs, as business organizational considerations, utility interface concerns, interconnection requirements, metering options, and liability and wheeling are discussed. The utility responses are summarized, legislation which is of importance to hydropower developers and the powers and functions of the authorities responsible for enforcing the mandate of PURPA are described.

  1. Flux and instrumentation upgrade for the epithermal neutron beam facility at Washington State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, D W; Venhuizen, J R; Wemple, C A; Tripard, G E; Sharp, S; Fox, K

    2004-11-01

    An epithermal neutron beam facility for preclinical neutron capture therapy research has been constructed at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor installation. Subsequent to a recent upgrade, this new facility offers a high-purity epithermal beam with intensity on the order of 1.2x10(9)n/cm(2)s. Key features include a fluoride-based design for the neutron filtering and moderating components as well as a novel collimator design that allows ease of assembly and disassembly of the beamline components.

  2. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  3. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  4. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  5. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)

  6. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  7. Changes in Local School Policies and Practices in Washington State After an Unfunded Physical Activity and Nutrition Mandate

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia A; Dent, Clyde; Elman, Miriam R.; Duncan, Susan C.; Johnson, Donna B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Policies and practices in schools may create environments that encourage and reinforce healthy behaviors and are thus a means for stemming the rising rates of childhood obesity. We assessed the effect of a 2005 statewide school physical activity and nutrition mandate on policies and practices in middle and high schools in Washington State. Methods We used 2002, 2004, and 2006 statewide School Health Profiles survey data from Washington, with Oregon as a comparison group, to creat...

  8. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A. The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS. The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.

  9. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York... tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  10. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  11. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

  12. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  13. Land Use Change from Biofuels Derived from Forest Residue: A Case of Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel policy in the United States is transitioning away from corn towards second-generation biofuels in part because of the debate over environmental damages from indirect land use change. We combine a spatially explicit parcel level model for land use change in Washington State with simulations for biofuel policy aimed at utilizing forest residue as feedstock. Using a spatially explicit model provides greater precision in measuring net returns to forestland and development and indicates which areas will be most impacted by biofuel policy. The effect of policy is simulated via scenarios of increasing net returns to forestry and of siting feedstock-processing plants. Our results suggest that forestland will increase from such a policy, leading to a net reduction in atmospheric carbon from indirect land use change. This is in contrast to the experience of corn ethanol where the change in carbon emissions is potentially positive and large in magnitude.

  14. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  15. Distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI by occupation in Washington State, September 2009-August 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Anderson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to estimate the prevalence of influenza-like illness (ILI by occupation and to identify occupations associated with increased ILI prevalence. METHODS: Between September 2009 and August 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC included questions on ILI symptoms on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Washington State collects the occupation of all employed BRFSS respondents. ILI prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated by occupational group. RESULTS: There were 8,758 adult, currently employed, non-military respondents to the Washington BRFSS during the study period. The ILI prevalence for all employed respondents was 6.8% (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI = 6.1, 7.6. PRs indicated a lower prevalence of ILI in Technicians (PR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.9 and Truck Drivers (PR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7 and higher prevalence in Janitors and Cleaners (PR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 4.7 and Secretaries (PR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.4. CONCLUSIONS: Some occupations appear to have higher prevalence of ILI than others. These occupational differences may be explained, in part, by differing levels of social contact with the public or contact with contaminated surfaces at work, or by other occupational factors such as stress or access to health care resources.

  16. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  17. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  18. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  19. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  20. Impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among opiate users in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin M; Deck, Dennis; Krupski, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Administrative data from Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse drive this three-year prospective study of the impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among 12,962 opiate users receiving publicly funded substance abuse services. Using survival analysis, the risk of arrest among opiate users who receive substance abuse treatment is compared to those who do not receive treatment. Propensity scores control for client characteristics associated with admission to substance abuse treatment. Overall, a reduction in the risk of arrest was found among subjects in treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.59-0.78, p < .05) and subjects successfully completing treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.75, p < .05). Risk of arrest was elevated among those with a negative outcome to treatment (Hazard Ratio = 1.23, p < .05).

  1. Outreach at Washington State University: a case study in costs and attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth A.; Bollen, Viktor; Bersano, Thomas M.; Mossman, Sean M.

    2016-09-01

    Making effective and efficient use of outreach resources can be difficult for student groups in smaller rural communities. Washington State University's OSA/SPIE student chapter desires well attended yet cost-effective ways to educate and inform the public. We designed outreach activities focused on three different funding levels: low upfront cost, moderate continuing costs, and high upfront cost with low continuing costs. By featuring our activities at well attended events, such as a pre-football game event, or by advertising a headlining activity, such as a laser maze, we take advantage of large crowds to create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Moreover, participants enjoy casual learning while waiting for a main event. Choosing a particular funding level and associating with well-attended events makes outreach easier. While there are still many challenges to outreach, such as motivating volunteers or designing outreach programs, we hope overcoming two large obstacles will lead to future outreach success.

  2. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  3. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  4. Estimating the Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to relate anthropogenic (manmade) and natural variables to the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water in Washington State. Variables that were analyzed included well depth, ground-water recharge rate, precipitation, population density, fertilizer application amounts, soil characteristics, hydrogeomorphic regions, and land-use types. Two models were developed: one with and one without the hydrogeomorphic regions variable. The variables in both models that best explained the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations (defined as concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen greater than 2 milligrams per liter) were the percentage of agricultural land use in a 4-kilometer radius of a well, population density, precipitation, soil drainage class, and well depth. Based on the relations between these variables and measured nitrate concentrations, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the probability of nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeding 2 milligrams per liter. Maps of Washington State were produced that illustrate these estimated probabilities for wells drilled to 145 feet below land surface (median well depth) and the estimated depth to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of drawing water with a nitrate concentration less than 2 milligrams per liter. Maps showing the estimated probability of elevated nitrate concentrations indicated that the agricultural regions are most at risk followed by urban areas. The estimated depths to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of obtaining water with nitrate concentrations less than 2 milligrams per liter exceeded 1,000 feet in the agricultural regions; whereas, wells in urban areas generally would need to be drilled to depths in excess of 400 feet.

  5. Sediment management strategies associated with dam removal in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, C.S.; Connolly, P.J.; Coffin, B.; Duda, J.J.; Draut, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Different removal strategies are described for dams in three diverse drainage basins (Wind River, White Salmon River, and Elwha River basins) in the State of Washington (USA). The comparisons between the strategies offer the opportunity to track the effects of sediment resulting from dam decommissioning in the Pacific Northwest and to determine possible effects on socio-economically important species of anadromous salmonids. Hemlock Dam, located on Trout Creek and managed by the United States Forest Service, was removed from July to September 2009. To mitigate the effect on fish downstream (specifically, salmonids) and to minimize sediment aggradation downstream in the main-stem Wind River, the Forest Service chose to excavate the approximately 42,000 cubic meters of sediment entrapped behind the dam before removal of the dam. Thus, the reach of Trout Creek downstream of the dam will not be affected by a large, released pulse of accumulated sediment. In contrast, the scheduled removal of Condit Dam, located on the White Salmon River 30 kilometers to the east of Hemlock Dam, involves a different removal strategy. Condit Dam will be breached near its base in order to mobilize the 1.7 million cubic meters of trapped sediment during the reservoir drawdown in an effort to decrease the time needed for the downstream reach to return to normal levels of suspended sediment. Finally, the much-anticipated 2011 removal of two dams on the Elwha River on the Olympic Peninsula in northwestern Washington will take place over 2 years with progressive notches cut into the dams from the top down. Although some portion of reservoir sediment will be carried downstream by the river, the specific timing of notching will be adaptively managed to mitigate the effects of raised sediment concentration on fishes and people living downstream. With improved scientific understanding from these studies, future damremoval projects can be planned and executed with approaches that mitigate

  6. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  7. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  8. 75 FR 31719 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of... handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and... with respect to the proposed amendments to Marketing Order 930 regulating the handling of tart...

  9. 75 FR 33673 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... referendum among tart cherry growers and processors be conducted during the period February 1, 2010,...

  10. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... amend Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown...

  11. Coordination of Instructional Services by Washington State's Educational Service Districts. REL 2015-041

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mark; Speth, Timothy; Akey, Terri; Krasnoff, Basha; Barton, Rhonda; Singh, Malkeet; Scott, Caitlin; Fantz, Traci

    2014-01-01

    This REL Northwest study looked at the funding, delivery, and coordination of instructional services offered by Washington state's network of nine Educational Service Districts (ESDs). REL Northwest examined 13 statewide teaching and learning support areas, including the percentages of districts served, the funding for each service, and ESD…

  12. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  13. Collateral visibility : A socio-legal study of police body camera adoption, privacy, and public disclosure in Washington State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    Law enforcement use of body-worn cameras has recently become a subject of significant public and scholarly debate. This article presents findings from a socio-legal examination of the legal and social implications of body-worn camera adoption by two police departments in Washington State. In particu

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. 76 FR 76299 - Higher Volume Port Area-State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... and within a 50-mile arc measured from Cape Flattery, Washington, to the HVPA. Higher volume port...://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-0576 in the ``Keyword'' box, and then clicking ``Search... the HVPA, currently a 50-mile arc centered on the entrance to Port Angeles, Washington, westward...

  16. 77 FR 59649 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... address below by October 29, 2012. ADDRESSES: Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box... considered to be part of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Area. Linguistically Native American speakers of the... Washington, Box 35101, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, before October 29, 2012. Repatriation...

  17. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...: Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685... present. Native American speakers of the Northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural..., University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email plape@uw.edu ,...

  18. 78 FR 50443 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Washington, Box 35101, ] Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email plape@uw.edu . SUPPLEMENTARY... speakers of the Northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural heritage to the Skagit River... information in support of the request Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 35101,...

  19. 78 FR 59956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADDRESSES: Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206.... Linguistically, Native American speakers of the northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural..., Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 35010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849,...

  20. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...: Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 35101, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685... speakers of the Northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural heritage to the Skagit River... information in support of the claim to Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 35101,...

  1. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  2. New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and northeastern Washington State, United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigg, Kathleen B.; Dillhoff, Richard M.; DeVore, Melanie L.; Wehr, Wesley C.

    2007-01-01

    Newly recognized fossil infructescences and leaves of the Trochodendraceae are described from the Early/ Middle Eocene McAbee and One Mile Creek sites of British Columbia, Canada, and Republic, eastern Washington State, United States. Trochodendron drachukii Pigg, Dillhoff, DeVore, & Wehr sp. nov.,

  3. Washington state initiative trims Medicaid budget, ED utilization without denying access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In its first year of operation, Washington state's "ER is for Emergencies" initiative has helped to save the state's Medicaid budget $33.6 million. The initiative, which is based on the implementation of seven best practices, has succeeded in part by improving care coordination and by linking EDs across the state so information can be shared electronically. Leaders of the effort concede that while state pressure was essential in pushing providers to address excess use of the ED for nonemergency needs, they stress that the approach worked because all sides were willing to sit down and hammer out a solution. Further, they note that the infrastructure is now in place to address other problems in a similar fashion. An analysis of claims data shows that in the first year of the initiative, ED visits by Medicaid recipients declined by 9.9%, and the rate of visits by frequent ED utilizers declined by 10.7%. The analysis also shows that ED visits resulting in a scheduled drug prescription fell by 24%, and the rate of visits for a low-acuity diagnosis declined by 14.2%. While many EDs had to adjust their staffing and other resources to accommodate reduced volumes, others experienced few changes or even saw an uptick in volume, possibly from implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Leaders of the effort say the biggest challenge involved with implementing the initiative was securing administrative buy-in for investments that would likely result in improved efficiency and care, but also reduced revenue--at least initially.

  4. 77 FR 30467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... \\6\\; SCR; SNCR; Rotating over-fire air (ROFA)/Rota mix; neutral net technology; and natural gas re... State or Federal law requires SCR to be installed on either unit. Additionally, by way of background, on... requires selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to be installed on either coal-fired unit. See Section 106...

  5. Terminal Pleistocene change in mammal communities in southeastern Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-03-01

    Small mammal communities in western North America experienced declines in taxonomic richness across the late Pleistocene to Holocene transition (PHT), a recent natural global warming event. One community also experienced a decline in evenness and others replaced one species with a congener. Variability in response of small mammal communities to PHT warming is apparent. At the presently arid and xeric Marmes site in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington State, megafauna were absent by about 13,000 cal yr BP, evenness of small mammals declined about 11,700 cal yr BP and again about 11,400 cal yr BP whereas richness declined about 11,400 cal BP. Regional faunal turnover was, however, minimal among small-bodied taxa. Local mammal communities are depauperate as a result of megafaunal extinctions and subsequent decreases in small-mammal richness and evenness. The latter chronologically corresponds with a decrease in primary productivity driven by increasing warmth and aridity. More faunas must be studied in order to fully document the range of variability in the responses of mammalian communities to PHT warming. Documentation of patterns in those responses will facilitate understanding and enhance predictive accuracy with respect to responses of mammalian communities to modern global warming.

  6. Acute toxicity of drainage ditch water from a Washington State cranberry-growing region to Daphnia pulex in laboratory bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Barbara; Stark, John D

    2002-10-01

    High concentrations of organophosphorous insecticides resulting from cranberry bog applications were detected in the Grayland Drainage Ditch (GDD) system in Grayland, Washington State, during the 1994-1996 Washington State Department of Ecology Pesticide Monitoring Program. This drainage ditch system drains cranberry bogs and enters the Pacific Ocean via the North Cove and Supon Inlet. Concerns about the impact of these pesticides on human and environmental health led to this investigation of the potential impact on an indicator species, Daphnia pulex. To determine the toxic effects of multiple pesticides entering the GDD, standardized laboratory toxicity tests with D. pulex were conducted concurrently with the Washington State Department of Ecology pesticide sampling. Concentrations of three insecticides, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl, were the highest ever detected in state waters. The GDD water was found to cause acute toxicity in 33% of the laboratory bioassays conducted. Regression analysis, however, detected a poor correlation between total insecticide detected and percentage mortality of D. pulex at the two drainage ditch sites studied, Grays Harbor County site and the Pacific County site. However, the relationship between mortality of D. pulex and detected concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos were significant. Sampling schedules for chemical analysis and bioassay testing appear to be the primary reason that statistical analysis failed to correlate mortality with detected OP pesticide concentrations. Grab samples used in toxicity testing may over- or underestimate actual concentrations of contaminants present in the system being studied.

  7. CTD cast and zooplankton count data collected in Dabob Bay, Hood Canal, Puget Sound, Washington during twenty-six cruises aboard the CLIFFORD A. BARNES, February 2002 - April 2004 (NODC Accession 0014832)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains CTD cast and zooplankton data collected during twenty-six cruises to Dabob Bay, Washington in 2002 - 2004 for the project entitled "Copepod -...

  8. Results of inspections in health hazard industries in a region of the state of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2008-06-01

    Results from state of Washington Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health inspections were reviewed to characterize the level of control that existed at the work sites, identify common problems, and assess the success of targeting programs in finding and correcting uncontrolled health hazards. Data were obtained from 170 inspections conducted by industrial hygienists in a four-county area in 12 industries, including 10 that were targeted. Inspection data were accessed through the use of electronic databases and inspection reports then summarized by the following industries: bathtub refinishing, carbide tool and saw sharpening, fibercement siding installation, furniture refinishing, health care clinics, janitorial floor waxing service, landscaping, lawn maintenance, tree service, road construction, stone countertop fabrication, truck bed lining, warehouse and cold storage, and wood floor finishing. Targeted health hazards included worker exposure to airborne contaminants, noise, and bloodborne pathogens typical of the industry. Method and effectiveness of control of health hazards were evaluated by counting work sites with violations associated with engineering control, personal protective equipment, hearing conservation, or training. Results are presented by industry for the number and percentage of work sites that failed to provide required protection. Poor control of health hazards was generally found across all inspected industries. Follow-up inspections and self-reports of abatement found that more than 85% were able to successfully control the hazards and abate the violations. The results are further discussed as they relate to methods of control and risk and identifying existing and emerging high health hazard industries. Based on employment data and the poor hazard control that was found, most if not all the industries can be described as high health hazard, small-employer industries. The results can be used for the planning of

  9. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  10. Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest.

  11. Late Holocene Drought Record From Castor Lake, North-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Abbott, M. B.; Polissar, P. J.; Finney, B.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of recent and historic drought in the North American west provide motivation for understanding the natural variability and underlying causes of these events. We present a 6,000-year lake sediment record of water balance from Washington State in an effort to address these questions. A series of overlapping sediment cores were collected and chronological control was established through a combination of radiocarbon, tephrochronology, and cesium isotope activity. Modern basin morphometry and lake water oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate closed-basin hydrology and the strong influence of evaporative enrichment on lake water composition, and therefore sensitivity of the system to changes in regional water balance and drought. Samples of endogenic aragonite precipitates were isolated from sediment cores at an average sampling interval of 3.7mm, corresponding to a temporal resolution of approximately 7 years. Grayscale data were generated from digital images of the cores collected under controlled light conditions and are shown to track changes in oxygen isotope values, with darker layers corresponding to periods of increased isotopic composition. In addition to supporting the notion that oxygen isotope data are primarily recording changes in water balance as opposed to changes in water source or temperature, the increased resolution of the grayscale record improves the resolution of the climate signal to the sub-millimeter scale of the laminations. There is a significant correlation between the most recent portion of the Castor Lake grayscale record and a 1,500-yr Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction from central Washington (1). The strong association between changes in the Castor Lake record and changes in the PDSI reconstruction provides convincing method validation and strengthens the interpretation of both as drought signals. Spectral analyses of the grayscale record using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), maximum entropy method (MEM

  12. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  13. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  14. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  15. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NCEI Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  16. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  17. 78 FR 59964 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email plape@uw.edu , and Lourdes Henebry-De.... Linguistically, Native American speakers of the northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural... Museum, University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email...

  18. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    .... ADDRESSES: Peter Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206... box pieces, and two unmodified shells. The sites described in this notice are located either in the..., Native American speakers of the northern dialect of the Lushootseed language claim cultural heritage...

