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Sample records for abnormally high values

  1. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Goharzad, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated. As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma. Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia.

  2. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Goharzad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated.Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma.Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia

  3. Interpretation of Spirometry: Selection of Predicted Values and Defining Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S K

    2015-01-01

    Spirometry is the most frequently performed investigation to evaluate pulmonary function. It provides clinically useful information on the mechanical properties of the lung and the thoracic cage and aids in taking management-related decisions in a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. Few measurements in medicine are so dependent on factors related to equipment, operator and the patient. Good spirometry requires quality assured measurements and a systematic approach to interpretation. Standard guidelines on the technical aspects of equipment and their calibration as well as the test procedure have been developed and revised from time-to-time. Strict compliance with standardisation guidelines ensures quality control. Interpretation of spirometry data is based only on two basic measurements--the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and their ratio, FEV1/FVC. A meaningful and clinically useful interpretation of the measured data requires a systematic approach and consideration of several important issues. Central to interpretation is the understanding of the development and application of prediction equations. Selection of prediction equations that are appropriate for the ethnic origin of the patient is vital to avoid erroneous interpretation. Defining abnormal values is a debatable but critical aspect of spirometry. A statistically valid definition of the lower limits of normal has been advocated as the better method over the more commonly used approach of defining abnormality as a fixed percentage of the predicted value. Spirometry rarely provides a specific diagnosis. Examination of the flow-volume curve and the measured data provides information to define patterns of ventilatory impairment. Spirometry must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical information including results of other investigations.

  4. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  5. The value of emission computer tomography (ECT) for chronic abnormalities of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.; Geiger, A.; Feine, U.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with chronic abnormalities of the knee were examined by 3-phase scintigraphy and ECT. The unobscured images produced by ECT provide additional information for evaluating the localisation, extent and activity of the lesions. The diagnosis of meniscus abnormalities in particular revealed pathognomonic patterns. The indications and value of ECT was compared with other diagnostic measures and particularly with invasive techniques (arthroscopy and arthrotomy). (orig.) [de

  6. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  7. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J.; Bruine, F.T. de; Wezel-Meijler, G. van

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  8. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  9. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    and internal waves may cause zooplankton abundance. Average biomass values in high sea surface temperature areas were higher (0.30 ml.m/3) than at the other stations (0.07 ml.m/3). Crustacean eggs, fish eggs and mysids clustered in pockets of abnormally high...

  10. Diagnostic value of 67Ga scintigraphy in hilar and/or mediastinal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Chikashi

    1980-01-01

    Differential diagnostic value of 67 Ga scintigraphy was evaluated on 45 lung cancers, 40 malignant lymphomas, 23 mediastinal tumors, 36 sarcoidosis and 21 other mass lesions all which showed hilar and/or mediastinal abnormalities on chest x-ray films. 1) The positive rate for cases excluding mediastinal tumors other than thymoma was high and ranged from 88 to 100%. Thymomas were the mediastinal tumors showing 67 Ga accumulation. 2) The distribution of 67 Ga accumulation to the focus was evaluated in pulmonary diseases. Lung cancers showed the solitary and unilateral accumulation related to the lymphatic flow of the primary site. Distribution of the 67 Ga uptake was irregular and varied in malignant lymphomas, while in sarcoidosis they were regular in the regions extending from hila to paratracheal lymphnodes. There was also noted a high positive rate of 76% in subcarinal group. The accumulation pattern in mediastinal tumors conformed to the x-ray findings. 3) From these results it was considered to be possible to categorize the distribution patterns of hilar and/or mediastinal 67 Ga accumulation according to the diseases. They were in the first place divided into 7 patterns of A sub(I), A sub(II), B sub(I), B sub(II), C, D and E. Lung cancer, mediastinal tumors and several malignant lymphomas showed solitary and unilateral A sub(I) and B sub(I) types, while sarcoidosis showed predominantly B sub(II), C and D types, particulary C types. In cases which had hilar and/or mediastinal abnormalities on chest x-rays, the lack of 67 Ga uptake indicates the possibility of mediastinal tumor other than thymoma. If there is an accumulation of 67 Ga, its differential diagnosis is possible by recognizing the distribution pattern. (author)

  11. Echocardiographic Wall Motion Abnormality in Posterior Myocardial Infarction: The Diagnostic Value of Posterior Leads

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    A Darehzereshki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the purpose of ascertaining myocardial infarction (MI and ischemia, the sensitivity of the initial 12-lead ECG is inadequate. It is risky to diagnose posterior MI using only precordial reciprocal changes, since the other leads may be more optimally positioned for the identification of electrocardiographic changes. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between electrocardiography changes and wall motion abnormalities in patients with posterior MI for earlier and better diagnosis of posterior MI.Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled patients with posterior MI who had come to the Emergency Department of Shariati Hospital with their first episode of chest pain. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram using posterior leads (V7-V9 was performed for all participants. Patients with ST elevation >0.05 mV or pathologic Q wave in the posterior leads, as well as those with specific changes indicating posterior MI in V1-V2, were evaluated by echocardiography in terms of wall motion abnormalities. All data were analyzed using SPSS and p<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Of a total 79 patients enrolled, 48 (60.8% were men, and the mean age was 57.35±8.22 years. Smoking (54.4% and diabetes (48% were the most prevalent risk factors. In the echocardiographic evaluation, all patients had wall motion abnormalities in the left ventricle and 19 patients (24.1% had wall motion abnormalities in the right ventricle. The most frequent segment with motion abnormality among the all patients was the mid-posterior. The posterior leads showed better positive predictive value than the anterior leads for posterior wall motion abnormality.Conclusion: Electrocardiography of the posterior leads in patients with acute chest pain can help in earlier diagnosis and in time treatment of posterior MI.

  12. Specificity of cooperative efficiency evaluation according to abnormal cooperative additional value (ACAV measure

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    Dominika Mierzwa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to evaluate the efficiency of dairy cooperatives the author applied Abnormal Cooperative Additional Value (ACAV measure, according to Pietrzak [2006]. The measure constructed in that way integrates profits of cooperative companies with a procurement price (which includes potential benefit to the farmer. Comparing economic evaluation of dairy cooperatives based on economic profit and on ACAV, considerable differences were proved in the evaluation of economic results of cooperative entities.

  13. A novel scoring system to measure radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in cured pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Renata Báez-Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. RESULTS: The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67-0.95 and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65-0.92, for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71-0.95, and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58-0.90. The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04; -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50; and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05; -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97 respectively, in the patients studied. CONCLUSION: The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values

  14. The value of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles in the diagnosis of diffused lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tieyi; Ji Jingling

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles in the differential diagnosis of the diffuse lung disease, seventy-two patients with diffuse lung diseases were evaluated, 15 of 72 patients were pathologically proven and the others clinically proven. Of these 72 patients, there were 33 patients with diffuse pulmonary interstitial disease, 5 patients with pulmonary parenchymal disease, 14 patients with bronchial disease, and 20 patients with disseminated disease. All patients had conventional CT scan of the chest, some also had HRCT scan. All CT images were jointly reviewed by two radiologists. The features of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles included: (1) Thinning of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in diffuse interstitial disease of lung and chronic bronchitis; (2) thickening of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in interstitial diseases and disseminated lung diseases such as sarcoidosis and lymphangitis carcinomatosis with beaded appearance of bronchovascular bundles; (3) Increased visibility of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in bronchiolitis and disseminated lung diseases. CT features of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles are present in 80% of diffuse lung diseases. The features are not specific, but the beaded bronchovascular bundles are always seen in sarcoidosis and lymphangitis carcinomatosis. In making a distinction between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic bronchitis complicated with interstitial fibrosis, the position of diaphragm is of value in differential diagnosis, normal or elevated diaphragm is usually seen in the former, while low and flattened diaphragm in the latter. Change of the appearance of bronchovascular bundles from normality to abnormality reflects the process of development of the lung disease

  15. Abnormalities of Quantitative Electroencephalography in Children with Asperger Disorder Using Spectrogram andCoherence Values

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    Hamid Behnam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective:To obtain abnormalities in quantitative Electroencephalography QEEG and to observe connectivity between electrodes in children with Asperger disorder. "n  "n  "nMethod: "nIn this study, spectrogram criteria and coherence values are used as a tool for evaluating QEEG in 15 children with Asperger disorder (10 boys and 5 girls aged between 6 to 11 years old and in 11 control children boys and 4 girls with the same age range. "n  "n  "nResults: "nThe evaluation of QEEG using statistical analysis and spectrogram criteria demonstrates that the relaxed eye-opened condition in gamma frequency band (34-44Hz has the best distinction level of 96.2% using spectrogram. The children with Asperger disorder had significant lower spectrogram criteria values (p<0.01 at Fp1 electrode and lower values (p<0.05 at Fp2 and T6 electrodes. Coherence values at 171 pairs EEG electrodes indicate that the connectivity at (T4, P4, (T4, Cz, (T4, C4 electrode pairs and (T4, O1 had significant differences (p<0.01 in the two groups in the gamma band. "n  "n  "nConclusions: "nIt is shown that gamma frequency band can discriminate 96.2% of the two groups using the spectrogram criteria. The results demonstrate that there are more abnormalities in the prefrontal and right temporal lobes using spectrogram criteria and there are more abnormalities "nthe connectivity of right temporal lobe with the other lobes in the gamma "nfrequency band.

  16. Capital structure and value firm: an empirical analysis of abnormal returns

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    Faris Nasif AL-SHUBIRI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether capital structure is value relevant for the equity investor. In this sense, the paper links empirical corporate finance issues with investment analysis. This study also integrates the Miller-Modigliani (MM framework (1958 into an investment approach by estimating abnormal returns on leverage portfolios in the time-series for different risk classes. For most risk classes, abnormal returns decline in firm leverage. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regressions are used to test the hold indicator significance. The results reflect that the designed measures are the negative relationship between returns and leverage could also be due to the market’s pricing of the firm’s ability to raise funds if need be. Further avenues for research in this area include examining the stock return performance of companies based on the changes in leverage of the firms relative to their risk classes. It would be particularly noteworthy to examine the rate at which the information content of said changes is incorporated in the share prices of companies as well as in their long run returns This study encompasses all non-financial firms across the five sectors that cover all the various classes of risk. This study investigates neither the determinants of multiple capital structure choices nor changes in capital structures over time. Our main goal is to explore the effect of capital structure on cumulative abnormal returns. This study also examine a firm’s cumulative average abnormal returns by measuring leverage at the firm level and at the average level for the firm’s industry. And also examine other factors, such as size, price earnings, market-to-book and betas.

  17. Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of abnormally expressed lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Yin, Chang-Qing; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may have the potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. Eligible literatures were systematically collected from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (up to December 30, 2015). The main outcomes including overall survival, relapse-free survival, and disease-free survival were analyzed. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. A total of 2,991 patients with HCC in People's Republic of China from 27 studies were included in the analysis. The level of lncRNAs showed a significant association with clinical outcomes. Abnormally elevated lncRNA transcription level predicted poor overall survival (HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20-2.34, P=0.002; I (2)=75.5%, P=0.000) and relapse-free survival (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.65-2.61, Panalysis further showed that lncRNA transcription level was significantly associated with tumor size (relative risk [RR]: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39, P=0.035), microvascular invasion (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.89, P=0.009), and portal vein tumor thrombus (RR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.20, P=0.036). Publication bias and sensitivity analysis further confirmed the stability of our results. Our present meta-analysis indicates that abnormal lncRNA transcription level may serve as a promising indicator for prognostic evaluation of patients with HCC in People's Republic of China.

  18. Added value of fetal MRI in fetuses with suspected brain abnormalities on neurosonography : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Martine; Oude Rengerink, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375367292; Newsum, Esther A; Reneman, Liesbeth; Majoie, Charles B; Pajkrt, Eva

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the additional diagnostic value of fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in fetuses with suspected brain abnormalities identified with advanced neurosonography (NS). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed for studies reporting on a comparison between diagnosis

  19. Value of endometrial thickness measurement for diagnosing focal intrauterine pathology in women without abnormal uterine bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, E; Sorensen, S Stampe; Ibsen, P H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of transvaginal sonographic (TVS) measurement of endometrial thickness for diagnosing focal intrauterine pathology in women without abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). METHODS: A random selection from the Danish Civil Registration System was made: 1660 women...... aged 20-74 years were invited to participate and 686 women were eligible and accepted inclusion (429 pre- and 257 postmenopausal). The women underwent TVS measurement of endometrial thickness and saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH). Hysteroscopic resection with histopathology (gold standard...... modulators (n = 2). Thus, 375 women without AUB were included (217 pre- and 158 postmenopausal). Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves for endometrial thickness and focal lesion were analyzed. RESULTS: Focal intrauterine pathology was confirmed in 41 women (35 with polyps, five with submucosal...

  20. Practical value of intravenous urography combined with add-on CT in diagnosing ureteral abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-yun; Hu, Chun-hong; Fang, Xiang-ming; Yao, Xuan-jun; Lerner, Alexander; Chen, Hong-wei; Zhu, Zhong-ming

    2012-04-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) combined with add-on CT (IVU-CT) can help to provide more diagnostic information for determining the localization and nature of ureteral abnormalities with less irradiation dose. This study aimed to determine the value of IVU-CT for diagnosis of ureteral diseases, where IVU is insufficient to determine the diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty patients underwent IVU for suspected ureteral disorders, which identified a definite diagnosis in 184 cases and was insufficient for definite diagnosis in 96 cases designated as indeterminate diagnosis. Subsequently 90 patients (six patients declined CT) with indeterminate diagnosis consented to undergo immediate or delayed helical CT scan. The CT data were transferred to the workstation for post-processing, and the cost and mean effective dose for each imaging method were calculated and compared indirectly. Of the 90 indeterminate diagnosis cases, diagnosis was determined in 86 cases by IVU-CT with a diagnostic accordance rate of 95.6%, while 184/280 (65.7%) had diagnosis determined by IVU alone. There was a significant difference between IVU and IVU-CT in the determination of the diagnosis of ureteral diseases (c(2) = 36.4, P IVU equals to 1/8 - 1/9 of that for CT urography (CTU), and the cost of IVU-CT is as much as 1/3 of CTU. CTU results in the highest mean effective dose, approximately nine times that for IVU and three times that for IVU-CT. IVU-CT provides valuable information for the localization and diagnosis of ureteral abnormalities and may be considered as an efficient, cost-effective and low-dose diagnostic technique in this setting.

  1. The value of MR perfusion weighted imaging in normal and abnormal kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hao; Ding Hongyu; Duan Ruiping; Sun Yongping; Xing Yiyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and the clinical application of MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the normal kidneys and the renal diseases. Methods: Thirty-one subjects including 9 cases without urinary diseases, 14 cases with renal carcinoma, 6 cases with renal cyst and 2 cases with renal tuberculosis who had been examined with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and PWI were analyzed retrospectively. All the data were processed by a workstation to obtain time-signal intensity curves, color perfusion maps and relative perfusion value. The relative renal blood volume (RBV), relative renal blood flow (RBF), mean transition time (MTY) and the time to peak (TTP) in the normal renal cortex and medulla and the renal lesions were calculated. Comparisons between the right and the left normal kidneys, and between the cortex and the medulla of the normal kidneys were performed using t test, and comparisons between the normal and the abnormal kidneys were performed using q test. Results: Relative RBV and relative RBF of the cortex were 1.33±0.08 and 1.44±0.09 respectively, and for medulla were 0.58± 0.05 and 0.78±0.13 respectively (t=9.2241 and 5.0336, P 0.05). The values of relative RBF of the renal carcinoma (1.35±0.34) were significantly higher than that of the normal tissues (1.02±0.06) (q=3.0882, P< 0.01). Conclusion: PWI is able to demonstrate the hemodynamic change of the normal renal tissues and the renal lesions, and it maybe an ideal method for showing the functional changes of the kidney and for differentiating the renal diseases. (authors)

  2. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of HFD-induced obese rats revealed fat droplets in acinar cells, but these alterations were ... Conclusion: RBE consumption may attenuate pancreatic abnormalities by inhibiting fat accumulation, as well as enhancing ..... bran, its soluble and fiber fractions on blood glucose levels and serum lipid ...

  3. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  4. Added value of fetal MRI in fetuses with suspected brain abnormalities on neurosonography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Martine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Newsum, Esther A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Majoie, Charles B.; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the additional diagnostic value of fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in fetuses with suspected brain abnormalities identified with advanced neurosonography (NS). A systematic literature search was performed for studies reporting on a comparison between diagnosis with NS and MRI, in

  5. Prognostic Value of Labyrinthine 3D-FLAIR Abnormalities in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J I; Yoon, R G; Lee, J H; Park, J W; Yoo, M H; Ahn, J H; Chung, J W; Park, H J

    2016-12-01

    According to recent research, modern MR imaging can detect the presense of abnormalities on labyrinthine. Our aim was to report the patterns and prognostic role of abnormal findings on labyrinthine imaging in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. This study comprised 113 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and underwent 3T MR imaging, including pre-/postcontrast 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted imaging. We analyzed abnormalities on MR imaging and correlated them with audiometric results. Thirty-one (27%) patients showed abnormal findings on labyrinthine MR imaging in the affected ear. The initial/final hearing levels of the MRI+ group (91 ± 25/73 ± 27 dB hearing loss) were significantly worse than those of the MRI- group (69 ± 30/48 ± 24 dB hearing loss). The incidence of abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging was significantly lower (3 of 40, 8%) in 40 patients with initial mild-to-moderate hearing loss than in those with profound hearing loss (16 of 34, 47%). Considering hearing improvement by the Siegel criteria, the rate of complete or partial recovery was significantly higher in the MRI- group (34%) than in the MRI+ group (10%). In patients with initial severe or profound hearing loss, the MRI- group showed greater hearing improvement (38 ± 21 dB) than the MRI+ group (23 ± 22 dB). Abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging were found in 27% of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The initial hearing loss was worse in the MRI+ group than in the MRI- group. In patients with initial severe and profound hearing loss, the presence of abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging indicated a poor prognosis. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Clinical values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwan Seo [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Jong-Lyel, E-mail: rohjl@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine

  7. Perceptual abnormalities in clinical high risk youth and the role of trauma, cannabis use and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Marshall, Catherine; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2017-12-01

    Recent research suggests that perceptual abnormalities are a group of diverse experiences, which have been associated with trauma, cannabis use, and anxiety. Of the attenuated psychotic symptoms that are present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, perceptual abnormalities tend to be one of the most frequently endorsed symptoms. However, very few studies have explored perceptual abnormalities and their relationships with the above environmental and affective factors in a CHR sample. Four hundred and forty-one CHR individuals who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS) determined by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) were assessed on the content of their perceptual abnormalities, early traumatic experience, cannabis use and self-reported anxiety. Logistic regression analyses suggested that both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities were more likely to be reported by CHR who had early traumatic experiences, who are current cannabis users, and who have higher levels of anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only trauma and anxiety were independent predictors of both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities. It is possible that examining subtypes of perceptual abnormalities in CHR leads to an improved understanding of the prevalence of such symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormalities in pulmonary function in infants with high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygl, Michal; Rounova, Petra; Sulc, Jan; Slaby, Krystof; Stranak, Zbynek; Pycha, Karel; Svobodova, Tamara; Pohunek, Petr; Skaba, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression. Gore-Tex patch was used in 13% of patients (GORE group). Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed and managed in 13% (iNO group). Standard protocols and appropriate reference values were used and obtained data were statistically analysed. High incidence of peripheral airway obstruction (70%), increased value of functional residual capacity (FRCp) 191.3±24.5 mL (126.5±36.9 % predicted; P GORE group (165.7±51.9 versus 120.4±31.2, P Gore-Tex patch, pulmonary hypertension) correlate with more severe alteration of pulmonary function in infants.

  9. Predictive value of increased nuchal translucency as a screening test for the detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexioy, Eleni; Alexioy, Eleni; Trakakis, Eftihios; Kassanos, Demetrios; Farmakidis, George; Kondylios, Antonios; Laggas, Demetrios; Salamalekis, Emmanuel; Florentin, Lia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Basios, George; Trompoukis, Pantelis; Georgiadoy, Lina; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2009-10-01

    The study aimed to estimate the incidence of increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester ultrasound scan results (cut-off limit 2.5 mm) and to evaluate the predictive value of increased nuchal translucency as a screening test for the detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. We used the ultrasound scan results of nuchal translucency evaluation and the results of chromosomal analysis of the invasive prenatal control performed as a result of increased nuchal translucency. We collected 2183 nuchal translucency ultrasound scans in which we detected 21 embryos with a pathologic value (0.96%). We collected the data of 168 cases of invasive prenatal control due to increased nuchal translucency from which 122 cases were found. A total of 122 cases of pregnant women undergone an invasive prenatal diagnostic method due to increased nuchal translucency, of which 11 fetuses were found with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) (9%), 3 fetuses with trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) (2.45%), 3 fetuses with monosomy 45XO (Turner syndrome) (2.45%) and 1 fetus with translocation (0.8%). The positive predictive value of the increased fetal nuchal translucency as a screening test for the detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities based on the results of the chromosomal-genetic analysis of the invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures is 14.8%.

  10. Are Extensive Audits 'Good News'? Market Perceptions of Abnormal Audit Fees and Fair Value Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Mohrmann; Jan Riepe; Ulrike Stefani

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of auditing is to increase the reliability of financial statements, surprisingly little is known about addressees’ perceptions of the auditor-client relationship. Using a sample of more than 1,000 U.S. bank-years from 2008 to 2011, we analyze the economic consequences of the joint announcement of audit fees and the level breakdown of fair value assets. We confirm prior findings that audit fees are higher for banks with larger proportions of Level 3 fair values. Moreover, we ...

  11. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...... lymphocyte count, T-helper (CD4) and T-cytotoxic/suppressor (CD8) counts, and lymphocyte transformation responses to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and to antigenic extracts from Candida albicans and cytomegalovirus. 24 individuals developed HIV-related symptoms or AIDS (11...... cases). All parameters except the CD8 count were of prognostic value, but a multivariate analysis of symptom-free survival showed that HIV antigenemia, a CD4 count less than 0.5 x 10(9)/l, and relative response to PWM below 25% of controls contained all the prognostic information. Individuals abnormal...

  12. Microalgae biorefinery: High value products perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kit Wayne; Yap, Jing Ying; Show, Pau Loke; Suan, Ng Hui; Juan, Joon Ching; Ling, Tau Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries. To promote the sustainability of this process, an innovative microalgae biorefinery structure is implemented through the production of multiple products in the form of high value products and biofuel. This review presents the current challenges in the extraction of high value products from microalgae and its integration in the biorefinery. The economic potential assessment of microalgae biorefinery was evaluated to highlight the feasibility of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  14. Diagnostic Value of Endometrial Sampling with Pipelle Suction Curettage for Identifying Endometrial Lesions in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Behnamfar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While determining the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding, sampling from the endometrium is necessary. Considering that pipelle suction curettage can be performed on an out patient basis and does not require hospitalization, using anesthesia and cervical dilatation, we performed this study. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of dilatation and curettage (D&C with pipelle suction curettage. Methods: This study was quasiexperimental on 200 pre and postmenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding who refered to Shabihkhani hospital in Kashan, Iran. Endometrial sampling was performed in all patients with two methods namely pipelle and D&C. A pathologist examined the samples each having a predetermined code. Results: The mean age of subjects was 46.2 ±6.2 years, minimum age was 35 years and the maximum was 70 years. The various pathological lab findings were proliferative endometrium, secretory endometrium, athrophic, decidua, cystic and adenomatous hyperplasia. The reports were the same in two methods except for 2 cases where they were different: secretory endometrium with D&C but cystic hyperplasia in pipelle method. Conclusions: The result of our study shows the comparability of obtaining endometrial sample by pipelle with D&C. Due to comfort and convenience of patients in pipelle methode especially in the office setting which does not need anesthesia, pipelle method can easily be employed instead of D&C. Keywords: Pipelle Suction Curette, Dilatation and Curettage, Premenopause, Postmenopause.

  15. High-value products from transgenic maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shaista; Ramessar, Koreen; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches and oils. Maize is now at the beginning of a new agricultural revolution, where the grains are used as factories to synthesize high-value molecules. In this article we look at the diversity of high-value products from maize, recent technological advances in the field and the emerging regulatory framework that governs how transgenic maize plants and their products are grown, used and traded. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  17. [Feasibility and diagnostic value of hysterosonography performed in bleeding time in the exploration of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, A; Ayachi, A; Ben Khedija, M; Menjli, S; Mkaouar, L; Mourali, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and diagnostic value of hysterosonography performed in an emergency setting among patients consulting for active abnormal uterine bleeding. In this prospective study, we included 216 patients visiting our emergency department for abnormal uterine bleeding. All patients had a transvaginal ultrasound with doppler study and an hysterosonography. Secondly, the patients, in whom we diagnosed a suspected organic lesion, were addressed to an endoscopic or surgical procedure with pathological examination. Initially, we evaluated the feasibility and the safety of hysterosonography and secondly, we compared the two techniques (EEV and hysterosonography), sensitivity, specificity, LHR+and LHR-. The hysterosonography was performed in 98.1 % of patients and its realization has resulted in an additional period of 1.2minutes on average (extreme: 6-12) compared to ultrasound. The tolerance of the hysterosonographic examination was very good in 73.5 % of patients and good in 23.1 % of them. For the 167 patients who had been diagnosed with presumed organic lesions, pathological examination found an endometrial hyperplasia in 34.7 % of cases, polyps in 40.1 % of cases, sub-mucosal fibroids in 11.3 % of cases, endometrial cancer in 0.7 % of cases and other lesions in 13.2 % of cases. The diagnostic value of hysterosonography was superior to ultrasound in the detection of polyps (AUC: 0.894 vs 0.778, P=0.003) and fibromas (AUC: 1.000 vs 0.716, P=0.001) while the two methods showed no significant difference in the detection of hyperplasia. The purpose of our study was to focus on a particular context of use of the hysterosonography consisting on hemorrhagic period and on its realization in the emergency room. We were able to demonstrate that hysterosonography is compatible with the emergency situation as to its feasibility and its diagnostic value and that its realization would contribute to the sorting of patients

  18. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Single abnormal value on 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, Jared T; Sanchez-Ramos, Luis; Jijon-Knupp, Rubymel; Kaunitz, Andrew M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women with 1 abnormal value on 3-hour 100-g oral glucose tolerance test are at an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gestational diabetes mellitus is diagnosed by a 2-step method, with a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test that is reserved for women with an abnormal 1-hour, 50-g glucose challenge test. Although the increased maternal-fetal morbidity with gestational diabetes mellitus is well established, controversy remains about the risk that is associated with an isolated abnormal value during a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test. Prospective and retrospective studies that evaluated the maternal and perinatal impact of 1 abnormal glucose value during a 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test were identified with the use of computerized databases. Data were extracted and quantitative analyses were performed. Twenty-five studies (7 prospective and 18 retrospective) that met criteria for metaanalysis included 4466 women with 1 abnormal glucose value on oral glucose tolerance test. Patients with 1 abnormal glucose value had significantly worse pregnancy outcomes compared with women with zero abnormal values with the following pooled odds ratios: macrosomia, 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.19); large for gestational age, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.76); increased mean birthweight, 44.5 g (95% confidence interval, 8.10-80.80 g); neonatal hypoglycemia, 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.38); total cesarean delivery, 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.05); pregnancy-induced hypertension, 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.83), and Apgar score of test (normal glucose screen). With the exception of birthweight, outcomes of patients with 1 abnormal glucose value were similar to outcomes of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. Women with 1 abnormal value on 3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test have a significantly increased risk for poor outcomes comparable

  20. Ethics and high-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew; Tilburt, Jon C

    2017-05-01

    High-value care (HVC) is en vogue, but the ethics of physicians' roles in the growing number of HVC recommendations demands further attention. In this brief report, we argue that, from the standpoint of individual physicians' primary commitments and duties to individual patients, not all HVC is ethically equal. Our analysis suggests that the ethical case for HVC may be both stronger and weaker than is ordinarily supposed. In some cases, HVC is not merely a 'good thing to do' but is actually ethically obligatory. In others, it is merely permissible-or even ethically suspect. More importantly, we suggest further that understanding HVC as ethically 'obligatory, permissible, or suspect' has implications for the design and implementation of strategies that promote HVC. For example, it questions the use of adherence to certain HVC recommendations as a physician performance metric, which may already be occurring in some contexts. Properly construed, ethics does not threaten HVC but can instead help shape HVC in ways that preserve the fundamental values of the medical profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics and prediction of morbidity in cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algebally, Ahmed M; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients' files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97-100% and 94-100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient's morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI.

  2. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  3. Principles for high-quality, high-value testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael; Fell, Greg; Wright, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A survey of doctors working in two large NHS hospitals identified over 120 laboratory tests, imaging investigations and investigational procedures that they considered not to be overused. A common suggestion in this survey was that more training was required. And, this prompted the development of a list of core principles for high-quality, high-value testing. The list can be used as a framework for training and as a reference source. The core principles are: (1) Base testing practices on the best available evidence. (2) Apply the evidence on test performance with careful judgement. (3) Test efficiently. (4) Consider the value (and affordability) of a test before requesting it. (5) Be aware of the downsides and drivers of overdiagnosis. (6) Confront uncertainties. (7) Be patient-centred in your approach. (8) Consider ethical issues. (9) Be aware of normal cognitive limitations and biases when testing. (10) Follow the 'knowledge journey' when teaching and learning these core principles.

  4. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  5. High Frequency of Neuroimaging Abnormalities Among Pediatric Patients With Sepsis Who Undergo Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Mary K; Clee, Mark S; Patel, Smruti K; Howard, Kelli A; Yunger, Toni; Nagaraj, Usha D; Jones, Blaise V; Fei, Lin; Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Wong, Hector R

    2017-07-01

    = 0.016) and oncologic diagnosis/organ transplantation (odds ratio, 2.207; p = 0.001) and was negatively associated with early timing of neuroimaging (odds ratio, 0.575; p = 0.037). The majority of pediatric patients with sepsis and concurrent or subsequent neuroimaging have abnormal neuroimaging findings. The implications of this high incidence for long-term neurologic outcomes and follow-up require further exploration.

  6. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  7. The epidemiology of abnormal hemoglobins in Mediterranean high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Imed; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Bibi, Amina; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Koubaa, Donia; Mankai, Rafik; Bartagi, Zakia; Le Gallais, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of hemoglobin (Hb) defects in a Mediterranean high-level (HL) athlete population. Five hundred and ninety-four HL male and female athletes were recruited during the annual follow-up of the members of Tunisian national teams. Hematological data, Hb electrophoresis, and DNA analysis were assessed using conventional techniques. Sporting discipline, type of sport, and performance levels were assessed using a questionnaire. The results showed that 32 HL athletes had abnormal Hb (5.4%): beta-thalassemia (2.2%), alpha-thalassemia (0.5%), HbAS (1.5%), HbAC (0.5%), and rare Hb variants (0.7%). Of the 32 defect carriers, all but one (a alpha-thalassemia) were heterozygous. All the detected hemoglobinopathies but one (an Hb Hope) had already been reported in the country. The prevalence of Hb defect in the HL athletes was similar to that described in the general Tunisian population (P > 0.05). The percentage of Hb defect in the athletes was not dependent on gender, or performance level (P > 0.05). Within each type of sport the percentages of athletes with normal and abnormal Hb were similar (P > 0.05). The hematological data revealed the diversity of anemia, microcytosis, and hypochromia in thalassemic HL athletes. We concluded that HL athletes in Tunisia were a representative sample of the general Tunisian population regarding the prevalence and nature of benign abnormal Hb. The hematological data of the thalassemia carriers exhibited high variability and raised the question of genetic and sporting counseling, as well as biological follow-up for these carriers.

  8. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  9. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ANALISIS ABNORMAL RETURN SAHAMSEBELUM DAN SESUDAH PENGUMUMAN PERATURAN LOAN TO VALUE KPR(Studi Pada Perusahaan Properti Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suharyanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the abnormal stock return of property companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange as a result of the announcement of Bank Indonesia on  the  restriction  of  the  maximum  Loan  to  Value  (LTV  of  the  mortgage loans.  This  study  uses  event  study,  which  observed  the  average  abnormal return over the 10 days prior to the announcement up to 10 days thereafter. The  results  showed  that  there  was  no  signifi cant  difference  between  the abnormal  returns  before  and  after  the  announcement.  However,  there  is  an increase  in  the  number  of  days  that  experienced  abnormal  returns,  ie  2 (two  days  in  the  period before the announcement of a 5 (fi ve days in the period thereafter. While at the moment of announcement there is no abnormal return. This suggests that the effect of the  announcement  was  not  immediately responded by the market, but there is a lag time for the market to react. These conditions may be caused investors do not have the experience to identify and measure the impact of LTV mortgage regulation. Signifi cant  abnormal  return occurs also varies, which is experiencing abnormal gain 3 days and 4 days of having abnormal loss, which shows the confusion in the market so it happened a few times stock price correction. Another possibility for the market considers these policies also have a positive side. Properties company performance may be declining, but the industry would likely have a positive impact in the long run because it will reduce the risk of price bubbles. Keyword : Abnormal Return, Event Study, Mortgage Loan, Loan to Value.

  11. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  13. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W

    2018-05-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  15. [A case of abnormal hemoglobin (HbJ Cape Town) with high serum levels of HbAlc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, T; Nakamura, T; Tsutsumi, H; Miyao, M; Inoue, J; Araki, A; Hattori, A; Harano, A; Mori, M; Ito, H

    1996-02-01

    We describe a case of hemoglobinopathy detected on admission for examination for high blood glucose levels and abnormal liver function. In 1991, it was pointed out that he had postprandial hyperglycemia. In 1994, at age 60, he had lassitude and anorexia. He was admitted to our hospital on the suspicion of diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels was very high, but the 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test result was within the normal range. After abstinence from alcohol, his glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and gamma glutamyl traspeptidase became normal. Diabetes was excluded and abnormal hemoglobinopathy had been suspected. We analyzed his abnormal hemoglobin. In isoelectro-phoresis a fast moving variant was detected suggesting the presence of abnormal hemoglobin at the cathode. We fractionated hemolytic globin by CM-chromatography and detected an abnormal peak before the alpha chain band. Subsequently, we sequenced isolated abnormal alpha chain and detected the substitution of Ariginine for Glutamamine at position 92 (Hb J Cape Town). So far he has not demonstrated any symptoms or signs of HbJ Cape Town. Hemoglobinopathy is not uncommon in aged people.

  16. Value of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis versus Additional Views for the Assessment of Screen-Detected Abnormalities - a First Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia; Jaensch, Alexander; Hacker, Astrid; Wulz-Horber, Sabina; Mertelmeier, Thomas; Hölzel, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to countercheck the equivalence of single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) or DBT with additional views (DBT+AV) compared to traditional standard assessment by additional views (AV) in patients with a screen-detected abnormality. Patients with a screen-detected abnormality were consecutively invited to obtain 1 single-view wide-angle DBT in addition to the indicated AV. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This study is based on 311 lesions in 285 patients with a follow-up of > 2 years and/or biopsy. Counting BI-RADS 0 and 3 as positive calls, the sensitivity/specificity of DBT+AV versus DBT only versus AV only were 96.4/54.3%, 96.4/56.6%, and 90.9/42.2%, respectively. The specificities and BI-RADS classifications differed significantly (p < 0.01). AV appeared unnecessary in 88.8% of the cases. DBT appeared to be at least equivalent to AV for assessing indeterminate screen-detected lesions and could replace AV for most lesions. To obtain the extra information appears possible without increasing the overall radiation dose. Subsequent blinded reader studies are ongoing.

  17. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian LR; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter KC

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future

  18. Influence of abnormally high formation pressure on the porosity of reservoirs (on the example of Solokhovsk field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.; Omelin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Productive horizons of the Solokhovsk field are composed of alternating claystones, siltstones, and sandstones. Samples of rocks were investigated by using the automatic electronic analyzer, Kvantimet-720. It was found that abnormally high formation pressure causes a decompaction effect. This effect is observed not only in clays which cover a deposit, but also in reservoirs of the deposit. Increases in pore dimensions and in average area of pores are the consequences of the decompaction effect. An extent of decompaction effect in consolidated formations in zones of abnormally high formation pressure depends on an intensity of secondary local epigenetic processes. These processes take place in zones of abnormally high formation pressure and in aureoles of hydrocarbon inculcation.

  19. Glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in gliomas and its prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Shi, Feina; Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-03-01

    Glioma cells may infiltrate beyond the tumor margins revealed on conventional structural images. To investigate whether the presence of a glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of gliomas. Retrospective cohort. Fifty-two patients with gliomas (14 WHO grade II; 13 WHO grade III; 25 WHO grade IV). 3.0T, including a T 1 -weighted contrast-enhanced (T 1 w-CE) sequence, contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair sequence, and a DWI sequence. T 1 w-CE images and contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair images were used for identifying the tumor region for enhancing and nonenhancing gliomas, respectively. The glioma infiltration sign was defined as the presence of a peritumoral abnormal high signal region on DWI map, which was adjacent to the tumor region and had higher signal than surrounding areas. This sign was assessed on a high b-value DWI map with b = 3000 s/mm 2 . For patients with glioma infiltration sign, DWI3000 max , DWI1000 max , ADC3000 min , and ADC1000 min were measured by drawing a region of interest over the peritumoral abnormal high signal region. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. Glioma infiltration sign was observed in 28 (53.8%) patients. The occurrence rate of this sign was 92.0% in grade IV gliomas, 30.8% in grade III gliomas, and 7.1% in grade II gliomas. The glioma infiltration sign could independently predict both the progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.58 [3.19-23.03], P sign, DWI3000 max (P = 0.005) and ADC3000 min (P = 0.008) were both independent predictors of overall survival after adjustment, while DWI1000 max and ADC1000 min were not. The glioma infiltration sign on high b-value DWI is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in glioma patients. High b-value DWI might be a convenient method to detect glioma infiltration. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for

  20. Added value of three-dimensional ultrasound with STIC technology in the diagnosis of fetus with cardiac abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongning; Zhu Yunxiao; Lin Meifang; Li Lijuan; Wang Zilian; Shi Huijuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) technology of three- dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) for fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: The study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2006 to October 2008. Twenty-four fetuses with suspected cardiac defects on routine 2DUS underwent STIC volume sweep. The diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy. Fetal cardiac STIC volume data set was analyzed by using the software of 4D View (GE, Kretztechnik). The concordance of' fetal cardiac defects diagnosed on 2DUS and STIC was compared to autopsy. Results: There were 92 cardiac defects in 24 cases. The overall concordance of various fetal cardiac defects diagnosed on STIC (97.8%) was significantly higher than that of 2DUS (64.1%) (P 0.05). However, concordance rate of STIC (100%, 100%, 97.5%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of 2DUS (37.5%, 54.5%, 57.5%) for diagnosing anomalies of atrio-venous junction and ventriculo-arterial junction, arterial trunk and its branch. Conclusion: STIC technology of 3DUS may provide considerable diagnostic information for prenatal diagnosis of complex CHD, especially in abnormalities of atrio-venous junction, ventriculo-arterial junction, arterial trunk and its branches. (authors)

  1. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  2. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/- and Klotho(-/- (Kl(-/- mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/- mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/- mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/- (Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- or DKO mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/- mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-, but not of Fgf23(-/- mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions into

  3. High prevalence of abnormalities on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss irrespective of age or degree of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck Calkoen, E A; Sanchez Aliaga, E; Merkus, P; Smit, C F; van de Kamp, J M; Mulder, M F; Goverts, S T; Hensen, E F

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of causal abnormalities identified on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), and the association with age and severity of hearing loss. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary referral otology/audiology center. 102 children diagnosed with USNHL between 2006 and 2016 were included. They underwent CT and/or MR imaging for the evaluation of the etiology of their hearing loss. Radiologic abnormalities of the inner ear and brain associated with USNHL. Using CT and/or MR imaging, causal abnormalities were identified in 49%, which is higher than previously reported (25-40%). The most frequently affected site was the labyrinth (29%), followed by the cochlear nerve (9%) and brain (7%). No significant difference in the number or type of abnormalities was found for the degree of hearing loss or age categories. Imaging is essential in the etiologic analysis of USNHL because of the high prevalence of causative abnormalities that can be identified with radiology, irrespective of the patients' age or degree of hearing loss. CT and MR imaging are complementary imaging options. The ideal imaging algorithm is controversial. Based on our findings, we conclude that there is limited additional diagnostic value of simultaneous dual modality imaging over sequential diagnostics. We therefore perform a stepwise radiological workup in order to maximize the diagnostic yield while minimizing impact and costs. If the primary imaging modality does not identify a cause for USNHL, performing the alternative imaging modality should be considered. Retrospective cohort study 2b. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of Abnormal Gastric Pacemaking After Sleeve Gastrectomy Defined by Laparoscopic High-Resolution Electrical Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Rachel; Cheng, Leo K; Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Mayne, Terence; Beban, Grant; O'Grady, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly being applied to treat obesity. LSG includes excision of the normal gastric pacemaker, which could induce electrical dysrhythmias impacting on post-operative symptoms and recovery, but these implications have not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to define the effects of LSG on gastric slow-wave pacemaking using laparoscopic high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping. Laparoscopic HR mapping was performed before and after LSG using flexible printed circuit arrays (64-96 electrodes; 8-12 cm 2 ; n = 8 patients) deployed through a 12 mm trocar and positioned on the gastric serosa. An additional patient with chronic reflux, nausea, and dysmotility 6 months after LSG also underwent gastric mapping while undergoing conversion to gastric bypass. Slow-wave activity was quantified by propagation pattern, frequency, velocity, and amplitude. Baseline activity showed exclusively normal propagation. Acutely after LSG, all patients developed either a distal unifocal ectopic pacemaker with retrograde propagation (50%) or bioelectrical quiescence (50%). Propagation velocity was abnormally rapid after LSG (12.5 ± 0.8 vs baseline 3.8 ± 0.8 mm s -1 ; p = 0.01), whereas frequency and amplitude were unchanged (2.7 ± 0.3 vs 2.8 ± 0.3 cpm, p = 0.7; 1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mV, p = 0.7). In the patient with chronic dysmotility after LSG, mapping also revealed a stable antral ectopic pacemaker with retrograde rapid propagation (12.6 ± 4.8 mm s -1 ). Resection of the gastric pacemaker during LSG acutely resulted in aberrant distal ectopic pacemaking or bioelectrical quiescence. Ectopic pacemaking can persist long after LSG, inducing chronic dysmotility. The clinical and therapeutic significance of these findings now require further investigation.

  5. Consensus of the Millennium Conference on Teaching High Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare costs have spiraled out of control, yet students and residents may lack the knowledge and skills to provide high value care, which emphasizes the best possible care while reducing unnecessary costs. Mainly national campaigns are aimed at physicians to reconsider their test ordering behaviors, identify overused diagnostics, and disseminate innovative practices. These efforts will fall short if principles of high value care are not incorporated across the spectrum of training for the next generation of physicians. Consensus findings of an invitational conference of 7 medical school teams consisting of academic leaders included strategies for institutions to meaningfully incorporate high value care into their medical school, residency, and faculty development curricula.

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  7. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates.

  8. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  9. Value of gallbladder-preserving partial cholecystectomy in treatment of abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis: a reports of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Fasheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of laparoscopic gallbladder-preserving partial cholecystectomy in the treatment of abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis. Methods A total of 18 patients with abnormal gallbladder morphology complicated by sand-like calculous cholecystitis who underwent laparoscopic and choledochoscopic partial cholecystectomy in Dalian Friendship Hospital from July 2010 to January 2014 were enrolled. All the patients had abnormal gallbladder morphology manifested as folded gallbladder or adenomyosis, and the lesions were located in the distal end of the gallbladder. Before the surgery, gallbladder contraction test was performed for the diseased part and the normal part of the gallbladder to be preserved. During the surgery, choledochoscopy showed an unobstructed cystic duct and good elasticity in the gallbladder wall, and there was no marked chronic inflammation. After the diseased part of the gallbladder was removed, 4-0 absorbable suture was used for two-layer consecutive suture of the gallbladder. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. Results All the patients underwent the surgery successfully. The mean time of operation was 98.0±9.0 minutes, and the mean time to first flatus was 22.8±2.5 hours. The patients were able to get out of the bed and drink water at 6 hours after surgery and to have meals at 24 hours after surgery. They fully recovered and were discharged at 5-7 days after surgery, and no patient experienced the complications such as bile leakage. The patients were followed up for 6-80 months; the patients′ preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared, and there was no recurrence of calculi. At 6-12 months after surgery, the patients experienced compensated cholecystectasis, and there was a significant increase in the mean volume of the gallbladder after surgery (30.29±4.23 cm3 vs 21.72±4.34 cm3, t=-13.00, P<0.001. There was a

  10. Antisocial Behavior and Interpersonal Values in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Carrión Martínez, José J; Luque de la Rosa, Antonio; Garzón Fernández, Anabella; Martos Martínez, África; Simón Márquez, Maria Del Mar; Barragán Martín, Ana B; Gázquez Linares, José J

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of antisocial behavior and interpersonal values of high school students ( Compulsory Secondary Education ) (CSE), the profile of students with high levels of antisocial behavior with regard to interpersonal values, and possible protection from antisocial behavior that interpersonal values could provide. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 CSE students aged 14-17. The results revealed a greater prevalence of antisocial behaviors among males and fourth-year CSE students. Moreover, antisocial behaviors were more frequent among participants with high scores in Stimulation, Recognition, Independence, and Leadership and low scores in Conformity and Benevolence. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that low scores in Conformity and Benevolence and high scores in Independence predicted high scores in antisocial behavior. The possibility of identifying certain interpersonal values which could positively or negatively affect the appearance of antisocial behavior during adolescence is discussed.

  11. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages.

  12. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  13. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  14. Anatomic abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex before psychosis onset: an MRI study of ultra-high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Yung, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Phillips, Lisa J; Nelson, Barnaby; Cotton, Sue; Velakoulis, Dennis; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-11-01

    Abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but whether such changes are apparent before psychosis onset remains unclear. In this study, we characterized prepsychotic ACC abnormalities in a sample of individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. Participants underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and were followed-up over 12-24 months to ascertain diagnostic outcomes. Baseline ACC morphometry was then compared between UHR individuals who developed psychosis (UHR-P; n = 35), those who did not (UHR-NP; n = 35), and healthy control subjects (n = 33). Relative to control subjects, UHR-P individuals displayed bilateral thinning of a rostral paralimbic ACC region that was negatively correlated with negative symptoms, whereas UHR-NP individuals displayed a relative thickening of dorsal and rostral limbic areas that was correlated with anxiety ratings. Baseline ACC differences between the two UHR groups predicted time to psychosis onset, independently of symptomatology. Subdiagnostic comparisons revealed that changes in the UHR-P group were driven by individuals subsequently diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. These findings indicate that anatomic abnormalities of the ACC precede psychosis onset and that baseline ACC differences distinguish between UHR individuals who do and do not subsequently develop frank psychosis. They also indicate that prepsychotic changes are relatively specific to individuals who develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, suggesting they may represent a diagnostically specific risk marker.

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Values of the sperm deformity index, acrosome abnormity rate, and sperm DNA fragmentation index of optimized sperm in predicting IVF fertilization failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-jie; Jin, Fan; Zhou, Li-ming

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the values of the sperm deformity index (SDI), acrosome abnormity rate (AAR), and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) of optimized sperm in the prediction of fertilization failure (fertilization rate fertilization (IVF). We selected 695 cycles of conventional IVF for pure oviductal infertility in this study, including 603 cycles of normal fertilization and 92 cycles of fertilization failure. On the day of oocyte retrieval, we examined sperm morphology, acrosome morphology, and DNA fragmentation using the Diff-Quik, PSA-FITC and SCD methods. We established the joint predictor (JP) by logistic equation and analyzed the values of different parameters in predicting fertilization failure with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The fertilization rate was negatively correlated with SDI (r = - 0.07; P = 0.03), AAR (r = -0.49; P fertilization group were 1.24 ± 0.20, (7.75 ± 2.28)%, and (7.87 ± 3.15)%, and those in the fertilization failure group were 1.42 ± 0.15, (12.02 ± 3.06)%, and (13.32 ± 4.13)%, respectively, all with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P fertilization failure ( OR = 2.68, 14.11, and 3.85; P = 0.01, fertilization failure were approximately 1.45, 10%, and 12%. The SDI, AAR and DFI of optimized sperm are closely associated with the fertilization rate, and all have the value for predicting fertilization failure in IVF. The AAR is more valuable than the other single predictors, but JP is more effective than the AAR.

  17. High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative pancreatitis for choledochal cyst. S Honda, T Okada, H Miyagi, M Minato, A Taketomi. Abstract. Background: Post-operative pancreatitis is a severe complication after cyst excision with hepaticoenterostomy (CEHE) for choledochal cysts. The aim of this study was ...

  18. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  19. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  20. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  1. Abnormal gene expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma with high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z-H; Zheng, R; Gao, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    To explore the universal law of the abnormal gene expression and the structural variation of genes related to lung adenocarcinoma, the gene expression profile of GSE37765 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed with t-test and NOISeq tool, and the core DEGs were screened out by combining with another RNA-seq data containing totally 77 pairs of samples in 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the functional annotation of the core DEGs was performed by using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery following selection of oncogene and tumor suppressor by combining with tumor suppressor genes and Cancer Genes database, and motif-finding of core DEGs was performed with motif-finding algorithm Seqpos. We also used Tophat-fusion tool to further explore the fusion genes. In total, 850 downregulated DEGs and 206 upregulated DEGs were screened out in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Next, we selected 543 core DEGs, including 401 downregulated and 142 upregulated genes, and vasculature development (P=1.89E-06) was significantly enriched among downregulated core genes, as well as mitosis (P=6.26E-04) enriched among upregulated core genes. On the basis of the cellular localization analysis of core genes, wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) identified mainly located in extracellular region and extracellular space. We also screened one oncogene, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2). Moreover, transcription factor GATA2 was mined by motif-finding analysis. Finally, four fusion genes belonged to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. WISP1, RAMP1, MYBL2 and GATA2 could be potential targets of treatment for lung adenocarcinoma and the fusion of HLA family genes might have important roles in lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  3. Electroencephalography Source Functional Connectivity Reveals Abnormal High-Frequency Communication Among Large-Scale Functional Networks in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Deccy, Stephanie; Ironside, Manon L; Kumar, Poornima; Beltzer, Miranda; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2018-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of resting-state functional connectivity have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by increased connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and between the DMN and the frontoparietal network (FPN). However, much remains unknown about abnormalities in higher frequency (>1 Hz) synchronization. Findings of abnormal synchronization in specific frequencies would contribute to a better understanding of the potential neurophysiological origins of disrupted functional connectivity in MDD. We used the high temporal resolution of electroencephalography to compare the spectral properties of resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with MDD (n = 65) with healthy control subjects (n = 79) and examined the extent to which connectivity disturbances were evident in a third sample of individuals in remission from depression (n = 30). Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography was used to compute intracortical activity from regions within the DMN and FPN, and functional connectivity was computed using lagged phase synchronization. Compared to control subjects, the MDD group showed greater within-DMN beta 2 band (18.5-21 Hz) connectivity and greater beta 1 band (12.5-18 Hz) connectivity between the DMN and FPN. This hyperconnectivity was not observed in the remitted MDD group. However, greater beta 1 band DMN-FPN connectivity was associated with more frequent depressive episodes since first depression onset, even after controlling for current symptom severity. These findings extend our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in MDD and indicate that elevations in high-frequency DMN-FPN connectivity may be a neural marker linked to a more recurrent illness course. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  5. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding in low- and high-resource settings: consideration of cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haththotuwa, Rohana; Goonewardene, Malik; Desai, Shyam; Senanayake, Lakshman; Tank, Jaydeep; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    In non industrialized countries the incidence of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) appears to be similar to that of industrialized countries, although data is scanty. In low-resource settings, women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) often delay seeking medical care because of cultural beliefs that a heavy red menstrual bleed is healthy. Efforts to modify cultural issues are being considered. A detailed history and a meticulous examination are the important foundations of a definitive diagnosis and management in low-resource settings but are subject to time constraints and skill levels of the small numbers of health professionals. Women's subjective assessment of blood loss should be combined, if possible, with a colorimetric hemoglobin assessment, if full blood count is not possible. Outpatient endometrial sampling, transvaginal sonography, and hysteroscopy are available in some non industrialized countries but not in the lowest resource settings. After exclusion of serious underlying pathology, hematinics should be commenced and antifibrinolytic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considered during menses to control the bleeding. Intrauterine or oral progestogens or the combined oral contraceptive are often the most cost-effective long-term medical treatments. When medical treatment is inappropriate or has failed, the surgical options available most often are myomectomy or hysterectomy. Hysteroscopic endometrial resection or newer endometrial ablation procedures are available in some centers. If hysterectomy is indicated the vaginal route is the most appropriate in most low-resource settings. In low-resource settings, lack of resources of all types can lead to empirical treatments or reliance on the unproven therapies of traditional healers. The shortage of human resources is often compounded by a limited availability of operative time. Governments and specialist medical organizations have rarely included attention to AUB and HMB in their health programs

  6. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  7. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  9. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  10. Microprocessor-controlled meter of high Q-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, S.N.; Konstantinov, V.I.; Masalov, V.L.; Sevrukova, L.M.; Tokarev, A.D.; Usiv, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the functional model of a high-precision microcomputer-controlled test facility for studying the electric and physical parameters of superconducting cavities. The basic unit of the test facility is high-stability retunable RF oscillator. It is designed following the scheme of the frequency phase tuning using standard equipment. The systematic error in measuring the loaded Q-value of reentrant cavities is not larger than 5%. A dedicated built-in microcomputer is used to control the measuring test facility and to make the commutations required. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Clinical value of real time 3D sonohysterography and 2D sonohysterography in comparison to hysteroscopy with subsequent histopathological examination in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Guzikowski, Wojciech; Więcek, Jacek; Sioma-Markowska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    In many publications the transvaginal ultrasound is regarded as the first step to diagnose the cause of uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women. In order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the conventional ultrasound physiological saline solution was administered to the uterine cavity and after expansion of its walls the interior uterine cavity was examined. And this procedure is called 2D sonohysterography (SIS 2D). By the ultrasound scanners which enable to get 3D real time image a spatial evaluation of the uterine cavity is possible. Clinical value of the real time 3D sonohysterography and 2D sonohysterography compared to hysteroscopy with histopathological examination in perimenopausal women. The study concerned a group of 97 perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. In all of them after a standard transvaginal ultrasonography a catheter was inserted into the uterine cavity. After expansion of the uterine walls by administering about 10 ml of 0,9% saline solution the uterine cavity was examined by conventional sonohysterography. Then a 3D imaging mode was activated and the uterine interior was examined by real time 3D ultrasonography. The ultrasound results were verified by hysteroscopy, the endometrial lesions were removed and underwent a histopathological examination. In two cases the SIS examination was impossible because of uterine cervix atresion. In the rest of examined group the SIS 2D sensitivity and specificity came up to 72 and 96% respectively. In the group of SIS 3D the sensitivity and specificity reached 83 and 99% respectively. Adding SIS 3D, a minimally invasive method, to conventional sonohysterography improves the precision of diagnosis of endometrial pathology, allows to get three-dimensional image of the uterine cavity and enables examination of endometrial lesions. The diagnostic precision of this procedure is similar to the results achieved by hysteroscopy.