  19. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges: Academic Year Report 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…

  20. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  1. Impact of Peer Substance Use on Middle School Performance in Washington. Interim Report to the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse, Department of Social and Health Services, State of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Richard N.

    This report examines the influence of peer substance use on school performance among 7th grade students in Washington State. The study consisted of two components. The first examined the relationship between substance use and school performance and explored the factors that affect school performance. The second examined the ways variables such as…

  2. Booker T. Washington Rediscovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieze, Michael Scott, Ed.; Gasman, Marybeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Booker T. Washington, a founding father of African American education in the United States, has long been studied, revered, and reviled by scholars and students. Born into slavery, freed and raised in the Reconstruction South, and active in educational reform through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Washington sought to use…

  3. Testing the Recommendations of the Washington State Nutrition and Physical Activity Plan: The Moses Lake Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna B. Johnson, PhD, RD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Washington State Nutrition and Physical Activity Plan provides a framework in which policy makers can work together to build and support healthy environments for nutrition and physical activity. The city of Moses Lake, Wash, was chosen to serve as a pilot site to test the conceptual approaches and recommendations of the plan and to develop a model for healthy communities elsewhere in the state. Context Moses Lake is an ethnically diverse, geographically isolated town with a population of about 15,000. Methods An advisory committee used data from an inventory of local policies and environments, along with the recommendations from the state plan, to develop a plan for Healthy Communities Moses Lake. Three initiatives were chosen for the first actions: a connected system of trails and paths, enhanced facilities for breastfeeding in the community, and a community garden. Consequences Records of cumulative actions demonstrated that Healthy Communities Moses Lake continued to be an active and productive project. Initial measures of success were collected by each of the three first action teams. Environmental changes will be monitored by comparison with the initial inventory of local policies. Long-term health outcomes in Moses Lake will be monitored by the Washington State Department of Health.

  4. All aboard!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Every year, CERN's surveyors take detailed measurements to check the alignment of the LHC components. This year, from 16 to 18 January, they took some of those measurements for the first time using a brand-new remotely controlled train in one of the long straight sections.   From left to right: Thierry Feniet, Patrick Bestmann and Cédric Charrondière in the arms of the measuring wagon. This train doesn’t take people, it takes pictures. Its purpose? To save CERN’s surveyors from having to take the alignment measurements manually, particularly in areas where operators are subject to constraints due to radioactivity (in line with the ALARA principle of keeping radiation exposure to a level that is “as low as reasonably achievable”). The surveyors’ train, over four years in development, is the joint brain-child of several groups from the EN and BE Departments. The result is a state-of-the-art device which, as Thierr...

  5. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption.

  6. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: SR 270 highway pavement performance report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J. P.; Terrel, R. L.; Cook, J. C.

    1982-11-01

    The placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington is summarized. The mixture and structural designs and construction details are included. This is followed by a discussion of the data collection and analysis accomplished over a three year evaluation period (1979-1982). A major experimental feature of the study was the use of 0.100 (conventional asphalt concrete), 30/70 and 40/60 SEA binder ratios (sulfur/asphalt ratios are expressed as weight percents in the experimental paving mixtures.

  7. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the state of Washington from 1978 to 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of conducting the statewide reconnaissance study of Washington's potential geothermal resources, several specific areas and broader regions have been identified as targets which warrant a more concentrated effort. Over the past three years, the program has continued to identify new sites, but has concentrated on better defining the resource potential of the best areas. The locations of these geothermal areas are shown, and the level of progress for each area is shown, expressed as a percentage of completion for the various exploration tasks. Descriptions of the geothermal target areas are presented.

  8. The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective. Conference Proceedings (1st, Washington, D.C., April 24-25, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    In this collection of papers presented at "The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective" conference (Washington, DC, April 24-25, 2002), leading experts from the United States, the Netherlands, and Australia describe current practices and challenges in digital preservation. Contents include: "Introduction: The…

  9. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  10. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  11. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  12. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  13. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  14. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  15. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington...

  16. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed

  17. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  18. Advanced Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State: Comparing Spanish-Speaking Students with Other Language Minority Students and English-Only Speakers. REL 2017-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Havala; Bisht, Biraj; Motamedi, Jason Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    Students who take advanced courses in high school are more likely to enroll and persist in college. This report describes patterns in advanced coursetaking among three groups of students in Washington state: Spanish-speaking students, other language minority students whose primary or home language is not Spanish, and English-only speakers. This…

  19. Assessment of the Joint Food Science Curriculum of Washington State University and the University of Idaho by Graduates and Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; McCurdy, Alan; Roy, Sharon; Smith, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two recent graduates from the joint food science program of Washington State Univ. (WSU) and The Univ. of Idaho (UI) and 12 of their employers participated in a survey study to assess food science program outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the joint curriculum in its ability to prepare undergraduate students for critical…

  20. The Willapa Bay Oyster Reserves in Washington State: Fishery collapse, creating a sustainable replacement, and the potential for habitat conservation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oysters have been an important resource in Washington state since the mid 1800’s and are intimately associated with recent history of the Willapa Bay estuary just as they have defined social culture around much larger US east coast systems. The Willapa Bay oyster reserves were set aside to preserve...

  1. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  2. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... ] Museum professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville... remains had been turned over to the New York State Police by a private citizen who stated they were among...), there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the...

  3. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2015-12-17

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  4. State Boundaries, state boundary, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'state...

  5. State Boundaries, state mask, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'state...

  6. State Boundaries, state municipalities, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'state...

  7. State Boundaries, state county boundary, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'state...

  8. Washington’s Newest Bogeyman: Debunking the Fear of Failed States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    serious security issue. For example, Lawrence Korb and Robert Boorstin of the Center for American Progress warned that “weak and failing states...of Overreaction in U.S. Foreign Policy,” International Security 32, no. 3 (Winter 2007/08): 7–43. 18. Lawrence J. Korb and Robert O. Boorstin

  9. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  10. GED Test Changes and Attainment: Overview of 2014 GED Test Changes and Attainment in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kara; Gaeta, Cristina; Sager, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In January 2014, the GED Testing Service significantly redesigned the GED test to incorporate the Common Core State Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the significant changes made to the test in 2014, examine the impact of the changes on Washingtonians, and make…

  11. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test. Technical Report #1010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous…

  12. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  13. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  14. A Case Review of the First Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe-Related Death in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Lyndsey M; Peterson, Brianna L; Couper, Fiona J

    2015-10-01

    This case was submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in September 2014. A 15-year-old male went to a party where he ingested 25I-NBOMe and mushrooms. A short time later, he started to vomit and began seizing until he eventually passed out. Resuscitation efforts were made, but were unsuccessful. He was transported to a local hospital, where he died three days later of multi-system organ failure following cardiopulmonary arrest. The hospital admission samples were negative for ethanol and basic drugs and their metabolites. The hospital serum confirmed positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and carboxy-THC at 4.1 and 83 ng/mL, respectively. On the basis of the case history, the hospital blood and urine were sent to NMS Labs for NBOMe and psilocin confirmation. The blood was positive for 25I-NBOMe, and the urine was positive for 25C-, 25H- and 25I-NBOMe, as well as, psilocin. Antemortem and postmortem blood were also sent to AIT Laboratories for NBOMe confirmation. The antemortem blood confirmed positive for 25I-NBOMe with a concentration of 0.76 ng/mL. The manner of death was ruled an accident as a result of combined 25I-NBOMe and psilocin intoxication.

  15. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  16. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A Hemphill; Stephanie, M Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students' learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension.

  17. Related assemblages of sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with ultradeep gold mines of South Africa and deep basalt aquifers of Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brett J; Moser, Duane P; MacGregor, Barbara J; Fishbain, Susan; Wagner, Michael; Fry, Norman K; Jackson, Brad; Speolstra, Nico; Loos, Steffen; Takai, Ken; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Fredrickson, Jim; Balkwill, David; Onstott, Tullis C; Wimpee, Charles F; Stahl, David A

    2003-04-01

    We characterized the diversity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) associated with South African gold mine boreholes and deep aquifer systems in Washington State, USA. Sterile cartridges filled with crushed country rock were installed on two hydrologically isolated and chemically distinct sites at depths of 3.2 and 2.7 km below the land surface (kmbls) to allow development of biofilms. Enrichments of sulphate-reducing chemolithotrophic (H2) and organotrophic (lactate) bacteria were established from each site under both meso- and thermophilic conditions. Dissimilatory sulphite reductase (Dsr) and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes amplified from DNA extracted from the cartridges were most closely related to the Gram-positive species Desulfotomaculum thermosapovorans and Desulfotomaculum geothermicum, or affiliated with a novel deeply branching clade. The dsr sequences recovered from the Washington State deep aquifer systems affiliated closely with the South African sequences, suggesting that Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in the deep subsurface.

  18. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  19. Deformation processes in orogenic wedges: New methods and application to Northwestern Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, Christopher J.

    Permanent deformation records aspects of how material moves through a tectonic environment. The methods required to measure deformation vary based on rock type, deformation process, and the geological question of interest. In this thesis we develop two new methods for measuring permanent deformation in rocks. The first method uses the autocorrelation function to measure the anisotropy present in two-dimensional photomicrographs and three-dimensional X-ray tomograms of rocks. The method returns very precise estimates for the deformation parameters and works best for materials where the deformation is recorded as a shape change of distinct fabric elements, such as grains. Our method also includes error estimates. Image analysis techniques can focus the method on specific fabric elements, such as quartz grains. The second method develops a statistical technique for measuring the symmetry in a distribution of crystal orientations, called a lattice-preferred orientation (LPO). We show that in many cases the symmetry of the LPO directly constrains the symmetry of the deformation, such axial flattening vs. pure shear vs. simple shear. In addition to quantifying the symmetry, the method uses the full crystal orientation to estimate symmetry rather than pole figures. Pole figure symmetry can often be misleading. This method works best for crystal orientations measured in samples deformed by dislocation creep, but otherwise can be used on any mineral without requiring information about slip systems. In Chapter 4 we show how deformation measurements can be used to inform regional tectonic and orogenic models in the Pacific Northwestern United States. A suite of measurements from the Olympic Mountains shows that uplift and deformation of the range is consistent with an orogenic wedge model driven by subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, and not northward forearc migration of the Oregon block. The deformation measurements also show that deformation within the Olympic Mountains

  20. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  1. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  2. Impacts of Landuse Management and Climate Change on Landslides Susceptibility over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The commercial forests on the western side of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State are a region of steep slopes and high annual rainfall (2500-6000 mm/year) and are therefore highly susceptible to landslides. Potential climatic change (more intense and frequent winter storms) may exacerbate landslide susceptibility unless forest management practices are changed. As this area is a critical habitat for numerous organisms, including salmon, this may result in potentially severe consequences to riparian habitat due to increased sediment loads. Therefore, there is a need to investigate potential forest management plans to promote the economic viability of timber extraction while protecting the natural habitat, particularly in riparian areas. The objective of this study is to predict the long term effects of forest management decisions under projected climate change on slope stability. We applied the physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with its sediment module to simulate mass wasting and sediment delivery under different vegetation and climate scenarios. Sub-basins were selected and classified according to elevation, slope, land cover and soil type. Various land management practices (such as clear-cutting in riparian areas, logging under short rotations, varying amount of timbers left intact in riparian areas) were applied to each of the selected sub-basins. DHSVM was used to simulate landslide volume, frequency, and sediment loads for each of the land cover applications under various future climate scenarios. We comment on the suitability of various harvesting techniques for different parts of the forest to minimize landslide-induced sediment loading to streams in an altered climate. This approach can be developed as a decision making tool that can be used by forest managers to make long-term planning decisions.

  3. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA): descriptions and functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Gareth J; Wang, Xia; Habib, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene), mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America). While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae), they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes). Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA). We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  4. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  5. Fast fluvial incision in the Olympic Mountains, NW Washington State: Short-term geomorphic unsteadiness in a steady-state orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E.; Gasparini, N. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    We use trunk and tributary profiles in the Olympic Mountains in northwestern Washington State to explore the idea of how well slope and area can be used to estimate long-term bedrock incision rates and rock uplift rates. Gasparini and Brandon (2011) show that all incision models have a common empirical power law form, where I={k'}Am'}S{n', and that the parameters are constant at a regional scale, and hold for both trunk and tributary channels. Long-term incision rates determined for the Clearwater drainage in the western Olympics by Pazzaglia and Brandon (2001) are used to estimate m'= 0.46 and n'= 0.98. Tomkin et al. (2003) found much smaller values for m', but that solution was biased by a small span of values in slope and area. We have found that including data from both trunk and tributary channels allows the regression to find more stable parameter estimates, especially for m'. The Clearwater calibration is then used to predict the incision rates for the rest of the region. To extract reliable values for the channel gradient, we use a lowess regression method, with a weighted bandwidth of about 300 m. Note that our analysis carries no assumptions about glaciation because the predicted incision rates are solely dependent on the current morphology of the landscape. We find that the predicted incision is fast in the center of the range, with rates up to 8 times greater than estimations for long-term erosion rates and rock uplift rates, but are otherwise similar to rates in the foothills. Our results demonstrate that it is possible for a steady-state orogen, like the Olympics, to experience geomorphic unsteadiness over short time scales. As a result, at any given time fluvial incision rates may vary widely from long-term erosion rates and rock uplift rates.

  6. Interview with a quality leader: Carol Wagner on Washington State Hospital Association (WSHA) and their statewide improvement. Interview by Susan V. White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Carol Wagner, RN, MBA is the Vice President for Patient Safety at the Washington State Hospital Association (WSHA). She is recognized nationally as an innovative patient safety leader. She led the development of WSHA's Patient Safety Program and Rural Healthcare Quality Network. Under Carol's leadership, the WSHA received the 2010 John Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Award for national innovation given by The Joint Commission and the National Quality Forum. The association also received the 2011 Dick Davidson Award for Allied Association Leadership. These national awards are two of the highest honors an organization can receive for patient safety and quality. Through close working relationships with national and state regulatory bodies and professional organizations, Carol designs programs to improve quality and safety in every hospital in Washington State. Under Carol's leadership, all hospitals in Washington participated in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI) 5 Million Lives Campaign. The effort led to implementation of the largest number of rapid response teams in a geographic area. Carol also created the first statewide learning collaborative to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Carol is a registered nurse with an MBA focusing on finance and operations. She worked clinically in a variety of settings, provided leadership as a nursing administrator, and transitioned to lead hospital strategic planning, budgeting, and cost accounting. She studied management and system change at The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. Her quality training was with Dr. W. Edwards Deming and at Intermountain Health Care with Dr. Brent James. Her experience includes work in for-profit and not-for-profit environments and supporting community, tertiary, and academic medical centers. This includes Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, California and a national for-profit hospital system with more than 100 hospitals.

  7. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  8. The extent of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation state along the Washington-Oregon continental shelf margin in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B. R.; Juranek, L.; Greeley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Washington-Oregon continental shelf region is exposed to conditions of low aragonite saturation state during the late spring/early summer upwelling season. However, the extent of its evolution in late summer/early fall has been largely unknown. Along this continental margin, ocean acidification, upwelling, biological productivity, and respiration processes in subsurface waters are major contributors to the variability in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and aragonite saturation state. The persistence of water with aragonite saturation state Washington and Oregon has been previously identified and could have profound ecological consequences for benthic and pelagic calcifying organisms such as mussels, oysters, abalone, echinoderms, and pteropods. In the late summer of 2012 we studied the extent of acidification conditions employing shipboard cruises and profiling gliders. We conducted several large-scale chemical and hydrographic surveys of the region in order to better understand the interrelationships between these natural and human-induced processes and their effects on aragonite saturation. We will compare the results of these new surveys with our previous work in 2011 and 2007.

  9. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  10. 2010 Joint United States-Canadian Program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy--Cruise HLY1002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In August and September 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Beaufort Sea and eastern Arctic Ocean aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of a delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf in the Arctic Ocean, in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St-Laurent. The scientific parties on board the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the U.S. Geological Survey (Healy), and the Geological Survey of Canada and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew also included marine-mammal observers, Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. Despite interruptions necessitated by three medical emergencies, the joint survey proved largely successful. The Healy collected 7,201 trackline-kilometers of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (47,663 square kilometers) and CHIRP subbottom data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements, and expendable bathythermograph data. The Louis acquired 3,673 trackline-kilometers of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection data along 25 continuous profiles, as well as 34 sonobuoy refraction stations and 9,500 trackline-kilometers of single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection-profile data that were of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. The equipment-failure rate of the seismic equipment aboard the Louis was greatly reduced when the Healy led as the ice breaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led

  11. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices.

  12. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  13. 75 FR 52048 - Washington Disaster #WA-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Washington Disaster WA-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of WASHINGTON dated 08/17/2010. Incident: Lynnview Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period: 08/09/2010. Effective Date:...

  14. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  15. High-resolution seismic reflection imaging of growth folding and shallow faults beneath the Southern Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jackson K.; Stephenson, William J.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic reflection data from southern Puget Sound, Washington, were collected to investigate the nature of shallow structures associated with the Tacoma fault zone and the Olympia structure. Growth folding and probable Holocene surface deformation were imaged within the Tacoma fault zone beneath Case and Carr Inlets. Shallow faults near potential field anomalies associated with the Olympia structure were imaged beneath Budd and Eld Inlets. Beneath Case Inlet, the Tacoma fault zone includes an ∼350-m wide section of south-dipping strata forming the upper part of a fold (kink band) coincident with the southern edge of an uplifted shoreline terrace. An ∼2 m change in the depth of the water bottom, onlapping postglacial sediments, and increasing stratal dips with increasing depth are consistent with late Pleistocene to Holocene postglacial growth folding above a blind fault. Geologic data across a topographic lineament on nearby land indicate recent uplift of late Holocene age. Profiles acquired in Carr Inlet 10 km to the east of Case Inlet showed late Pleistocene or Holocene faulting at one location with ∼3 to 4 m of vertical displacement, south side up. North of this fault the data show several other disruptions and reflector terminations that could mark faults within the broad Tacoma fault zone. Seismic reflection profiles across part of the Olympia structure beneath southern Puget Sound show two apparent faults about 160 m apart having 1 to 2 m of displacement of subhorizontal bedding. Directly beneath one of these faults, a dipping reflector that may mark the base of a glacial channel shows the opposite sense of throw, suggesting strike-slip motion. Deeper seismic reflection profiles show disrupted strata beneath these faults but little apparent vertical offset, consistent with strike-slip faulting. These faults and folds indicate that the Tacoma fault and Olympia structure include active structures with probable postglacial motion.