  12. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  13. Peripheral immune abnormalities in two high-risk populations for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Brouwer, R.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; de Wit, H; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Objective: Mounting data support the hypothesis for a role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine immune alterations in two unique familial high-risk cohorts for bipolar disorder. Methods: The study population comprised bipolar

  14. Abnormally High Power Output of Wind Turbine in Cold Weather: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Leclerc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available According to popular belief, air temperature effects on wind turbine power output are produced solely by air density variations, and power is proportional to air density. However, some cases have been reported, all involving stall-controlled wind turbines, in which unexpected high power output was observed at very low temperatures.

  15. High-resolution manometry in clinical practice: utilizing pressure topography to classify oesophageal motility abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfino, J. E.; Fox, M. R.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Kahrilas, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution manometry capable of pressure monitoring from the pharynx to the stomach together with pressure topography plotting represents an unquestionable evolution in oesophageal manometry. However, with this advanced technology come challenges and one of those is devising the optimal scheme

  16. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  18. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  19. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  20. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in elite high school athletes: comparison to adolescent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J; Cannon, Bryan C; Wackel, Philip L; Horner, Justin M; Ackerman, Michael J; O'Leary, Patrick W; Eidem, Benjamin W; Johnson, Jonathan N

    2016-01-01

    In athletes, ECG changes from physiological cardiac remodelling are common but can overlap with findings from a pathological disorder. We compared ECG findings in a group of elite high school athletes to a cohort of adolescents with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We prospectively performed 15-lead ECGs and echocardiograms in 147 elite high school athletes. Student-athlete ECGs were compared in blinded fashion to ECGs of 148 adolescents with HCM of similar age and ethnicity. Standard ECG hypertrophy criteria and established expert opinion guidelines (European Society of Cardiology, ESC and Seattle criteria) were analysed. All student-athletes had normal echocardiograms. Overall, 77/147 (52%) of student-athletes met standard ECG criteria for ventricular hypertrophy compared to 126/148 (85%) adolescents with HCM (padolescents with HCM who had pathological Q-waves, T-wave inversion and/or ST-segment depression compared to 1/147 (1%) athletes (padolescents with HCM from normals. Both ESC and Seattle criteria successfully stratified the student-athlete and HCM cohorts, however each had a false-negative rate >10% for the HCM cohort. The Seattle criteria demonstrated a significantly lower false-positive rate (1%) than the ESC criteria (24%). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  2. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site.

  3. Abnormal Fhit protein expression and high frequency of microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Leopoldo; Bottarelli, Lorena; Azzoni, Cinzia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Di Cola, Gabriella; Bader, Giovanni; Iusco, Domenico; Salvemini, Carlo; Caruso, Giuseppe; Donadei, Enrico; Pizzi, Silvia; D'Adda, Tiziana; Renato, Costi; Roncoroni, Luigi; Bordi, Cesare

    2004-07-01

    The role of Fhit protein in the oncogenesis of colorectal cancer is still in debate. Recent studies have revealed that reduced Fhit protein expression is associated with a deficiency of the mismatch repair protein. One hundred and twenty unselected patients who underwent curative resection for sporadic colorectal cancer in a three-year period were evaluated for microsatellite instability (MSI) using six microsatellite markers, and for the presence of Fhit and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (Mlh1 and Msh2) by means of immunostaining. The relations between these markers were analysed. Reduced or absent Fhit expression was noted in 18 out of 118 patients. This altered expression was significantly higher in right-sided cancer (P = 0.005), mucinous tumours (P = 0.005) and in poorly differentiated histological types (P = 0.0001). MSI was found in 22 out of 109 patients, more so in right-sided cancer (P = 0.0001), poorly differentiated histology (P = 0.0001), and mucinous tumours (P = 0.0001). No association was found with TNM stage. MSI was present in 66.7% of tumours with altered Fhit expression and in only 10% of tumours with preserved or intermediate Fhit expression (P = 0.0001). Of the tumours with reduced or absent Fhit expression, 72.2% had loss of nuclear Mlh1 or Msh2 expression compared with only 14% of the preserved or intermediate Fhit expression tumours (P = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that deficiency in a MMR gene could be a cause of the high frequency of alterations in Fhit expression, and they permit the suggestion that FHIT gene alteration may be part of the genetic pathway involving MSI through which some colorectal cancers arise.

  4. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    ) evaluation.  Appropriate medical treatment with antiplatelets, as indicated by the acute stroke guidelines, was started. The patient was not eligible for thrombolysis. Value-based care emphasizes the decreased usage in investigations or health care of options that do not contribute to the overall health and well-being of the patient. Given our patient's past medical history and the results of previous investigations, we questioned the value of ordering a hypercoagulable evaluation and TEE in our patient. The need for an evaluation of the hypercoagulable state in an elderly patient with ischemic stroke or TIA remains unknown. Our patient had a complete hypercoagulable evaluation done six years earlier. Repeating the hypercoagulable evaluation would not contribute to the treatment decisions and, as a result, would not satisfy the basic criteria for value-based care.The importance of a repeat TEE is uncertain in the evaluation of embolism for a known cause of stroke. Additionally, no change in management was anticipated regardless of the TEE findings, therefore, repeating TEE in our patient was an inappropriate use of resources. Being mindful of value-based care can reduce overall health care costs, maintain our role of being responsible stewards of our limited resources, and continue to provide high-value care for our patients.

  5. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  6. Various distinctive cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years and older express adverse prognostic value : results from a prospective clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Holt, Bronno; Breems, Dimitri A.; Beverloo, H. Berna; van den Berg, Eva; Burnett, Alan K.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Lowenberg, Bob

    Diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities are considered important prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, the prognostic assessments have mainly been derived from patients with AML aged <60 years. Two recent studies of AML patients of 60 years and older proposed

  7. Amplification of cyclin D1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and the prognostic value of chromosomal abnormalities and cyclin D1 overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akervall, J. A.; Michalides, R. J.; Mineta, H.; Balm, A.; Borg, A.; Dictor, M. R.; Jin, Y.; Loftus, B.; Mertens, F.; Wennerberg, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Abnormalities of chromosome band 11q13 are frequent in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The oncogene CCND1 is located at 11q13 and encodes cyclin D1, a cell cycle-regulating protein. The authors investigated the clinical relevance and associations between amplification and

  8. Predictors of persistent cytologic abnormalities after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study in a HIV high prevalence population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre James A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of both HIV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the risk of cancer development despite treatment may be greater. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ. Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL, less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. A LLETZ was performed on all patients with HSIL or higher on Papanicolaou (Pap smear or colposcopy, LSIL or higher in patients who are HIV-infected, where the colposcopy is inadequate, and when there was a discrepancy between colposcopy and cytology by one or more grades. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at 122 days. Persistent cytological abnormalities occurred in 49% of our patients after LLETZ. Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. Among the latter, disease at the excision margins and CD4+ cell count were important predictors. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

  9. Abnormal pelvic morphology and high cervical length are responsible for high-risk pregnancies in women displaying achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre J; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Baujat, Geneviève; Benachi, Alexandra

    2016-12-05

    Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathological anatomy of the pelvis. Thus, there is a foreseeable dystocia owing to cephalopelvic disproportion. Furthermore, this situation could also complicate cervical ripening prior to fetal extraction.

  10. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  11. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  12. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even-parity atomic states of samarium by spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. A K PULHANI∗, M L SHAH, G P GUPTA and B M SURI. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085, India.

  13. Strategies for microbial synthesis of high-value phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijin; Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2018-03-01

    Phytochemicals are of great pharmaceutical and agricultural importance, but often exhibit low abundance in nature. Recent demonstrations of industrial-scale production of phytochemicals in yeast have shown that microbial production of these high-value chemicals is a promising alternative to sourcing these molecules from native plant hosts. However, a number of challenges remain in the broader application of this approach, including the limited knowledge of plant secondary metabolism and the inefficient reconstitution of plant metabolic pathways in microbial hosts. In this Review, we discuss recent strategies to achieve microbial biosynthesis of complex phytochemicals, including strategies to: (1) reconstruct plant biosynthetic pathways that have not been fully elucidated by mining enzymes from native and non-native hosts or by enzyme engineering; (2) enhance plant enzyme activity, specifically cytochrome P450 activity, by improving efficiency, selectivity, expression or electron transfer; and (3) enhance overall reaction efficiency of multi-enzyme pathways by dynamic control, compartmentalization or optimization with the host's metabolism. We also highlight remaining challenges to — and future opportunities of — this approach.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Abnormal Cervical Cytology and HighRisk HPV DNA among Bangkok Metropolitan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Kittisiam, Thannaporn; Chaowawanit, Woraphot; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal; Khunnarong, Jakkapan; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok; Saeloo, Siriporn; Krongthong, Waraporn; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Pataradool, Kamol

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies are required for cervical cancer reduction e.g. provision of education cautious sexual behavior, HPV vaccination, and early detection of preinvasive cervical lesions and invasive cancer. Basic health data for cervical cytology/ HPV DNA and associated factors are important to make an appropriate policy to fight against cervical cancer. To assess the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and/or HPV DNA and associated factors, including sexual behavior, among Bangkok Metropolitan women. Thai women, aged 25to65 years old, had lived in Bangkok for ≥5 years were invited into the study. Liquidbased cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests were performed. Personal data were collected. Rates of abnormal cytology and/ or highrisk HPV (HRHPV) and factors associated with abnormal test(s) were studied. Abnormal cytology and positive HRHPV were found in 6.3% (279/4442 women) and 6.7% (295/4428), respectively. The most common abnormal cytology was ASCUS (3.5%) while the most common HRHPV genotype was HPV 16 (1.4%) followed by HPV 52 (1.0%), HPV 58 (0.9%), and HPV 18 and HPV 51 at equal frequency (0.7%). Both tests were abnormal in 1.6% (71/4428 women). Rates of HRHPV detection were directly associated with severity of abnormal cytology: 5.4% among normal cytology and 13.0%, 30.8%, 40.0%, 39.5%, 56.3% and 100.0% among ASCUS, ASCH, AGCNOS, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC, respectively. Some 5% of women who had no HRHPV had abnormal cytology, in which 0.3% had ≥ HSIL. Factors associated with abnormal cytology or HRHPV were: age ≤40 years, education lower than (for cytology) or higher than bachelor for HRHPV), history of sexual intercourse, and sexual partners ≥2. Rates for abnormal cytology and HRHPV detection were 6.3% and 6.7% HRHPV detection was directly associated with severity of abnormal cytology. Significant associated factors were age ≤40 years, lower education, history of sexual intercourse, and sexual partners ≥2.

  15. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  16. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  17. Clinical significance of abnormal high signal intensity of left ventricular myocardium by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Junichi; Nakamori, Hisato; Ohkubo, Naohiko; Wakayama, Yuka; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Inada, Mitsuo; Katoh, Tsumotu [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    The significance of abnormal high signal intensity observed in left ventricular myocardium by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients was assessed by comparison with T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging, thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, radionuclide angiocardiography, M-mode echocardiography, electrocardiography, and chest radiography. The 16 patients were divided into three groups: 8 patients (group I) with abnormal high signal intensity before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement, 4 (group II) with abnormal high signal intensity only after enhancement and 4 (group III) without abnormal high signal intensity. Thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed abnormalities of regional {sup 201}Tl uptake in the left ventricular myocardium in 4 patients in Group I, 3 in group II, and one in Group III. No significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was seen between groups I, II, and III (64{+-}13%, 67{+-}17% and 71{+-}7%) although 3 patients in group I had LVEF of less than 55%. Left ventricular peak filling rates (PFR) of groups I and II were significantly lower than group III (1.90{+-}0.44, 2.41{+-}0.43 and 3.37{+-}0.48 EDV/sec). Group I had larger end-diastolic left ventricular dimension (LVDd), significantly larger end-systolic left ventricular dimension (LVDs), and smaller % fractional shortening (%FS) than group III (49{+-}4 vs 42{+-}6 mm, 31{+-}5 vs 22{+-}4 mm, and 38{+-}8 vs 49{+-}4%). Abnormal high signal intensity in left ventricular myocardium in HCM seems to reflect myocardial ischemia and fibrosis due to small vessel disease, or myocardial degeneration and necrosis. We conclude that Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging may detect the early process of the dilated phase of HCM. (J.P.N.).

  18. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  19. MRI abnormalities in children following sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa for high-risk primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thust, Stefanie C.; Blanco, Esther; Michalski, Antony J.; Phipps, Kim; Chong, WK; Mankan, Kshitij; Gaze, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive postsurgical therapies have improved survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumour, but there is concern that the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy may result in a compound injury to normal brain. The purposes of this analysis were to characterise what types of imaging abnormalities occur, identify risk factors and explore how treatment-related changes may be distinguished from tumour. One hundred fifty-three MRI studies in 14 children treated with sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa were retrospectively analysed at a paediatric national referral centre. We observed 11 episodes of new focal enhancing lesions, 5 of which were transient and judged to be treatment related. In addition, 7/14 (50%) of children demonstrated moderate to severe brain volume loss featuring a leukodystrophy pattern. Treatment-related brain MRI abnormalities occurred frequently in this series with a risk of misdiagnosis as tumour. A proportion of patients suffer generalised white matter injury, which has not been appreciated as a side effect of this particular therapy.

  20. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  1. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology], e-mail: aragao@truenet.com; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Studies

    2009-03-15

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) {sup 1}H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early {sup 1}H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  2. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2009-01-01

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) 1 H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early 1 H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  3. Fever of unknown origin and the value of gallium-67 and technetium-99/sup m/ for defining abnormality of the spleen: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Ritchey, A.K.; Zinkham, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A three-year-old white female with acute promyelocytic leukemia developed persistent fever after successful induction-remission therapy; many large monilial abscesses were later found in the grossly enlarged spleen. Although the technetium/sup 99M/-sulfur colloid scan prior to splenectomy suggested only a slight abnormality of the spleen, the gallium-67 citrate scintigraph showed a marked increase in gallium accumulation. The disparate results of the scanning techniques utilized in this patient suggest that it may be necessary to use more than one type of radiopharmaceutical to define an enlarged spleen, as well as the pathological process responsible for its enlargement

  4. Lithogenic transformation of clay in zones of abnormally high stratal pressure. Litogeneticheskie preobrazovaniya glin v zonakh anomal'no vysokikh plastovykh davlenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zkhus, I.D.; Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    An examination is made of problems associated with the properties of clays as an mantles over petroleum and gas beds with abnormally high stratal pressures (AHSP), with changes in the clays that are characteristic of AHSP zones, with catagenetic transformations of clay minerals, and with their superimposed catagenesis under the influence of fluids in the interstitial coronas. The study of the lithogenetic transformations of clay was shown to be of practical use for forecasting AHSP zones and estimating stratal pressures as well as for the operative development of an optimal system for drilling deep wells. The gradient distribution of AHSP for the layer of clay mantles was demonstrated for the first time as was the coincidence of the maximum values of those gradients with the hydrodynamic threshold. The over-all effect of dispersing rock in the AHSP zones was shown to have a universal significance and importance to forecasting beds with AHSP and the safe drilling of boreholes by means of the timely identification of AHSP zones. Calculations were made for the first time on the effect that the thickness of mantles has on fracture time of the fluids. 150 references, 27 figures, 21 tables.

  5. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  6. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization...

  7. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the put......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P......-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  8. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P......-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  9. Abnormalities in Diffusional Kurtosis Metrics Related to Head Impact Exposure in a Season of High School Varsity Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Apkarian, Kalyna; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Jensen, Jens H; Szuch, Eliza; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cumulative head impacts during a season of high school football produce changes in diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Subjects were recruited from a high school football team and were outfitted with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) during all practices and games. Biomechanical head impact exposure metrics were calculated, including: total impacts, summed acceleration, and Risk Weighted Cumulative Exposure (RWE). Twenty-four players completed pre- and post-season magnetic resonance imaging, including DKI; players who experienced clinical concussion were excluded. Fourteen subjects completed pre- and post-season Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). DKI-derived metrics included mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (K axial), and radial kurtosis (K radial), and white matter modeling (WMM) parameters included axonal water fraction, tortuosity of the extra-axonal space, extra-axonal diffusivity (D e axial and radial), and intra-axonal diffusivity (D a ). These metrics were used to determine the total number of abnormal voxels, defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between RWE combined probability (RWE CP ) and MK. Secondary analysis of other DKI-derived and WMM metrics demonstrated statistically significant linear relationships with RWE CP after covariate adjustment. These results were compared with the results of DTI-derived metrics from the same imaging sessions in this exact same cohort. Several of the DKI-derived scalars (D a , MK, K axial, and K radial) explained more variance, compared with RWE CP , suggesting that DKI may be more sensitive to subconcussive head impacts. No significant relationships between DKI-derived metrics and ImPACT measures were found. It is important to note that the pathological

  10. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  11. Technology for the detection of airborne intruders approaching the high-security high-value asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1995-05-01

    Security plans to protect high-value assets usually concentrate on stopping potential ground intruders before they reach the asset. Barriers, such as fences, are the first line of defense against the found intruder, providing a delay mechanism. The sight of 10 to 12 foot high fencing topped with razor wire, guard towers, and roving patrols also serves as a psychological deterrent to the potential ground intrusion sensors between an outer and an inner barrier. This visible 'hardness' of a high-value asset makes airborne penetration more attractive, even though the airborne intruder may require training in the use of an aircraft or other airborne conveyance system. Certain airborne intrusion scenarios allow an adversary to penetrate much deeper and faster through delay and defense systems designed to deter the ground intruder. Since an airborne intruder can quickly reach the high-value asset, early detection critical to asset defense. Early detection of the airborne intruder also ensures appropriate use of the deadly force doctrine because the guard force has time to coordinate the response.

  12. High-Stakes Testing in Education: Value, fairness and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Stobart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes educational testing is a global phenomenon which is increasing in both scale and importance. Assessments are high-stakes when there are serious consequences for one or more stakeholders. Historically, tests have largely been used for selection or for providing a ‘licence to practise’,

  13. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  14. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  15. Correlation of lung abnormalities on high-resolution CT with clinical graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Borzani, Irene Maria Olivia; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Rochat, Isabelle [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Pneumology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Ayse Hulya [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) are life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several pathological patterns are described in the literature with different prognoses, and with different relationships to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of high-resolution CT (HRCT) is not yet well established. To illustrate different patterns of LONIPCs on HRCT in allogeneic versus autologous BMT in order to investigate the correlation with chronic GVHD (cGVHD). A total of 67 HRCT scans were performed in 24 patients with noninfectious pulmonary disease at least 3 months after BMT (16 allogeneic, 8 autologous). Abnormality patterns and extension on HRCT images were correlated with the clinical outcome and with the severity of cGVHD. Of 24 patients, 9 showed LONIPCs (1 autologous, 8 allogeneic). There was a significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe cGVHD (P = 0.038), with no specific pattern. Prognosis seemed to be related to the severity of cGVHD and not to the extent of abnormalities on HRCT. The significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe GVHD suggests that LONIPCs can be a pulmonary manifestation of the disease. HRCT is a useful tool when combined with clinical data. (orig.)

  16. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  18. Physiological parameter values in greyhounds before and after high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BL) and rectal temperature (RT) are relevant physiological parameters to determine the dogs response to effort. ... in greyhounds have reported the effect of high-intensity exercise on many physiological parameters immediately after completing different racing distances and recovery times.

  19. The high reutilization value potential of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater through microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Juan Gerardo Santoyo; Jung, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2015-10-01

    To provide an option for the reutilization of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater (FMW), generated during the anchovy fishmeal manufacturing processes, its potential for biodegradation was assessed in 1-l five-neck flasks using a halotolerant and proteolytic microbial consortium. During the first 41 h of biodegradation, the pH, DO, ORP, and dry-sludge weight decreased as the total cell number of the microbial consortium increased steadily; the COD(Cr)/TN ratios remained between 4.0 and 5.5, respectively, indicating the stable metabolic degradation of organic matter. The ORP tended to increase after 41 h, and the unpleasant fishy smell disappeared once positive ORP values were achieved. The removal percentages of COD(Cr) and TN were 59.0 and 54.4%, respectively, and the dry-sludge weight decreased from 115.5 to 68.0 g, with a degradation rate of 0.59 g h(-1), during the 80 h experiment. The supernatant from the culture of the anchovy FMW at 70 h (culture supernatant) was phytotoxin-free, and the level of total amino acids was 8.04 g 100 g(-1), comparable to that of commercial fertilizers. In hydroponic cultures containing red bean and barley, the culture supernatant demonstrated a good fertilizing ability. The culture supernatant also exhibited a high degree of antioxidant activity, with a 52.3% hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 0.16 reducing power (at OD 700 nm). Moreover, the culture supernatant inhibited DNA damage from hydroxyl radicals, enhancing the reutilization value of anchovy FMW. This report presents the first description of high-salinity anchovy FMW possessing a high reutilization value potential both for agriculture and medicine.

  20. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  1. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-06

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  3. Megalin-deficiency causes high myopia, retinal pigment epithelium-macromelanosomes and abnormal development of the ciliary body in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Heegaard, Steffen; Christensen, Erik Ilsø

    2014-01-01

    of megalin-deficient mice were examined with immunological techniques using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We identified megalin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (NPCBE) in normal mouse eyes. Immunocytochemical investigations furthermore showed...... that megalin localizes to vesicular structures in the RPE and NPCBE cells. Histological investigations of ocular mouse tissue also identified a severe myopia phenotype as well as enlarged RPE melanosomes and abnormal ciliary body development in the megalin-deficient mice. In conclusion, the complex ocular...

  4. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  5. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  6. Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

  7. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  8. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  10. Value-based insurance design: consumers' views on paying more for high-cost, low-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Marjorie

    2010-11-01

    Value-based insurance designs frequently lower consumers' cost sharing to motivate healthy behavior, such as adhering to medication regimens. Few health care purchasers have followed the more controversial approach of using increased cost sharing to temper demand for high-cost, low-value medical care. Yet there is evidence that when health care's affordability is at stake, the public may be willing to compromise on coverage of certain medical problems and less effective treatments. Businesses should engage employees in discussions about if and how this type of value-based insurance design should apply to their own insurance coverage. A similar process could also be used for Medicare and other public-sector programs.

  11. Modulatory effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract against high-fat diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bangeppagari, Manjunatha; Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet. CFE (200mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to each group of standard pellet diet rats and HF-fed rats and Metformin (Met) (20mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to HFD+Met group for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to glycogen content in liver and muscle, and intestinal disaccharidases like maltase, sucrase and lactase were assayed. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphorfructoki nase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), intestinal disaccharidases and glycogen content as observed in the high fat diet-fed rats were prevented with CFE/Met administration. From this study, we observed that CFE/Met could significantly restore the levels of glycogen in liver and muscle and key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism to near normal in groups-HFD+CFE and HFD+Met. The skeletal muscle of HF-diet fed rats showed degenerative changes of muscle myofibers with fat deposition. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with CFE/Met and retained their normal structure appearance. It can be concluded from these results that CFE might be of value in reducing the alterations related to carbohydrate metabolism under high calorie

  12. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Urmila; Ahamad, M Shahab Uddin; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Rahman, Zillur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47) of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9%) cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6%) cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and cervical cancer screening strategies.

  13. Chest Abnormalities in Juvenile-Onset Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: Assessment with High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaloekken, T.M.; Mynarek, G.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Lilleby, V.; Foerre, Oe.; Soeyseth, V.; Pripp, A.H.; Johansen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is associated with several chest manifestations. Only a few studies have focused on chest manifestations in juvenile-onset MCTD (jMCTD), and the true prevalence of pulmonary abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in these patients is unknown. Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of pulmonary abnormalities in jMCTD with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to evaluate a possible association between pulmonary findings and disease-related variables. Material and Methods: Twenty-four childhood-onset MCTD patients with median disease duration of 10.5 years (range 1-21 years) were investigated in a cross-sectional study by means of HRCT, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and clinical assessment. Results: Discrete ILD was identified in six patients (25%). Median extent of ILD was 2.0%, and all except one of the patients had very mild disease in which 5% or less of the parenchyma was affected. The CT features of fibrosis were mainly microcystic and fine intralobular. The most frequently abnormal PFT was carbon monoxide uptake from the lung, which was abnormal in 33% of the patients. PFT and disease duration were not significantly associated with HRCT findings of ILD. Conclusion: The prevalence of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD patients was lower than previously believed. In most of the patients with ILD, the findings were subtle and without clinical correlation. The results suggest a low extent of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD, even after long-term disease duration

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  16. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  17. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  18. Training Physicians to Provide High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammen, L.A.; Stalmeijer, R.E.; Paternotte, E.; Pool, A.O.; Driessen, E.W.; Scheele, F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Objective To understand the circumstances in which the delivery of high-value, cost-conscious care is learned, with a goal

  19. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  1. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  2. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native women, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A; Datta, S Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES; We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer.