  16. Underway and profile, chemical and physical data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the East Coast of the United States and Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-11 to 2007-08-04 (NODC Accession 0083633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083633 includes chemical, discrete bottle, physical, profile, underway - surface data collected aboard NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in East Coast -...

  17. A cluster analytic examination of acculturation and health status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC metropolitan area, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range:-1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  18. Government Districts, Other, state park boundary, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2004. It is described as 'state park boundary'. Data by this publisher are...

  19. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York.... 930 (order), which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania... (77 FR 13015). This document directed that a referendum among tart cherry growers and processors...

  20. 76 FR 13528 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order), which regulate the handling of tart cherries grown in... agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Tart cherries. PART 930--TART CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  1. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  2. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  3. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  4. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  5. easyCBM[R] Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test 2009-2010. Technical Report #1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for academic failure. Often, students deemed at risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test.…

  6. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector.

  7. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  8. Shirleya grahamae gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia-like fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon flora, central Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-02-01

    Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae) is established for silicified fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon of central Washington State, USA. The capsules are 10 mm long × 11.5-12.5 mm wide, enclosed in a persistent floral tube and contain 5-7 locules. They are loculicidally dehiscent, fracturing into fragments and leaving the central axis free. Placentation is axile. Five to seven mature seeds are tightly packed per locule, often with several smaller seeds. Seeds are winged, anatropous, and narrowly attached subapically to the central axis, curving basally and radially within the fruit. They are up to ∼4.6 mm long × 1.9 mm wide, with a small, triangular embryo cavity and a prominent distal wing. The inflated wing is filled with a bilobed parenchymatous pad of tissue with a central cavity. Shirleya grahamae is assigned to the Lythraceae, and is most similar to Lagerstroemia, based on the synapomorphies of distally winged seeds and revolute cotyledons. Shirleya differs from Lagerstroemia in seed arrangement, and pericarp and wing anatomy. This study provides the first anatomical information about a Miocene Lagerstroemia-like fruit and documents further diversity of the Lythraceae in the Neogene of northwestern North America.

  9. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  10. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  11. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  12. Trees and Weathering: Using Soil Petrographic and Chemical Analyses to Compare the Relative Weathering Effects of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M. Y.; Ague, J. J.; Berner, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge of the long-term carbon cycle and its control on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the Phanerozoic is crucial to understanding the impending dynamics of contemporary anthropogenic carbon contributions to the atmosphere. One aspect of the long-term carbon cycle that is poorly understood is the role of large vascular plants (trees) in contributing to the chemical weathering of silicate minerals. In particular, little is known about the differences in weathering rates between gymnosperms and angiosperms and how these dissimilarities may have impacted the carbon cycle subsequent to the evolution of angiosperm trees in the Mesozoic. One approach to evaluating these potential differences in weathering is to examine and quantitatively compare the chemistry and petrology of the soil mineral constituents from beneath modern groves of each broad tree type, where the groves have been subject to nearly identical environmental and geological conditions. This particular study focuses on field samples collected along transects through adjacent groves of angiosperms and gymnosperms in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. Preliminary data demonstrate a significant difference in the soil texture and composition beneath the two types of trees. While soil at each field site has been generated from a homogeneous parent material, and subjected to similar inorganic environmental phenomena, soil density, particle size, and organic content vary across the transects. Soils beneath the angiosperms are denser and have a more clay-like texture, while soils beneath the gymnosperms are more organic-rich and have a sandy texture. Additional macroscopic and microscopic differences in the chemistry and petrology of these soils will illuminate the varied impacts these trees have on the silicate minerals in their immediate environment, and therefore lend insight into the potential impact these groups of organisms have had on the long-term carbon cycle over the past five hundred

  13. Patient Satisfaction, Treatment Experience, and Disability Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort of Injured Workers in Washington State: Implications for Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A; Mootz, Robert; Smith-Weller, Terri

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine what aspects of patient satisfaction are most important in explaining the variance in patients' overall treatment experience and to evaluate the relationship between treatment experience and subsequent outcomes. Data Sources and Setting Data from a population-based survey of 804 randomly selected injured workers in Washington State filing a workers' compensation claim between November 1999 and February 2000 were combined with insurance claims data indicating whether survey respondents were receiving disability compensation payments for being out of work at 6 or 12 months after claim filing. Study Design We conducted a two-step analysis. In the first step, we tested a multiple linear regression model to assess the relationship of satisfaction measures to patients' overall treatment experience. In the second step, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship of treatment experience to subsequent outcomes. Principal Findings Among injured workers who had ongoing follow-up care after their initial treatment (n=681), satisfaction with interpersonal and technical aspects of care and with care coordination was strongly and positively associated with overall treatment experience (p<0.001). As a group, the satisfaction measures explained 38 percent of the variance in treatment experience after controlling for demographics, satisfaction with medical care prior to injury, job satisfaction, type of injury, and provider type. Injured workers who reported less-favorable treatment experience were 3.54 times as likely (95 percent confidence interval, 1.20–10.95, p=.021) to be receiving time-loss compensation for inability to work due to injury 6 or 12 months after filing a claim, compared to patients whose treatment experience was more positive. PMID:15230925

  14. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  15. Factors influencing densities of non-indigenous species in the ballast water of ships arriving at ports in Puget Sound, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, J.R.; Lawrence, D.J.; Ferm, N.C.; Tear, L.M.; Smith, S.S.; Herwig, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic characteristics and the presence of international shipping in Puget Sound, Washington, USA contribute to its vulnerability to non-indigenous species (NIS) invasions. To evaluate NIS arriving in ballast water, zooplankton was sampled in 380 ballast tanks of ships after they entered Puget Sound. Taxa were classified into a higher risk group of coastal organisms (including known NIS), and a lower risk group of largely oceanic species. Most ships reported conducting mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE). However, despite state regulations requiring BWE, and apparent compliance by ship operators, most sampled tanks from both transpacific and coastal routes had coastal zooplankton densities exceeding internationally proposed discharge standards. BWE efficiency models and controlled before-and-after BWE experiments indicate that BWE consistently removes most coastal zooplankton. However, this study found that although the empty-refill method of BWE significantly reduced coastal plankton compared with un-exchanged tanks, the flow-through method did not, and in either case remaining coastal plankton densities presented appreciable risks of introducing NIS. Densities of high risk taxa were consistently and significantly higher from US domestic trips dominated by tank ships carrying ballast water from California, and lower in samples from trans-Pacific trips dominated by container ships and bulk carriers with ballast from Asia. These findings are probably a result of the dense and diverse NIS assemblages present in California and other US west coast estuaries and the comparatively short transit times between them and Puget Sound. While it appears that BWE can effectively replace NIS with less risky ocean species, new reporting, verification, and operational procedures may be necessary to enhance BWE efficacy. In the long-term, the introduction of ballast water treatment technologies may be required to significantly reduce the discharge of risky organisms from

  16. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E

    2016-08-01

    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Uptake and population-level impact of expedited partner therapy (EPT on Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the Washington State community-level randomized trial of EPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedited partner therapy (EPT, the practice of treating the sex partners of persons with sexually transmitted infections without their medical evaluation, increases partner treatment and decreases gonorrhea and chlamydia reinfection rates. We conducted a stepped-wedge, community-level randomized trial to determine whether a public health intervention promoting EPT could increase its use and decrease chlamydia test positivity and gonorrhea incidence in women.The trial randomly assigned local health jurisdictions (LHJs in Washington State, US, into four study waves. Waves instituted the intervention in randomly assigned order at intervals of 6-8 mo. Of the state's 25 LHJs, 24 were eligible and 23 participated. Heterosexual individuals with gonorrhea or chlamydial infection were eligible for the intervention. The study made free patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT available to clinicians, and provided public health partner services based on clinician referral. The main study outcomes were chlamydia test positivity among women ages 14-25 y in 219 sentinel clinics, and incidence of reported gonorrhea in women, both measured at the community level. Receipt of PDPT from clinicians was evaluated among randomly selected patients. 23 and 22 LHJs provided data on gonorrhea and chlamydia outcomes, respectively. The intervention increased the percentage of persons receiving PDPT from clinicians (from 18% to 34%, p < 0.001 and the percentage receiving partner services (from 25% to 45%, p < 0.001. Chlamydia test positivity and gonorrhea incidence in women decreased over the study period, from 8.2% to 6.5% and from 59.6 to 26.4 per 100,000, respectively. After adjusting for temporal trends, the intervention was associated with an approximately 10% reduction in both chlamydia positivity and gonorrhea incidence, though the confidence bounds on these outcomes both crossed one (chlamydia positivity prevalence ratio = 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.04, p = 0.15; gonorrhea

  18. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  19. 77 FR 15787 - Washington; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... State of Washington have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Clallam, Grays Harbor, King, Klickitat, Lewis, Mason, Pierce, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, and Wahkiakum Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Washington are eligible to apply for assistance...

  20. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  1. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY83, Part 4 (Washington, D.C.-Lafayette, Indiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    029920 0010 09 2 A MA102 0237 N0000-82-D002 D C C 1 2 2 R303 000 31 ADP ENTRY S A 4 6 J 015I B J I A 30 DARWIN CONSTRUCTION CO INC WASHINGTON OC...CCCCC 3 A C 6 999 C D IOA lDB IOC 11 DESCRIPTION OF CMDTY/SRVC 2 3 4 5 6 1717 8 9 A 0 1 3 24 SS$$$(000) DARWIN CONSTRUCTION CO INC WASHINGTON DO...01 1 B J 1 J 243 CARTWRIGHT ENGINEERING INC TYNDALL AFB FLORIDA 173766 3570 10 3 K OTA3O 0015 F08637-82-C0074 B C C 1 2 2 R414 000 $I MOT SERVICES

  2. Promoting K-12 Community Research and Service through the Washington Earth Science Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; DeBari, Susan; Gallagher, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes a K-12 teacher enhancement program in Washington state that provides teachers with the background knowledge, human and material resources, and time to develop community-based studies on environmental issues facing the citizens of Washington. (Author/KHR)

  3. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  4. Community and Technical Colleges at a Glance. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The vision of Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges is to build strong communities, individuals and families, and achieve a greater global competitiveness and prosperity for the state and its economy by raising the knowledge and skills of the state's residents. The most urgent mission of the Washington State Board for…

  5. 2008 Joint United States-Canadian program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Healy--Cruise HLY0806

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Arctic Beaufort Sea aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter USCGC Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) in the Arctic Ocean in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St- Laurent. The science parties on the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the USGS (Healy), and the GSC and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew included marine mammal and Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. The joint survey proved an unqualified success. The Healy collected 5,528 km of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (38,806 km2) and CHIRP subbottom profile data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements. The Louis acquired 2,817 km of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection-profile data along 12 continuous lines, as well as 35 sonobuoy refraction stations and accompanying single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection profile data of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. Equipment failure rate of the seismic equipment gear aboard the Louis was greatly improved with the advantage of having a leading icebreaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led the Healy, resulting in much improved quality of the swath bathymetry and CHIRP sub-bottom data in comparison with data collected by the Healy in the lead or working alone. Ancillary science objectives, including ice observations, deployment

  6. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for West Fork Blue River, Washington County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, James G.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer model calibrated to observe stream conditions was used to evaluate water quality in West Fork Blue River, Washington County, IN. Instream dissolved-oxygen concentration averaged 96.5% of saturation at selected sites on West Fork Blue River during two 24-hour summer surveys. This high dissolved-oxygen concentration reflects small carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste loads; adequate dilution of waste by the stream; and natural reaeration. Nonpoint source waste loads accounted for an average of 53.2% of the total carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand and 90.2% of the nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand. Waste-load assimilation was studiedfor critical summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow for these conditions was zero, so no benefit from dilution was provided. The projected stream reaeration capacity was not sufficient to maintain the minimum daily dissolved-oxygen concentration (5 milligrams per liter) in the stream with current waste-discharge restrictions. During winter low flow, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved-oxygen concentration, was the limiting water-quality criterion downstream from the Salem wastewater-treatment facility. (USGS)

  7. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  8. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App. D... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services... ____ (b) PROGRAM EVALUATION On a separate sheet, please provide a brief narrative report on...

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of fecal coliform in the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel, Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sen; Lung, Wu-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform are widely used as bacterial indicator in the United States and around the world. Fecal coliform impaired water is highly possible to be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. The Tidal Basin and Washington Channel in Washington, DC are on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) list due to the high fecal coliform level. To support TMDL development, a three-dimensional numerical model of fecal coliform was developed using the EFDC framework. The model calculates the transport of fecal coliform under the influences of flap gate operations and tidal elevation. The original EFDC code was modified to calculate the die-off of fecal coliform under the impact of temperature and solar radiation intensity. The watershed contribution is expressed as storm water inflow and the load carried by the runoff. Model results show that fecal coliform vary strongly in space in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel. The storm water only impacts a small area around the storm water outfall in the Tidal Basin and the impacts are negligible in the Washington Channel due to dilution. The water from the Potomac River may affect the fecal coliform level in the area close to the flap gate in the Tidal Basin. The fecal coliform level in the Washington Channel is mainly controlled by the fecal coliform level in the Anacostia River, which is located at the open boundary of the Washington Channel. The potential sediment layer storage of fecal coliform was analyzed and it was found that the sediment layer fecal coliform level could be much higher than the water column fecal coliform level and becomes a secondary source under high bottom shear stress condition. The developed model built solid connection of fecal coliform source and concentration in the water column and has been used to develop TMDL.

  10. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  11. STS-47 MS Jemison works in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison appears to be clicking her heels in zero gravity in the center aisle of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Making her first flight in space, Dr. Jemison was joined by five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for eight days of research in support of the SLJ mission, a joint effort between Japan and United States.

  12. Limited License Legal Technician. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A landmark state Supreme Court rule that promises to create new jobs and expand public access to legal help is coming to life at Washington's community and technical colleges. Four colleges--Highline, Edmonds, Tacoma, and Spokane--started training students to become "Limited License Legal Technicians" (LLLTs) in 2014. The state Supreme…

  13. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC...

  14. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  15. Extreme river response to climate-induced aggradation in a forested, montane basin, Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to

  16. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    the east coast until 1954 when it began rapid growth and expansion ( Stevenson and Confer, 1978). It became a serious problem in Chesapeake Bay and...milfoil infestation and indicates that there is some flexibility in waterfowl feeding habits. Stevenson and Confer (1978), in an analysis of species...and a comparative absence of humus , detritus, and plankton. Besides the lack of suitable substrate, vascular plants have a complexity of organization

  17. "What Will It Take" Project. Washington Quality Education Model. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, David; Freund, William

    This report discusses what constitutes an adequate education in the state of Washington. It focuses on the Washington Quality Education Model (WQEM)--a new program created to define the vision of quality education--as well as the elements and indicators that constitute such an education. The goal of the program is to determine the kinds of staff,…

  18. 78 FR 5201 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  19. 78 FR 19298 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  20. 78 FR 1753 - Security Zone, Potomac and Anacostia Rivers; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ..., DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a..., 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday...-ranking United States officials is expected to take place at the U. S. Capitol Building in Washington,...

  1. Booker T. Washington's Educational Contributions to Contemporary Practices of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Booker T. Washington's educational contributions to contemporary practices of sustainable development. In particular, the article looks at Washington's contributions in the areas of economic sustainability and entrepreneurship, character development, and aesthetics. As states continue to contemplate and evaluate the value of…

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  3. Precollege (Remedial) Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington's community and technical colleges are fundamentally transforming precollege (remedial) education to move students faster into credit-bearing classes. The state's colleges are working with high schools to prevent the need for remediation. They are also shortening the path for college students of all ages who need the extra help. Courses…

  4. Booker T. Washington's Audacious Vocationalist Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Booker T. Washington was born a slave in the American South, rising remarkably in the period after slavery to become a leader of his race. His advocacy of appeasement with the Southern white establishment incurred the ire of his black peers, given the withdrawal of the franchise from ex-slaves in southern states after a brief period of positive…

  5. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/washington.html Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellevue Overlake Hospital Medical Center Medical Library 1035 116th Avenue NE Bellevue, WA 98004 425- ...

  6. 40 CFR 81.348 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Washington Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Clallam County Grays Harbor County Island County Jefferson... Olympic-Northwest Washington Intrastate: Clallam County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Grays Harbor County.../Attainment Clallam County Grays Harbor County Island County......

  7. Teaching the March on Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William P.; Euchner, Charles; Hill, Norman; Hill, Velma Murphy

    2013-01-01

    One of the most historical events in American history, the non-violent protest "March on Washington," August 28, 1963, is detailed in an article of remembrance by William P. Jones. His article is crowned by highlights from the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but also highlights the lessor known role…

  8. 75 FR 20776 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Washington, DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and... (NPRM) entitled ``Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC'' in the...

  9. Washington upholds HIV exposure law as constitutional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-24

    A Washington State appeals court has rejected a constitutional challenge to a law that makes the intentional spreading of HIV to sex partners a crime. The court rejected the notion that the criminal exposure law violated the equal protection clause of the U.S. and State constitutions because it singled out those infected with HIV for unequal treatment. The court saw the law applied specific conduct to all, infected and non-infected alike, not specific groups of people. A second argument that the defendants were denied right of procreation was rejected because those rights are not protected if the defendant intended to inflict bodily injury. In this case, the defendant, [name removed], knowing his HIV status, willingly had sex with several women without warning them of his status or using a condom. The court viewed this behavior as acting with intent to inflict harm. An earlier case involving an HIV-specific criminal exposure law is described.

  10. Trumpeter swan lead shot poisoning investigation in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) populations wintering in northwest Washington State and on the Sumas Prairie, British Columbia,...

  11. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  12. Three new host-fungus records for Golovinomyces species in Montana and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The powdery mildews Golovinomyces echinopis on Echinops exaltatus (tall globethistle), and G. biocellatus on Salvia officinalis (common sage), are documented for the first time in Washington State. Golovinomyces cynoglossi on Cynoglossum officinale (houndstongue) is documented for the first time in ...

  13. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  14. GLASS FORMULATION TESTING TO INCREASE SULFATE INCORPORATION - Final Report VSL-04R4960-1, Rev 0, 2/28/05, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of American, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The melter tests described in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared

  15. Aquatic habitat guidelines in Washington

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Originating as the Stream Corridor Management Workgroup early in 1997, the first major milepost in seeking a statewide-integrated approach to working in and near streams, lakes, and wetlands was a Stream Corridor Management Symposium, held in Ellensburg in June 1998. Major partners in this effort were the Washington Departments of Transportation, Ecology, and Fish and Wildlife. The three-day symposium was structured with three areas of emphasis: • The first section presented the fund...

  16. Microstructure Analysis of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloy Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel Gilbert

    This thesis entails a detailed microstructure analysis of directionally solidified (DS) Al-7Si alloys processed in microgravity aboard the International Space Station and similar duplicate ground based experiments at Cleveland State University. In recent years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted experiments on alloy solidification in microgravity. NASA and ESA have collaborated for three DS experiments with Al- 7 wt. % Si alloy, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) denoted as MICAST6, MICAST7 and MICAST12. The first two experiments were processed on the ISS in 2009 and 2010. MICAST12 was processed aboard the ISS in the spring of 2014; the resulting experimental results of MICAST12 are not discussed in this thesis. The primary goal of the thesis was to understand the effect of convection in primary dendrite arm spacings (PDAS) and radial macrosegregation within DS aluminum alloys. The MICAST experiments were processed with various solidification speeds and thermal gradients to produce alloy with differences in microstructure features. PDAS and radial macrosegregation were measured in the solidified ingot that developed during the transition from one solidification speed to another. To represent PDAS in DS alloy in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion-controlled growth. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of solidified samples, PDAS was measured and calculated. The ground-based (1-g) experiments done at Cleveland State University CSU were also analyzed for comparison to the ISS experiments (0-g). During steady state in the microgravity environment, there was a reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated PDAS. In ground-based experiments, transverse sections exhibited obvious radial macrosegregation caused by thermosolutal convection resulting in a non-agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Using a combination of image processing techniques and Electron Microprobe Analysis

  17. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with respect to employees rendering watchman or similar service aboard a vessel in port. Members of the crew... crew rendering watchman or similar services aboard the vessel during this period would not appear to...

  18. Surveillance for Ceratomyxa shasta in the Puget Sound watershed, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocking, Richard W; Lorz, Harriet V; Holt, Richard A; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2007-06-01

    Discovery of fish exhibiting clinical signs of ceratomyxosis in Washington State prompted concern over the potential impact of the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta on native stocks of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (anadromous rainbow trout). To investigate these concerns, a survey of 16 freshwater systems within the Puget Sound watershed, including Lake Washington, was conducted by sentinel exposure of susceptible fish (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and rainbow trout). Fish were exposed for 7 d during September 2003 and May 2004 and then were returned to a holding facility for monitoring of disease signs. Mortality caused by the parasite occurred only in the exposure group held at the University of Washington Hatchery, which receives its water from Portage Bay of Lake Washington. Fish from all other sites were negative for C. shasta, both visually and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, except for a single fish held at the Tumwater Falls Hatchery in September 2003. A single deformed spore was detected in that fish, but infection could not be confirmed by PCR and the parasite was not detected from any other fish held at that site during either the September or the May exposure. From these results, we conclude that C. shasta is not likely to have contributed significantly to the decline of steelhead populations throughout Puget Sound.

  19. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  20. 76 FR 21928 - Washington State University; Facility Operating License No. R-76; Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... calculated that discharges to the sanitary sewer were in the order of 4 E-08 uCi/ml. The NRC staff reviewed... of spent ion resins and neutron activation products which are packaged by the licensee for shipment... Act of 1982, WSU entered into a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides...

  1. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  2. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  3. 77 FR 15179 - Disaster Declaration for Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Counties: Clallam, Grays Harbor, King, Klickitat, Lewis, Mason, Pierce, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston... ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13027 and 13028; Washington Disaster WA-00036] Disaster Declaration for Washington AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  4. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  5. A Política Externa da Primeira República e os Estados Unidos: a atuação de Joaquim Nabuco em Washigton (1905-1910 Foreign Policy during the Brazilian First Republic Period and the United States: the Role of Joaquim Nabuco in Washington (1905-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José dos Reis Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Rio Branco, com a criação da embaixada brasileira em Washington em 1905, deu um novo fôlego para o movimento de aproximação com os Estados Unidos que já se verificava na política externa desde o advento da República. Nesse contexto, o objetivo da nossa pesquisa é, por meio de um trabalho de análise histórica, tendo como base, essencialmente, documentação primária, entender as concepções políticas e a influência que o primeiro ocupante do cargo de embaixador, Joaquim Nabuco, teve na condução desse relacionamento.Rio Branco, with the creation of the brazilian embassy in Washington in 1905, gave a new breath for the movement of approach with the United States that already was verified in the foreing policy since the advent of the Republic. In this context, the objective of our research are, by means of a work of historical analysis, having as base, primary documentation, understand the politic conceptions and the influence that the first occupant of the position of ambassador, Joaquim Nabuco, had in the conduction of this relationship.

  6. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  7. Inventory of Glaciers in the North Cascades, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin; Richardson, Don; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rosselot, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Perennial bodies of ice in the North Cascades having areas of at least 0.1 km2 (square kilometer) are tabulated and classified. The inventory, a contribution to the International Hydrological Decade, includes 756 glaciers, covering 267 km2, about half of the glacier area in the United States south of Alaska. Listings include each glacier's location, drainage basin, area, length, orientation, altitude, and classification as to form, source, surface, nature of terminus, and activity. These glaciers contribute annually about 800 million cubic meters of water to streamflow in the State of Washington.

  8. Clean Air Act oversight: field hearings. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, June 27, 1981 Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 Albany, New York, July 1, 1981 Fairbanks, Alaska, Part 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Part 7 of the field hearings report covers hearings held on June 27, 1981 in Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 in Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 in Albany, NY, and also July 1, 1981 in Fairbanks, Alaska. A total of 122 witnesses appeared to express their views on reauthorizing the Clean Air Act and to suggest possible amendments. Witnesses represented federal and state agencies, local businesses, and public interest groups. Witnesses were asked to address the issues of health standards, the Prevention of Significant Deterioration rule, all air pollutants and the effects, and the lack of clear responsibility and flexibility in the Clean Air Act. Present at the Albany meeting were representatives from the Canadian government, which is concerned with the problem of transboundary pollution. The record includes the testimony and supporting materials submitted for the record. (DCK)

  9. Bubble Behavior in Nucleate Boiling Experiment Aboard the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Koeln, Justin P.; Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Boiling dynamics in microgravity need to be better understood before heat transfer systems based on boiling mechanism can be developed for space applications. This paper presents the results of a nucleate boiling experiment aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS- 108). The experiment utilized nickel-chromium resistance wire to boil water in microgravity, and the data was recorded with a CCD camera and six thermistors. This data was analyzed to determine the behavior of bubble formation, detachmen...

  10. Asiasat launch aboard Long March 3 from Xichang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maack, Lou

    The history of the flight of Asiasat on April 7, 1990 aboard the Long March 3 launch vehicle from Xichang, China, is briefly reviewed. The discussion focuses on the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, and the on-site launch campaign. The discussion of the launch campaign includes the facilities at Xichang, the Hughes on-site organization, technology transfer prevention, transportation and logistics, and telecommunications.

  11. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  12. EAARL Topography George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of George Washington Birthplace National Monument was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  13. Southwestern Washington 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  14. Southwestern Washington 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  15. Animals on the Washington Environmental Yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin; Wong, Herb

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various animal-related activities that took place in the natural resource area of the Washington Elementary School's (Berkeley, CA) environmental yard. The "yard" is open 24 hours a day and is freely accessible to informal users. (JN)

  16. Resisting Charters: A Comparative Policy Development Analysis of Washington and Kentucky, 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, most states have adopted laws enabling charter schools, as charter advocates successfully presented charters as the solution to core problems in urban public education. Yet some states with large urban centers, notably Washington and Kentucky, resisted this seemingly inexorable trend for years. What explains their…

  17. 78 FR 57781 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy at the Washington Navy Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23015 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15... Washington Navy Yard By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for... Navy Yard, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and...

  18. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  19. 75 FR 10446 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., Washington, DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand Delivery: Same as mail address above..., DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. We have...

  20. 75 FR 28757 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ..., Washington, DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590..., DC on Monday, May 24, 2010. To address security concerns during the event, the Captain of the...

  1. Washington Commentary: Sound and Fury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers really sounded off this spring about public education. State legislators derided No Child Left Behind (NCLB) for taking away state prerogatives in setting education policy and the National Governors Association essentially tell federal officials to stay away from repeating NCLB at the high school level. President Bush tried to move…

  2. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    a metro is an urban guided transport system, mostly on rails, running on an exclusive right- of-way without any interference from other traffic or...the United States ..................................................................... 1 Public Transportation ...1 Metrorail Transportation

  3. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  4. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days.

  5. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  7. Simplified assessment method of natural resource damage from oil spill in Washington State of United States and the application of this method in Xiamen Bay of East China%美国华盛顿州溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法及其在厦门湾的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 陆志强; 王翠; 李吉鹏

    2013-01-01

    Marine oil spill incidents are mostly small in size, it is quite necessary to have a sim-plified method to assess the natural resource damage from such small oil spills in a manner of fas-ter, less costly, and less information intensive. Based on the Washington State's simplified oil spill compensation schedule method of the United States, a modification was made in this paper, according to the characteristics of marine environment and the distribution of ecological sensitive targets in Xiamen Bay of China. The oil effects, including acute toxicity, mechanical injury and persistence, as well as the vulnerability of marine and estuarine habitats, birds, Chinese white dolphin, lancelet, shellfish, and recreation were determinate to evaluate the nature resource damages from the simulated small oil spill incident in Xiamen Bay. Suppose there was a spill of 2.4 m3 of Bunker C from a construction ship in eastern area of Xiamen Bay. Of the area covered by the spill, 90% was open water, 8% was marine intertidal exposed sandy beach, and 2% was marine subtidal sand. The calculated monetary damage from the spill was 93500 RMB, based on the oil effects scores and the habitat vulnerability scores.%海洋溢油事故多以小型溢油为主,研究快速高效、耗费较低且所需信息量较少的溢油自然资源损害简易评估方法十分必要.本文以美国华盛顿州自然资源损害简易评估方法为框架,根据厦门湾海洋环境特点和生态敏感目标分布状况,确定溢油的环境效应包括溢油的急性毒性,机械伤害和持久性效应以及海洋与河口不同生境类型、鸟类、中华白海豚、文昌鱼、贝类以及旅游休憩行为对溢油的敏感程度,并据此估算模拟厦门湾小型溢油事故的自然资源损害价值.假设厦门湾东部海域某海洋工程施工船舶泄露船用重质燃料油2.4 m3,预测油膜污染影响面积约3.60 km2,其中开阔水域面积约占90%,海洋潮

  8. Level III Ecoregions of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  9. Level IV Ecoregions of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  10. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  11. Group 12 ASCANs Davis and Jemison during zero gravity training aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Class, candidates (ASCANs) N. Jan Davis (left) and Mae C. Jemison freefloat during the seconds of microgravity created aboard the KC-135 NASA 930 aircraft's parabolic flight. Davis and Jemison two of the recently-named ASCANs take a familiarization flight aboard the KC-135 'zero gravity' aircraft.

  12. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  13. Analytic Support for Washington Citizens' Work Group on Health Care: Evaluation of Health Care Reform Proposals.

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Jeffrey Ballou; Alison Wellington; Thomas Bell; Allison Barrett; Gregory Peterson; Stephanie Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Mathematica evaluated five health care reform proposals for the state of Washington in 2008. The proposals featured, respectively: reduced regulation in the current market; Massachusetts-style insurance reforms with a health insurance connector; a health partnership program similar to the current state employee health plan; a state-operated single payer plan; and a program that would guarantee catastrophic coverage for all residents. This report provides estimates of the changes in coverage a...

  14. Making Difficult History Public: The Pedagogy of Remembering and Forgetting in Two Washington DC Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Avner Segall explores some pedagogical processes in the context of two museums in Washington, DC, that focus on difficult knowledge, the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In doing so, Segall's aim is not to explore the museums as a whole or provide a comprehensive…

  15. Plasmid content of Erwinia amylovora in orchards in Washington and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the plasmid content of a collection of 305 isolates of Erwinia amylovora from Washington and Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the United States with PCR assays and RFLP. Nearly all isolates of E. amylovora carried plasmid pEA29, which is not found in other species of bacteria, but 4% ...

  16. Plasmid Content of Isolates of Erwinia amylovora from Orchards in Washington and Oregon in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington (WA) and Oregon (OR) represent a major pome fruit production region of the United States, and streptomycin-resistant isolates of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora are common in orchards in this region. We examined the plasmid content of a collection of more than 200 isolates of ...

  17. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  18. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  19. Washington Superintendents' Perceptions of the Knowing-Doing Gap and Implications for Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceived barriers which prevent school superintendents in the state of Washington from closing the gap between knowing core leadership practices that increase student academic performance and the superintendent's ability to act on this knowledge by implementing them. The theoretical frames established were…

  20. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    .... 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon 0.28 miles of rail line (New Meadows Industrial Lead), between mileposts 0.22 and 0.50 at Weiser, in Washington County, Idaho. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 83672. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for...

  1. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur...

  2. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated...

  3. Making Difficult History Public: The Pedagogy of Remembering and Forgetting in Two Washington DC Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Avner Segall explores some pedagogical processes in the context of two museums in Washington, DC, that focus on difficult knowledge, the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In doing so, Segall's aim is not to explore the museums as a whole or provide a comprehensive…

  4. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and is comprised of all points as follows: (a) The municipality of Washington, D.C., itself; (b) All... Manassas, VA, and the City of Manassas Park, VA. (d) All of any municipality any part of which is within... municipality wholly surrounded, or so surrounded except for a water boundary, by the municipality of...

  5. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  6. Washington (Wash) C. Winn: In Memoriam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-08

    Dr. Mike Miller and Dr. David Walker dicuss the career and life of noted clinical biologist, Dr. Washington C. Winn Jr.  Created: 3/8/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  7. Doctors of Osteopathy Licensed in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senters, Jo

    Based on information gathered by the Health Manpower Project through a survey cosponsored with the Washington Osteopathic Medical Association, this report begins with a statement of philosophy of osteopathic medicine and proceeds to comment on where such professional education is available. Remarks on the type of educational background of the…

  8. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  9. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  10. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or...

  12. Key Facts about Higher Education in Washington. 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Key Facts about Higher Education in Washington" provides vital data to chart higher education's progress and challenges. First published in 2002 by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, this annual report highlights "Key Facts" about Washington's postsecondary institutions--including faculty, students,…

  13. 76 FR 52566 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Anacostia River, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Anacostia River, Washington, DC... Washington, DC. This deviation will test a change to the drawbridge operation schedule to determine whether a..., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand delivery: Same as mail address above, between 9 a.m. and 5...

  14. 76 FR 52602 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Anacostia River, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., Washington, DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... the Anacostia River, mile 3.4 at Washington, DC. The proposed change will alter the eight hour advance..., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand delivery: Same as mail address above, between 9 a.m. and 5...

  15. 77 FR 14968 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Anacostia River, Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., Washington, DC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is changing the..., mile 3.4, at Washington, DC. The change will alter the eight hour advance notice requirement for a... Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except...

  16. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  17. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  18. DAMPING COMPUTATION OF LIQUID SLOSHING IN CONTAINERS ABOARD SPACECRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宝音贺西; 李俊峰; 高云峰; 王照林

    2003-01-01

    Under the non-rotating assumption, a method for the calculation of damping of fuel sloshing with small amplitude in containers aboard spacecraft is proposed in the present paper. And we have presented an eigen-value equation for sloshing damping and frequency computation. This equation may be solved by Ritz or Galerkin methods for a container of simple geometry or by finite element method for a container of arbitrary geometric shape even with rigid baffles. The simulated results show that the equivalent damping coefficients is directly proportional to fuel's viscosity, whereas it almost exhibits no influence on sloshing frequencies. The drawback of the proposed method lies in expensive computation cost. Thus far, it hasn't yet be applied to a container with elastic baffles.

  19. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  20. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  1. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  2. Washington's Senate Bill 6610 on transferring provisions for persons found not guilty by reason of insanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In Washington state, public concern about the potential dangerousness of mentally ill offenders has led to increasing legislative efforts to contain them in secure settings. A recently enacted law authorizes the transfer of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity from state psychiatric hospitals to prison facilities. The authors review the recent legislation and discuss some of the legal, policy, and clinical ramifications of the law.

  3. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  4. The Point of the Point: Washington's Student Achievement Initiative through the Looking Glass of a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    For 8 years Washington State has operated a performance funding policy, the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI). The policy allocates appropriations to the state's 34 community and technical colleges based on points earned through student achievement of college-readiness, retention, and completion milestones. Grounded in a conceptual framework of…

  5. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  6. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  7. THE SETTLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1894 - 1945 & THE DUPONT PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1943 - 1945 BRINGING HISTORY TO LIFE IN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHULTZ CR (KIT) PH.D.

    2009-07-13

    Washington is called the 'Evergreen State' and it evokes images like this of lush forests, lakes and mountains. However, such images apply primarily to the half of the state west of the Cascade Mountains, where we are today. Eastern Washington state is quite a different matter and I want to draw your attention to a portion of Eastern Washington that is the focus ofmy presentation to you this morning. This image was taken on a part of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, a 586-square mile government reservation, the second largest DOE facility in the nation . Here you can see where I am talking about, roughly 220 miles southeast of Seattle and about the same distance northeast of Portland.

  8. Feasibility of irradiating Washington fruits and vegetables for Asian export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hazelton, R.F.; Young, J.K.; Prenguber, B.A.; O' Rourke, A.D.; Heim, M.N.