  3. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  4. Gene trap mutation of murine Outer dense fiber protein-2 gene can result in sperm tail abnormalities in mice with high percentage chimaerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer dense fiber protein 2, Odf2, is a major component of the outer dense fibers, ODF, in the flagellum of spermatozoa. ODF are associated with microtubule doublets that form the axoneme. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of Odf2 is important for sperm motility. In the course of a study of Odf2 using Odf2 mouse knockout lines we observed that males of a high percentage chimaerism, made using XL169 embryonic stem cells, were infertile, whereas mice of low-medium percentage chimaerism were fertile. Results XL169 ES cells have a β-geo gene trap cassette inserted in the Odf2 gene. To determine possible underlying mechanisms resulting in infertility we analyzed epididymal sperm and observed that >50% displayed bent tails. We next performed ultrastructural analyses on testis of high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice. This analysis showed that high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice produce elongating spermatids that miss one or more entire outer dense fibers in their midpiece and principal piece. In addition, we observed elongating spermatids that show thinning of outer dense fibers. No other obvious abnormalities or defects are present in elongating spermatids. Spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymis of XL169 mice of high percentage chimaerism show additional tail defects, including absence of one or more axonemal microtubule doublets and bent tails. Sperm with bent tails display abnormal motility. Conclusions Our results document the possible impact of loss of one Odf2 allele on sperm tail structure and function, resulting in a novel sperm tail phenotype.

  5. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  6. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  7. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  9. Abnormal pain processing in chronic tension-type headache: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L.; Egsgaard, L.L.; Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity...

  10. Persistent abnormalities in lymphoid tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schacker, Timothy W.; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Martinez, Esteban; Reilly, Cavan; Gatell, Jose M.; Horban, Andrzej; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Berzins, Baiba; van Leeuwen, Remko; Wolinsky, Steven; Haase, Ashley T.; Murphy, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with virus suppression and immune reconstitution. However, in some patients, this reconstitution is partial or incomplete because CD4(+) cell counts do not increase significantly. This may be

  11. Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is often associated with coexistent abnormal esophageal body motility and abnormal bolus transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, E; Gideon, R M; Sloan, J; Katz, P O

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders is in part based upon a hierarchical algorithm in which abnormalities of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is prioritized. An important metric in evaluating the EGJ is the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). Patients who do not have achalasia but are found to have an elevated IRP are diagnosed with EGJ outflow obstruction. It has been our observation that a subset of these patients also has a second named motility disorder and may also have abnormal bolus transit. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of abnormal body motility and or abnormal bolus movement in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction. Further, in an effort to evaluate the potential clinical value in measuring bolus transit as a complement to esophageal manometry, specifically in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction, we analyzed the presenting symptoms of these patients. A total of 807 patients with a mean age of 53 years completed esophageal function testing with impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry between January 2012 and October 2016. There were 74 patients with achalasia who were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 733 patients, 138 (19%) had an elevated IRP and were given a diagnosis of EGJ outflow obstruction. Among these patients, 56 (40%) were diagnosed with an abnormal motility pattern to liquids (ineffective esophageal motility = 28, distal esophageal spasm = 19, Jackhammer = 6), of which 44 (76%) had abnormal bolus transit to liquids, viscous, or both. In contrast, there were 82 patients with EGJ outflow obstruction and normal esophageal motility, of which 33 (40%) had abnormal bolus transit. Patients with preserved esophageal motility and EGJ outflow obstruction were then evaluated. Of the 733 patients, 299 (40%) had intact esophageal motility. Of the 299 patients with normal esophageal motility, 56 patients had an elevated IRP, of which 16 (28%) had abnormal bolus transit. There were 243 (33

  12. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ...... and treated with lenalidomide up to 30 mg daily for 16 weeks. Three patients had isolated del(5q), six had del(5q) plus one additional aberration, 14 had del(5q) and a complex karyotype, four had monosomy 5, and one had del(5q) identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization only. RESULTS: Major and minor...... cytogenetic responses, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were achieved in 5/26 (19%) and 2/26 (8%) patients, respectively, who received one or more dose of lenalidomide, while two patients achieved only a bone marrow response. Nine of all 26 patients (35%) and nine of the ten who completed...

  13. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  14. High and ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Lipponer, Christine; Guberina, Nika; Olbricht, Tobias; Schenck, Marcus; Schlosser, Thomas W; Gratz, Marcel; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prostate cancer. However, the routine use of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2) is not clear up to present. Moreover, the complex diffusion behavior of malignant and benign prostate tissues hampers precise predictions of contrast in DWI images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To quantitatively analyze DWI with different b values in prostate cancer and to identify b values best suitable for cancer detection. Forty-one patients with histologically proven prostate cancer were examined with high resolution T2-weighted imaging and DWI at 3 Tesla. Five different b values (0, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 s/mm(2)) were applied. ADC values of tumors and reference areas were measured on ADC maps derived from different pairs of b values. Furthermore, signal intensities of DW images of tumors and reference areas were measured. For analysis, contrast ratios of ADC values and signal intensities of DW images were calculated and compared. No significant differences were found between contrast ratios measured on ADC maps of all analyzed b value pairs (P = 0.43). Contrast ratios calculated from signal intensities of DW images were highest at b values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) and differed significantly from contrast ratios at b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2) (P values, contrast ratios of DW images are significantly higher at b-values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) in comparison to b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2). Therefore, diagnostic performance of DWI in prostate cancer might be increased by application of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2). © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  15. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal Endogenous Repression of GA Signaling in a Seedless Table Grape Cultivar with High Berry Growth Response to GA Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiako K. Acheampong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA application is routinely used in the table grape industry to increase berry size and cluster length. Although grapevine cultivars show a wide range of growth responsiveness to GA3 application, the reasons for these differences is unclear. To shed light on this issue, two commercial grapevine cultivars with contrasting berry response to GA were selected for comparative analysis, in which we tested if the differences in response: (1 is organ-specific or cultivar-related; (2 will be reflected in qualitative/quantitative differences in transcripts/proteins of central components of GA metabolism and signaling and levels of GA metabolites. Our results showed that in addition to the high response of its berries to GA, internodes and rachis of cv. Black finger (BF presented a greater growth response compared to that of cv. Spring blush (SB. In agreement, the results exposed significant quantitative differences in GA signaling components in several organs of both cultivars. Exceptionally higher level of all three functional VvDELLA proteins was recorded in young BF organs, accompanied by elevated VvGID1 expression and lower VvSLY1b transcripts. Absence of seed traces, low endogenous GA quantities and lower expression of VvGA20ox4 and VvGA3ox3 were also recorded in berries of BF. Our results raise the hypothesis that, in young organs of BF, low expression of VvSLY1b may be responsible for the massive accumulation of VvDELLA proteins, which then leads to elevated VvGID1 levels. This integrated analysis suggests causal relationship between endogenous mechanisms leading to anomalous GA signaling repression in BF, manifested by high quantities of VvDELLA proteins, and greater growth response to GA application.

  17. Filial piety and traditional Chinese values: A study of high and mass cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David Y F; Xie, Weizhen; Liang, Xin; Zeng, Li

    2012-06-01

    Two studies were conducted, using indigenous materials stemming from both high and mass culture to construct measures of filial piety and other traditional Chinese values. In Study 1, data were collected from a sample of 666 participants (334 men and 332 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years from Taiwan and Hong Kong. In Study 2, data were collected from university students at different times, based on two samples in Hong Kong and another two in mainland China. The major findings are: (a) Filial piety is rooted more firmly in the ideal values of high culture than in the folk values of mass culture; (b) traditional Chinese values tend to be negatively associated with socioeconomic status; (c) ideal values are held much more strongly than folk values; and (d) among university students, there has been a moderate decrease in folk values in Hong Kong; but a moderate increase in folk values and a fairly large increase in ideal values in mainland China. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  19. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated analysis of written narratives reveals abnormalities in referential cohesion in youth at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tina; Hespos, Susan J; Horton, William S; Mittal, Vijay A

    2018-02-01

    Schizophrenia and at-risk populations are suggested to exhibit referential cohesion deficits in language production (e.g., producing fewer pronouns or nouns that clearly link to concepts from previous sentences). Much of this work has focused on transcribed speech samples, while no work to our knowledge has examined referential cohesion in written narratives among ultra high risk (UHR) youth using Coh-Metrix, an automated analysis tool. In the present study, written narratives from 84 individuals (UHR=41, control=43) were examined. Referential cohesion variables and relationships with symptoms and relevant cognitive variables were also investigated. Findings reveal less word "stem" overlap in narratives produced by UHR youth compared to controls, and correlations with symptom domains and verbal learning. The present study highlights the potential usefulness of automated analysis of written narratives in identifying at-risk youth and these data provide critical information in better understanding the etiology of psychosis. As writing production is commonly elicited in educational contexts, markers of aberrant cohesion in writing represent significant potential for identifying youth who could benefit from further screening, and utilizing software that is easily accessible and free may provide utility in academic and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  2. Abnormal lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and high plasma testosterone levels in male but not female aromatase-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Machida, Shuichi; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Takaoka, Osamu; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-05-15

    Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression. Interestingly, we found that hepatic steatosis was accompanied by markedly elevated plasma testosterone levels in male ArKO mice but not in female ArKO mice. Plasma lipoprotein profiles exhibited concurrent decreases in LDL- and small dense LDL-triglyceride (TG) levels in male ArKO mice. Moreover, male mice, but not female mice, exhibited marked elevations in androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and CD36 expression. These results strongly suggest that Cyp19 gene disruption, which induces a sexually dimorphic response and high plasma testosterone levels in male mice, also induces hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  4. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  5. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  6. Gestational diabetes is a herald of NIDDM in Navajo women. High rate of abnormal glucose tolerance after GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, J R; Sugarman, J R; Connell, F A

    1997-06-01

    To estimate the rate of deterioration of glucose tolerance and evaluate risk factors for development of NIDDM in Navajo women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A retrospective analysis of 111 GDM deliveries over a 4-year period, 1983-1987, was conducted in 1994 to determine glucose tolerance status. Patients who had not developed NIDDM were recalled for a 2-h glucose tolerance test (GTT). Tested and non-tested patients were compared, as estimate of conversion to NIDDM was calculated, and risk factors for NIDDM were evaluated. A life-table analysis was developed to estimate the probability of NIDDM after GDM. At the time of chart review, 32 patients (29%) had already been diagnosed with NIDDM. Of the patients, 79 were offered GTT testing, and 56 (71%) returned for follow-up; 15 were diagnosed with NIDDM and 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 47 (42%) and 64 (58%) patients in the cohort had developed NIDDM or NIDDM/IGT at the conclusion of the study period. Patients who developed NIDDM had greater BMIs, parity, and infant weights. Fasting blood glucose > 5.83 mmol/l, GTT > 41.63 mmol/l, and recurrence of GDM were associated with later NIDDM. A life-table analysis estimated a 53% likelihood of having NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up; a second model, based only on patients with known NIDDM status, predicted a 70% rate of NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up. A high proportion of Navajo women with GDM progressed to NIDDM. Postpartum counseling and periodic GTTs are recommended.

  7. Low complements and high titre of anti-Sm antibody as predictors of histopathologically proven silent lupus nephritis without abnormal urinalysis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Jun; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Nawata, Masao; Mizuno, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Mikiko; Sawamukai, Norifumi; Tamura, Masahito; Hirata, Shintaro; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and predictors of silent LN (SLN), a type of LN in SLE without abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment. Of 182 patients who underwent renal biopsy, 48 did not present with abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment at the time of biopsy. The patients with LN (SLN group, n = 36) and those without LN (non-LN group, n = 12) were compared with respect to their baseline characteristics. Bivariate analysis comprised Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test, whereas multivariate analysis employed binomial logistic regression analysis. LN was histopathologically identified in 36 of 48 patients. According to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, 72% of the SLN patients were classified as having class I/II, with a further 17% having class III/IV. Bivariate analyses indicated that platelet count, serum albumin, complement components (C3 and C4), complement haemolytic activity (CH50), anti-Sm antibody titre and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody titre were significantly different between groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that CH50 and C3 titres were significantly lower in the SLN group, whereas anti-Sm antibody titre was significantly higher. The cut-off titre, calculated based on the receiver operating characteristic curve for CH50, was 33 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 83%, respectively. The cut-off titre for anti-Sm antibodies was 9 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 83%, respectively. Low titres of CH50 and C3 and a high titre of anti-Sm antibody were identified as predictors of SLN. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  9. Methodical foundations of the preparation of highly valued personnel for high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Svetlana; Belyantseva, Oksana; Safonova, Nataliya; Vasilyeva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    When carrying out design and survey and construction and installation works for such an innovative type of activity as high-rise construction, the problem of personnel qualification becomes urgent. The article poses a research problem, identifies the main reasons for the need for training highly qualified specialists in construction, and suggests areas for improving training. The expediency of development of mentoring system was proved, the corresponding model of interaction between educational institutions and construction enterprises was offered, key interaction effects were evaluated.

  10. Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: Challenges in European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomba, A.; Guerra, C.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.P.; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of low intensity farming for the conservation of biodiversity throughout Europe was acknowledged early in the 1990s when the concept of ‘High Nature Value farmlands’ (HNVf) was devised. HNVf has subsequently been given high priority within the EU Rural Development Programme. This puts

  11. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  12. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  13. Hierarchy of values between religious high school students and secular ones in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza García Anchorena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the hierarchy of values among high school students, according to type of school (religious and secular and sex. The sample was composed by 250 high school students (60.4% male, 52% religious school. The ages are in the range of 14 to 17 years (M = 15.47, SD = 0.63. The instrument used was the Portrait Value Questionnaire by Schwartz (2001, whose analysis of structure and internal consistency was satisfactory. To compare the hierarchy of values between the groups, top down correlations (rtd > were used. According to the results, greater association (similarity was found between the hierarchy of values depending on the type of school (rtd = .82 and, to a lesser degree by sex (rtd = .69. The comparative results show greater Benevolence, Self-Direction, Stimulation among women and Achievement among men. The implications of the comparative results are discussed.

  14. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 forecasting informed by b-value variability, in particular in assessing the significance of b-value variations identified by sample sizes with fewer than 200 events above the completeness threshold.

  15. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  16. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  17. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  18. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  19. Screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities during the second trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Hui; Li Ming; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a pre -natal screening program for fetal chromosome abnormalities based on risk values calculated from maternal serum markers levels during the second trimester. Methods: Serum levels of AFP, β-HCG, uE 3 were determined with CLIA in 1048 pregnant women during 14-21w gestation period and the results were analyzed with a specific software (screening program for Down' s syndrome developed by Beckman) for the risk rate. In those women defined as being of high risk rate, cells from amniotic fluid or umbilical cord blood were studied for karyotype analysis. Results: Of these 1048 women, 77 were designated as being of high risk rate for several chromosome abnormalities i.e. Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and trisomy -18 syndrome (overall positive rate 7.3%). Further fetal chromosome study in 31 of them revealed three proven cases of abnormality. Another cord blood study was performed in a calculated low risk rate case but with abnormal sonographic finding at 31 w gestation and proved to be abnormal (software study false negative). The remaining 46 high risk rate cases either refused future study (n=35) or were lost for follow-up (n=11). Fortunately, all the 35 women refused further study gave birth to normal babies without any chromosome abnormalities discovered on peripheral blood study. Besides, in a trial study, five high risk rate women were again evaluated a few weeks later but with tremendous difference between the results. Conclusion: The present program proves to be clinically useful but needs further study and revision. Many factors may influence the result of the analysis and the duration of gestation period in weeks should be as accurate as possible. At present, in order to avoid getting false negatives, we don't advise a second check in 'high risk' cases. (authors)

  20. Optimal high b-value for diffusion weighted MRI in diagnosing high risk prostate cancers in the peripheral zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harsh K; Mertan, Francesca V; Sankineni, Sandeep; Bernardo, Marcelino; Senegas, Julien; Keupp, Jochen; Daar, Dagane; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the optimal b-value(s) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) associated with intermediate-high risk cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Forty-two consecutive patients underwent multi b-value (16 evenly spaced b-values between 0 and 2000 s/mm 2 ) DWI along with multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) of the prostate at 3 Tesla followed by trans-rectal ultrasound/MRI fusion guided targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions detected at MP-MRI. Computed DWI images up to a simulated b-value of 4000 s/mm 2 were also obtained using a pair of b-values (b = 133 and 400 or 667 or 933 s/mm 2 ) from the multi b-value DWI. The contrast ratio of average intensity of the targeted lesions and the background PZ was determined. Receiver operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUCs) were obtained for separating patients eligible for active surveillance with low risk prostate cancers from intermediate-high risk prostate cancers as per the cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA) scoring system. The AUC first increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching maximum at b = 1600 s/mm 2 (0.74) with no statistically significant different AUC of DWI with b-values 1067-2000 s/mm 2 . The AUC of computed DWI increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching a maximum of 0.75 around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . There was no statistically significant difference between the AUC of optimal acquired DWI and either of optimal computed DWI. The optimal b-value for acquired DWI in differentiating intermediate-high from low risk prostate cancers in the PZ is b = 1600 s/mm 2 . The computed DWI has similar performance as that of acquired DWI with the optimal performance around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:125-131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Value of improved lipid control in patients at high risk for adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P

    2016-06-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.

  2. Virginia policymakers' views on the value of visual arts education at the high school level

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Daisy Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out from Virginia policymakers their feelings toward visual arts education as a required subject at the high school level by answering the following questions: (1) How do policymakers and gatekeepers see the value of visual arts education as a required subject on the high school level? (2) What is the attitude of Virginia policymakers and gatekeepers towards the importance of issues pertaining to the framing of a visual arts education p...

  3. High Added-Value Products from Industrial Crop Biomass: Uses in the Agro-Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ugolini, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the valorization of industrial crop biomasses into high-value products with different applications in the agro-food sector, in a full biorefinery approach. Defatted seed meals (DSMs), co-products of the oil extraction procedure, from industrial crops of high economic importance such as Brassicaceae (Rapeseed, Carinata et al.) and of Asteraceae (Sunflower et al.), were used, such as or after processing. Their biological active compound and protein content ...

  4. Directionality of the Associations of High School Expectancy-Value, Aspirations, and Attainment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiesi; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip D.; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2015-01-01

    (This study examines the directionality of the associations among cognitive assets (IQ, academic achievement), motivational beliefs (academic self-concept, task values), and educational and occupational aspirations over time from late adolescence (Grade 10) into early adulthood (5 years post high school). Participants were from a nationally…

  5. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  6. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  8. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion of neonatal sepsis. M B Dhlamini, M S Suchard, T M Wiggill, O O Fadahun, D E Ballot. Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

  9. Cultivating Cultural Education Values of Islam Nusantara in MA (Islamic Senior High School Ali Maksum Krapyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembodo Ardi Widodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the cultural education values of Islam Nusantara atIslamic Senior High School of Ali Maksum Krapyak Yogyakarta and how those values are taught through education. This researchuses qualitative approach by usingdata collection technique through observation, interviews, and documentation. The process of analysis data used is qualitative. The results of this study show that Islam Nusantara is an Islamic style of Indonesia, a combination of Islamic theological values with the local traditions, culture and customs. There are three pillars in Islam Nusantara, there arethought, movement, and 'amaliyya (action and there are five signs of Islam Nusantara, namely reform (ishlahiyyah, tawazuniyyah, tathawwu'iyyah, akhlaqiyyah (politeness, and tasamuh;The cultural education values of Islam Nusantara in MA Ali Maksum is the value of nationalism, diversity (pluralism, and the value of NU (tasamuh, tawazun, tawasuth; The madrasah activities consist ofMuludan, grave pilgrimage, halal bi halal, Muharroman, haul of the founder (dies natalis, competitions reading kitab kuning(yellow books, etc., that those are the typical product of Islam Nusantara.

  10. Incorporation of Okara into Gluten-Free Cookies with High Quality and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. Ostermann-Porcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy products are a source of protein relatively inexpensive and recognized for their high nutritional value and functional properties. Okara is a byproduct from soy milk production. Gluten-free cookies have been developed using okara and commercial manioc flour. Four formulations were developed with different proportions of okara: 50%; 30%; 15%; and 0%. Physicochemical, physical properties, sensory analysis, and nutritional studies were performed. The use of inulin as partial replacement of sugar was evaluated. The incorporation of okara increased protein and fiber content. Furthermore, the hardness of cookies increased while the index of whiteness decreased. From the sensory evaluation, it could be concluded that the cookies presented a great acceptability. The cookies developed in this study have functional characteristics, providing added value to a waste product; furthermore the products were suitable for celiacs with acceptable quality and improved nutrition value.

  11. Synthesization of high-capacity auto-associative memories using complex-valued neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Hai-Xia; Yang, Xu-Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel design procedure is proposed for synthesizing high-capacity auto-associative memories based on complex-valued neural networks with real-imaginary-type activation functions and constant delays. Stability criteria dependent on external inputs of neural networks are derived. The designed networks can retrieve the stored patterns by external inputs rather than initial conditions. The derivation can memorize the desired patterns with lower-dimensional neural networks than real-valued neural networks, and eliminate spurious equilibria of complex-valued neural networks. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503338, 61573316, 61374152, and 11302195) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LQ15F030005).

  12. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  16. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  17. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  18. Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137 Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137 Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137 Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)

  19. Inculcation Nation Character Values Through Islamic Religious Education Subject In Public Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustiani Yustiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of cheating, promiscuity, making sordid video student in the classroom are the phenomena of decline in character education at the school. In this sense, character education is essential to emphasized. This research uses qualitative approach, by applying design research CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, and Product. In context of building the nation character values at the school will success on condition that it is accompanied with system and climate supported by each school. One of supporting system and climate is the headmaster's policies on the regulation that support the implementation of character education, and this policy should be supported by infrastructure of the school. The input aspect that determines inculcation of nation character values in these both schools is the quality of the school resources including headmaster, teachers, educational staffs, students, and education infrastructures. From the aspects of process, inculcation nation character values on these schools is implemented through the integration of the Islamic religious education subject and culture of the school. Syllabus and RPP on subjects of Islamic religious education in State Senior High School 1 Kudus and State Senior High School 1 Jepara have already been insightful with the education of nation character. The aspects of product from internalization of cultural values and nation character are embodied in attitudes and behaviors of the students at school and society.

  20. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  1. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  2. Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy fails to reverse immunovirological abnormalities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue induced by acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Bandera, Alessandra; Violin, Michela; Marchetti, Giulia; Piacentini, Luca; Vago, Gian Luca; Balotta, Claudia; Moroni, Mauro; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated. Rectosigmoid colonic (RSC) biopsies and blood samples of nine patients with acute HIV infection were collected. CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA, intracellular HIV DNA and messenger RNA cytokine expression were evaluated before and after 6 months of HAART. All nine patients presented symptomatic retroviral infection. Early HAART was associated with a sustained and comparable reduction of HIV RNA in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RSC biopsies. HIV DNA decreased in PBMCs, but was only marginally reduced in RSC biopsies. Comparisons between reduction rates of HIV DNA in these two compartments confirmed that HIV DNA clearance was less efficient in RSC biopsies compared with PBMCs. Assessment of immunological profiles in PBMCs and RSC biopsies showed that the T-helper (Th)1-like/Th2-like ratio was sharply decreased in RSC biopsies and increased in PBMCs throughout the study period. A persistent Th2-like profile was detected in RSC biopsies. Efficient clearing of HIV DNA observed in PBMCs correlated with the establishment of a more favourable Th1-like profile. A less efficient clearance of intracellular HIV DNA following early introduction of HAART is associated with persistent immunological impairment in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is reflected by the skewed expression of cytokines in this reservoir. The present study shows that early initiation of HAART, in the short-term, is not effective in containing the establishment of HIV infection and in reversing associated immunological GALT abnormalities.

  3. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, Pinositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model.

  4. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for the High-Value Chemicals Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek

    Emerging problems like increasing global warming and depletion of fossil fuels bring serious concerns regarding production of food and various chemicals in the future. Clearly, there is a need for finding alternative and more sustainable ways of producing chemicals in order to satisfy increasing...... consumer demands of an ever growing population. Considering the ability to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass, cyanobacteria and microalgae have potential for becoming such alternative in the future. Biosynthesis of a great number of plant high-value secondary metabolites requires...... and cheap fertilizer as a medium for the cultivation of engineered cyanobacterial strains is shown. Alternative strategy to engineer Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a universal platform for the sustainable production of diverse range high-value phenylpropanoids which find use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics...

  5. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  6. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  7. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value m...

  8. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  9. Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV) farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspec...... conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change....

  10. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  11. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give surgeons who perform kinematically aligned TKA confidence that the alignment method and surgical technique limit high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between

  12. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  13. Desserts with a high nutritional value in the industry employees nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telegenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of the sweet foods with a high nutritional value development. Evaluation of the organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of model jelly samples with jost and spirulina showed that the proposed formula and technology gives a product with high consumer properties. There is a theoretically substantiated expediency of a jost and spirulina jelly implementation in such restaurant enterprises as dining rooms in the industrial plants. Using the jost and spirulina nutritional supplements can expand the range of the preventive nutrition foods.

  14. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  15. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A

  16. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  17. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module

  18. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module.

  19. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  20. Hypercellularity Components of Glioblastoma Identified by High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Priyanka P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Parmar, Hemant A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mammoser, Aaron G.; Junck, Larry R. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Michelle M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target definition may expose glioblastomas (GB) to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. This study aimed to develop a technique to identify the hypercellular components of GB by using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to investigate its relationship with the prescribed 95% isodose volume (PDV) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning was based upon conventional MRI. Pre-RT DWIs were acquired in 3 orthogonal directions with b-values of 0, 1000, and 3000 s/mm{sup 2}. Hypercellularity volume (HCV) was defined on the high b-value (3000 s/mm{sup 2}) DWI by a threshold method. Nonenhanced signified regions not covered by the Gd-enhanced gross tumor volume (GTV-Gd) on T1-weighted images. The PDV was used to evaluate spatial coverage of the HCV by the dose plan. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. Results: HCVs and nonenhanced HCVs varied from 0.58 to 67 cm{sup 3} (median: 9.8 cm{sup 3}) and 0.15 to 60 cm{sup 3} (median: 2.5 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Fourteen patients had incomplete dose coverage of the HCV, 6 of whom had >1 cm{sup 3} HCV missed by the 95% PDV (range: 1.01-25.4 cm{sup 3}). Of the 15 patients who progressed, 5 progressed earlier, within 6 months post-RT, and 10 patients afterward. Pre-RT HCVs within recurrent GTVs-Gd were 78% (range: 65%-89%) for the 5 earliest progressions but lower, 53% (range: 0%-85%), for the later progressions. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS (P<.002 and P<.01, respectively). The hypercellularity subvolume not covered by the 95% PDV was a significant negative predictor for PFS (P<.05). Conclusions: High b-value DWI

  1. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression profiling-derived immunohistochemistry signature with high prognostic value in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wenjun; Gao, Xianhua; Han, Yifang; Du, Yan; Liu, Qizhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Yu, Yongwei; Fan, Xinjuan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Weiping; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Chuangang; Cao, Guangwen

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression profiling provides an opportunity to develop robust prognostic markers of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the markers have not been applied for clinical decision making. We aimed to develop an immunohistochemistry signature using microarray data for predicting CRC prognosis. We evaluated 25 CRC gene signatures in independent microarray datasets with prognosis information and constructed a subnetwork using signatures with high concordance and repeatable prognostic values. Tumours were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of network-centric and the top overlapping molecules. Prognostic values were assessed in 682 patients from Shanghai, China (training cohort) and validated in 343 patients from Guangzhou, China (validation cohort). Median follow-up duration was 58 months. All p values are two-sided. Five signatures were selected to construct a subnetwork. The expression of GRB2, PTPN11, ITGB1 and POSTN in cancer cells, each significantly associated with disease-free survival, were selected to construct an immunohistochemistry signature. Patients were dichotomised into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with an optimal risk score (1.55). Compared with low-risk patients, high-risk patients had shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) in the training (HR=6.62; 95% CI 3.70 to 11.85) and validation cohorts (HR=3.53; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.84) in multivariate Cox analyses. The signature better predicted DSS than did tumour-node-metastasis staging in both cohorts. In those who received postoperative chemotherapy, high-risk score predicted shorter DSS in the training (HR=6.35; 95% CI 3.55 to 11.36) and validation cohorts (HR=5.56; 95% CI 2.25 to 13.71). Our immunohistochemistry signature may be clinically practical for personalised prediction of CRC prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Normative reference values for high school-aged American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Miramonti, Amelia A; Gillen, Zachary M; Leutzinger, Todd J; Mendez, Alegra I; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the present report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for combine test results based on a large, nationally-representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Cross-sectional anthropometric and performance data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines between March 7, 2015 and January 9, 2016 across the United States. Subjects included a sample (n=7,478) of high school-aged American football athletes in their junior (n=3,779), sophomore (n=2,514), and freshman (n=1,185) classes. The database included combine date, school state, position, class, height, weight, 40-yard dash (40YD), pro-agility (PA), 3-cone (3C), vertical jump (VJ), broad jump (BJ), and power push-up (PPU). Each player self-classified their American football positions as defensive back (DB), defensive end (DE), defensive linemen (DL), linebacker (LB), offensive linemen (OL), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), or wide receiver (WR). Test- and position- specific normative values were generated by aggregating data from freshmen, sophomore, and junior classes. Mean differences were found among classes for all positions and all measurements (p≤0.05), except for TE weight (p>0.05). Greater difference for all variables were observed from freshmen to sophomore classes than from sophomore to junior classes. These normative reference values may provide realistic comparisons and evaluations in performance for young American football players, parents, and coaches with collegiate football aspirations. High school strength and conditioning professionals should use these norms to set attainable goals and reward accomplishments for young football players.

  4. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  5. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  6. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  7. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  8. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  9. Interactions of microalgae and other microorganisms for enhanced production of high-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzu, Giovanni Antonio; Turgut Dunford, Nurhan

    2018-03-01

    The cultivation of microalgae for the production of biomass and associated valuable compounds has gained increasing interest not only within the scientific community but also at the industrial level. Microalgae cells are capable of producing high-value compounds that are widely used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and aquaculture industries. For example, lipids produced by algae can be converted to biodiesel, other fuels and bio-products. Hence, high oil content algal biomass has been regarded as a potential alternative feedstock to replace terrestrial crops for sustainable production of bio-products. It has been reported that the interaction of microalgae and other microorganisms greatly enhances the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and its chemical composition. Microalgae-bacteria interaction with an emphasis on the nature of symbiotic relationship in mutualisitc and parasitic consortia has been extensively studied. For instance, it is well documented that production of vitamins or growth promoting factors by bacteria enhances the growth of microalgae. Little attention has been paid to the consortia formed by microalgae and other microorganisms such as other microalgae strains, cyanobacteria, fungi, and yeasts. Hence, the aim of this review is to investigate the impact of the microalgae-other microorganism interactions on the production of high value compounds.

  10. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Popp, Steffen; Singler, Katrin; Smolarsky, Alexander; Bertsch, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Greve, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic and predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) in patients with syncope. We performed an analysis of consecutive patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department. The primary end point was the accuracy to diagnose a cardiac syncope. In addition, the study explored the prognostic relevance of cTnThs in patients with cardiac and noncardiac syncope. A total of 360 patients were enrolled (median age, 70.5 years; male, 55.8%; 23.9% aged >80 years). Cardiac syncope was present in 22% of patients, reflex syncope was present in 40% of patients, syncope due to orthostatic hypotension was present in 20% of patients, and unexplained syncope was present in 17.5% of patients. A total of 148 patients (41%) had cTnThs levels above the 99% confidence interval (CI) (cutoff point). The diagnostic accuracy for cTnThs levels to determine the diagnosis of cardiac syncope was quantified by the area under the curve (0.77; CI, 0.72-0.83; P value of cTnThs levels within 30 days: Patients with increased cTnThs levels had a 52% likelihood for adverse events, patients with cTnThs levels below the cutoff point had a low risk (negative predictive value, 83.5%). Increased cTnThs levels indicate adverse prognosis in patients with noncardiac causes of syncope, but not in patients with cardiac syncope being a risk factor for adverse outcome by itself. Patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department have a high proportion of life-threatening conditions. cTnThs levels show a limited diagnostic and predictive accuracy for the identification of patients with syncope at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  13. Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network Externalities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Claro Tomaselli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation.

  14. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  15. Added-values of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data in crop yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of crop yield before harvest is critical for food market and administrative planning. Remote sensing derived parameters have been used for estimating crop yield by using either empirical or crop growth models. The uses of remote sensing vegetation index (VI) in crop yield modeling have been typically evaluated at regional and country scales using coarse spatial resolution (a few hundred to kilo-meters) data or assessed over a small region at field level using moderate resolution spatial resolution data (10-100m). Both data sources have shown great potential in capturing spatial and temporal variability in crop yield. However, the added value of data with both high spatial and temporal resolution data has not been evaluated due to the lack of such data source with routine, global coverage. In recent years, more moderate resolution data have become freely available and data fusion approaches that combine data acquired from different spatial and temporal resolutions have been developed. These make the monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield at field scale become possible. Here we investigate the added value of the high spatial and temporal VI for describing variability of crop yield. The explanatory ability of crop yield based on high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data was evaluated in a rain-fed agricultural area in the U.S. Corn Belt. Results show that the fused Landsat-MODIS (high spatial and temporal) VI explains yield variability better than single data source (Landsat or MODIS alone), with EVI2 performing slightly better than NDVI. The maximum VI describes yield variability better than cumulative VI. Even though VI is effective in explaining yield variability within season, the inter-annual variability is more complex and need additional information (e.g. weather, water use and management). Our findings augment the importance of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data and supports new moderate

  16. Surviving the Lead Reliability Engineer Role in High Unit Value Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a) the project constitutes one of a kind (or two-of-a-kind) national asset type of project, b) very large cost, and c) a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer. We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries.

  17. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  18. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  19. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  20. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  2. High-value compounds from microalgae with industrial exploitability - A review .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-06-01

      From the past several years, algal biotechnology has gained noticeable interests among research-based organizations and industrial sectors. Recent studies have provided considerable evidence that microalgae-derived bioactive compounds could play a vital role in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Microalgae-based industrial exploitability ranges from basic biomass-based food and feeds nutraceuticals to high-value pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, ecological and biomedical applications. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, social and environmental awareness, bio-inspired synthesis of microalgae-based green products, and recent advancements in algal biotechnology will extend the utilization of microalgae into new areas. Microalgae offer high biodiversity with an enormous potential to produce structurally complex yet bioactive compounds which are either impossible or difficult to produce via synthetic routes. In this paper, a range of value-added bioactive compounds from microalgae with industrial potentialities has been reviewed. The contribution ended with a critical description of the main research gaps and envisioned with future considerations to progress further in this exciting era of research.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  4. Testing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high-dimensional molecular data such as microarray gene expression data have been used for disease outcome prediction or diagnosis purposes for about ten years in biomedical research, the question of the additional predictive value of such data given that classical predictors are already available has long been under-considered in the bioinformatics literature. Results We suggest an intuitive permutation-based testing procedure for assessing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data. Our method combines two well-known statistical tools: logistic regression and boosting regression. We give clear advice for the choice of the only method parameter (the number of boosting iterations. In simulations, our novel approach is found to have very good power in different settings, e.g. few strong predictors or many weak predictors. For illustrative purpose, it is applied to the two publicly available cancer data sets. Conclusions Our simple and computationally efficient approach can be used to globally assess the additional predictive power of a large number of candidate predictors given that a few clinical covariates or a known prognostic index are already available. It is implemented in the R package "globalboosttest" which is publicly available from R-forge and will be sent to the CRAN as soon as possible.

  5. Transvaginal sonography in abnormal uterine bleeding and correlation to hysteroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Shah, S.; Ali, H.; Khan, S.; Ehsan, N.; Ahmed, S.Z.

    2017-01-01

    To correlate results of Transvaginal sonography with those of hysteroscopy and biopsy in abnormal uterine bleeding to estimate the accuracy and analytical values of non-invasive transvaginal sonography in abnormal uterine bleeding. Methodology: This cross-sectional Study was carried out at BMCH, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan from March 2013 to February 2014 and included 200 patients of abnormal uterine bleeding. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, virginity, local bleeding of perineal or vaginal origin. Hysteroscopy and biopsy and Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVS) were performed in all. Result: The most common type of bleeding was found to be menorrhagia in 39% while the least common type was postmenopausal bleeding in 9%. Mean endometrial thickness was 11.64 mm and it was noted that at less than 14mm thickness no serious pathology was found. Sensitivity of TVS for endometrial hyperplasia was found to be 66.66% while specificity was 100%. Positive analytical value was 100% while negative value was 100%. Overall sensitivity calculated for TVS was 94.44%, specificity 98.55%, PPV was 81.93% and NPV 98.55%. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of TVS were lower than hysteroscopy and biopsy but the difference was not significant. TVS can be used as first line investigation while hysteroscopy and biopsy may be left for cases of high risk or in those cases where some positive findings could be found on TVS. (author)

  6. Value of high-resolution MR in patients scheduled for cochlear implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.; Held, P. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology; Waldeck, A. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Otorhinolaryngology; Strotzer, M. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology; Voelk, J.; Strutz, J. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Otorhinolaryngology; Feuerbach, S. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-11-01

    Objective: To determine sensitivity and specificity of high-resolution MR imaging and of high-resolution axial CT (HRCT) and to compare the two modalities in predicting the surgical and functional success of cochlear implantation. Material and Methods: The presurgical MR images (2D T2W TSE, 3D T2*W CISS, plain and contrast-enhanced 3D T1W MP-RAGE) and axial HRCT findings of 26 patients were evaluated with regard to the predictive value concerning the success of cochlear implantation. Results: We found a high correlation between MR and HRCT and the success of cochlear implantation. In all 26 patients, the MR-based predictions concerning the success of cochlear implantation were correct. In 10 patients, MR gave additional information to HRCT. In all patients, MR gave sufficient information about the status of the inner ear, inner auditory canal and cochlear nerve to aid the surgeon during the operation. Conclusion: A high-resolution MR protocol consisting of coronal 2D T2W TSE, 3D T2*W axial CISS, plain and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1W 3D MP-RAGE is recommended for the evaluation of candidates scheduled for cochlear implantation. It provides information which cannot be obtained by HRCT.

  7. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  8. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  10. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2013-10-15

    The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al(3+) soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  12. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  13. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  14. Refining Our Understanding of Value-Based Insurance Design and High Cost Sharing on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Bachman, Sara S; Tan, Hui Ren

    2017-05-01

    There is significant concern about the financial burdens of new insurance plan designs on families, particularly families with children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). With value-based insurance design (VBID) plans growing in popularity, this study examined the implications of selected VBID cost-sharing features on children. We studied children's health care spending patterns in 2 data sets that include high deductible and narrow network plans among others. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2007 to 2013 on 22 392 children were used to study out-of-pocket (OOP) costs according to CYSHCN, family income, and spending. MarketScan large employer insurance claims data from 2007 to 2014 ( N = 4 263 452) were used to test for differences in mean total payments and OOP costs across various health plans. Across the data sets, we found that existing health plans place significant financial burdens on families, particularly lower income households and families with CYSHCN; individuals among the top 10% of OOP spending averaged more than $2000 per child. Although high deductible and consumer-driven plans impose substantial OOP costs on children, they do not significantly reduce spending, whereas health maintenance organizations that use network restrictions and tighter management do. Our results do not support the conclusion that high cost-sharing features that are common in VBID plans will significantly reduce health care spending on children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  16. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  17. Features of working in fields with high values of exposure dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Features of working in fields with the exposure dose rate (EDR) ∼ 1000-7000 R/h are described. Data on the performed operations concerning initial decontamination of the Chernobyl-3 reactor roof during 10.07.86-03.10.86 are presented. It is marked that the methodical recommendations on working in fields with high values of EDR are absent in our country and abroad and it is necessary to develop them on the basis of obtained experience. Moreover, there are no protective means (protective clotting). Main principles of its creation are the protection of critical organ groups and comfort in working. Personnel should be specially trained and get phychologically ready. 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Trial of High-Value Change Using Practice Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, LeAnn; Anastas, Tracy; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Fagnan, Lyle; Dorr, David A

    2017-01-01

    To understand how focused versus general practice facilitation can impact goal setting, action planning, and team performance in primary care transformation. Practice transformation in primary care is a crucial part of health reform, but can fatigue teams, leading to variable results. Practice facilitation may reduce primary care fatigue to help teams reach challenging transformation goals, but may require a more focused approach than previous studies suggest. We performed a 12-month cluster randomized trial, during which 8 primary care clinics received practice facilitation. Four practices in the intervention arm received targeted facilitation to focus quality improvement (QI) goals on high-value elements (HVEs) intended to reduce cost and utilization, whereas 4 control practices received generalized QI facilitation. We investigated the impact of the targeted versus generalized approach on goal selection, action item selection and achievement, HVE attainment, and collaborative practice, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Intervention clinics selected an average of 7 goals and 29 action items, compared with 8 goals and 40 action items among controls. Eighty-three percent of intervention goals were related to HVEs, compared with 27% of goals among controls. Intervention clinics selected 101 HVE goals and met 68%, while controls selected 41 and met 61%. Analysis of pre-post practice surveys indicated greater improvement among intervention across 4 of 8 domains of collaborative practice. Targeted facilitation may be more effective than a generalized approach to support practices in reaching high-value change goals, as well as fostering improvement of team focus on goals, roles and responsibilities. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  1. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oystein E.; Wade, Angie; Addison, Shea; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Scott, Rosemary J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J., E-mail: owen.arthurs@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M., E-mail: Catherine.owens@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E., E-mail: oystein.olsen@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition and Biostatistics Section, UCL Institute of Child health, London (United Kingdom); Addison, Shea, E-mail: shea.addison@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod, E-mail: rod.jones@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Norman, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.norman@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J., E-mail: rosemary.scott@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities.

  4. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  5. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  6. Effect of Strain Restored Energy on Abnormal Grain Growth in Mg Alloy Simulated by Phase Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Huang, Yuan-yuan

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal grain growth of single phase AZ31 Mg alloy in the spatio-temporal process has been simulated by phase field models, and the influencing factors of abnormal grain growth are studied in order to find the ways to control secondary recrystallization in the microstructure. The study aims to find out the mechanisms for abnormal grain growth in real alloys. It is shown from the simulated results that the abnormal grain growth can be controlled by the strain restored energy. Secondary recrystallization after an annealing treatment can be induced if there are grains of a certain orientation in the microstructure with local high restored energy. However, if the value of the local restored energy at a certain grain orientation is not greater than 1.1E 0, there may be no abnormal grain growth in the microstructure.

  7. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  8. How to Identify High-Risk APS Patients: Clinical Utility and Predictive Values of Validated Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the persistence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that are pathogenic and have pro-coagulant activities. Thrombosis in APS tends to recur and require prophylaxis; however, the stereotypical treatment for APS patients is inadequate and stratification of the thrombotic risks is important as aPL are prevalently observed in various diseases or elderly population. It is previously known that the multiple positive aPL or high titre aPL correlate to thrombotic events. To progress the stratification of thrombotic risks in APS patients and to quantitatively analyse those risks, antiphospholipid score (aPL-S) and the Global Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Score (GAPSS) were defined. These scores were raised from the large patient cohort data and either aPL profile classified in detail (aPL-S) or simplified aPL profile with classical thrombotic risk factors (GAPSS) was put into a scoring system. Both the aPL-S and GAPSS have shown a degree of accuracy in identifying high-risk APS patients, especially those at a high risk of thrombosis. However, there are several areas requiring improvement, or at least that clinicians should be aware of, before these instruments are applied in clinical practice. One such issue is standardisation of the aPL tests, including general testing of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT). Additionally, clinicians may need to be aware of the patient's medical history, particularly with respect to the incidence of SLE, which influences the cutoff value for identifying high-risk patients.

  9. TRANSFORMING RICE HUSK INTO A HIGH-ADDED VALUE PRODUCT: POTENTIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Amanda da Silva César

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards made with different formulations, varying adhesive content and rice husk (Oryza sativa L. proportions added to Cunninghamia lanceolata wood. Three adhesive contents (6, 9 and 12% and three proportions of rice husk added to wood (25, 50 and 75% were combined resulting in 9 formulations of particleboards. In order to analyze the influence of each raw material in the final quality of the boards, their chemical composition was determined, including extractive, ash, lignin and holocellulose contents. Regarding the particleboards, the following physical and mechanical properties were evaluated: water absorption (WA, thickness swelling (TS, internal bonding (IB, parallel compression (PC, modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending. For both mechanical and physical properties, average values showed that lower rice husk proportions and higher adhesive contents induced to better performance. Low lignin and high ash contents found in rice husks negatively influenced particleboard quality. Among the formulations tested, the inclusion of 25% of rice husk and 9% urea-formaldehyde presented the best results. Particleboards produced in this work are potential alternatives for general applications in dry conditions that do not require high mechanical resistance. Nevertheless, the process and formulations need to be adjusted in order to reach the requirements for more demanding structural applications.

  10. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosonuma, Tomonori; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Sakuma, Tohru; Hayashi, Daichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer. The subjects were 15 patients diagnosed endoscopically with rectal cancer (m in 1 patient, sm in 0, mp in 3, ss in 7, se in 1, a in 3) and 20 patients diagnosed endoscopically with colon cancer and no other lesions (control group). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5T system. DWI was performed in the axial plane using echo planar imaging sequence (repetition time/echo time 1200/66, field of view 306 X 350 mm, reconstruction matrix 156 x 256, pixel size 2.0 x 1.4 x 8.0 mm) and acquired with 2 b-values (50 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Low and high b-value DW images were analyzed visually. A lesion was positive by detection of a focal area of high signal in the rectum in high b-value images. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of areas of high signal in high b-value images were calculated from the low and high b-value images. High b-value images enabled visualization of all 15 rectal cancers. In the control group, 13 cases were classified as negative and 7 cases as positive for rectal cancer. Sensitivity for detection of rectal cancer was 100% (15/15), and specificity was 65% (13/20). The mean ADC values in 7 patients with false-positive lesions and in 15 patients with rectal cancer were 1.374 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (standard deviation [SD]: 0.157) and 1.194 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (SD: 0.152), respectively (P=0.026). DWI with low and high b-values may be used to screen for rectal cancer. (author)

  12. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  13. Plant abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Uchida, Shunsuke; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device capable of detecting abnormal symptoms of equipments having failed portions and portions to be repaired and requiring concentrated monitoring in a plant during operation, for example, nuclear power plants, in an early stage without losing reliability. Namely, the abnormality of the plant is judged based on the comparison of plant operation parameters and their allowable values in the method of monitoring plant abnormality. In this case, the allowable values of the plant operation parameters allowed to be changed based on the information on the state of equipments which shows the state of constitutional equipments of the plant. In addition, when a measured plant operation parameter exceeds the allowable value of each of the previously set plant operation parameters, allowable values of other plant operation parameters having relation with the plant operation parameters can be changed. According to the present invention, since the allowable range of the plant operation parameters for the equipments to be repaired and failed equipments can be made narrower than that of ordinary equipments, abnormal symptoms can be detected on the normal side in an early stage. (I.S.)

  14. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  15. Beneficiary effect of Commiphora mukul ethanolic extract against high fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bellamkonda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin elthanolic extract treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: two of these groups (group C and C+CM were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (group F and F+CM were fed with high fructose (66 % diet. C. mukul suspension in 5% Tween-80 in distilled water (200 mg/kg body weight/day was administered orally to group C+CM and group F+CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. mukul treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F decreased significantly with C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that C. mukul treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms by the extract which was further supported by histopathological results from liver samples which showed regeneration of the hepatocytes. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  16. The prognostic value of IDH mutations and MGMT promoter status in secondary high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratli, T A; Kirsch, M; Geiger, K; Klink, B; Leipnitz, E; Pinzer, T; Soucek, S; Schrock, E; Schrok, E; Schackert, G; Krex, D

    2012-12-01

    Reports about the prognostic value of IDH mutations and the promoter region of the O6-Methyl-guanyl-methyl-transferase gene in secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) are few in number. We investigated the prognostic value of IDH mutations and methylation of the promoter region of the MGMT gene in 99 patients with sHGG and analyzed the clinical course of those tumors. Patients with sHGG were screened for IDH mutations by direct sequencing, and, for promoter status of MGMT gene, by the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 48 of 99 patients (48.5 %) had secondary anaplastic gliomas (Group 1), while 51 patients had secondary glioblastomas (Group 2). The median survival time after malignant progression of all patients with sHGG and with an IDH mutation was 4 years, which is significantly longer than in patients with wild-type IDH (1.2 years, p = 0.009). Patients' survival was not significantly influenced by the tumors' MGMT promoter status, both in Group 1- 9.7 years vs. 6.1 years, methylated vs. unmethylated promoter (p = 0.330)-as well as in Group 2-1.5 years vs. 1.6 years, methylated versus unmethylated promoter (p = 0.829). In our population, the IDH mutation status was not associated with increased PFS or median survival time in sGBM patients. However, patients with secondary anaplastic glioma and IDH mutation had a significantly improved outcome. In addition, IDH mutations are a more powerful prognostic marker concerning both PFS and MS than the MGMT promoter status in those patients.

  17. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  18. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  19. The clinical value of sequential cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tetsu; Takada, Satoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujii, Masahiko

    1997-03-01

    Cranial MRI scans were performed in seventy-five infants determined to be at risk for neurological impairment in future. Thirty-four infants demonstrated a total of 51 lesions consistent with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), including periventricular leukomalacia with cysts (cystic PVL, n=4), PVL without cysts (linear PVL, n=15), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, n=7), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, n=4), and ventriculomegaly (n=21). Diagnoses by ultrasonography (US) were compared with those by MRI in all infants, respectively. US findings almost agreed with those of MRI except ventriculomegaly. PVL and IVH were seen most often in preterm infants, ICH occurred in full term infants. All infants of cystic PVL and 10 infants of linear PVL (67%) had developmental abnormalities. Thirty-nine infants had once or twice sequential MRI scans. In all infants with PVL, the findings of periventricular hyperintensity, volume loss of white matter and myelination delay were more evident at sequential MRI scans. These findings were correlated with the severity of developmental abnormalities. This study suggests that sequential MRI provides a more reliable prediction of neurological impairment. (author)

  20. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  1. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  2. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon.Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted.Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized.Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87 of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36 of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28 compared to 16 mm (11-22 in normal cords, which was statistically significant.Conclusion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities.

  3. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon.Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted.Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized.Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87 of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36 of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28 compared to 16 mm (11-22 in normal cords, which was statistically significant.Conclusion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities.

  4. Cardiac risk scores in high-risk Hispanics and the predictive value of BNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Danwalder, Sara; Sinha, Karabi

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate cardiac risk scores in Hispanic subjects and to determine the predictive value of adding B-type natriuretic peptide in identifying those with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction as a measure of cardiovascular disease. Hispanics have higher rates of cardiovascular risk factors leading to coronary heart disease, asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Assessing cardiac risk in these groups is important to identify those at high risk for future cardiovascular events. The use of biomarkers such as B-type natriuretic peptide may increase the accuracy of risk prediction. This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design to determine the utility of the standard risk assessment tools (Adult Treatment Panel III and the Framingham Risk Scores risk calculator) and the B-type natriuretic peptide biomarker to estimate coronary heart disease risk in low-income, Hispanic participants. A sample of 71 patients (age 52 SD 11, 69% female) with multiple cardiovascular risk factors seen at an ambulatory clinic at a county facility was enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic and medical history information were obtained. Two widely used risk calculators (Adult Treatment Panel III and Framingham Risk Scores) were used to estimate 10-year coronary heart disease risk in each subject. Baseline B-type natriuretic peptide measurement and echocardiography were performed with each subject to evaluate presence of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Receiver operating curve analyses were performed to compare predictability, sensitivity and specificity of the traditional risk scores against the B-type natriuretic peptide level to detect asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Overall mean risk scores were 5% (SD 5%) (Adult Treatment Panel III) and 10% (SD 7%) (Framingham Risk Scores). Mean B-type natriuretic peptide levels were 108·5 (SD 191·5) pg/ml. Echocardiogram results revealed a high

  5. Revival of high street retailing – the added value of shopping apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Demko-Rihter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and constant development of technology and social media drive every-day changes in the retail sector, modifying behaviour and power of consumers, whereby traditional brick and mortar stores are facing the risk to become obsolete. E-commerce and m-commerce offer to customer a more convenient, faster and easier way of shopping and the possibility to customize products and services to the individual needs of customers. There are different business models and tools for enhancing the on-line retail industry, which causes changes in the business of the whole retail sector, as well as in the micro and macro social and economic environment. One of consequences of increasing value of the on-line retail industry is a dropping number of customers shopping for products in brick and mortar stores in high streets and city centers. Brick and mortar retailers are exploring new ways to reach these lost shoppers. In this study an innovative application is researched that tries to bridge online and in-store shopping with an online platform (website and a smart-phone app. The aim of this platform and app is to enhance the local shopping experience by making the physical city centre available for smart-phones and tablets.