    1987-05-01

    US agricultural export marketing opportunities are limited by the existence of trade barriers in many overseas countries. For example, Japan and South Korea do not permit the importation of apples due to their stated concern over codling moth infestation. One of the purposes of this study was to evaluate the potential of exporting irradiated fruits and vegetables from Washington State to overcome existing trade barriers and prevent the establishment of future barriers. The Asian countries specifically evaluated in this study are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Another purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of locating an irradiation facility in Washington State. Advantages that irradiated agricultural products would bring in terms of price and quality in export markets were also evaluated.

  9. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  10. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-04-16

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads.

  11. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  12. Numerical simulation of iodine speciation in relation to water disinfection aboard manned spacecraft I. Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, J. E.; Sauer, R. L.; Schultz, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Elemental iodine (I2) is currently used as the drinking water disinfectant aboard the Shuttle Orbiter and will also be incorporated into the water recovery and distribution system for the International Space Station Alpha. Controlled release of I2 is achieved using the Microbial Check Valve (MCV), a flow-through device containing an iodinated polymer which imparts a bacteriostatic residual concentration of approximately 2mg/L to the aqueous stream. During regeneration of MCV canisters, I2 concentrations of approximately 300 mg/L are used. Dissolved iodine undergoes a series of hydrolytic disproportionation and related reactions which result in the formation of an array of inorganic species including: I-, I3-, HOI, OI-, IO3-, HIO3, I2OH-, I2O(-2), and H2OI+. Numerical estimation of the steady-state distribution of inorganic iodine containing species in pure water at 25 degrees C has been achieved by simultaneous solution of the multiple equilibrium expressions as a function of pH. The results are reported herein.

  13. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  14. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso 1969 transmits several viruses in North America and Europe (2), causing severe yield reduction in crops. During a routine survey of cherry orchards suffering from cherry rasp leaf disease caused by Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV) (genus Cheravirus) in Che...

  15. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  16. State of Washington, Aquatic Plant Management Program: Design Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Ilymvhaea odorata Buttercup Ranunculus sep. L. Wate-cres flripp nasturtiu-auaticum (L.) Schinz & Theli Fringecup Te lima ,&andiflorum (Pursh.) Dougl...Polygonun ariphi.bium Potainogeton berchtoldii Potamogeton grami neus Potamogeton illinoensis Potamogeton natans Potainogeton pecti natus Ranunculus aquatilis...sandwichensis Vesper sparrow Povecetes gramineus Lark sparrow Chondestes grammacus Dark-eyed junco Junco hyemalis White-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia

  17. Utilization of warm well water, eastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing the warm well water for a geothermal greenhouse heating system is highly economically feasible. This is based on using the 88/sup 0/F water from Anderson Well No. 1 to heat greenhouses totaling approximately 10.6 acres. The additional investment of $640,000 above the cost for a conventional electric boiler system shows a rate of return of 48.3% on a 20 year life cycle analysis. The simple payback is 3 years. The 88/sup 0/F well water is not warm enough for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture, since water flow requirements are excessive to maintain the desired 80/sup 0/F pond temperature. However, the water is warm enough to maintain a 60/sup 0/F pond temperature for trout farming. Trout farming using the 88/sup 0/F well water directly is probably not economically feasible due to high electrical pumping cost (34,626 per year) for the seven 1/2 acre ponds that could be heated. Trout farming using the 75/sup 0/F effluent water from the 10.6 acre greenhouse to heat four 1/2 acre ponds may be economically feasible since the water booster pumping cost is low $1189 per year.

  18. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    are currently being investigated in other parts of the country to determine feasibility and efficiency ( Cassani and Caton, 1985; Shireman et al., 1983...Victoria-,-B.C. Cassani , J.R., and-W.E. Caton. 1985. Effects of chemical and-biological weed control on the ecology of a south Florida pond. Journal of

  19. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Jeffries, S.J.; Hobbs, R.C.; Bowlby, C.E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  20. The space environment monitor aboard FY-2 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guangwu; LI; Baoquan; WANG; Shijin; LIN; Hua'an; LIAN

    2005-01-01

    The space environment monitor (SEM) aboard FY-2 satellite consists of the high energy particle detector (HEPD) and the solar X-ray flux detector (SXFD). The SEM can provide real-time monitoring of flare and solar proton event for its operation at geostationary orbit and is also the first Chinese space system for monitoring and alerting solar proton event. During the 23rd solar maximum cycle, almost all the solar proton events that took place in this period are monitored and some of them are predicted successfully by analyzing the characteristics of X-ray flare monitored by the SEM. Some basic variation characteristics of particle at geostationary orbit are found such as day-night periodic variation of particle flux, the electron flux with energy >1.4 MeV in the scope from 10 to 200/cm2.s-sr and the proton flux with energy >1.1 MeV in the scope from 600 to 8000/cm2-s.sr during the time with no magnetic storm and solar eruption.

  1. REFORMASI EKONOMI, KONSENSUS WASHINGTON, DAN RINTANGAN POLITIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Erani Yustika

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the practice of policy reform, the new thinking in development theorizing found its expression in the formulation of the so-called Washington Consensus. Triggered by widespread government failures, the Washington Consensus is based on stabilization-cum-adjustment policies recommended by the Bretton Woods organizations and US economic officials. It emphasizes the need for prudent macroeconomic and financial policies, unified and competitive exchange rates, trade and financial liberalization, privatization, and deregulation. However, because of neglecting political domain, the running of economic reform resulted a deeper economic crisis. Beside, in the implementation phase, economic reform process often meet political barriers. At least three political barriers often fail economic reform program. First, collective action problems arise to the extent that economic reforms have the properties of a public good, either for the society as a whole or for a large number of potential beneficiaries. Second, In a distributive model, policy reform is supported by winners and opposed by losers, and the outcome is given by the balance of political power between the respective action. Third, one classic problem with many reforms is that the costs of reform tend to be concentrated, while benefits are diffuse, producing perverse organizational incentives (Haggard dan Kaufman, 1995:156-157. Argentina and Mexico cases show that economic reform can failure due to polical barriers. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam pelaksanaan kebijakan reformasi, teori pembangunan mutakhir telah menemukan konsep baru yang diformulasikan dalam istilah yang biasa disebut dengan Konsensus Washington. Dipicu oleh kegagalan pemerintah yang semakin meluas dalam mengelola kegiatan ekonomi, konsep Konsensus Washington berpijak pada upaya stabilisasi melalui kebijakan penyesuaian struktural, yang direkomendasikan oleh organisasi Bretton Woods dan Badan Ekonomi Amerika Serikat

  2. Landslide Hazards in the Seattle, Washington, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex; Harp, Ed; Highland, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The Seattle, Washington, area is known for its livability and its magnificent natural setting. The city and nearby communities are surrounded by an abundance of rivers and lakes and by the bays of Puget Sound. Two majestic mountain ranges, the Olympics and the Cascades, rim the region. These dramatic natural features are products of dynamic forces-landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, glaciers, volcanoes, and floods. The same processes that formed this beautiful landscape pose hazards to the ever-growing population of the region. Landslides long have been a major cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Seattle area.

  3. Water resources of Washington Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-06-13

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Washington Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  4. Capitol Lake, Washington, 2004 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Jodi; Ruggiero, Peter; Kingsley, Etienne; Gelfenbaum, Guy; George, Doug

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), the US Geological Survey (USGS) collected bathymetry data in Capital Lake, Olympia, Wash., on September 21, 2004. The data are to be used to calculate sediment infilling rates within the lake as well as for developing the bottom boundary conditions for numerical models of water quality, sediment transport, and morphological change. In addition, the USGS collected sediment samples in Capitol Lake in February, 2005, to help characterize bottom sediment for numerical model calculations and substrate assessment.

  5. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  6. Social Marketing and the "New" Technology: Proceedings of a Washington Roundtable (Washington, DC, March 25, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document examines some of the key issues raised during the second Washington Roundtable on Social Marketing, convened by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) in 1998. AED invited participants to examine whether the interactive technologies that are revolutionizing commercial marketing--personal computers, the Internet (especially the…

  7. 2013 EFRC PI Meeting -- Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers Principal Investigators' Meeting, Washington, D.C., July 18-19, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-07-01

    2013 EFRC Principal Investigators’ Meeting, July 18-19, 2013 in Washington D.C. By invitation only--about 500 attendees from the EFRCs and DOE, 235 senior EFRC members and 165 EFRC early career scientists from more than 80 institutions in 31 states, 2 foreign countries and Washington D.C. Over 115 talks and 225 posters

  8. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  9. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes.

  10. Orientation and English Instruction for Students from Other Lands: Program of the Washington Orientation Center for Foreign Students and Trainees at Wilson Teachers College, Washington, D. C. Bulletin, 1950, No. 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Margaret L.

    1950-01-01

    The Orientation Center for Foreign Students and Trainees, located at Wilson Teachers College, Washington, D. C., is financed by a grant-in-aid from the Department of State. It is operated under the advice and direction of the National Education Association, the Board of Education of the District of Columbia, and the Division of International…

  11. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  12. 36 CFR 910.13 - Urban design of Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urban design of Washington, DC. 910.13 Section 910.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.13 Urban design of Washington,...

  13. President George Washington: A Timeless Model of Great Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    first president? I am interested in Washington because I wanted to know how he became such a great ,/ . ’ leader and how could that benefit me as a...Washington would be considered to have been homeschooled with augmentation from the local church/school -- with a focus on applied mathematics

  14. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction..., that establishes five RNAV routes in support of the Washington, DC, Optimization of Airspace and..., Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202)...

  15. The Effect of Inclusion Models on Special Education Student Performance in Charter Schools in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoh, Kendahl

    2013-01-01

    Assessment results of 52 special education students in a charter school in Washington, D.C., were used to compare instruction received in co-teaching models of inclusion and resource classrooms to determine their impact on end-of-year standardized state exams. Statistical analysis showed Grade 3-8 special education students currently receiving…

  16. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  17. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-004-1568, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Seligman, P.J.

    1985-03-01

    Area air samples were analyzed for organic solvent vapors and aldehydes at the Biochemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC in October 1983, and February and August 1984. The evaluation was requested by the Safety Director because of employee complaints of eye and respiratory irritation. Questionnaires were administered to 75 employees in the Biochemistry Department and 24 employees in the Pharmacology Department who served as comparisons. Humidity measurements were made. The authors note that the complaints subsided during the spring of 1984, with no explanation. They conclude that the complaints among the employees, especially on the fifth floor, were due to eye irritation. The causative agent could not be identified. Recommendations include evaluating all ventilation systems and repeating the air sampling if complaints of irritation recur.

  18. Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.

  19. Study of Dissolved Chlorofluorocarbons in Lake Washington

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113), along with methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were made in water samples from Lake Washington, using Electron Capture Gas Chromatography (EC GC). The samples were collected in mid autumn, a period when the lake's upper layer undergoes rapid cooling. At the time of sampling, a strong vertical temperature gradient was present in the lake, with surface temperatures of ~14℃, and near bottom (50 meters) temperatures of ~8℃. The concentrations of dissolved CFC 12 and CFC 11 increased with depth, as expected from the higher solubilities of these gases at lower temperatures. Atmospheric measurements made at the sampling site at the time of the cruise, showed that CFC 11 and CFC 12 saturations in the near surface samples were 100 % and 106%, respectively. For the deepest sample (52 meters) CFC 11 and CFC 12 saturations were 102 % and 126 %. Because the surface layer of the lake responds to changes in atmospheric CFCs on a time scale of several weeks, the higher than equilibrium concentrations of CFC 12 observed at the time of sampling may reflect earlier episodes of elevated levels of atmospheric CFC 12 in this urban area. High concentrations of dissolved CFCs in runoff or industrial effluent might also lead to elevated CFC levels in the lake. The cold, deep water of Lake Washington is relatively isolated from the effects of surface gas exchange except during winter, and the supersaturations observe in the deep layer may reflect periods of elevated atmospheric CFC 12 levels from the previous winter season. These results were compared to summertime profiles of CFC 11 and CFC 12 made in 1994.

  20. Metro de Washington EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese, Harry

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works involved in the first stage of the Washington Underground (Subway system which was begun in 1969 and scheduled for completion in 1983 and is the most modern metropolitan railway in North America. Lines have double track and will carry three million passengers daily. Different construction methods have been used throughout: tunnel formed try digging a trench then roofed and covered, excavated tunnel and elevated structures. Stations features answer to the strictest demands, provided with closed circuit television, air conditioning, noise dampening Systems, special access ways, fire protection Systems and automatic traffic control. Special attention is given to the two bridges over the Pentagon and over the Anacostia, pointing out their differences and the elevated structure at the National Airport.

    Se describen en este articulo los trabajos de la primera fase del Metro de Washington que, iniciado en el año 1969 será, a su terminación en el año 1983, el más moderno sistema de ferrocarril metropolitano de Norte América. Es de doble carril y servirá para tres millones de usuarios. Se han empleado distintos sistemas de obra en su realización: túnel artificial realizado mediante una zanja que después se cubre; túnel perforado, y estructuras aéreas. Las características de las estaciones responden a las mayores exigencias, pues tienen circuito cerrado de televisión, aire acondicionado, sistemas para atenuar el ruido, accesos especiales, sistema de protección contra el fuego y control automático del Metro. Se estudian de un modo particular: los dos puentes sobre el Pentágono y el Anacostia, señalando sus diferencias y la estructura aérea del Aeropuerto Nacional.

  1. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  2. Electrochemical deposition of silver crystals aboard Skylab 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.; Johnston, M. H.; Gates, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Silver crystals were grown aboard Skylab 4 by an electro-chemical reaction and subsequently returned to earth for comparison with crystals grown at 1- and 5-g. Both the Skylab and earth-grown crystals show a variety of structures. Certain tendencies in structure dependency on gravity level, however, can be discerned. In addition, downward growing dendrite streamers; upward growing chunky crystal streamers; growth along an air/liquid interface; and ribbon, film, and fiber crystal habits were observed in experiments conducted on the ground with solutions of varying concentrations. It was also observed that the crystal structures of space and ground electro-deposited silver crystals were very similar to the structures of germanium selenide and germanium telluride crystals grown in space and on the ground by a vapor transport technique. Consideration of the data leads to the conclusions that: (1) the rate of electrochemical displacement of silver ions from a 5 percent aqueous solution by copper is predominantly diffussion controlled in space and kinetically controlled in 1- and higher-g because of augmentation of mass transport by convection; (2) downward and upward crystal streamers are the result of gravity-driven convection, the flow patterns of which can be delineated. Lateral growths along an air/liquid interface are the result of surface-tension-driven convection, the pattern of which also can be delineated; (3) electrolysis in space or low-g environments can produce either dendritic crystals with more perfect microcrystalline structures or massive, single crystals with fewer defects than those grown on ground or at higher g-levels. Ribbons or films of space-grown silicon crystals would find a ready market for electronic substrate and photocell applications. Space-grown dendritic, metal crystals present the possibility of unique catalysts. Large perfect crystals of various materials are desired for a number of electronic and optical applications; and (4) vapor

  3. Low temperature geothermal resource evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widness, S.

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given. A technique developed by Biggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG).

  4. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by

  5. NURE aerial gamma ray and magnetic detail survey of portions of northeast Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The Northeast Washington Survey was performed under the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, which is designed to provide radioelement distribution information to assist in assessing the uraniferous material potential of the United States. The radiometric and ancilliary data were digitally recorded and processed. The results are presented in the form of stacked profiles, contour maps, flight path maps, statistical tables and frequency distribution histograms. These graphical outputs are presented at a scale of 1:62,500 and are contained in the individual Volume 2 reports.

  6. Investigation into noise exposure of engine room personnel aboard MS Trident Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Aartsen, H.

    1979-01-01

    The noise exposure in terms of equivalent continuous sound level Leq of engine room personnel was determined aboard the freighter m.s. "Trident Amsterdam" during ordinary trade voyages by means of two methods: the first by making use of dosimeters, the second by measuring the sound levels in the eng

  7. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  8. Living at Sea: Learning from Communal Life Aboard Sail Training Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers features of domestic and social life aboard sail training vessels, exploring the particular character of life at sea, and how these features contribute to the distinctive character of sail training experience as a context for learning. Methodologically, the study lies in the sociological tradition of ethnography, focusing on…

  9. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  10. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison with LBNP device in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (left) and MS Mae C. Jemison prepare the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device for the LBNP experiment in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Displayed on the aft end cone in the background is an Auburn University banner.

  11. 华盛顿核安全峰会工作计划%Work Plan of Washington Nuclear Security Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This Work Plan supports the Communiqué of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit.It constitutes a political commitlnent bv the participating states to catty out,on a voluntary basis,applicable portions of this Work Plan,consistent with respective national laws and intemational obligations,in all aspects of the storage,use,transportation and disposal of uclear materials and in preventing non-state actors from obtaining the information required to use such materials for malicious purposes.