  6. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  7. Microalgae as sources of high added-value compounds--a brief review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A Catarina; Amaro, Helena M; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae have found commercial applications as natural sources of valuable macromolecules, including carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phycocolloids. As photoautotrophs, their simple growth requirements make them attractive for bioprocesses aimed at producing high added-value compounds that are in large demand by the pharmaceutical market. A few compounds synthesized by microalgae have indeed proven to possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumoral features; astaxanthin, a known antioxidant produced by Haematococcus pluvialis, is an illustrative example with important anti-inflammatory and antitumoral roles. From a chemical standpoint, several such compounds are polysaccharides or long chain fatty acids, where the latter can be either saturated or unsaturated. Additionally, their chemical structures are often atypical, whereas their concentrations can exceed those found in many other natural sources. The productivity and biochemical composition of microalgae depend strongly on the mode of cultivation, medium composition, and nutrient profile. Consequently, numerous efforts aimed at elucidating the practical impacts of the aforementioned parameters have been developed. This review accordingly covers the knowledge produced in the last two decades on the uses of microalgae to obtain physiologically active compounds, and on the optimization of the underlying production and purification processes. It also identifies major gaps and opportunities in this field that should be addressed or exploited in the near future. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Investigating the added values of high frequency energy consumption data using data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Engström, Christopher; Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Wallin, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we apply data-mining techniques to customer classification and clustering tasks on actual electricity consumption data from 350 Swedish households. For the classification task we classify households into different categories based on some statistical attributes of their energy consumption measurements. For the clustering task, we use average daily load diagrams to partition electricity-consuming households into distinct groups. The data contains electricity consumption measurements on each 10-minute time interval for each light source and electrical appliance. We perform the classification and clustering tasks using four variants of processed data sets corresponding to the 10-minute total electricity consumption aggregated from all electrical sources, the hourly total consumption aggregated over all 10-minute intervals during that clock hour, the total consumption over each four-hour intervals and finally the daily total consumption. The goal is to see if there are any differences in using data sets of various frequency levels. We present the comparison results and investigate the added value of the high-frequency measurements, for example 10-minute measurements, in terms of its influence on customer clustering and classification.

  9. Deformation of Cases in High Capacitance Value Wet Tantalum Capacitors under Environmental Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Internal gas pressure in hermetic wet tantalum capacitors is created by air, electrolyte vapor, and gas generated by electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. This pressure increases substantially with temperature and time of operation due to excessive leakage currents. Deformation of the case occurs when the internal pressure exceeds pressure of the environments and can raise significantly when a part operates in space. Contrary to the cylinder case wet tantalum capacitors that have external sealing by welding and internal sealing provided by the Teflon bushing and crimping of the case, no reliable internal sealing exists in the button case capacitors. Single seal design capacitors are used for high capacitance value wet tantalum capacitors manufactured per DLA L&M drawings #04003, 04005, and 10011, and require additional analysis to assure their reliable application in space systems. In this work, leakage currents and case deformation of button case capacitors were measured during different environmental test conditions. Recommendations for derating, screening and qualification testing are given. This work is a continuation of a series of NEPP reports related to quality and reliability of wet tantalum capacitors.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ PREFERENCE TO HYBRIDS – PROSPECT FOR UPGRADING TO HIGH-VALUE FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Ejigu Alemu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid coordination systems (marketing cooperatives and contracts are in place in agriculture to link smallholder farmers to the global agri-food value chains. With the framework of transaction cost economics, this study, however, is particularly designed to investigate the key determinants pushing dairy farmers to hybrids (marketing cooperatives and contracts, viz. spot market channels in the local food chains. A household survey of 415 smallholder dairy farmers was designed. Data collection was administered using trained enumerators. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to analyze data and to identify the signifi cant determinants. The results indicate that high transaction costs and resource constraints were found driving farmers to cooperative engagement and contracts, implying that hybrids were found to be a solution to farmers’ constraints of access to information and institutional absence, as well as resource constraints. Policy makers and development partners are advised to strengthen cooperative societies and contract enforcement mechanisms. Providing information and resources to increase smallholders’ capacity with resources appear to be interventions which will enable the agricultural marketing system to properly function by serving smallholders in linking to the global food chains.

  11. Toward high value sensing: monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles in multivariable gas and vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A

    2017-08-29

    For detection of gases and vapors in complex backgrounds, "classic" analytical instruments are an unavoidable alternative to existing sensors. Recently a new generation of sensors, known as multivariable sensors, emerged with a fundamentally different perspective for sensing to eliminate limitations of existing sensors. In multivariable sensors, a sensing material is designed to have diverse responses to different gases and vapors and is coupled to a multivariable transducer that provides independent outputs to recognize these diverse responses. Data analytics tools provide rejection of interferences and multi-analyte quantitation. This review critically analyses advances of multivariable sensors based on ligand-functionalized metal nanoparticles also known as monolayer-protected nanoparticles (MPNs). These MPN sensing materials distinctively stand out from other sensing materials for multivariable sensors due to their diversity of gas- and vapor-response mechanisms as provided by organic and biological ligands, applicability of these sensing materials for broad classes of gas-phase compounds such as condensable vapors and non-condensable gases, and for several principles of signal transduction in multivariable sensors that result in non-resonant and resonant electrical sensors as well as material- and structure-based photonic sensors. Such features should allow MPN multivariable sensors to be an attractive high value addition to existing analytical instrumentation.

  12. Production of High Commercial Value Xylooligosaccharides from Meranti Wood Sawdust Using Immobilised Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Siti Sabrina Mohd; Mimi Sakinah, A M

    2018-01-01

    The present study explores the utilisation of a new raw material from lignocellulose biomass, Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) for high commercial value xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production using immobilised xylanase. The xylanase was immobilised by a combination of entrapment and covalent binding techniques. The hemicellulosic xylan from MWS was extracted using a standard chlorite delignification method. The production of total and derivatives of XOS from the degradation of the hemicellulosic xylan of MWS were compared to the production from the commercial xylan from Beechwood. The utilisation of the extracted xylan from MWS yielded 0.36 mg/mL of total XOS after 60 h of hydrolysis. During the hydrolysis reaction, the immobilised xylanase released a lower degree of polymerisation (DP) of XOS, mainly X2 and X3, which were the major products of xylan degradation by xylanase enzymes. The production of XOS with a lower DP from MWS demonstrated the biotechnological potential of the MWS in the future. The XOS production retained about 70% of its initial XOS production during the second cycle. This is also the first report on the utilisation of MWS wastes in enzymatic hydrolysis using immobilised xylanase for XOS production.

  13. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing.

  14. Delivery and Measurement of High-Value Care in Standardized Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer DeLuca; Cox, Jaclyn; Wu, Zhao Helen; Kenny, Anne; Angus, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Residencies have incorporated high-value care (HVC) training to contain health care expenditures. Assessment methods of HVC curricula are limited. In our clinical skills laboratory, we evaluated the effectiveness of HVC curricula using standardized patients (SPs) to determine if there is a correlation with performance in counseling, history and physical, HVC knowledge, and demographics. Through ambulatory cases, SPs evaluated postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents using checklists to determine if they obtained the chief complaint, medical and social history, focused physical examination, and conveyed information regarding patient management. Investigators scored knowledge-based questions on the need for imaging in low back pain, annual stress testing in coronary artery disease, and chest x-ray for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Univariate analysis was used to calculate percentage distribution of residents' ordering of inappropriate tests. All 56 PGY-2 residents participated in the study and completed at least 2 of 3 HVC cases. Analysis showed that 48% (27 of 56) ordered at least 1 inappropriate test. Residents who ordered unnecessary testing had similar performance in history and physical as well as knowledge of HVC. Inappropriate ordering was significantly associated with poorer performance in counseling (mean percentage counseling score of 68% versus 56% for those who ordered inappropriately, P ordered inappropriately, P ordering by demographics. Our evaluation of residents during SP encounters found a correlation between the use of inappropriate testing and lower counseling and communication skills.

  15. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  16. High-resolution computed tomography and rheumatoid arthritis: semi-quantitative evaluation of lung damage and its correlation with clinical and functional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Baris; Gümüştaş, Sevtap; Coşan, Fulya; İnan, Nagihan; Ensaroğlu, Fatih; Erbağ, Gökhan; Yıldız, Füsun; Çefle, Ayşe

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to establish risk factors for radiological lung damage associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and determine whether clinical findings and pulmonary function test were correlated with Warrick score calculated on the basis of high-resolution computed tomography or not. One hundred thirty RA patients who were followed at rheumatology outpatient clinic were included through retrospective screening. To evaluate radiological involvement, the semi-quantitative evaluation proposed by Warrick was used to assign a score for each lesion based on the severity and extent of the pulmonary damage. In addition to the total score, indices for alveolitis and fibrosis were created. The correlations between each score and clinical and functional parameters were tested for all patients. We showed that age was an independent explanatory variable of radiological lung damage. Percentage of predicted lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) below 75 % and presence of respiratory symptoms were found to contribute more to radiological lung damage. Warrick score was positively correlated with age at study onset (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). In addition, a negative correlation was found between Warrick score and DLco % predicted (r = -0.357, p = 0.001). Alveolitis index was negatively correlated with DLco % predicted (r = -0.321, p = 0.003). It is considered that this semi-quantitative method may have added value in early diagnosis, appropriate treatment decisions and follow-up when taken into account together with risk factors associated with pulmonary damage in RA.

  17. Rainforest Pharmacopeia in Madagascar Provides High Value for Current Local and Prospective Global Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Christopher D.; Rasolofoniaina, B. J. Rodolph; Anjaranirina, E. J. Gasta; Nicolas, Lilien; Ravaoliny, Laurent; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to pr...

  18. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly Perturbed pKa Values in the Unfolded State of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John; O'Meara, Fergal; Farrell, Damien; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2012-01-01

    The majority of pKa values in protein unfolded states are close to the amino acid model pKa values, thus reflecting the weak intramolecular interactions present in the unfolded ensemble of most proteins. We have carried out thermal denaturation measurements on the WT and eight mutants of HEWL from pH 1.5 to pH 11.0 to examine the unfolded state pKa values and the pH dependence of protein stability for this enzyme. The availability of accurate pKa values for the folded state of HEWL and separa...

  20. Positive predictive values for detection of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and termination of pregnancy rates after referral for advanced maternal age, first trimester combined test or ultrasound abnormalities in a national screening programme (2007-2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee, Jacqueline E.; Knegt, Alida C.; Knapen, Maarten F. C. M.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the positive predictive value (PPV) of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 after referral for advanced maternal age (AMA), first trimester combined test or ultrasound findings to suggest improvements for clinical practice. Data (48 457 combined tests, 134 000 fetal

  1. High and low value fish chains in the Mekong Delta: challenges for livelihoods and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo Thi Thanh Loc,; Bush, S.R.; Xuan Sinh, Le; Nguyen Tri Khiem,

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure, function and wealth distribution within the Pangasius hypophthalmus and Henicorhynchus spp./Labiobarbus spp. value chains in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The analysis is driven by key questions relating to the form and function of value chains, their

  2. Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: Identifying national hotspots of highly valued places using Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Buijs, A.E.; Langers, F.; Farjon, F.; Hinsberg, van A.; Sijtsma, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was

  3. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  4. Detection of Hb Rothschild HBB: c.[112T>A or 112T>C], Through High Index of Suspicion on Abnormal Pulse Oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Nazeer A; Wessels, Piet; Rampersad, Narisha; Clark, Barnaby E; Thein, Swee Lay

    2017-03-01

    We describe a case with a low oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb) variant who presented with cyanosis in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. The patient, a 27-year-old pregnant female (P1G2), complained of a productive cough and bluish discoloration of the lips that started 3 days prior to seeking attention. She had no previous episodes and has generally been in good health. A positive family history of cyanosis was obtained in one sibling. Systematic examination, notably the cardiorespiratory system, revealed no abnormalities. The arterial Hb oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) on pulse oximetry was 81.0% and Hb separation studies revealed an Hb variant identified as Hb Rothschild [β37(C3)Trp→Arg] (HBB: c.[112 T>A or 112 T>C]) by gene sequencing. The amino acid substitution (Trp→Arg) is an important contact point at the α1β2 interface and favors a T-quaternary state of the Hb tetramer. This leads to a low oxygen affinity state, which results in premature release of oxygen and drop in oxygen saturation. In the absence of cardiopulmonary disease, a decreased oxygen saturation reading, with or without cyanosis, should arouse suspicion for a possible dysHb.

  5. Astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: from single cell to high value commercial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as super anti-oxidant. Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. Thanks to many researches it is now evident, that astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future. Thus, this comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide towards economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  6. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Md Mahfuzur R; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  8. Developing a pathway for high-value, patient-centered total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Citters, Aricca D; Fahlman, Cheryl; Goldmann, Donald A; Lieberman, Jay R; Koenig, Karl M; DiGioia, Anthony M; O'Donnell, Beth; Martin, John; Federico, Frank A; Bankowitz, Richard A; Nelson, Eugene C; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-05-01

    level. We developed a multidisciplinary clinical care pathway for patients undergoing TJA based on principles of high-value care. The pathway is ready for clinical testing and context-specific adaptation. Level V, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Prognostic value of high IMP3 expression in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Luyao Chen,1,2,* Yongpeng Xie,3,* Xintao Li,1 Liangyou Gu,1 Yu Gao,1 Lu Tang,1 Jianwen Chen,1 Xu Zhang1 1Department of Urology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang; 3School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Accumulated studies have investigated the prognostic role of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3 in various cancers, but inconsistent and controversial results were obtained. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the potential value of IMP3 in the prognostic prediction of human solid tumors. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search in the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library (updated to April 2016 was conducted to identify eligible studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for survival outcomes were calculated and gathered using STATA 12.0 software. Results: A total of 53 studies containing 8,937 patients with solid tumors were included in this meta-analysis. High IMP3 expression was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS of solid tumors (HR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.80–2.42, P<0.001. Similar results were observed in cancer-specific survival (CSS, disease-free survival (DFS, recurrence-free survival (RFS, progression-free survival (PFS, and metastasis-free survival (MFS. Further subgroup analysis stratified by tumor type showed that elevated IMP3 expression was associated with poor OS in renal cell carcinoma (RCC, lung cancer, oral cancer, urothelial carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that high IMP3 expression is associated with poor prognosis in most solid tumors. IMP3 is

  10. High predictive value of brain MRI imaging in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaurepaire, Isaure; Grévent, David; Rio, Marlène; Desguerre, Isabelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Levy, Raphaël; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barcia, Giulia; Funalot, Benoit; Besmond, Claude; Metodiev, Metodi D; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Assouline, Zahra; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2018-01-22

    Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice. This study is aimed at investigating the potential role of brain MRI in distinguishing primary RC deficiency from phenocopies and other aetiologies. Starting from a large series of 189 patients (median age: 3.5 years (8 days-56 years), 58% males) showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency, for whom both brain MRIs and disease-causing mutations were available, we retrospectively studied the positive predictive value (PPV) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of brain MRI imaging and its ability to discriminate between two groups: primary deficiency of the mitochondrial RC machinery and phenocopies. Detection of (1) brainstem hyperintensity with basal ganglia involvement (P≤0.001) and (2) lactate peak with either brainstem or basal ganglia hyperintensity was highly suggestive of primary RC deficiency (P≤0.01). Fourteen items had a PPV>95% and LR+ was greater than 9 for seven signs. Biallelic SLC19A3 mutations represented the main differential diagnosis. Non-significant differences between the two groups were found for cortical/subcortical atrophy, leucoencephalopathy and involvement of caudate nuclei, spinothalamic tract and corpus callosum. Based on these results and owing to invasiveness of skeletal muscle biopsies and cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing, we suggest giving consideration to brain MRI imaging as a diagnostic marker and an informative investigation to be performed in patients showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency. © Article author(s) (or their

  11. Value co-creation in high involvement services: the animal healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pyatt, A.Z.; Wright, G.; Walley, K.; Bleach, E.C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This paper investigates the significance of value c\\ud o-creation to the UK animal healthcare sector from \\ud the perspective of the key industry stakeholders: clients, veterinarians and paraprofessionals. \\ud Design \\ud Value co-creation constructs in the sector were identified and measured using a mixed methods approach comprised of qualitative NVivo thematic analysis of depth interviews (n=13) and quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis n=271). \\ud Findings \\ud Qualitative res...

  12. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Belondrade

    Full Text Available The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA. This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  13. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  14. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  15. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  16. Abnormally high levels of virus-infected IFN-gamma+ CCR4+ CD4+ CD25+ T cells in a retrovirus-associated neuroinflammatory disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Yamano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with both HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, which is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is known to be as follows: HTLV-1-infected T cells trigger a hyperimmune response leading to neuroinflammation. However, the HTLV-1-infected T cell subset that plays a major role in the accelerated immune response has not yet been identified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells are the predominant viral reservoir, and their levels are increased in HAM/TSP patients. While CCR4 is known to be selectively expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg cells in healthy individuals, we demonstrate that IFN-gamma production is extraordinarily increased and IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and Foxp3 expression is decreased in the CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells of HAM/TSP patients as compared to those in healthy individuals, and the alteration in function is specific to this cell subtype. Notably, the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+Foxp3(- T cells is dramatically increased in HAM/TSP patients, and this was found to be correlated with disease activity and severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have defined a unique T cell subset--IFN-gamma(+CCR4(+CD4(+CD25(+ T cells--that is abnormally increased and functionally altered in this retrovirus-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system.

  17. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  18. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  19. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGH VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE AND MAJOR FACTORS OF ITS INCREASING: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş CIMPOIEŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key-factors of competitiveness of high value added agriculture of the Republic of Moldova and their great importance in increasing the national wealth of the country are analyzed in this paper. The wealth of a country in terms of competitiveness represents the level in which the country, in conditions of the market economy, produces goods and services to satisfy the global market requirements, thus increasing the real income of the citizens of the country. In this context, factors which have an indispensable contribution in increasing the competitiveness of the high value agriculture are: exports, Foreign Direct Investments, innovations, the role of the state institutions, the business climate and others. By the fact how the state contributes by its agricultural policies to attract FDI, to increase exports, to apply innovations and high technologies in the process of obtaining high value agricultural products depends the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the country

  20. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  1. Improved abnormal Pap smear triage using cervical cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Jeffrey L; Dye, Timothy; Grace, Chelestes; Hiraoka, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current system of Pap smear screening and management of abnormal cytology has resulted in a marked reduction in invasive cervical cancer. Many women, however, are not found to have significant precursor lesions. This is due to the poor specificity of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) triage. More specific cervical cancer biomarkers may be more effective triage tools than hr-HPV. We evaluated whether a dual stain for p16 and Ki-67 might improve the triage of abnormal Pap smears. p16/Ki-67 immunostaining was performed on additional slides prepared from 515 women with abnormal Pap smears (301 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS], 169 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], 29 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade lesion [ASC-H], 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]). High-risk HPV typing was performed on all cases. Immunostaining and hr-HPV were compared in relation to their diagnostic accuracy for the detection of biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. A cost analysis comparing hr-HPV versus immunostaining as the initial triage tool used for abnormal Pap smears was also performed. High-risk HPV was positive in 127 (42.2%) ASCUS, 129 (76.3%) LSIL, 20 (69.0%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. p16/Ki-67 was positive in 54 (17.9%) ASCUS, 73 (43.2%) LSIL, 19 (65.5%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. For detection of CIN 2/3, sensitivity/specificity of hr-HPV and p16/Ki-67 was 89.29%/14.94% and 96.43%/60.92%, respectively. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was statistically significantly higher for p16/Ki-67 compared with hr-HPV. Compared to HPV, immunostain triage could have generated approximately $46,000 savings in the study population. The triage of abnormal Pap smears by p16/Ki-67 immunostaining shows comparable sensitivity, improved specificity, and significantly improved diagnostic performance when compared to hr-HPV. Immunostaining is of value in triaging LSIL and ASC-H Pap smears in addition

  2. A combination of high concentrations of serum triglyceride and non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism--The Hoorn Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Vegt, F. de; Diamant, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is not only associated with hyperglycaemia, but also with disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of triglyceride and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations with cardiovascular disease in subjects with normal and abnormal

  3. A combination of high concentrations of serum triglyceride and non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism - The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; de Vegt, F.; Diamant, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Type 2 diabetes is not only associated with hyperglycaemia, but also with disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of triglyceride and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations with cardiovascular disease in subjects with normal and abnormal

  4. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Karnieli-Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values, using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  5. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society.......The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  6. The value of repeat scintigraphy in patients with a high clinical suspicion for Meckel diverticulum after a negative or equivocal first Meckel scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Reza; Daneman, Alan; McQuattie, Susan; Shammas, Amer [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Technetium {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is the most common and accurate noninvasive method of preoperative investigation for Meckel diverticulum. Despite introducing various methods to increase the sensitivity of the study, there are many case reports of false-negative Meckel scans. A repeat scan is sometimes requested in patients with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum and negative or equivocal first Meckel scan. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the value of repeat scintigraphy for these patients. Seven hundred fifty-three Meckel scans were recorded retrospectively. In 33 cases (22 male and 11 female; mean age: 6.8 years), the Meckel scintigraphy was repeated either due to a high clinical suspicion of Meckel diverticulum and a negative study (n = 21) or due to equivocal findings in the first scan (n = 12). The study was interpreted as positive if an abnormal focal activity was identified in the abdomen and pelvis during the procedure. The results were correlated with pathology and clinical symptoms. Seven out of 12 (58%) equivocal studies were positive on the second study. Six of them were proven to be positive at operation (confirmed by pathology) while one of them was negative on laparoscopy. From 21 negative first scans with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum, three (14%) were positive on the second study. All three were proven to be Meckel diverticulum on pathology. Repeat Meckel scans in patients with equivocal findings on the first study or a negative result with a high clinical suspicion for a Meckel diverticulum are useful especially in cases in which the first study had been done without appropriate preparation. (orig.)

  7. High-grade cervical abnormalities and cervical cancer in women following a negative Pap smear with and without an endocervical component: a cohort study with 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Canfell, Karen; Gertig, Dorota M; Saville, Marion

    2014-09-01

    The proportion of Pap smears containing an endocervical component (ECC) has been declining in Australia. Given that ECC negative (ECC-) smears may be associated with reduced sensitivity, we undertook a retrospective cohort study to estimate rates of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical abnormality (HGA) and cancer in women with negative Pap smears with and without an ECC. Women 18-69 years with at least two Pap smears between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with the first smear in that period (index smear) showing no abnormality were eligible. Follow-up ended at date of the first abnormal smear, date of histological diagnosis, date of hysterectomy, date of death, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. ECC status was treated as a time varying exposure. Follow-up was split at each smear after the index smear. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) by ECC status. The incidence rate of histologically confirmed HGA was significantly lower following ECC- smears than after ECC+ smears (adjusted IRR: 0.69, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 0.62-0.77), particularly at older ages (interaction between ECC status and age, p = 0.001). In contrast, the overall rate of invasive cancer was not significantly different after ECC- than after ECC+ smears (IRR: 1.27, 95%CI 0.90-1.77). In conclusion, women had a lower rate of confirmed HGA and no significant increase in the rate of invasive cervical cancer following ECC- smears. This study does not support differential (accelerated) follow-up in women with a negative smear without an endocervical component. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  10. Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High Value Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    5 B. ABC INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION...SUMMARY OF FY2010 TO FY2013 AVIATION SUPPLY CHAIN ......20 D. INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION: ABC CLASSIFICATION METHOD...of discussions include: A. Service level, fill rate, and conditional value at risk B. ABC inventory classification C. Statistical-analysis

  11. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  13. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  14. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal...... contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy....

  15. Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John C; Quadros, Edward V

    2017-08-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked to abnormalities in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms in folate genes may act in complex polygenic ways to increase the risk of developing ASD. Autoantibodies that block folate transport into the brain have been associated with ASD and children with ASD and these autoantibodies respond to high doses of a reduced form of folate known as folinic acid (leucovorin calcium). Some of the same abnormalities are also found in mothers of children with ASD and supplementing folate during preconception and gestational periods reduces the risk to the offspring from developing ASD. These data suggest that folate pathway abnormalities may be a major metabolic disturbance underlying ASD that can be leveraged as biomarkers to improve symptoms and prevent ASD.

  16. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  17. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  18. A biorefinery for Nannochloropsis: Induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elvis T; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have been studied as biofactories for almost four decades. Yet, even until today, many aspects of microalgae farming and processing are still considered exploratory because of the uniqueness of each microalgal species. Thus, it is important to develop the entire process of microalgae farming: from culturing to harvesting, and down to extracting the desired high-value products. Based on its rapid growth and high oil productivities, Nannochloropsis sp. is of particular interest to many industries for the production of high-value oil containing omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but also several other products. This review compares the various techniques for induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein explored by academia and industry to develop a multi-product Nannochloropsis biorefinery. Knowledge gaps and opportunities are discussed for culturing and inducing fatty acid biosynthesis, biomass harvesting, and extracting EPA-rich oil and high-value protein from the biomass of Nannochloropsis sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  20. Formulation of gluten-free flour culinary products of high nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the production of gluten-free foods that are necessary for people suffering from this disease as celiac disease. The article reveals the relevance of developing recipes for gluten-free foods, which are not inferior to traditional in many respects. Classic recipes gluten-free bakery products, mainly based on rice, buckwheat, corn flour, which have little nutritional value. In this regard, the current development of technologies and formulations pastry dishes with use of nonconventional vegetable raw materials rich in dietary fibers, proteins and other beneficial substances that improve the biological and nutritional value of these products. The paper describes the formulation of gluten-free muffins, was based on the recipe of the cake "Capital". The main raw material for the new compositions of selected rice flour, and as enriching additives – flax flour and flour from the eggshell. Was conducted baking tests on the basis of which was chosen percentage of the input substances and the assessment of quality of semifinished and finished products. The quality of semi-finished products was evaluated by such indicators as humidity and the microstructure of the test. The quality of finished products was assessed using organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters, the results presented in the tables. Investigated the antioxidant activity of products. Produced sensometrical evaluation of aroma of control and experimental samples. Calculated chemical composition. The content of protein, vitamins, mineral substances in the experimental sample is significantly increased compared to control. Making flour egg shell has achieved the ratio of Ca-Mg-P as close to a perfect 1:0,39:1,53 Replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed and rice flour and the introduction of egg shell improve the amino acid composition of the product. The biological value increased by 2.3%.

  1. One-dimensional mean computed tomography value evaluation of ground-glass opacity on high-resolution images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, Akihiko; Kamio, Yoshito; Hayashi, Shoko; Suzuki, Kosuke; Uematsu, Shugo; Gen, Ryozo; Suzuki, Takashi; Kadokura, Mitsutaka

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), and invasive carcinoma on computed tomography (CT) is useful for determining ''follow-up or resection'' strategies for lesions displaying ground-glass opacity (GGO). The purpose of this study is to evaluate one-dimensional quantitative CT values of GGO on high-resolution CT (HRCT) images using computer-aided diagnosis. Between April 2001 and March 2010, a total of 44 nodules in 42 patients with pure or mixed GGOs ≤2 cm were retrospectively evaluated. Maximum diameter and one-dimensional mean CT (m-CT) value of the diameter were measured using a computer graphics support system (HOPE/DrABLE-EX, Fujitsu, Tokyo, Japan) that displays a CT density profile across the tumor. m-CT values were -682±64 hounsfield unit (HU) (range) for AAH lesions, -544±179 (range) for Type A lesions, -496±147 (range) for Type B lesions, and -371±142 (range) for invasive lesions. AAH lesions had a significantly lower m-CT value than Type B lesions. AAH, Type A, and Type B lesions had significantly lower m-CT values than invasive lesions (p 1 cm and m-CT value >-600 HU were invasive lesions. Observation may be indicated for GGO lesions with a maximum diameter ≤1 cm and m-CT value ≤-600 HU. (author)

  2. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  3. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  4. High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godi, Claudia; De Vita, Enrico; Davagnanam, Indran; Tombetti, Enrico; Haddow, Lewis; Jaeger, Hans Rolf

    2017-01-01

    An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm 2 (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm 2 (b1000). We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI. The rim and core of each PML lesion and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were outlined on trace-weighted DWI. Signal intensities, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and volumes were measured and compared between b1000 and b3000. Nine lesions from seven patients were analysed. The rim and core were better visualised on b3000, with higher signal of the rim and lower signal of the core compared to NAWM. The hyperintense rim had non-restricted average ADCs, but included foci of low ADC on both b3000 and b1000. Despite similar total lesion volumes, b3000 displayed significantly larger core and smaller rim volumes than b1000. b3000 improves visualisation of this important PML hallmark. Moreover, b3000 partly reclassifies tissue from rim into core, and might provide potentially more accurate biomarkers of PML activity and prognosis. (orig.)

  5. High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godi, Claudia [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Department, Milan (Italy); The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); De Vita, Enrico; Davagnanam, Indran [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Tombetti, Enrico [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); Haddow, Lewis [University College London, Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Jaeger, Hans Rolf [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Centre of Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm{sup 2} (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} (b1000). We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI. The rim and core of each PML lesion and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were outlined on trace-weighted DWI. Signal intensities, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and volumes were measured and compared between b1000 and b3000. Nine lesions from seven patients were analysed. The rim and core were better visualised on b3000, with higher signal of the rim and lower signal of the core compared to NAWM. The hyperintense rim had non-restricted average ADCs, but included foci of low ADC on both b3000 and b1000. Despite similar total lesion volumes, b3000 displayed significantly larger core and smaller rim volumes than b1000. b3000 improves visualisation of this important PML hallmark. Moreover, b3000 partly reclassifies tissue from rim into core, and might provide potentially more accurate biomarkers of PML activity and prognosis. (orig.)

  6. Pharmaceutical high profits: the value of R&D, or oligopolistic rents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Janet; Wickham, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical firms attribute high prices and high profits to costs associated with researching and developing the next generation of life-saving drugs. Using data from annual reports, this article tests the validity of this claim. We find that while pharmaceutical firms do invest in R&D, they also enjoy strong rents; between 1988 and 2009, pharmaceuticals enjoyed profits of 3 to 37 times the all-industry average, depending on the years, while investing proportionately less in R&D than other high-R&D firms. Costs of pharmaceutical drugs have successfully flown below the radar in much of the current health care debate, with producers managing to obstruct alternative sourcing as well as payment cuts. While health care is examined for savings in other areas, sustained high pharmaceutical profits suggest that as a new health care policy develops in the U.S., the pharmaceutical industry should not be excluded from examination for significant savings in health care costs.

  7. Converting biowaste corncob residue into high value added porous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, An-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Li, Wen-Cui

    2015-08-01

    In this report, corncob residue, the main by-product in the furfural industry, is used as a precursor to prepare porous carbon by a simple and direct thermal treatment: one-step activation without pre-carbonization. As a consequence, the corncob residue derived porous carbon achieves a high surface area of 1210 m(2) g(-1) after ash-removal. The carbon material has the advantages of low cost and low environmental impact, with a superior electrochemical performance compared to those polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 314 F g(-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding sample also shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the combination of a high specific surface area with a fraction of mesopores and highly stable structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  9. Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, M.A. (Miguel Angel); Sorli, J.V. (José Vicente); Basora, J. (Josep); Pinto, X. (Xavier); Serra-Majem, L. (Lluis); Aros, F. (Fernando); Fito, M. (Montserrat); Santos, J.M. (José Manuel); Fiol, M. (Miquel); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Corella, D. (Dolores); Salas-Salvado, J. (Jordi); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Estruch, R. (Ramón); Mejia-Lancheros, C. (Cilia)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional study, embedded within the PREDIMED clinical trial, of 5954 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular...

  10. High Technology Service Value Maximization through an MCDM-Based Innovative e-Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yo; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Ho, Wen-Rong; Chuang, Hsiu-Tyan; Lue, Yeou-Feng

    The emergence of the Internet has changed the high technology marketing channels thoroughly in the past decade while E-commerce has already become one of the most efficient channels which high technology firms may skip the intermediaries and reach end customers directly. However, defining appropriate e-business models for commercializing new high technology products or services through Internet are not that easy. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a novel analytic framework based on the concept of high technology customers’ competence set expansion by leveraging high technology service firms’ capabilities and resources as well as novel multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques, will be proposed in order to define an appropriate e-business model. An empirical example study of a silicon intellectual property (SIP) commercialization e-business model based on MCDM techniques will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this novel analytic framework. The analysis successful assisted a Taiwanese IC design service firm to define an e-business model for maximizing its customer’s SIP transactions. In the future, the novel MCDM framework can be applied successful to novel business model definitions in the high technology industry.

  11. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C; Nahil, MA; Miskolczi, N; Huang, J; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-refo...

  12. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah; Akram Khalili; Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi

    2015-01-01

    The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD) housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim...

  13. Prognostic value of an abnormal response to acetylcholine in patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary artery disease: Long-term follow-up of the Heart Quest cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Adler, Eric; Gujer, Samuel; Jamshidi, Peiman; Kobza, Richard; Stuck, Andreas E; Resink, Therese J; Erne, Paul

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to determine whether small vessel disease (SVD) or vasospastic disease (VSD) has an impact on prognosis. The prospective cohort embraced 718 patients with angina equivalent symptoms and no coronary stenosis ≥50% recruited between 1997 and 2008. At baseline, patients were classified as having SVD, VSD, other cardiac disease or non-cardiac problem based on intracoronary acetylcholine application and fast atrial pacing during coronary angiography. Patients underwent follow-up between 2007 and 2015. Prognostic significance of the diagnosis on cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and sex. The mean follow-up duration was 11.3±2.7years. Only 11 patients (1.5%) were lost to follow-up, resulting in an analyzed population of 707 patients. Patients with SVD (HR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.1-22.4, P=0.040) and VSD (HR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.0-23.4, P=0.050) had an increased risk of suffering cardiovascular events compared to patients with non-cardiac problems. Among SVD patients, those with the presence of endothelial dysfunction had a particularly high risk (HR: 7.3, 95% CI: 1.5-35.5, P=0.015). Among patients with SVD or VSD, those having persisting or worsening angina during follow-up had a higher risk than patients in whom angina improved (HR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.9-12.3, P=0.001). Our study shows that patients with SVD or VSD have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This particularly applies to SVD patients with endothelial dysfunction. Symptoms should be taken seriously in SVD and VSD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01318629. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agricultural practices, ecosystem services and sustainability in High Nature Value farmland: Unraveling the perceptions of farmers and nonfarmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernués, Alberto; Tello-García, Elena; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Casasús, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the perceptions of farmers and nonfarmers regarding the relationships between agriculture and the environment in High Nature Value (HNV) farmland. We performed content analysis of information obtained from five focus groups to derive key items (recording units such as words,

  15. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical success factors for smallholder inclusion in high value-adding supply chains by food & agribusiness multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjauw-Koen-Fa, August R.; Blok, Vincent; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Food and Agribusiness Multinational Enterprises (F&A MNEs) increasingly wish to source from smallholders to secure and stabilize the supply of agricultural commodities in high value-adding supply chains, while contributing positively to smallholder livelihood. In the literature we found that

  17. Value of digital high-speed endoscopy in addition to videofluoroscopic imaging of the neoglottis in tracheoesophageal speech.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, C.J. van; Coul, B.M.R. op de; Eysholdt, U.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the clinical value of using the relatively new evaluation tool digital high-speed endoscopy in addition to the widely used method of videofluoroscopy for imaging of the neoglottis in tracheoesophageal speech after total laryngectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anatomical

  18. Nutritive value of high and low tanin content of sorghum high moisture silage for horses - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.10575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Carolina de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were used eight castrated male horses, crosbred. It was used randomized completely design.  The objective was to evaluate the nutritive value of high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low (SLT and high (SHT tannin in the feeding equine. The treatments consisted of two test-diets containing SLT or SHT, replacing 30% of dry matter (DM of the reference-diet, constitued by only hay. The values of digestibility coefficients (DC of nutrients SLT and SHT had differences for DCDM, DCOM, DCCE, DCCP and DCStarch, whose means values were 79.53, 84.54, 79.36, 76.11 and 100% to SLT e 60.29, 64.47, 59.38, 44.63 and 97.06% to SHT, respectively. It was concluded that high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low tannin should be used in equine nutrition, this is an alternative feed.  

  19. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia......, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest...... for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had...

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. RESULTS: A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise...... intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...

  1. Learning Where to Look for High Value Improves Decision Making Asymmetrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaron T. Colas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value. Eye movements leading up to choices demonstrated rapidly induced biases in the selective allocation of visual fixation and attention that were accompanied by both faster and more accurate choices of desired goods as implicit learning occurred. However, for the control condition with its spatially balanced reward environment, these subjects exhibited preexisting lateralized biases for eye and hand movements (i.e., leftward and rightward, respectively that could act in opposition not only to each other but also to the orienting biases elicited by the experimental manipulation, producing an asymmetry between the left and right hemifields with respect to performance. Potentially owing at least in part to learned cultural conventions (e.g., reading from left to right, the findings herein particularly revealed an intrinsic leftward bias underlying initial saccades in the midst of more immediate feedback-directed processes for which spatial biases can be learned flexibly to optimize oculomotor and manual control in value-based decision making. The present study thus replicates general findings of learned attentional biases in a novel context with inherently rewarding stimuli and goes on to further elucidate the interactions between endogenous and exogenous biases.

  2. Analysis of Ling'ao nuclear power station unit 1 exciter No.11 bearing white metal damage and its operating temperature abnormally high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Kaili

    2005-01-01

    On the base of analyzing the type of exciter No.11 bearing white metal damage, the root cause and its solution are found. No damage was found on bearing white metal in the later time. On the base of analyzing the structure of the generator end bracket, it is pointed out that when the generator frame is full of pressed gas, the end bracket will deform, that result in the load on No.11 bearing increase, as a result causes the bearing temperature high. A proposal to this problem is presented. (author)

  3. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  4. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available alloy able to withstand high temperature process conditions without the welding problems experienced by standard die construction materials, such as H13, was examined in an extensive series of casting trials. The importance of operating dies at elevated...

  5. The Value of Writing "How-to" Books in High School World History and Geography Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn; Daisey, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a story about eighty-six ninth-grade World History and Geography students who authored a "how-to" book, while pretending that they were experts who lived in the past and had to explain how to do something relating to that time period. These students attended a large high school in the Midwest; the school's…

  6. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  7. Teaching Free Speech Values to High School Students: Keys to Persevering Despite the Obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas

    To examine why citizens today do not understand the U.S. Constitution and its provisions, a survey was conducted among 153 high school social studies, journalism, and English teachers to examine, among other things, how they taught about constitutional rights and how they rated their students' knowledge of the subject compared to students'…

  8. The value of high-field MRI (3 T) in the assessment of sellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Mlynarik, V. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Knosp, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@univie.ac.at

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the normal sellar anatomy in vitro and in vivo with high-field MRI and its application in the diagnosis of sellar pathologies in comparison to standard MRI. All high-field MR images were obtained using a 3 T Bruker Medspec 30/80 Scanner with a head birdcage transmit/receive coil and an actively shielded gradient system with a maximum gradient strength of 45 mT/m. Firstly an in vitro study of the sella turcica was performed to depict normal pituitary and sellar anatomy at high field. After a pilot-study this sequence-protocol was established: A RARE sequence (TR/TE = 7790/19 ms; matrix size, 512 x 512; RARE factor = 8, FOV, 200 mm) was used for T2-weighted coronal, axial and sagittal images. A 3D gradient echo sequence with magnetization-preparation (MP-RAGE, TR/TE/TI 33.5/7.6/800 ms, matrix size, 512 x 512; FOV, 200 mm, effective slice thickness, 1.88 mm; 3 averages) was used for acquisition of T1-weighted pre- and post-contrast images. Between January 2002 and March 200458 patients were enrolled in this study. Seven patients were examined for suspected microadenoma and in 51 patients 3T MRI was used to obtain additional information about the sellar lesion already known to be present from standard MRI. In 21 cases the accuracy of the imaging findings was assessed afterwards by comparison with intraoperative findings. The infiltration of the medial cavernous sinus wall was suspected on standard MRI on 15 sides (47%), on high-field MRI on 9 sides (28%) and could be verified by intraoperative findings on 6 sides (19%). Accordingly, sensitivity to infiltration was 83% for 3 T and 67% for standard MRI. Specificity was 84% for 3 T and 58% for standard MRI. Moreover, high-field MRI revealed microadenomas in 7 patients with a median diameter of 4 mm (range 2-9 mm). The segments of the cranial nerves were seen as mean 4 hypointense spots (range 2-5 spots) on high-field MRI in contrast to 3 spots (range 0-4 spots) on standard MRI

  9. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  10. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpos, E; Christoulas, D; Kastritis, E; Bagratuni, T; Gavriatopoulou, M; Roussou, M; Papatheodorou, A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, E; Kanellias, N; Liakou, C; Panagiotidis, I; Migkou, M; Kokkoris, P; Moulopoulos, L A; Dimopoulos, M A

    2016-10-07

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs.

  11. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Cyanobacteria and microalgae for enhanced production of biofuels and high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, M A; Al-Haj, L; Abed, R M M

    2016-10-01

    A lot of research has been performed on Cyanobacteria and microalgae with the aim to produce numerous biotechnological products. However, native strains have a few shortcomings, like limitations in cultivation, harvesting and product extraction, which prevents reaching optimal production value at lowest costs. Such limitations require the intervention of genetic engineering to produce strains with superior properties. Promising advancements in the cultivation of Cyanobacteria and microalgae have been achieved by improving photosynthetic efficiency through increasing RuBisCO activity and truncation of light-harvesting antennae. Genetic engineering has also contributed to final product extraction by inducing autolysis and product secretory systems, to enable direct product recovery without going through costly extraction steps. In this review, we summarize the different enzymes and pathways that have been targeted thus far for improving cultivation aspects, harvesting and product extraction in Cyanobacteria and microalgae. With synthetic biology advancements, genetically engineered strains can be generated to resolve demanding process issues and achieve economic practicality. This comprehensive overview of gene modifications will be useful to researchers in the field to employ on their strains to increase their yields and improve the economic feasibility of the production process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Identifying added value in high-resolution climate simulations over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephania; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Sobolowski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution data are needed in order to assess potential impacts of extreme events on infrastructure in the mid-latitudes. Dynamical downscaling offers one way to obtain this information. However, prior to implementation in any impacts assessment scheme, model output must be validated......-based station observations. In addition to the canonical variables of daily precipitation and temperature, winds were also investigated. The models exhibit systematic cold and wet biases on seasonal time scales (−1 K and +50–100%, respectively). However, frequency-based skill scores for daily precipitation...... and temperature are high, indicating that the distributions of these variables are generally well captured. Wind speeds over the North and Norwegian Seas were simulated more realistically in the models than in the ERA interim reanalysis. However, most importantly, for impacts assessments, the models should...

  14. Characteristics and value of machine learning for imaging in high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Juergen A

    2007-01-01

    Requirements for a flexible image analysis package for high content screening (HCS) are discussed. An overview of tools and techniques for image analysis and machine learning is given. Machine learning for classification and segmentation, the two fundamental elements of image analysis, is discussed. Next generation image analysis packages for HCS are reviewed. Recommendations for the development of image analysis solutions for advanced assays are given.

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  16. Anisotropic atomic packing model for abnormal grain growth mechanism of WC-25 wt.% Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, H.S.; Hwang, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    During liquid phase sintering, cemented carbide particles grow into either faceted or non-faceted grain shapes depending on ally system. In case of WC-Co alloy, prism-shape faceted grains with (0001) planes and {1 bar 100} planes on each face are observed, and furthermore an abnormal grain growth has been reported to occur. When abnormal grain growth occurs in WC crystals, dimension ratio, R, of the length of the side of the triangular prism face to the height of the prism is higher than 4 whereas that for normal grains is approximately 2. Abnormal grain growth in this alloy is accelerated by the fineness of starting powders and by high sintering temperature. To account for the mechanism of the abnormal grain growth, there are two proposed models which drew much research attention: nucleation and subsequent carburization and transformation of η (W 3 Co 3 C) phase into WC, and coalescence of coarse WC grains through dissolution and re-precipitation. Park et al. proposed a two-dimensional nucleation theory to explain the abnormal grain growth of faceted grains. There are questions, however, on the role of η phase on abnormal grain growth. The mechanism of coalescence of spherical grains as proposed by Kingery is also unsuitable for faceted grains. So far theories on abnormal grain growth do not provide a satisfactory explanation on the change of R value during the growth process. In the present work a new mechanism of nucleation and growth of faceted WC grains is proposed on the ground of anisotropic packing sequence of each atom

  17. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Saoussan; Athmouni, Khaled; Hamza-Mnif, Ibtissem; Siala-Elleuch, Rayda; Ayadi, Habib; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%). Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica). These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28612024

  18. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussan Boukhris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41% represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%. Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Department, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  20. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke

    2011-01-01

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  1. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  2. Protein-bound toxins: added value in their removal with high convective volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; Reque, Javier Eduardo; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In recent years, protein-bound toxins have become more important due to their association with increased morbidity and mortality, characterised by inadequate clearance during dialysis. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of high convective volumes on postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on the removal of medium-sized molecules, small molecules and protein-bound molecules. In forty postdilutional OL-HDF sessions, the reduction rates of toxins of different molecular weights were measured in 13 patients, including protein-bound molecules such as p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine. Total convective volume was 28.3 (5.1) litres (range 16.3-38.0 litres). Mean reduction rate of protein-bound molecules was 44.4% (15.7%), 48.7% (14.1%) and 58.6% (8.8%) for p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine, respectively. Moreover, a statistically significant direct association was found between the reduction rates of all three molecules, the replacement volume and the Kt/V. High convective volumes during postdilution OL-HDF are associated with increased removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV, not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  4. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  5. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents.

  6. Interactions of unconjugated bilirubin with vesicles, cyclodextrins and micelles: New modeling and the role of high pKa values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J Donald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB is an unstable substance with very low aqueous solubility. Its aqueous pKa values affect many of its interactions, particularly their pH-dependence. A companion paper shows that only our prior solvent partition studies, leading to pKa values of 8.12 and 8.44, met all essential requirements for valid pKa determinations. Other published values, generally lower, some below 5.0, were shown to be invalid. The present work was designed to derive suitable models for interpreting published data on the pH-dependent binding of UCB with four agents, mentioned below, chosen because they are not, themselves, sensitive to changes in the pH range 4-10, and the data, mainly spectrometric, were of reasonable quality. Results These analyses indicated that the high pKa values, dianion dimerization constant and solubilities of UCB at various pH values, derived from our partition studies, along with literature-derived pH- and time-dependent supersaturation effects, were essential for constructing useful models that showed good qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, fits with the data. In contrast, published pKa values below 5.0 were highly incompatible with the data for all systems considered. The primary species of bound UCB in our models were: undissociated diacid for phosphatidylcholine, dianion for dodecyl maltoside micelles and cyclodextrins, and both monoanions and dianion for sodium taurocholate. The resulting binding versus pH profiles differed strikingly from each other. Conclusions The insights derived from these analyses should be helpful to explore and interpret UCB binding to more complex, pH-sensitive, physiological moieties, such as proteins or membranes, in order to understand its functions.

  7. Repolarization abnormalities in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The recognition of ventricular repolarization abnormalities in the newborn carries several and significant implications, because it calls attention to the possibility of dealing with an infant affected by the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This article provides key elements for the correct measurement of the QT interval in newborns and succinctly reviews some aspects of the disease. It gives normative values on the QT interval distribution in the first month of life based on a prospective study in more than 44,000 infants. It shows the probability, based on the QTc observed in two recordings, to find disease-causing mutations. The data indicate clearly that widespread electrocardiographic screening in the newborn allows early identification of most, if not all, the infants affected by LQTS with marked QT prolongation and thus of those at higher risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Through the affected infants, it becomes possible to identify the family members affected by LQTS, including the "silent mutation carriers"; our study shows that disease-causing mutations are found in 51% of the family members. Because early recognition leads to the implementation of effective preventive strategies, it follows that electrocardiographic screening will avoid preventable deaths either in the first year of life when they are usually labeled as "sudden infant death syndrome" or later in life. The case is made for medicolegal implications whenever neonatologists and pediatricians fail to inform the parents of a newborn child of the prevalence of LQTS (one in 2000), of the effectiveness of existing therapies, and of the diagnosis with a simple electrocardiogram.

  8. High Accuracy Spline Explicit Group (SEG Approximation for Two Dimensional Elliptic Boundary Value Problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Goh

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, cubic splines have been widely used to approximate differential equations due to their ability to produce highly accurate solutions. In this paper, the numerical solution of a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation is treated by a specific cubic spline approximation in the x-direction and finite difference in the y-direction. A four point explicit group (EG iterative scheme with an acceleration tool is then applied to the obtained system. The formulation and implementation of the method for solving physical problems are presented in detail. The complexity of computational is also discussed and the comparative results are tabulated to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Diagnostic value of high-resolution CT and MR compared with standard procedures in meniscal tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M.; Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Muench, O.; Siuda, S.; Hahn, D.; Lissner, J.

    1987-04-01

    The knees of 20 patients with evidence of meniscal tears were examined via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 10 of these were studied by MRI. The HRCT study was performed directly after double-contrast arthrography (AG). For comparison with HRCT, slice orientation for MRI examination was in transverse view; gradient echo sequences using the FISP technique were applied instead of spin echo sequences. All results were correlated to the arthroscopy (AS) findings. In 95% of the cases AG and AS results agreed, HRCT/AS in 85% and MRI/AS in 70%. In certain cases HRCT provided additional information which influenced appropriate surgical treament. MRI is a noninvasive nonionising method but gives a less exact documentation of the lesion than AG and HRCT. The gradient echo mode is superior to the SE mode in respect of outlining meniscal structures, at least in transverse view.

  10. Diagnostic value of high-resolution CT and MR compared with standard procedures in meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, M.; Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Muench, O.; Siuda, S.; Hahn, D.; Lissner, J.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen

    1987-01-01

    The knees of 20 patients with evidence of meniscal tears were examined via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 10 of these were studied by MRI. The HRCT study was performed directly after double-contrast arthrography (AG). For comparison with HRCT, slice orientation for MRI examination was in transverse view; gradient echo sequences using the FISP technique were applied instead of spin echo sequences. All results were correlated to the arthroscopy (AS) findings. In 95% of the cases AG and AS results agreed, HRCT/AS in 85% and MRI/AS in 70%. In certain cases HRCT provided additional information which influenced appropriate surgical treament. MRI is a noninvasive nonionising method but gives a less exact documentation of the lesion than AG and HRCT. The gradient echo mode is superior to the SE mode in respect of outlining meniscal structures, at least in transverse view. (orig.) [de

  11. Extracellular fungal polyol lipids: A new class of potential high value lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Xu, Jian; Teh, Hui Ean; German, J Bruce; Pan, Zhongli; Dungan, Stephanie R; Block, David E; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    Extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have attracted attention because productivities can be high, cheap substrates can be used, the molecules are secreted into the medium and the downstream processing is relatively simple. Three classes of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have provided most of the scientific advances in this area, namely sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobioselipids. Polyol lipids, a fourth class of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants, comprise two groups of molecules: liamocins produced by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and polyol esters of fatty acids, produced by some Rhodotorula yeast species. Both are amphiphilic, surface active molecules with potential for commercial development as surfactants for industrial and household applications. The current knowledge of polyol lipids highlights an emerging group of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants and provides a perspective of what next steps are needed to harness the benefits and applications of this novel group of molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lukasiewicz-Moisil Many-Valued Logic Algebra of Highly-Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamentals of Lukasiewicz-Moisil logic algebras and their applications to complex genetic network dynamics and highly complex systems are presented in the context of a categorical ontology theory of levels, Medical Bioinformatics and self-organizing, highly complex systems. Quantum Automata were defined in refs.[2] and [3] as generalized, probabilistic automata with quantum state spaces [1]. Their next-state functions operate through transitions between quantum states defined by the quantum equations of motions in the SchrÄodinger representation, with both initial and boundary conditions in space-time. A new theorem is proven which states that the category of quantum automata and automata-homomorphisms has both limits and colimits. Therefore, both categories of quantum automata and classical automata (sequential machines are bicomplete. A second new theorem establishes that the standard automata category is a subcategory of the quantum automata category. The quantum automata category has a faithful representation in the category of Generalized (M,R-Systems which are open, dynamic biosystem networks [4] with de¯ned biological relations that represent physiological functions of primordial(s, single cells and the simpler organisms. A new category of quantum computers is also defined in terms of reversible quantum automata with quantum state spaces represented by topological groupoids that admit a local characterization through unique, quantum Lie algebroids. On the other hand, the category of n-Lukasiewicz algebras has a subcategory of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras (as proven in ref. [2] which can be employed to design and construct subcategories of quantum automata based on n-Lukasiewicz diagrams of existing VLSI. Furthermore, as shown in ref. [2] the category of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras and the category of Boolean algebras are naturally equivalent. A `no-go' conjecture is also proposed which states that Generalized (M

  13. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye; Liu, Mengqi [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanya (China); Zhou, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lv, Bin [Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT, Beijing (China); Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gui, Qiuping [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Bin; Liu, Mengqi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Gui, Qiuping; He, Huiguang; Ma, Lin

    2017-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. • HFP shows positive correlation with neuroepithelial tumour grading. • HFP presents a good diagnostic efficacy for LGG and HGG. • HFP is helpful in the selection of brain tumour boundary.