  12. Has spring snowpack declined in the Washington Cascades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mote

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Our best estimates of 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State indicate a substantial (roughly 15–35% decline from mid-century to 2006, with larger declines at low elevations and smaller declines or increases at high elevations. This range of values includes estimates from observations and hydrologic modeling, reflects a range of starting points between about 1930 and 1970 and also reflects uncertainties about sampling. The most important sampling issue springs from the fact that half the 1 April SWE in the Cascades is found below about 1240 m, altitudes at which sampling was poor before 1945. Separating the influences of temperature and precipitation on 1 April SWE in several ways, it is clear that long-term trends are dominated by trends in temperature, whereas variability in precipitation adds "noise" to the time series. Consideration of spatial and temporal patterns of change rules out natural variations like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation as the sole cause of the decline. Regional warming has clearly played a role, but it is not yet possible to quantify how much of that regional warming is related to greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  14. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  15. LIDAR Helps Identify Source of 1872 Earthquake Near Chelan, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Weaver, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the largest historic earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest occurred on 15 December 1872 (M6.5-7) near the south end of Lake Chelan in north-central Washington State. Lack of recognized surface deformation suggested that the earthquake occurred on a blind, perhaps deep, fault. New LiDAR data show landslides and a ~6 km long, NW-side-up scarp in Spencer Canyon, ~30 km south of Lake Chelan. Two landslides in Spencer Canyon impounded small ponds. An historical account indicated that dead trees were visible in one pond in AD1884. Wood from a snag in the pond yielded a calibrated age of AD1670-1940. Tree ring counts show that the oldest living trees on each landslide are 130 and 128 years old. The larger of the two landslides obliterated the scarp and thus, post-dates the last scarp-forming event. Two trenches across the scarp exposed a NW-dipping thrust fault. One trench exposed alluvial fan deposits, Mazama ash, and scarp colluvium cut by a single thrust fault. Three charcoal samples from a colluvium buried during the last fault displacement had calibrated ages between AD1680 and AD1940. The second trench exposed gneiss thrust over colluvium during at least two, and possibly three fault displacements. The younger of two charcoal samples collected from a colluvium below gneiss had a calibrated age of AD1665- AD1905. For an historical constraint, we assume that the lack of felt reports for large earthquakes in the period between 1872 and today indicates that no large earthquakes capable of rupturing the ground surface occurred in the region after the 1872 earthquake; thus the last displacement on the Spencer Canyon scarp cannot post-date the 1872 earthquake. Modeling of the age data suggests that the last displacement occurred between AD1840 and AD1890. These data, combined with the historical record, indicate that this fault is the source of the 1872 earthquake. Analyses of aeromagnetic data reveal lithologic contacts beneath the scarp that form an ENE

  16. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  17. Megafloods and Clovis cache at Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Immense late Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula drowned the Wenatchee reach of Washington's Columbia valley by different routes. The earliest debacles, nearly 19,000 cal yr BP, raged 335 m deep down the Columbia and built high Pangborn bar at Wenatchee. As advancing ice blocked the northwest of Columbia valley, several giant floods descended Moses Coulee and backflooded up the Columbia past Wenatchee. Ice then blocked Moses Coulee, and Grand Coulee to Quincy basin became the westmost floodway. From Quincy basin many Missoula floods backflowed 50 km upvalley to Wenatchee 18,000 to 15,500 years ago. Receding ice dammed glacial Lake Columbia centuries more—till it burst about 15,000 years ago. After Glacier Peak ashfall about 13,600 years ago, smaller great flood(s) swept down the Columbia from glacial Lake Kootenay in British Columbia. The East Wenatchee cache of huge fluted Clovis points had been laid atop Pangborn bar after the Glacier Peak ashfall, then buried by loess. Clovis people came five and a half millennia after the early gigantic Missoula floods, two and a half millennia after the last small Missoula flood, and two millennia after the glacial Lake Columbia flood. People likely saw outburst flood(s) from glacial Lake Kootenay.

  18. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  19. Presidential Symposia and Events: Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Frank

    2009-08-01

    ACS President Thomas H. Lane has designated two presidential events (both organized by Sadiq Shah, Associate Vice President, Office of Research and Economic Development, Western Kentucky University) at the Washington, DC meeting to highlight the theme: "Chemistry and Global Security: Challenges and Opportunities". The location and the timing of the meeting give ACS a unique opportunity to address questions related to chemistry and global security. The location will facilitate access to the funding agencies that can present the global security challenges and opportunities to be addressed over the next decade or so, as well as to a new administration that will be looking for ideas and a dialogue with the scientific community to set an agenda for the next four years or more. Most importantly, this is a unique opportunity for the ACS divisional program planning leadership to showcase the creative solutions of chemistry by creating programming that addresses these themes. This broad theme allows chemists from all specialties to participate by assembling innovative symposia that they feel best showcase their efforts.

  20. Megafloods and Clovis cache at Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.

    2016-05-01

    Immense late Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula drowned the Wenatchee reach of Washington's Columbia valley by different routes. The earliest debacles, nearly 19,000 cal yr BP, raged 335 m deep down the Columbia and built high Pangborn bar at Wenatchee. As advancing ice blocked the northwest of Columbia valley, several giant floods descended Moses Coulee and backflooded up the Columbia past Wenatchee. Ice then blocked Moses Coulee, and Grand Coulee to Quincy basin became the westmost floodway. From Quincy basin many Missoula floods backflowed 50 km upvalley to Wenatchee 18,000 to 15,500 years ago. Receding ice dammed glacial Lake Columbia centuries more-till it burst about 15,000 years ago. After Glacier Peak ashfall about 13,600 years ago, smaller great flood(s) swept down the Columbia from glacial Lake Kootenay in British Columbia. The East Wenatchee cache of huge fluted Clovis points had been laid atop Pangborn bar after the Glacier Peak ashfall, then buried by loess. Clovis people came five and a half millennia after the early gigantic Missoula floods, two and a half millennia after the last small Missoula flood, and two millennia after the glacial Lake Columbia flood. People likely saw outburst flood(s) from glacial Lake Kootenay.

  1. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  2. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Williams (Tulalip Tribes); Ray Clark (Clark Group)

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  3. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Westport, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Westport, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  6. La Push, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The La Push, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  7. EAARL Topography--George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia was...

  8. Four Washington companies resolve violations of federal chemical storage laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Seattle-July 13, 2015) Four Washington companies have signed settlements for violations of federal chemical storage laws, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA's investigations found that the companies failed to properly report storag

  9. Bathymetric Contours for Lake Darling, Washington County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Lake Darling in Washington Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lake...

  10. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  11. Washington Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1988: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Washington Islands NWRs (Flattery Rocks, Quillayute Needles, and Copalis Rock NWRs) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988...

  12. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  13. Washington Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1992: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Washington Islands National Wildlife Refuges (Flattery Rocks, Quillayute Needles, and Copalis Rock National Wildlife Refuges)...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Washington County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  16. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  17. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Washington Missing Production Groups, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Howard J.; Ashbrook, Charmane; Doty, Daniel (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1994-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ``Annual Coded Wire Tag Program -- Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries`` project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) [formerly the Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) and the Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW)], Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time. Data generated by this project contributes to WDFW`s obligations for representative tagging under the Endangered. Species Act (ESA) permit for operating Columbia Basin facilities. WDFW facilities operating outside the Snake River basin are required to have a Section 10, ``Incidental Take`` permit. Consistent with special conditions within this permit, WDFW has now reached it`s objective to tag representative groups from all WDFW Columbia Basin releases.

  18. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  19. Engaging Future Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    period into the periods of statetism, mercantilism , industrialism, the information age, and now into the knowledge age. In response to the changing...State, 2010), xii. 4 National Strategy Information Center, Adapting America’s Security Paradigm and Security Agenda , (Washington, DC: National

  20. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Summer 1988 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1989-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) are funding the construction and evaluation of fish passage facilities and fish protection facilities at irrigation and hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River Basin, Washington State. The program provides offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric development throughout the Columbia River Basin, and addresses natural propagation of salmon to help mitigate the impact of irrigation in the Yakima River Basin. This report evaluates the flow characteristics of the screening facilities. Studies consisted of velocity measurements taken in front of the rotary drum screens and within the fish bypass systems during peak flows. Measurements of approach velocity and sweep velocity were emphasized in these studies; however, vertical velocity was also measured. 5 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Environmental contaminant analysis of sea otters and prey from coastal Washington of the Washington Maritime NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analyses of blood and liver samples from live captured sea otters and liver samples from beach-cast sea otter carcasses off the remote Washington coast indicate...

  2. Integrated Electronic Warfare Systems Aboard the United States Navy 21st Century Warship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    following criteria: (WEIB(.5,.6))*No. of tgts. This expression shows a Weibel distribution with the required parameters for the IEW to transition to a...IEW Transition process has a Delay Release action with the following criteria: (WEIB(.5,.6))*No. of tgts. This expression shows a Weibel distribution

  3. An Expert System for Managing Storage Space Constraints Aboard United States Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    down to block A201 and repeat stop 3 for C: \\ WOTUS \\N003. 3. 46 S. continue this process until all of the serial number file* have been consolidated...Execute F711/Save, then create the fourth spreadsheet and name it C:\\ WOTUS \\FORCST.WI3. 5. Forecaet: Noet Baent Data To create the C:\\WTUMS\\IPORCST. WIK3...cursor to block F2 and enter the following formula: +<<C:\\ WOTUS \\l0WL3l.WK,>T (or A:Tl..A:Tl) b. copy block P2 to block AD2 c. edit block US to read as

  4. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value publication of this report. StreamStats is the interactive Web-based map tool created by the U.S. Geological Survey to allow the user to choose a streamgage and obtain published statistics or choose ungaged locations where the program automatically applies the regional regression equations and computes the estimates of the AEP statistics.

  5. Pre-Clovis mastodon hunting 13,800 years ago at the Manis site, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Michael R; Stafford, Thomas W; McDonald, H Gregory; Gustafson, Carl; Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Olsen, Jesper V; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-21

    The tip of a projectile point made of mastodon bone is embedded in a rib of a single disarticulated mastodon at the Manis site in the state of Washington. Radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis show that the rib is associated with the other remains and dates to 13,800 years ago. Thus, osseous projectile points, common to the Beringian Upper Paleolithic and Clovis, were made and used during pre-Clovis times in North America. The Manis site, combined with evidence of mammoth hunting at sites in Wisconsin, provides evidence that people were hunting proboscideans at least two millennia before Clovis.

  6. Standardizing instream flow requirements at hydropower projects in the Cascade Mountains, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.M.; Sale, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Instream flow requirements are common mitigation measures instituted in the bypassed reaches of hydroelectric diversion projects. Currently, there are two extremes among the ways to determine instream flow requirements: generic standard-setting methods and detailed, habitat-based, impact assessment methods such as the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Data from streams in Washington state show a consistent pattern in the instream flow requirements resulting from the IFIM. This pattern can be used to refine the simpler standard-setting approaches and thereby provide better estimates of flow needs during early stages of project design.

  7. Swimming classroom. Environmental education aboard a solar powered boat; Schwimmendes Klassenzimmer. Umweltbildungsangebote an Bord einer Solarfaehre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerk, M. [Bodensee-Stiftung, Radolfzell (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Summary: The swimming classroom is a particular environmental education programme. Since 2002 school classes are taught aboard the solar ferry Helio at the Lower Lake Constance. Schoolboys and girls as well as teachers have the opportunity to enlarge their knowledge about Lake Constance, its natural environment and the solar ferry Helio. They also get informed about photovoltaic systems, water pollution control and environment-friendly tourism in the Lake Constance region. Solar ferry is most suitable for nature and adventure pedagogy as well as experimental instruction. School classes and advanced training groups can easily carry out a comprehensive programme aboard the Helio and experience nature and solar technology cruising on the lake. Issues are - Energy/Photovoltaic - Limnology - Life in and on the water - Water pollution control - Geography/Landscape development. (orig.)

  8. Fluoride, Nitrate, and Dissolved-Solids Concentrations in Ground Waters of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, W. E.; Turney, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This study provides basic data on ground-water quality throughout the State. It is intended for uses in planning and management by agencies and individuals who have responsibility for or interest in, public health and welfare. It also provides a basis for directing future studies of ground-water quality toward areas where ground-water quality problems may already exist. The information presented is a compilation of existing data from numerous sources including: the Washington Departments of Ecology and Social and Health Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as many other local, county, state and federal agencies and private corporations. Only data on fluoride, nitrate, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are presented, as these constituents are among those commonly used to determine the suitability of water for drinking or other purposes. They also reflect both natural and man-imposed effects on water quality and are the most readily available water-quality data for the State of Washington. The percentage of wells with fluoride, nitrate, or dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations were about 1, about 3, and about 3, respectively. Most high concentrations occurred in widely separated wells. Two exceptions were: high concentrations of nitrate and dissolved solids in wells on the Hanford Department of Energy Facility and high concentrations of nitrate in the lower Yakima River basin. (USGS)

  9. Policy and reality of Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Whitman County, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

    1988-05-01

    The Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) promotes the conservation of natural resources through procedural review of proposed actions which may impact natural systems. There are, however, many actions specifically exempt from the SEPA review process. Since many exempt actions could have significant adverse effects on natural resources at one location and not another, the SEPA statute contains a provision that enables local governments to designate Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Within the ESAs, these potentially adverse activities are subject to SEPA review. Local governments have complete control over the exact definition of the ESA criteria and the types of local projects exempt from SEPA. Whitman County, the most productive wheat-producing county in Washington, has recognized the need for conservation of its natural resources in its comprehensive plan but has not implemented the ESA provision. A representative watershed within Whitman County was used as a case study to identify areas which would qualify for ESA status. In these areas, specific soil, water, and biological characteristics or resources were identified as sensitive to certain common land uses. Significant differences were found between state and county policies regarding ESAs and actual conditions within the watershed. It may be more effective for the state to manage ESAs on a consistent and regional basis.

  10. Soyuz 24 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz. This is the first time all samples were acquired with the mini-grab samplers. The toxicological assessment of 15 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C(13)-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 75, 97 and 79%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned on Soyuz 24

  11. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse-Purpan (France))

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed.

  12. STS-47 crew in SLJ module make notes during shift changeover aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    During STS-47 aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, six of the seven crewmembers supporting the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission share this shift changeover scene in the spacelab science module. From the foreground, are Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, Commander Robert L. Gibson, MS N. Jan Davis, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Photo was taken by MS Jerome Apt.

  13. STS-56 Earth observation of a Canadian sunrise taken aboard Discovery, OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of a Canadian sunrise. Low clouds on the eastern horizon are blocking most of the direct sunlight as the sun climbs over the northern Atlantic in this Canadian sunrise scene. Bright yellow colors are sun rays which penetrate through the cloud-free areas while the reds in the scene are primarily illuminated clouds in the troposphere.

  14. Regional landslide-hazard assessment for Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; Savage, W.Z.; Schulz, W.H.; Brien, D.L.; Chleborad, A.F.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Landslides are a widespread, frequent, and costly hazard in Seattle and the Puget Sound area of Washington State, USA. Shallow earth slides triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common type of landslide in the area; many transform into debris flows and cause significant property damage or disrupt transportation. Large rotational and translational slides, though less common, also cause serious property damage. The hundreds of landslides that occurred during the winters of 1995-96 and 1996-97 stimulated renewed interest by Puget Sound communities in identifying landslide-prone areas and taking actions to reduce future landslide losses. Informal partnerships between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the City of Seattle, and private consultants are focusing on the problem of identifying and mapping areas of landslide hazard as well as characterizing temporal aspects of the hazard. We have developed GIS-based methods to map the probability of landslide occurrence as well as empirical rainfall thresholds and physically based methods to forecast times of landslide occurrence. Our methods for mapping landslide hazard zones began with field studies and physically based models to assess relative slope stability, including the effects of material properties, seasonal groundwater levels, and rainfall infiltration. We have analyzed the correlation between historic landslide occurrence and relative slope stability to map the degree of landslide hazard. The City of Seattle is using results of the USGS studies in storm preparedness planning for emergency access and response, planning for development or redevelopment of hillsides, and municipal facility planning and prioritization. Methods we have developed could be applied elsewhere to suit local needs and available data.

  15. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell Area, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widness, Scott

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The regional piezometric surface and stratigraphic units dip towards the southwest. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given in table 2. Some of the BHT data in table 2 may vary from those previously reported by WSU. These discrepancies are the result of changes in the calibration method of the FT tool. A technique developed by Giggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG). Well data groups were selected on the premises of geographic proximity, position within the regional groundwater flow system, land slope azimuth, and land slope dip. Some data points have been excluded from the linear regression analysis on the basis of factors such as duplicate logging of the same hole, down-hole flow, holes not logged to total depth, and questionable FT tool responses.

  16. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Schuler, Krysten L.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Webb, Julie L.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Ip, Hon S.; Dubey, J.P.; Frame, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, United States were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A virus (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum chemistries), exposure to pathogens, and overall health of the population over the last decade were assessed by comparing 2011 data to the data collected on this population in 2001–2002. Several serum chemistry parameters were different between study years and sexes but were not clinically significant. The odds of canine distemper virus exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2001–2002 (80%) compared to 2011 (10%); likelihood of exposure significantly increased with age. Prevalence of exposure to Sarcocystis neurona was also higher in 2001–2002 (29%) than in 2011 (0%), but because testing methods varied between study years the results were not directly comparable. Exposure to Leptospira spp. was only observed in 2001–2002. Odds of Toxoplasma gondii exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2011 (97%) than otters in 2001–2002 (58%). Substantial levels of domoic acid (n = 2) and saxitoxin (n = 2) were found in urine or fecal samples from animals sampled in 2011. No evidence of calicivirus or Coxiella burnetii exposure in the Washington population of northern sea otters was found in either 2001–2002 or 2011. Changes in exposure status from 2001–2002 to 2011 suggest that the Washington sea otter population may be dealing with new disease threats (e.g., influenza) while also increasing their susceptibility to diseases that may be highly pathogenic in naïve individuals (e.g., canine distemper).

  17. Geothermal : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.Gordon

    1991-10-01

    The actual geothermal exploration and development may appear to be a simple and straightforward process in comparison to the legal and institutional maze which the developer must navigate in order to obtain all of the federal, state, and local leases, permits, licenses, and approvals necessary at each step in the process. Finally, and often most difficult, is obtaining a contract for the sale of thermal energy, brine, steam, or electricity. This guide is designed to help developers interested in developing geothermal resource sites in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory in the state of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington better understand the federal, state, and local institutional process, the roles and responsibilities of each agency, and how and when to make contact in order to obtain the necessary documents.

  18. Prehistoric Earthquakes in the Puget Lowland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    . Coastal marsh stratigraphy, lidar mapping, and fault scarp excavations help define recent activity along the Southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIFZ). Abrupt uplift of more than one meter at a coastal marsh on south-central Whidbey Island suggests that a MW 6.5 - 7.0 earthquake on the SWIFZ shook the region between 3200 and 2800 years B.P. Subtle scarps on Pleistocene surfaces are visible on high-resolution lidar topography at a number of locations in the mainland region, often closely associated with aeromagnetic lineaments. In the field, scarps exhibit northeast-side-up vertical relief of 1 to 5 m. Four excavations across two lidar scarps show that the SWIFZ produced at least four events since deglaciation about 16,400 years ago, the most recent after 2700 years ago. The evidence for Holocene deformation across the entire Puget Sound lowlands is now very pervasive, but still incomplete. Lidar scarps have been identified in several areas not associated with the seven zones noted here, but have yet to be investigated. Lidar data covers about 70 percent of the Puget Sound basin, but key areas with suspected crustal faults in northwestern Washington have yet to be flown. Still, the combination of paleoseismological field investigations and lidar imaging allowed remarkable progress in understanding the Holocene earthquake history of greater Puget Sound in just seven years. The new observations will be an important addition to observations used to calculate the National Hazard Maps.