  15. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  16. Simultaneous Production of Triacylglycerol and High-Value Carotenoids by the Astaxanthin-Producing Oleaginous Green Microalga Chlorella zofingiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3 mg L-1 day-1, respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga.

  17. Nutritional value of high moisture corn silage in the diet of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Persichetti Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five Holstein cows were distributed in a 5x5 latin square design to assess the effect of replacement levels of dry ground corn grain (DGCG by high moisture corn silage (HMCS on intake, total nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, according to the following treatments: 1 100% DGCG; 2 75% DGCG and 25% HMCS; 3 50% DGCG and 50% HMCS; 4 25% DGCG and 75% HMCS; 5 100% HMCS. The experiment lasted 70 days, divided into five phases of 14 days each. The digestibility was obtained using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the indicator. Fecal samples were collected twice daily and blood samples were collected on the last day of each period before the first meal (0h and 2h, 4h, 6h and 12h after the meal. There was no effect (P>0.05 on the intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch. The total apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF were not affected (P>0.05 by the treatments, as well as the plasma glucose concentration. However, there was a decreased linear effect (P<0.05 for the protein intake and increased linear effect (P<0.05 for starch digestibility, as the level of HMCS was increased in the diets.

  18. Refining by-products as a source of compounds of high-added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondioli, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a complete review of by-products coming from the olive oil refining process is reported. By-products from both chemical and physical refining are discussed, along with their compositional properties. Also the technological aspects of by-product valorisation are discussed in comparison with the competitors coming from other oils and fats. The only olive oil by-products having unique composition are the ones containing squalene in high concentration.El trabajo hace una revisión completa de los subproductos obtenidos de la refinación del aceite de oliva. Se comentan tanto los subproductos procedentes de la refinación química como de la física. Igualmente, se comparan los aspectos tecnológicos de la valorización de estos subproductos con respecto a los procedentes de otros aceites o grasas. Los únicos subproductos procedentes del aceite de oliva que tienen composición específica son aquellos que contienen alta concentración de escualeno.

  19. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  20. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  1. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  2. Microstructure-Sensitive Extreme Value Probabilities for High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Base Superalloy IN100 (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    transition fatigue regimes; however, microplasticity (i.e., heterogeneous plasticity at the scale of microstructure) is relevant to understanding fatigue...and Socie [57] considered the affect of microplastic 14 Microstructure-Sensitive Extreme Value Probabilities for High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Base...considers the local stress state as affected by intergranular interactions and microplasticity . For the calculations given below, the volumes over which

  3. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, Deborah; Horton, Patrick; Jones, Matthew; Ramsdale, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m 3 . This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m 3 ) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10 -6 Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the high density

  4. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  5. Development of high efficiency micropropagation protocol for tamarix nilotica ehrenb with valued medicinal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F. A.; Nadeem, M.; Khan, S.; Tarroum, M.; Alansi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tamarix nilotica is an important medicinal plant grows throughout the Kingdom, except in mountains on high altitude. Propagation of T. nilotica through cuttings and seeds are limited. To supplement harvesting of active ingredient from plants, alternative method for the purpose has been developed. Stem node cuttings were subjected to in vitro culture under the influence of various cytokinin to induce shoot proliferation. Maximum shoot stimulation was found on MS medium comprising 1.0 micro M TDZ followed by 2.5 micro M BA, Kn and 2ip. The number of shoots declined as the concentration of cytokinin increased. A lower shoots obtained on 5.0 and 10.0 micro M concentration of all the four cytokinins tested. After fair multiplication, individual shoots were subjected to different concentration of auxins IBA, NAA, 2,4-D and AA 2.5-10.0 micro M for root induction. Initial screening did not result desired rooting on MS medium. Therefore, pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA was given to the isolated shoots for 5, 10 and 15 days time. Incubation for 10 days on MS medium supplied with 100.0 micro M resulted in maximum rooting when transferred on MS medium alone. Well rooted microshoots were exposed to four types of soil mixtures for acclimatization of plants. Among these soils, sand and FYM gave 100 percentage survival under controlled green house conditions. This protocol would be helpful in regeneration and conservation of this plant species; and provide an alternative source of biomass for pharmaceutical active ingredients. (author)

  6. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galanaki Antonia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by the EU Common Agricultural Policies (CAP. In Greece, its population dropped by about 50% since the 1970s and its preferred habitats have shrunk. The aim of this study was to assess habitat preferences of breeding Lesser Kestrels in agro-ecosystems of Greece and relate these habitats to HNVf for conservation purposes. The study area is located in the plain of Thessaly, Central Greece, holding the main lesser kestrel breeding populations in the country, where dry cereal crops have been significantly depleted over the past decades. Species distribution models were developed with generalised additive models for the analyses. Predicted probability of lesser kestrel occurrence was found to be positively associated with farmed landscapes of dry cereal cultivations. Other important predictors were cultivated irrigated farmland and landscape heterogeneity. Main results of the statistical models agree with the findings of other habitatbased studies that highlight the importance of low-input farming systems, that is, HNVf, for safeguarding vital Lesser Kestrels habitats in their breeding grounds in the Mediterranean. A key conservation priority for conserving species dependant on HNVf is the maintenance of those low-input farming systems and the implementation of a greener CAP that would promote environmental-friendly farming practices to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agro-ecosystems of Europe.

  7. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  8. The effective Q values inferred from the high-frequency decay parameter for the sediments in Taipei basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling; Liu, Sheu-Yien

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the high-frequency decay parameter κ, proposed by Anderson and Hough (1984), are measured from the seismograms recorded by stations, which installed in the Taipei basin. The spectral amplitudes decay exponentially with frequency, f, which can be formulated as A(f)=A_0e-πκf, for f > fe, where A(f) is the spectral amplitude, and A0 depends on the earthquake source and epicenter distance, and the value of κ is independent of frequency, unit in second. The time windows applied to seismograms are suggested to be shear waves that are transformed to spectra by the technique of Fourier transform. The seismograms from the downhole array in Taipei Basin by Academia Sinica since 1992, provide a good opportunity to estimate the attenuation factor of the sedimentary strata over the Tertiary base rock beneath the Taipei basin (Wang et al., 2004). The seismograms of 23 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 5.1-7.1 over the period of 2003-2010 at 9 downhole array stations are taken into calculation of the κ values for the shear waves. The results show that the κ values vary with depth and are in the range of 0.009-0.095 sec. The averaged Δκ values from observations range +/- 0.02 seconds respective to Δκ values at surface of each of station. The effective Q values for the sedimentary layers are inferred from the varied Δκ at each downhole stations following the evaluation method of 1-D analytical transfer function (Safak, 1995).

  9. Subclinical cerebral abnormalities in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi

    2013-01-01

    Impaired kidney function or chronic kidney disease (CKD), as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is associated with incident stroke risk. However, few studies have examined the relationship between CKD and subclinical cerebral abnormalities. We examined 675 elderly subjects (mean age 69.9 years), who were living independently at home without apparent dementia, using magnetic resonance imaging. Serum creatinine values, measured by the enzymatic method, were used for the Japanese equation of eGFR. Subclinical lacunar infarction, deep white matter lesions, and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 88 (13.0%), 240 (35.6%) and 158 (23.4%) of the 675 participants, respectively. In the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis, age (OR 2.081/10, 95% CI 1.541-2.810), hypertension (OR 3.656, 95% CI 2.184-6.119), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.961, 95% CI 1.007-3.820), alcohol intake (OR 2.130, 95% CI 1.283-3.535), and eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were significant factors concerning subclinical lacunar infarction. CKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was not significantly associated with subclinical lacunar infarction. Decreased eGFR was not a significant factor associated with white matter lesions (WMLs). Age (OR 2.781/10, 95% CI 2.252-3.435), hypertension (OR 1.746, 95% CI 1.231-2.477), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.854, 95% CI 1.070-3.213), but not eGFR were significant factors concerning WMLs. The present study showed that community-dwelling elderly subjects with late stage 3 CKD were at high risk for prevalent subclinical lacunar infarction. The identification of CKD-specific modifiable risk factors for SBI and WMLs is of increased importance for prevention of subclinical brain ischemic lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  11. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAF V600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-24

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAF(V600E) mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAF(V600E) was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis.

  12. Mineralogical and Microstructural Controls on High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) Aggregates from a Mixed Metasedimentary and Volcanoclastic Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unitt, Richard; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) aggregates are a valuable resource in the manufacture of skid-resistant surfaces (pavements). Previous studies have tried to define the essential properties required within a specific rock type that makes it suitable as hPSV aggregate. There are also quantitative tests that can assign a standardised value to the polishing resistance of each aggregate (PSV or Werner-Schulze (WS) methods). It is widely assumed that particular rock-types are more suitable as hPSV aggregate, including greywacke, basalt and sandstone. These rock types are usually suitable due their durability, strength and a mineralogy that allows the removal of grains from the wear surface, enabling the microtexture to 'refresh' itself periodically. This project has examined a mixed group of low-grade (sub-greenschist) metasediments and volcaniclastics from a single source that all yield similar hPSV values (59-66). Samples were measured in terms of mechanical, petrographical and metrological properties from freshly crushed aggregate, mechanically polished aggregate and 'in-situ' road samples to follow the development of surface microtexture under different conditions. The study has shown that the development of microtexture within a mixed group of rocks can be controlled by microstructural factors (in addition to mineralogical factors) thus providing a new criteria for the exploration of high PSV sources.

  13. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic value of cervical cytology and HPV HR DNA testing for the diagnosis of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions across different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pruski, Dominik; Iwaniec, Kinga; Kędzia, Witold

    2017-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of cervical cytology and HPV HR DNA testing for the diagnosis of low grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions across different age groups. The study included 1103 patients, age 25-70 years. All patients underwent in-depth diagnostic tests following either an abnormal Pap test result or a clinically suspicious cervical lesion. In all women the following examinations were performed: a molecular test detecting 14 high-risk types of HPV, a colposcopy examination, as well as directed-biopsy of the cervix. The studied population was subdivided into four age groups. It was observed that the percentage of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancers increased with women's age. Sensitivity of both methods for detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions was highest for women aged 40-49 years. Sensitivity values of HPV testing was higher than that of cervical cytology among women under age 50. Specificity of HPV testing increased significantly with age of women and was several fold higher across all age groups than the specificity of cervical cytology.

  15. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  16. The slipping slipper sign: a simple test with high specificity and positive predictive value for peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal A.T. Gayle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of the slipping slipper sign (defined as unknowingly losing a slipper while walking to identify diabetic neuropathy in Jamaican patients. A single question was used to ascertain the presence of the slipping slipper sign (SSS among 69 patients attending a diabetes clinic. Nurses assessed pain, vibration and pressure perception among the same patients in order to detect diabetic neuropathy. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for the SSS were calculated. Eight participants (men=5, women=3 reported positive SSS. The SSS had a sensitivity of 28.6%, specificity of 100% and positive predictive value (PPV 100% for neuropathy on at least one of the three tests. These findings indicate that the SSS has high specificity and PPV for diabetic neuropathy but the sensitivity is low. The sign may be a useful adjuvant to conventional methods of screening for severe neuropathy

  17. Diagnostic value of high N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) uptake in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Tahara, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Kato, Akira; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Sho; Tsuji, Takehisa; Tabuchi, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic value of high N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) uptake in histologically proven intracranial tumors was evaluated in 54 patients with both early (15-35 min after injection) and delayed (4 hours) SPECT before treatment. Higher uptake in the tumor compared with normal cerebral cortex was observed in early scans in all of the five patients with primary intracranial malignant lymphoma, in two of 16 meningiomas, two of seven astrocytomas, one of three pituitary adenomas, and one central neurocytoma. Among these 11 cases, all the malignant lymphomas showed persistent high uptake in delayed scans, whereas other tumors showed decreased uptake in delayed scans. This persistent high 123 I-IMP uptake was characteristic of primary intracranial malignant lymphomas and was useful in the diagnosis of intracranial malignant lymphoma. (author)

  18. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

  20. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  2. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  3. How Does Structured Sparsity Work in Abnormal Event Detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    behavior. Otherwise, it should be detected as an abnormal frame. However, it is infeasible to apply structured sparsity algorithms directly in abnormal event detection, which are mainly due to two reasons: 1) abnormal event detection has a highly biased training data - only normal videos are used during...... the training, which is the due to the fact that abnormal videos are limited or even unavailable in advance in most video surveillance applications. As a result, there could be only one label in the training data which hampers supervised learning; 2) Even though there are multiple types of normal behaviors, how...... behavior; as abnormal features, their non zeros in coefficients should spread over atoms. sparsity through a relatively small training data. Our method contains three steps. Step 1: Initial dictionary construction, which selects initial atoms to form multiple dictionaries. These atoms are learned based...

  4. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.

  5. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  6. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  8. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  9. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  10. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  11. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  12. Unsuspected glucose abnormalities in patients with coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HbA1c), the American Diabetic Association (ADA) score and measures of the metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides) in predicting an initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or abnormal ...

  13. The value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhuan Song

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014. Sixty enrolled patients were randomized immediately after extubation into either a high-flow nasal cannula group (n=30 or an air entrainment mask group (n=30 at a fixed inspired oxygen fraction (40%. The success rate of oxygen therapy, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters and subjective discomfort (using a visual analogue scale were assessed at 24h after extubation. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at extubation. A total of 46 patients were successfully treated including 27 patients in the high-flow nasal cannula group and 19 patients in the air entrainment mask group. Compared to the air entrainment mask group, the success rate of oxygen therapy and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen were significantly higher and the respiratory rate was lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group. In addition, less discomfort related to interface displacement and airway dryness was observed in the high-flow nasal cannula group than in the air entrainment mask group. CONCLUSIONS: At a fixed inspired oxygen fraction, the application of a high-flow nasal cannula after extubation achieves a higher success rate of oxygen therapy and less discomfort at 24h than an air entrainment mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  14. The Value Chains of High-Technology Products as Factor of formation the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Safronova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the value chain of high-tech products in Asia and the role of this phenomenon in the further consolidation of trade blocs and alliances in the region. The presence of these chains and their gradual transition from a vertically integrated model to a system of horizontal linkages and interdependence leads to the formation of mechanisms of economic de-facto integration (so-called regionalization process. The East Asian region has demonstrated unprecedented high rates of economic growth in recent decades. The countries are actively developing mechanisms of multilateral cooperation, involving partners from across the Asia-Pacific region. Particular features of a new regional architecture of economic relations are becoming more tangible, and the essential element of this architecture is the intra-regional integration. The author presents an assessment of further developments of the Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP using the structural-functional approach and analytical instruments of the international political economy, The creation of this trade block will help less advanced countries of ASEAN to accelerate economic growth and improve the conditions for integration into global value chains. For advanced economies, participation in the RCEP seems controversial, because production chains have well-established formats within the framework of ASEAN +. The political standoff between Washington and Beijing has an impact on dynamics of regional integration. The split among the East Asian countries was galvanized by the Trans-Pacific Partnership Project (TTP, because TPP has objectives that are very similar to those of RCEP (trade liberalization and economic integration. The author concludes that the extension of this partnership in the ASEAN countries can seriously complicate the operation RVEP and enhance the impact of political factors on economic cooperation. In this case, the value of production and supply chains

  15. Fragility estimation for seismically isolated nuclear structures by high confidence low probability of failure values and bi-linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carausu, A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the fragility estimation of seismically isolated nuclear power plant structure is proposed. The relationship between the ground motion intensity parameter (e.g. peak ground velocity or peak ground acceleration) and the response of isolated structures is expressed in terms of a bi-linear regression line, whose coefficients are estimated by the least-square method in terms of available data on seismic input and structural response. The notion of high confidence low probability of failure (HCLPF) value is also used for deriving compound fragility curves for coupled subsystems. (orig.)

  16. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  17. Systems metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the heterologous production of high value molecules-a veteran at new shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    For more than fifty years, Escherichia coli has represented a remarkable success story in industrial biotechnology. Traditionally known as a producer of l-amino acids, E. coli has also entered the precious market of high-value molecules and is becoming a flexible, efficient production platform for various therapeutics, pre-biotics, nutraceuticals and pigments. This tremendous progress is enabled by systems metabolic engineering concepts that integrate systems biology and synthetic biology into the design and engineering of powerful E. coli cell factories. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A prospective comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and diagnostic hysteroscopy in the evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding: clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emanuel, M. H.; Verdel, M. J.; Wamsteker, K.; Lammes, F. B.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the diagnostic value of transvaginal ultrasonography for endometrial and intrauterine abnormalities in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Between June 1, 1992, and June 1, 1993, 279 consecutive patients underwent transvaginal ultrasonography. Findings were compared with the final

  19. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  20. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  1. Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Nava, Azalia; Noriega, Lilia G; Tovar, Armando R; Granados, Omar; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-01-01

    There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form. Following induction of obesity, rats were fed PMD. PMD consumption decreased glucose intolerance, body weight gain, serum and liver triglycerides and leptin. In addition, PMD decreased the size of the adipocytes, and increased the protein abundance of UCP-1, PPAR-α, PGC1-α and Tbx-1 in white adipose tissue. Finally, the PMD significant decreased hepatic levels of ROS, oxidized proteins and GSSG/GSH ratio and an increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and the improvement of cognitive function. Consumption of a PMD decreased the glucose intolerance and the biochemical abnormalities caused by the obesity by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, decreasing the oxidative stress and modifying the gut microbiota. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  3. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  4. High-value chemicals obtained from selective photo-oxidation of glucose in the presence of nanostructured titanium photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Juan C; Magdziarz, Agnieszka; Bielejewska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    Glucose was oxidized in the presence of powdered TiO(2) photocatalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-promoted sol-gel method. The catalysts were more selective towards glucaric acid, gluconic acid and arabitol (total selectivity approx. 70%) than the most popular photocatalyst, Degussa P-25. The photocatalytic systems worked at mild reaction conditions: 30°C, atmospheric pressure and very short reaction time (e.g. 5 min). Such relatively good selectivity towards high-valued molecules are attributed to the physico-chemical properties (e.g. high specific surface area, nanostructured anatase phase, and visible light absorption) of novel TiO(2) materials and the reaction conditions. The TiO(2) photocatalysts have potential for water purification and energy production and for use in the pharmaceutical, food, perfume and fuel industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  8. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Atmosphere, PK-6530, Succ. Centre-ville, B.P. 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Elia, Ramon [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Ouranos Consortium, Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions. (orig.)

  11. Inpatient Glucose Values: Determining the Nondiabetic Range and Use in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Mary K; Safo, Sandra E; Jackson, Sandra L; Xue, Wenqiong; Olson, Darin E; Long, Qi; Barb, Diana; Haw, J Sonya; Tomolo, Anne M; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2018-04-01

    Many individuals with diabetes remain undiagnosed, leading to delays in treatment and higher risk for subsequent diabetes complications. Despite recommendations for diabetes screening in high-risk groups, the optimal approach is not known. We evaluated the utility of inpatient glucose levels as an opportunistic screening tool for identifying patients at high risk for diabetes. We retrospectively examined 462,421 patients in the US Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system, hospitalized on medical/surgical services in 2000-2010, for ≥3 days, with ≥2 inpatient random plasma glucose (RPG) measurements. All had continuity of care: ≥1 primary care visit and ≥1 glucose measurement within 2 years before hospitalization and yearly for ≥3 years after discharge. Glucose levels during hospitalization and incidence of diabetes within 3 years after discharge in patients without diabetes were evaluated. Patients had a mean age of 65.0 years, body mass index of 29.9 kg/m 2 , and were 96% male, 71% white, and 18% black. Pre-existing diabetes was present in 39.4%, 1.3% were diagnosed during hospitalization, 8.1% were diagnosed 5 years after discharge, and 51.3% were never diagnosed (NonDM). The NonDM group had the lowest mean hospital RPG value (112 mg/dL [6.2 mmol/L]). Having at least 2 RPG values >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L), the 95th percentile of NonDM hospital glucose, provided 81% specificity for identifying incident diabetes within 3 years after discharge. Screening for diabetes could be considered in patients with at least 2 hospital glucose values at/above the 95th percentile of the nondiabetic range (141 mg/dL [7.8 mmol/L]). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Luca, Alejandro; de Elía, Ramón; Laprise, René

    2012-03-01

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions.

  13. Simultaneous production of triacylglycerol and high-value carotenoids by the astaxanthin-producing oleaginous green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3mgL(-1)day(-1), respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  15. Summarized Costs, Placement Of Quality Stars, And Other Online Displays Can Help Consumers Select High-Value Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2017, all state and federal health insurance exchanges will present quality data on health plans in addition to cost information. We analyzed variations in the current design of information on state exchanges to identify presentation approaches that encourage consumers to take quality as well as cost into account when selecting a health plan. Using an online sample of 1,025 adults, we randomly assigned participants to view the same comparative information on health plans, displayed in different ways. We found that consumers were much more likely to select a high-value plan when cost information was summarized instead of detailed, when quality stars were displayed adjacent to cost information, when consumers understood that quality stars signified the quality of medical care, and when high-value plans were highlighted with a check mark or blue ribbon. These approaches, which were equally effective for participants with higher and lower numeracy, can inform the development of future displays of plan information in the exchanges. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Experimental RBE values of high LET radiations at low doses and the implications for quality factor assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    RBE determinations of special relevance to the quality factor assigned for radiation protection purposes are those relating to the effects of special importance at low doses, namely carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Measurements of RBE that enable the maximum value of RBE, namely RBEsub(M), to be determined at low doses require data points as low as 0.1 Gy or even 0.01 Gy or high LET radiation. Corresponding data points as low as 0.5 Gy to 0.25 Gy or less of low LET radiation are also needed. Relatively few such measurements have been made, but many more are available now than formerly. A review of recent RBEs for tumour induction, life shortening, transformation, cytogenetics and genetic endpoints, which updated an earlier review, indicates a broad range of results. The principle findings are that X rays are more effective than hard γ rays at low doses by a factor of about 2, and that fission neutrons, alpha particles and heavy ions may be 30-50 times more effective, on the average, (some endpoints give higher, some lower values) than hard γ rays. The data would seem to indicate that in order to provide approximately equal protection against the risks at low doses from all radiations, adjustments upward in the quality factors for high LET radiations need to be considered. (author)

  17. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  18. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  19. Using extreme value theory approaches to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangpeng Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza.The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB "VIEM" toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a "fat tail" distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively.Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course.

  20. Abnormal liver stiffness assessed using transient elastography (Fibroscan® in HIV-infected patients without HBV/HCV coinfection receiving combined antiretroviral treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography (Fibroscan® can identify individuals with potential underlying liver disease. We evaluated the prevalence of abnormal LSM values as assessed using LSM and its predictors in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART without HBV/HCV coinfection. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 93 patients who had consistently been undergoing cART for more than 12 months at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from June to December 2010. LSM values >5.3 kPa were defined as abnormal. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (41.9% had abnormal LSM values. On multivariate correlation analysis, the cumulative duration of boosted and unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs were the independent factors which showed a negative and positive correlation to LSM values, respectively (β = -0.234, P = 0.023 and β = 0.430, P<0.001. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were selected as the independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.889-0.997; P = 0.039 and OR, 1.032; 95% CI, 1.004-1.060; P = 0.023. CONCLUSION: The high percentage of HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving cART without HBV/HCV coinfection had abnormal LSM values. The cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-GT level were independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively.

  1. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  2. Does high-resolution CT has diagnostic value in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, Sofieke C.; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Raphael, Martine F.; Beek, Frederik J.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be complicated by a variety of live-threatening infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications. The management of these complications is critically dependent on the most probable diagnosis, which is in part based on imaging work-up. Methods: Systematic review of the literature related to the diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients who underwent SCT and developed respiratory symptoms. Results: Literature review did not reveal systematic cohort studies that included patients with respiratory symptoms post-SCT who underwent HRCT and had a well-defined outcome. Most studies selected participants based on their final diagnosis instead of the indication for diagnostic testing in practice. Nevertheless, several papers clearly indicated a potential role for HRCT when complications after SCT occur. A variety of articles described the role of certain HRCT findings in the diagnosis of specific infectious complications, but less data were available for non-infectious complications. Conclusion: We believe more diagnostic studies are needed to determine the value of HRCT for a specific diagnosis in SCT-recipients who present with respiratory symptoms at the transplant clinic. Currently, radiologists should be cautious since HRCT interpretation in these patients is not unambiguous.

  3. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  4. High accuracy of predicting hybrid performance of Fusarium head blight resistance by mid-parent values in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Schulthess, Albert W; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen C; Longin, C Friedrich H

    2017-02-01

    Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means. We re-analyzed phenotypic data of a large population comprising 1604 hybrids and their 120 female and 15 male parental lines evaluated in inoculation trials across seven environments. Mid-parent heterosis of FHB severity averaged -9%, with a range from -36 to +35%. Mean better parent heterosis was 2% and 78 of the hybrids significantly (P hybrids (r = 0.09, P hybrid performance of FHB severity based on mid-parent values and on GCA effects was high (r = 0.70 and 0.86, respectively; P hybrids are an attractive alternative variety type to improve FHB resistance.

  5. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  6. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. (focus issue review)

  7. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  8. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S A

    2010-10-08

    Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Prospective longitudinal study. Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  9. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  10. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  11. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  12. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  13. Static and dynamic analysis of high-rise building with consideration of two different values of subsoil stiffness coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivankova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of 21-storeyed cast in-situ reinforced concrete high-rise building. Two different 3D models were created, because of two considered values of subsoil stiffness coefficient -fixed structure (alt. 1 and the structure supported by elastic soil (alt. 2. For both alternatives of foundation of structure, required analyses (static and dynamic were done and obtained results were compared in this paper. Short description of the structure, applied loads and other input parameters are also mentioned here. The main purpose of this analysis was to provide more information to planning engineers about the behaviour of structure exposed the wind load or seismic load when different soil conditions were considered.

  14. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC: A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production