  19. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  20. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  1. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  2. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  3. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development. I demonstrate how hometown associations and returning migrants have transferred organizational practices and political ideas about development from the United States to rural Bolivia. In addition, I explore migration’s role in struggles over belonging in Cochabamba, focusing on the efforts by migrants in Washington D.C. to stake their claim through transnational houses and collective remittance projects and on recent internal migration from other regions in Bolivia. Finally, I assess the sustainability of migrant-led development in Cochabamba. Although collaboration with migrants can strengthen the local state by providing more resources, it conditions the type of development that can take place and has yet to provide adequate opportunities for returning migrants or young people in rural Bolivia.

  4. Supporting response with science: the Oso, Washington, landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    On 22 March 2014 a large, rapidly moving landslide impacted the community of Steelhead Haven, near Oso, Washington, killing 43 people. The slide displaced about 8 million m3 of sand and silt from a 200-m high glacial terrace destroying 40 homes and burying more than 1.0 km of State Route 530. The landslide temporarily dammed the North Fork of the Stillaguamish River flooding an area of about 1.4 km2. The unusually long travel distance, in excess of 700 m from the base of the slope, and apparent speed of the slide led to the great loss of life and destruction. Landslide science was critical in supporting the response to the disaster. Landslide monitoring, process understanding, pre- and post-event high-resolution digital topography, and numerical simulations were used to advise search operations. Recognizing that buildings and their contents were swept tens to hundreds of meters from their original locations, maps of deposit thickness, and estimates of landslide trajectories were used to develop safer and more efficient search strategies. Teams of county, state, and federal scientists, engineers, and specialists were formed to assess the stability of the landslide dam and to monitor stream flow and the level of the lake impounded by the slide, and to assess the geomorphic response of the river to the landslide for gauging future effects on flood hazards and aquatic ecosystems. Another scientific team assessed the threat of additional landslide activity to search operations. This team's activities included establishing a communications protocol among landslide watch officers and search operations, deploying instrument platforms developed for use on volcanoes (Spiders) to remotely detect ground movement by means of GPS technology and to detect vibrations indicative of landslide movement using seismometers. The team was responsible for monitoring and integrating data from the Spiders and other instruments and making determinations with regards to the potential for

  5. 50 CFR 32.67 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... seasons occurring September through December and during the State spring wild turkey season only. We... blind assignment, and obtain a check-out card. You must carry the check-out card while hunting as proof... accurate check-out card and submit it to the check station before leaving the refuge. 14. We require...

  6. Shaping the New World Order: International Cultural Opportunities and the Private Sector. Edited Proceedings of an International Cultural Forum (Washington, D.C., December 13, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Malcolm, Ed.; And Others

    This publication presents the proceedings of a forum held at the U.S. State Department (Washington, D.C.) on the influence of international cultural opportunities in the new world order taking shape since the demise of Communism. The speeches, introductions, and forum discussions are offered in the order that they occurred over the course of a…

  7. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  8. Parks, Trees, and Environmental Justice: Field Notes from Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Whitmer, Ali; Grove, J. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in a graduate seminar benefited in multiple ways from an intensive 3-day field trip to Washington, DC. Constructed around the theme of environmental justice, the trip gave students a chance to learn about street tree distribution, park quality, and racial segregation "up close." Working with personnel from the United…

  9. Hello Mr. President! Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hello Mr. President Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington Am 8. November 2016 entscheidet sich, wer zum 58. Präsidenten der USA gewählt wird: Die ehemalige Außenministerin Hillary Clinton oder der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump. In der heißen Phase des Wahlkampfs fällt besonders deu

  10. Mathematics, Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Growing Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) talent Washington MESA--Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement--helps under-represented community college students excel in school and ultimately earn STEM bachelor's degrees. MESA has two key programs: one for K-12 students, and the other for community and technical college…

  11. The United States, Latin America, and the Potential for a Naval and Defense Industrial Partnership: The Case of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress, 29 March 1988), p. 8. 4 3Goshko, "Vying for Slivers of the Foreign Aid Pie," The Washington Post National Weekly...the military government of General Geisel formally renounced the 1952 defense pact with the United States. By severing military assistance ties with...Overview of United States Military Assistance Programs." CRS Report for Congress (88-282 F). Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress, 29 March 1988

  12. Magnitude and extent of flooding at selected river reaches in western Washington, January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, M.C.; Gendaszek, A.S.; Barnas, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    A narrow plume of warm, moist tropical air produced prolonged precipitation and melted snow in low-to-mid elevations throughout western Washington in January 2009. As a result, peak-of-record discharges occurred at many long-term streamflow-gaging stations in the region. A disaster was declared by the President for eight counties in Washington State and by May 2009, aid payments by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had exceeded $17 million. In an effort to document the flood and to obtain flood information that could be compared with simulated flood extents that are commonly prepared in conjunction with flood insurance studies by FEMA, eight stream reaches totaling 32.6 miles were selected by FEMA for inundation mapping. The U.S. Geological Survey?s Washington Water Science Center used a survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) the following summer to survey high-water marks (HWMs) left by the January 2009 flood at these reaches. A Google Maps (copyright) application was developed to display all HWM data on an interactive mapping tool on the project?s web site soon after the data were collected. Water-surface profiles and maps that display the area and depth of inundation were produced through a geographic information system (GIS) analysis that combined surveyed HWM elevations with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models of the study reaches and surrounding terrain. In several of the reaches, floods were well confined in their flood plains and were relatively straightforward to map. More common, however, were reaches with more complicated hydraulic geometries where widespread flooding resulted in flows that separated from the main channel. These proved to be more difficult to map, required subjective hydrologic judgment, and relied on supplementary information, such as aerial photographs and descriptions of the flooding from local landowners and government officials to obtain the best estimates of the extent of flooding.

  13. 77 FR 76173 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... commenters to show overhead slides or make computerized slide presentations. A transcript of the hearing and... impairment of visual range or colorization caused by emission of air pollution produced by numerous sources...). Atmospheric fine particulate reduces clarity, color, and visual range of visual scenes. Visibility...

  14. 78 FR 79344 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... slides or make computerized slide presentations. A transcript of the hearing and written statements will... impairment of visual range or colorization caused by emission of air pollution produced by numerous sources... PM 2.5 reduces clarity, color, and visual range of visual scenes. Visibility-reducing PM 2.5...

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2010, 2010 state, Washington, 2010 Census Block State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. Geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles M.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Evarts, Russell C.

    2016-06-03

    IntroductionThis is a 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles in the States of Washington and Oregon. The map area is within the Portland Basin and includes most of the city of Vancouver, Washington; parts of Clark County, Washington; and a small part of northwestern Multnomah County, Oregon. The Columbia River flows through the southern part of the map area, generally forming the southern limit of mapping. Mapped Quaternary geologic units include late Pleistocene cataclysmic flood deposits, eolian deposits, and alluvium of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Older deposits include Miocene to Pleistocene alluvium from an ancestral Columbia River. Regional geologic structures are not exposed in the map area but are inferred from nearby mapping.

  17. 78 FR 45056 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Montlake Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. The deviation is necessary to accommodate vehicular traffic attending football games at Husky Stadium at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed position......

  18. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington...). The Refuge has units located in Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID, and Malheur... the Snake River located in Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties in ID; and Malheur...

  19. 78 FR 10562 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Washington, DC, Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The... departures from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area airports. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  20. 78 FR 53237 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Services, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone... Register a notice of ] proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish two new RNAV routes in the Washington,...

  1. 78 FR 63251 - Board Meeting; November 20, 2013 in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting; November 20, 2013 in Washington, DC The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review..., the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Washington, DC, on...., Washington, DC 20037; Tel. (202) 857-3388. A block of rooms has been reserved at the hotel for...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  3. Relations between atmospheric circulation and mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Fountain, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The yearly net mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, has decreased since the mid-1970s. Resuls show that the decrease is primarily caused by a significant decrease in the winter mass balance. Changes in atmospheric circulation indicate a decrease in the movement of storms and moisture from the Pacific Ocean into the western contiguous United States. In addition, the increase in winter mean 700-mb heights over western Canada and the northern western contiguous United States indicates an increase in subsidence, which results in a warming and drying of the air that further reduces precipitation and also increases the ratio of rain to snow during the cold season. These factors contribute to below-average winter mass balances. -from Authors

  4. Basic Education for Adults: Pathways to College and Careers for Washington's Emerging Workforce. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes the Basic Education for Adults (BEdA) programs that bridge the gap between school and work, thereby creating pathways to college and careers for Washington's emerging workforce. BEdA programs teach foundational skills--reading, writing, math, technology and English language--so adults can move through college and into…

  5. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  6. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program - Management Report - 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    02912. Science, Graduate School Deans. Could send brochures to all members of the Human Factors Society, if you don’t already do so. Dr. Linda Washington...Computational Fluid Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 Dynamics (703) 961-7199 Assigned: WL Dr. Linda Buehner Degree: Ed. D., Curriculum and Assistant Professor...Engineering, 1978 Washington State University Specialty: Heat and Mass Transfer, Mechanical Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Pullman , Washington 99164-2920

  7. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  8. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  9. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  10. STS-47 crewmembers work in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt responds to a crewmate's query during a shift changeover in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Apt, positioned in front of Rack 3's general purpose workstation (GPWS), talks to MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee (foreground, partially out of frame). Behind Apt and in front of the spacelab tunnel hatch are MS Mae C. Jemison (left) and MS N. Jan Davis. Note that Commander Robert L. Gibson freefloats above the GPWS during the discussion.

  11. MAGRITTE: an instrument suite for the solar atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Rochus, Pierre; Defise, Jean-Marc; Halain, Jean-Philippe; Jamar, Claude; Mazy, Emmanuel; Rossi, Laurence; Thibert, Tanguy; Clette, Frederic; Cugnon, Pierre; Berghmans, David; Hochedez, Jean-Francois E; Delaboudiniere, Jean-Pierre; Auchere, Frederic; Mercier, Raymond; Ravet, Marie-Francoise

    2004-01-01

    The Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory will characterize the dynamical evolution of the solar plasma from the chromosphere to the corona, and will follow the connection of plasma dynamics with magnetic activity throughout the solar atmosphere. The AIA consists of 7 high-resolution imaging telescopes in the following spectral bandpasses: 1215Å. Ly-a, 304 Å He II, 629 Å OV, 465 Å Ne VII, 195 Å Fe XII (includes Fe XXIV), 284 Å Fe XV, and 335 Å Fe XVI. ...

  12. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  13. Wind/Solar : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, Don; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This handbook is one of a series that was recently written or updated for persons involved in the development of generating plants that use renewable resources. Other siting handbooks cover facilities powered by geothermal, hydro, and biomass resources. These handbooks are intended to introduce the reader to the regulations and their corresponding institutions that affect the development of physical facilities. The handbooks, for the most part, apply to resource development in the Pacific Northwest, i.e., Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Western Montana. Some states have their own development or siting handbooks. These may be identified and obtained by contacting the states` energy offices.

  14. Wind/solar: A regulatory guide to leasing, permitting, and licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D. (Oregon State Dept. of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)); Bloomquist, R.G. (Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This handbook is one of a series that was recently written or updated for persons involved in the development of generating plants that use renewable resources. Other siting handbooks cover facilities powered by geothermal, hydro, and biomass resources. These handbooks are intended to introduce the reader to the regulations and their corresponding institutions that affect the development of physical facilities. The handbooks, for the most part, apply to resource development in the Pacific Northwest, i.e., Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Western Montana. Some states have their own development or siting handbooks. These may be identified and obtained by contacting the states' energy offices.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  16. Timing and extent of early marine oxygen isotope stage 2 alpine glaciation in Skagit Valley, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jon L.; Clague, John J.; Ward, Brent C.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-two new radiocarbon ages from Skagit valley provide a detailed chronology of alpine glaciation during the Evans Creek stade of the Fraser Glaciation (early marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2) in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Sediments at sites near Concrete, Washington, record two advances of the Baker valley glacier between ca. 30.3 and 19.5 cal ka BP, with an intervening period of glacier recession about 24.9 cal ka BP. The Baker valley glacier dammed lower Skagit valley, creating glacial Lake Concrete, which discharged around the ice dam along Finney Creek, or south into the Sauk valley. Sediments along the shores of Ross Lake in upper Skagit valley accumulated in glacial Lake Skymo after ca. 28.7 cal ka BP behind a glacier flowing out of Big Beaver valley. Horizontally laminated silt and bedded sand and gravel up to 20 m thick record as much as 8000 yr of deposition in these glacially dammed lakes. The data indicate that alpine glaciers in Skagit valley were far less extensive than previously thought. Alpine glaciers remained in advanced positions for much of the Evans Creek stade, which may have ended as early as 20.8 cal ka BP.

  17. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring for Washington Department of Wildlife, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerwin, John L.; Roberts, Steve; Oman, Leni; Bolding, Bruce

    1991-04-01

    The augmented fish health monitoring project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with the mandate to collect fish health data on anadromous fish stocks of the BPA Columbia River Basin in a standardized manner. The project began in 1986 and the data reported here was collected in the fourth year. This segment of the project was carried out by the Washington Department of Wildlife and summarizes fish health findings at anadromous game fish hatcheries in Washington State operated by the BPA. Information gathered to data has provided impetus to alter facility design and management practices for improved fish health through prevention. Treatment efficacy can be better assessed due to the monthly monitoring of fish stocks and insight is being gained into disease prevention and control. The ultimate goal, of course, is to improve fish health for better survival in the wild. Tagged returns at index hatcheries within this project area will provide some indication of the impact of improving fish health on providing greater adult returns as well as an improved product for the fishery. 3 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. WashingtonOnline Virtual Campus: Infusing Culture in Dispersed Web-Based Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Hai-Jew

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Started in 1997, WashingtonOnline Virtual Campus (WAOL consists of a consortium of 34 community colleges around Washington State to provide asynchronous online learning. WAOL bears many of the features of a loosely coupled organization with its geographically dispersed frontline instructors, fragmented external environment, modularity of courses and supervision, and its use of enhanced leadership and technology to communicate a culture. Recent surveys of its administration, instructors, and staff found disparities in various constituencies’ perspectives on the organization’s culture, decision-making, values, brand or reputation, communications, and WAOL’s authorizing environment. Research suggests that WAOL benefits from some aspects of loose coupling: greater adaptive abilities and responsiveness to the State’s college system; “fast” course development and launching; and isolated breakdowns. There is, however, a persistent difficulty in conveying a cohesive culture. There is a perception of WAOL’s invisibility among its varied constituencies. This organization is at a crossroads, with the threat of colleges disconnecting from this consortium. WAOL should redefine its direction and purpose, such as coupling with local universities to provide not only associates degrees but full Baccalaureate and/ or Masters degrees. It may strengthen its position by improving learner supports, publicizing its decisions, creating a stronger sense of virtual community among the instructors (as in its recent creation of an online community for instructors, increased participative decision-making and use of line faculty and staff insights, and greater course varieties.

  19. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  20. Expeditionary Economics and Its Implications on the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    microfinance is ineffective in resolving conflicts in active war zones, it does play an important role in Phase IV operations. The importance of micro...Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy (Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development...and The Services Group, Inc. “Iraq Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy.” Washington, D.C.: United States

  1. El Consenso de Washington: aciertos, yerros y omisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the economic and social development of Latin America after nearly two decades of macroeconomic policies and reforms in line with the “Washington Consensus”. It shows that these policies did lower inflation and induced an export boom, but failed to boost domestic investment and to remove the balance of payments binding constraint on the region’s long–term path of economic expansion. Four alternative explanations of such poor performance of the Washington Consensus are compared. It is argued, in particular, that, contrary to mainstream opinion, in Latin America there is no clear association between the depth of macroeconomic reforms and economic growth performance.

  2. George Washington and the Politics of War and Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    of] offenders from trial in the place where offences were committed ...[and the attempt] to deprive the government of Massachusetts Bay of their...removed from the perceived physical threat of the standing army in Boston, a young member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Thomas Jefferson...date my fall, and the ruin of my reputation.’”119 Washington, as a young man, was ambitious.120 However, reflecting his cultural origins as a Virginia

  3. Annual scientific meeting--American Headache Society Washington 2011--highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, R Allan

    2012-05-01

    The 53rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Headache Society was held in Washington from June 2 to 5, 2011. Important clinical and basic science information was presented at this meeting. This is a review of the highlights of that meeting dealing in many areas of headache medicine. Once again, this meeting, which is the premier scientific meeting of the American Headache Society, provided lots of new and exciting information about multiple facets of migraine headache and other disorders.

  4. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value equations to estimate AEP statistics at ungaged basins. Washington was divided into four regions to improve the accuracy of the regression equations; a set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent of the time equivalent to peak flows for peaks with a 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively. Annual precipitation and drainage area were the significant basin characteristics in the regression equations for all four regression regions in Washington and forest cover was significant for the two regression

  5. Terrestrial organic carbon contributions to sediments on the Washington margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, F.G.; Sparrow, M.A.; Eversmeyer, B. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Ertel, J.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)); Goni, M.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Elemental and stable carbon isotopic compositions and biomarker concentrations were determined in sediments from the Columbia River basin and the Washington margin in order to evaluate geochemical approaches for quantifying terrestrial organic matter in marine sediments. The biomarkers include: an homologous series of long-chain n-alkanes derived from the surface waxes of higher plants; phenolic and hydroxyalkanoic compounds produced by CuO oxidation of two major vascular plant biopolymers, lignin and cutin. All marine sediments, including samples collected from the most remote sites in Cascadia Basin, showed organic geochemical evidence for the presence of terrestrial organic carbon. Using endmember values for the various biomarkers determined empirically by two independent means, the authors estimate that the terrestrial contribution to the Washington margin is [approximately] 60% for shelf sediments, [approximately] 30% for slope sediments, and decreases further to [le] 15% in basin sediments. Results from the same geochemical measurements made with depth in gravity core 6705-7 from Cascadia Seachannel suggest that this approach to assess terrestrial organic carbon contributions to contemporary deposits on the Washington margin can be applied to the study of sediments depositing in this region since the last glacial period.

  6. All Aboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the notable exception of the UK, European nations have agreed to a unified response to the debt crisis The EU Summit ended on December 9 in Brussels with two surprises:EU leaders agreed on establishing a new "fiscal compact" based on inter-governmental treaties to cure the ongoing debt crisis, and British Prime Minister David Cameron decided to keep the United Kingdom out of that compact.

  7. 9 CFR 166.15 - State status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State status. 166.15 Section 166.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE..., Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. (c) The following States have...

  8. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  10. 75 FR 24844 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Vancouver, Washington, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In 1979, SKATS was defined... emissions from Portland, a major urban area located approximately 40 miles north of Salem (44 FR 20375... considered concurrently in this action. On January 17, 2007, EPA received a request from Ecology to...

  11. The transportation of fine arts materials aboard the space shuttle Columbia. GAS payload No. 481: Vertical horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ellery; Wishnow, Howard

    1988-01-01

    The Vertical Horizons experiment represents an initial investigation into the transportation of fine arts materials aboard a space shuttle. Within the confines of a GAS canister, artist quality fine arts materials were packaged and exposed to the rigors of space flight in an attempt to identify adverse effects.

  12. The pre-history of the University of Washington Astronomy Department: 1891-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Washington (UW) created its first Professor of Astronomy (within the Mathematics Department) in 1891, only two years after Washington itself became a state. Joseph Taylor bought a Warner & Swasey refractor with a 6-inch John Brashear lens, and installed it in a dome in 1895 when the university moved to a new campus outside of downtown Seattle. The small observatory became only the second building on the present campus, and is listed on the State Register of Historical Buildings. Over succeeding decades, Taylor was followed, amongst others, by Samuel Boothroyd (who after nine years left for Cornell in 1921) and for two years by Herman Zanstra (of "Zanstra method" fame). In 1928 Theodor Jacobsen joined the faculty after having obtained his Ph.D. at the University of California (Berkeley) and spending two years as a staff member at Lick Observatory. Jacobsen's research over the years focused on the spectra and motions of variable stars, especially of the Cepheid type. In the 1970s Jacobsen published a paper about secular changes in one particular Cepheid variable still using his own data extending as far back as the 1920s. For 42 years until his retirement, Jacobsen taught courses in astronomy (although there never was an astronomy major and only two graduate degrees were ever awarded), navigation, and a variety of mathematical topics. In the decade following Sputnik and the birth of NASA, UW astronomy ceased to be a one-man effort with the creation of a modern department, founding of a graduate program, and hiring of two new faculty members: George Wallerstein and Paul Hodge came from Berkeley in 1965 and are both still engaged in research 50 years later.

  13. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  14. STS-47 MS Jemison works with FTS equipment in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison injects a fluid into a mannequin's hand during research in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Working at Rack 9, Jemison conducts this Fluid Therapy System (FTS) experiment procedure. FTS will examine the effect of low gravity on the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids in space. Since gravity assists in the delivery and flow of IV fluids on Earth, researchers want to determine what problems the absence of gravity would cause if an IV had to be administrated to an astronaut in space. A new device that converts contaminated water into a sterile solution that can be used in IVs is part of the experiment. MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee is partially visible at lower right.

  15. Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter. Epidemiologic, clinical, and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Lovejoy, F H; Jaeger, R J; Landrigan, P L

    1980-07-11

    Two children and 29 of 31 crew members aboard a grain freighter became acutely ill after inhaling the toxic fumigant phosphine; one child died. Predominant symptoms were headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, cough, and shortness of breath. Abnormal physical findings included jaundice, paresthesias, ataxia, intention tremor, and diplopia. Focal myocardial infiltration with necrosis, pulmonary edema, and widespread small-vessel injury were found at postmortem examination of the dead child. The surviving child showed ECG and echocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury and transient elevation of the MB fraction of serum creatinine phosphokinase. Illness was significantly associated with living or working amidships or on the forward deck areas of the vessel. Phosphine gas was found to have escaped from the holds through a cable housing located near the midships ventilation intake and around hatch covers on the forward deck. The outbreak illustrates the hazards associated with shipboard fumigation.

  16. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This geospatial database for a geologic map of the Cascades Range in Washington state is one of a series of maps that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of lithostratigraphic units. Geologic maps of the Eocene to Holocene Cascade Range in California and Oregon complete the series, providing a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanantion. The complete series will be useful for regional studies of volcanic hazards, volcanology, and tectonics.

  17. Rapid Culture-Independent Microbial Analysis Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive. Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2, which is below NASA in-flight requirements (dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm2). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm2) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm2).

  18. Uncovering Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters with Washington Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Douglas; Cummings, Jeff; Villanova, Sandro; Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Simple Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. Multiple populations (MP) are being found in a growing number of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) via both photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Indeed, it has been suggested that a GC is an object that possesses MP. A definitive investigation of MP in GCs will undoubtedly provide a profound improvement in our understanding of their formation and evolution.However, most studies employ either high resolution VLT spectroscopy, HST photometry or inefficient filters from the ground. A ground-based photometric system which is both efficient and effective would be especially excellent for uncovering MP. We demonstrate that the Washington system meets these goals. The Washington C filter, in addition to being specifically designed for the purpose of detecting MPs, is both much broader and redder than competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction.Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 shows indeed that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB, using relatively little telescope time on only a 1-meter telescope. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. Detailed analysis shows that the MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB. This is the first time MPs in a MS have been discovered from the ground, and just as strikingly, using only a 1-meter telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  19. Addressing confusion in double star nomenclature: the Washington multiplicity catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Hartkopf

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances en la instrumentaci on y la reducci on de datos est an borrando las diferencias hist oricas entre los diversos tipos de estrellas dobles. Un resultado de ello es la creciente confusi on en la nomenclatura, puesto que las convenciones de los distintos observadores son a veces incompatibles. Se presenta el Washington Multiplicity Catalog como una contribuci on al desarrollo de un esquema unico de nomenclatura para todos los tipos de estrellas dobles, y tambi en como una base de datos amplia para toda la informaci on relevante a la duplicidad estelar.

  20. Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air over Washington D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.); Krask, D.J. (District of Columbia Dept. of Consumer, and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, DC (USA). Air Monitoring Section)

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in airborne particulate matter over Washington D.C. have been determined by gamma-ray analysis of air filter samples collected during the months of May, June, and July 1986. The results indicate that long-lived nuclides were present in levels comparable to those measured previously at other eastern locations. Extensive washout of radioactivity occurred apparently as a result of heavy rainfall on May 20, and was followed by the arrival of airborne debris with elevated {sup 103}Ru/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios. (orig.).

  1. Internal Washington power game adds to earmark controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    In the ongoing controversy over congressional earmarks, some new bones of contention have surfaced. Late last month, the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee heard testimony that the dynamics of Washington's so-called “iron triangle” are adding to the inequities that many claim are caused by the earmarking of funds for scientific research.Nonetheless, earmarking remains a legitimate part of the appropriations game, and a practice that many still champion. At the hearing, the president of Boston University, John R. Silber, lauded the “excellence” of projects funded by earmarks.

  2. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Nutrition--1973. Part 1--Consequences of Malnutrition; Part 2--Government Responses. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 5, 6, and 7, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Part One of these hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate includes the testimony of scientists and doctors engaged in research regarding the relationship between maternal, fetal, and infant nutrition and optimum mental and physical development of the child. In testimony it was shown that the…

  3. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 2--Nutritional Needs of Nation's Older Americans. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 14, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This hearing before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with opening statements by a number of senators. Following this, statements were made by a number of witnesses, including Hon. Claude Pepper, a U.S. Representative from the Eleventh District of the State of Florida; Dr. Jean Mayer, professor of nutrition, Harvard…

  4. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 9--Universal School Lunch Program. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., October 13-14, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Testimony was presented at these hearings by the following witnesses: Hubert Humphrey, U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota; Dr. John N. Perryman, executive director, American School Food Service Association; B.P. Taylor, superintendent of Schools, San Diego Independent School District, San Diego, Texas; Dr. Jean Mayer, special consultant to…

  5. The Future Role of the United States Army Reserves in a Catastrophic WMD Attack on the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-18

    Plan (CONPLAN) and the Initial National Response plan (INRP). 4 “Federation of American Scientist , United States Government Interagency Domestic...Federation of American Scientist , United States Government Interagency Domestic Terrorism, Concept of Operations Plan, Washington, DC: January 2001

  6. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  7. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about mercury (Hg) contamination in Lake Whatcom, Washington, were raised in the late 1990s after a watershed protection survey reported elevated concentrations of Hg in smallmouth bass. The U.S. Geological Survey, the Whatcom County Health Department, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) cooperated to develop a study to review existing data and collect new data that would lead to a better understanding of Hg deposition to Lake Whatcom and other lakes in Whatcom County, Washington. A simple atmospheric deposition model was developed that allowed comparisons of the deposition of Hg to the surfaces of each lake. Estimates of Hg deposition derived from the model indicated that the most significant deposition of Hg would have occurred to the lakes north of the City of Bellingham. These lakes were in the primary wind pattern of two municipal waste incinerators. Of all the lakes examined, basin 1 of Lake Whatcom would have been most affected by the Hg emissions from the chlor-alkali plant and the municipal sewage-sludge incinerator in the City of Bellingham. The length-adjusted concentrations of Hg in largemouth and smallmouth bass were not related to estimated deposition rates of Hg to the lakes from local atmospheric sources. Total Hg concentrations in the surface sediments of Lake Whatcom are affected by the sedimentation of fine-grained particles, whereas organic carbon regulates the concentration of methyl-Hg in the surface sediments of the lake. Hg concentrations in dated sediment core samples indicate that increases in Hg sedimentation were largest during the first half of the 20th century. Increases in Hg sedimentation were smaller after the chlor-alkali plant and the incinerators began operating between 1964 and 1984. Analysis of sediments recently deposited in basin 1 of Lake Whatcom, Lake Terrell, and Lake Samish indicates a decrease in Hg sedimentation. Concentrations of Hg in Seattle precipitation and in tributary waters were

  8. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography, and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington. Survey operations were conducted between February 15 and February 19, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-608-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak, each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor during the survey. A total of 126 km of

  9. Distribution and postbreeding environmental relationships of Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, S.S.; Hays, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) are considered sensitive, threatened, or endangered in all western states and western Canadian provinces. Historically present in eastern Washington in 6 major river drainages, leopard frogs are now only known to occur at 2 localized areas in the Crab Creek drainage in Grant County. During the summers of 2002-2005, we surveyed both areas to document extent of leopard frog distributions and to describe habitat and vertebrate community characteristics associated with leopard frog site occupancy. At Gloyd Seeps, 2 juvenile leopard frogs were observed in a total of 8.2 person-days of searching along a 5-km stream reach. At Potholes Reservoir, we surveyed 243 wetland sites in 7 management units known to have been occupied by leopard frogs during the 1980s. We confirmed leopard frog presence at only 87 sites (36%) in 4 management units. Site occupancy models for individual ponds indicated that, compared to unoccupied sites, occupied sites had slightly greater pond depths, less tall emergent vegetation, more herbaceous vegetative cover, and fewer neighboring ponds containing nonnative predatory fish. Models developed at the 1-km2 scale indicated that occupied areas had greater average midsummer pond depths, fewer ponds occupied by bullfrogs (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), and more herbaceous vegetation surrounding ponds. The Gloyd Seeps population now appears defunct, and the Potholes Reservoir population is in sharp decline. Unless management actions are taken to reduce nonnative fish and bullfrogs and to enhance wetland vegetation, leopard frogs may soon be extirpated from both sites and possibly, therefore, from Washington.

  10. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Aluru, N.; Black, R.W.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 ??g/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 ??g/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 ??g/ kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  11. A Symposium Associated with the Opening of the Play Copenhagen in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2002-12-31

    On March 2, 2002 a special all day symposium was held in conjunction with the opening of the play Copenhagen in Washington. The play Copenhagen reenacts the 1941 visit of Werner Heisenberg, who was then in charge of the Nazi nuclear power program, to Niels Bohr, his mentor, and collaborator in creating quantum mechanics, complementarity, and the uncertainty principle, in German-occupied Denmark. The symposium entitled: THE COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION: SCIENCE AND HISTORY ON STAGE was presented at the Baird Auditorium, in the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. The program consisted of three two-hour sessions: (1) The Science of Copenhagen and its Influence of the 20th Century. (2) Bohr and Heisenberg: A strong Interaction. (3) Theater as Science ??? Science as Theater. The speakers included: Robert C. Card, Under Secretary of Energy; Ulrik Federspiel, Danish Ambassador to the US; John Marburger, III, Science Advisor President Bush; Jerome I. Friedman, MIT; Lene Vestergaard Hau, Harvard University; Richard Rhodes, Author; Rita Colwell, Director, NSF; Jeremy Bernstein, Author; Jochen H. Heisenberg, University of New Hampshire; Finn Aaserud, Director of the Niels Bohr Archive; Vilhelm A. Bohr, NIH; Thomas Powers, Author; Paul Lawrence Rose, Penn State University; Steven Barfield, University of Westminster, Jennifer Uphoff Gray, Associate Director, Copenhagen; Elizabeth Ireland McCann, Producer, Copenhagen; Lloyd Rose, Washington Post. Details of he program and useful information on the play Copenhagen are available on the web site http://web.gc.cuny.edu/ashp/nml/artsci/copenhagen.shtml . The complete symposium was video recorded and the set of 3 two-hour tapes can be obtained through the web site. The symposium was organized by Brian Schwartz, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Harry Lustig, Provost Emeritus at the City College of New York and Arthur Molella, Director, Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution. For further information contact Brian

  12. Cogeneration : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, Joyce; Bloomquist, R.Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This guidebook focuses on cogeneration development. It is one of a series of four guidebooks recently prepared to introduce the energy developer to the federal, state and local agencies that regulate energy facilities in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington (the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory). It was prepared specifically to help cogeneration developers obtain the permits, licenses and approvals necessary to construct and operate a cogeneration facility. The regulations, agencies and policies described herein are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever energy or a project becomes a political issue, a state legislature meets, a preexisting popular or valuable land use is thought threatened, elected and appointed officials change, and new directions are imposed on states and local governments by the federal government. Accordingly, cogeneration developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans. Developers are cautioned that the regulations described herein may only be a starting point on the road to obtaining all the necessary permits.

  13. Focus on: Washington Hospital Center, Biomedical Engineering Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J D

    1995-01-01

    The Biomedical Engineering Department of the Washington Hospital Center provides clinical engineering services to an urban 907-bed, tertiary care teaching hospital and a variety of associated healthcare facilities. With an annual budget of over $3,000,000, the 24-person department provides cradle-to-grave support for a host of sophisticated medical devices and imaging systems such as lasers, CT scanners, and linear accelerators as well as traditional patient care instrumentation. Hallmarks of the department include its commitment to customer service and patient care, close collaboration with clinicians and quality assurance teams throughout the hospital system, proactive involvement in all phases of the technology management process, and shared leadership in safety standards with the hospital's risk management group. Through this interactive process, the department has assisted the Center not only in the acquisition of 11,000 active devices with a value of more than $64 million, but also in becoming one of the leading providers of high technology healthcare in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

  14. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Museo Nacional Aeroespacial Washington» (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available The building described in this article was finished last year and ít is located in a privileged area of Washington, near the Capitol and the National Art Gallery. It has a total of 26 exhibition rooms, with a series of galleries, three of which are open and glass-enclosed. The majority of the structure consists of refractory steel and the walls are covered with marble panels. The building has 2 special rooms: a theater-auditorium and a space room; this unique modern building is well-designed, functional and it also offers plastic beauty.El año pasado se terminó el edificio que describe este artículo, situado en un emplazamiento privilegiado, en Washington, cerca del Capitolio y de la Galería Nacional de Arte. Tiene un total de 26 salas de exposiciones con una serie de galerías, tres de las cuales son abiertas y acristaladas. La estructura se ha realizado, en su mayor parte, a base de acero refractario, y las paredes están recubiertas con paneles de mármol. Dispone de dos salas especiales: teatro-auditorio y espaciarlo, constituyendo un moderno edificio de rasgos singulares, resuelto con acierto, funcionalidad y belleza plástica.

  16. Bibliography of groundwater resources of the glacial aquifer systems in Washington, Idaho, and northwestern Montana, 1905-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Futornick, Zoe O.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program is undertaking a series of regional groundwater availability studies to improve our understanding of groundwater availability in major aquifers across the Nation. One of the objectives of the Glacial Principal Aquifers study (proposed) is to provide information on the occurrence of groundwater in glacial aquifers in the United States, an area that includes parts of the northern continental States and much of Alaska. Toward this effort, a literature search was conducted to identify readily available documents that describe the occurrence of groundwater in glacial aquifers in the United States. This bibliography provides citations for documents, as well as codes indicating types of information available in each, for Washington, Idaho, and northwestern Montana—an area corresponding approximately to the southern extent of the Cordilleran ice sheet.

  17. Bottle profile data collected aboard the USCGC SENECA in the Atlantic Ocean from 2 April 1915 to 20 May 1915 (NODC Accession 9700096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 9700096 contains temperature and salinity profile data from bottle casts collected aboard the USCGC Seneca in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and...

  18. Physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1502 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2015-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145830)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145830 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1502 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2015-02-18. These data...

  19. Meteorological and navigational data collected aboard NOAA Ship Rainier in Yaquina Bay from 2014-11-21 to 2014-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0138154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138154 contains raw meteorological and navigational data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA Ship Rainier in Yaquina Bay near...

  20. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1215 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2012-11-03 (NCEI Accession 0129829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129829 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1215 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2012-11-03....