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Sample records for abnormally high bone

  1. Correlation of lung abnormalities on high-resolution CT with clinical graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation in children

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    Merlini, Laura; Borzani, Irene Maria Olivia; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Rochat, Isabelle [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Pneumology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Ayse Hulya [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) are life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several pathological patterns are described in the literature with different prognoses, and with different relationships to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of high-resolution CT (HRCT) is not yet well established. To illustrate different patterns of LONIPCs on HRCT in allogeneic versus autologous BMT in order to investigate the correlation with chronic GVHD (cGVHD). A total of 67 HRCT scans were performed in 24 patients with noninfectious pulmonary disease at least 3 months after BMT (16 allogeneic, 8 autologous). Abnormality patterns and extension on HRCT images were correlated with the clinical outcome and with the severity of cGVHD. Of 24 patients, 9 showed LONIPCs (1 autologous, 8 allogeneic). There was a significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe cGVHD (P = 0.038), with no specific pattern. Prognosis seemed to be related to the severity of cGVHD and not to the extent of abnormalities on HRCT. The significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe GVHD suggests that LONIPCs can be a pulmonary manifestation of the disease. HRCT is a useful tool when combined with clinical data. (orig.)

  2. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

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    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...... patients with myelofibrosis differed from that in samples from controls. DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the microvascular density (MVD), vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrows from 19 myelofibrosis patients and nine controls. We also studied the same parameters in two mouse models...... of myelofibrosis, with genetic alterations affecting megakaryocyte differentiation (i.e. one model with low GATA-1 expression and the other with over-expression of thrombopoietin). RESULTS: In myelofibrotic marrows, MVD was 3.8-fold greater than in controls (pvessels displayed 5.9-fold larger mean...

  3. Retained fetal bones: an unusual cause of abnormal uterine bleeding

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    Sonia Chawla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is a common gynaecological problem with most common causes being fibroid, polyp, endometritis, neoplasia and coagulation disorder. Presence of retained intrauterine fetal bones as a cause of AUB, is a rare but well recognized entity. Patient may present with subfertility, secondary infertility, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease, abnormal uterine bleeding. Incidence reported in literature is 0.15% among patients undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy. Calcification appears as hyperechoeic area on ultrasound. Hysteroscopy guided removal of bony fragments is the gold standard and leads to complete resolution of symptoms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2032-2033

  4. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

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    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  5. [Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone].

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    Czerny, C; Gstöttner, W; Imhof, H

    2003-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone are mostly accompanied by conductive or sensori-neural hearing loss. Before any therapeutic procedures are done high resolution CT (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to establish the correct diagnosis and to plan the potentially surgical intervention. HRCT best depicts osseous changes especially those of the external auditory canal and the middle ear containing the ossicles and the osseous structures of the temporal bone and the petrous bone containing the inner ear. MRI excellently shows soft tissue changes of the inner ear especially on the high resolution 3DT2-weighted sequences which give a superb contrast between the nerves and the cerebro-spinal fluid. Malformations of the external auditory canal consists of aplasia or hypoplasia and those of the middle ear range form extreme hypoplasia or aplasia to very mild deformations of the ossicles. Malformations of the inner ear also range form complete aplasia to very mild hypoplasia of the organs of the inner ear as well as malformations concerning the nerves in the internal auditory canal range from aplasia to hypoplasia. Malformations of the temporal bone can either occur isolated or in combination in which malformations of the external and middle ear may be accompanied by those of the inner ear. Furthermore, malformations of the temporal bone may also occur in otofacial, otocervical or otoskeletal syndromes. These syndromes may be accompanied by certain malformations of the temporal bone. HRCT and MRI are both excellent methods to depict congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone and of the inner ear and should be used as complementary methods because HRCT best depicts osseous changes and MRI superbly depicts soft tissue changes. Both methods are important to establish the correct diagnosis to plan the therapeutic procedures.

  6. Piroxicam treatment augments bone abnormalities in interleukin-10 knockout mice

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    Holgersen, Kristine; Dobie, Ross; Farquharson, Colin;

    2015-01-01

    inflammation in an experimental colitis model. METHODS: Colitis was induced in interleukin-10 knockout mice (PAC IL-10 k.o.) by peroral administration of piroxicam for 12 days. The degree of colitis was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and microscopic evaluation. Trabecular and cortical bone...... and focal transmural inflammation, which was consistent with Crohn's disease-like pathology. The gut inflammation was accompanied by a 14% and 12% reduction in trabecular thickness relative to piroxicam-treated wild type and untreated wild type mice, respectively (P

  7. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

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    Porter, Daniel S. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pienkowski, David [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Faugere, Marie-Claude [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center; Malluche, Hartmut H. [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  8. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

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    Shore, V. (Lawrence Livermore Lab., CA); Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  9. A single nucleotide mutation in Nppc is associated with a long bone abnormality in lbab mice

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    Roe Bruce A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long bone abnormality (lbab mouse is a new autosomal recessive mutant characterized by overall smaller body size with proportionate dwarfing of all organs and shorter long bones. Previous linkage analysis has located the lbab mutation on chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit9 and D1Mit488. Results A genome-based positional approach was used to identify a mutation associated with lbab disease. A total of 122 genes and expressed sequence tags at the lbab region were screened for possible mutation by using genomic DNA from lbabl/lbab, lbab/+, and +/+ B6 mice and high throughput temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. A sequence difference was identified in one of the amplicons of gene Nppc between lbab/lbab and +/+ mice. One-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate the difference of Nppc in different types of mice at the mRNA level. The mutation of Nppc was unique in lbab/lbab mice among multiple mouse inbred strains. The mutation of Nppc is co-segregated with lbab disease in 200 progenies produced from heterozygous lbab/+ parents. Conclusion A single nucleotide mutation of Nppc is associated with dwarfism in lbab/lbab mice. Current genome information and technology allow us to efficiently identify single nucleotide mutations from roughly mapped disease loci. The lbab mouse is a useful model for hereditary human achondroplasia.

  10. Frequency and spectrum of abnormalities in the bone marrow of the wrist: MR imaging findings

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    Alam, F.; Schweitzer, M.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Li Xiaoxian (Dept. of Radiology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan (China)); Malat, J. (Department of Radiology, Naples Radiologists, Naples (Italy)); Hussain, S.M. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1999-06-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of marrow abnormalities on wrist MR imaging and the MR findings of these various abnormalities.Design and patients. Five hundred and nineteen patients were studied at 1.5 T. Two observers recorded the presence and location of avascular necrosis, occult fractures and arthritic edema [focal osteoarthritis, ulnolunate abutment, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis, gouty arthritis and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC)].Results and conclusion. One hundred and eighty-seven (36%) patients demonstrated marrow abnormalities in the wrist, of which 101 were diagnosed as arthritis [64 (34%) as focal osteoarthritis, 17 (9%) as ulnolunate abutment, 15 (8%) as rheumatoid arthritis, 2 as septic arthritis, 2 as SLAC, and 1 as gouty arthritis]. Seventy-two patients had occult fractures and in 27 patients avascular necrosis was seen. MR imaging can reveal various abnormalities in bone marrow of the wrist when findings on radiography are normal or equivocal. (orig.) With 17 figs., 13 refs.

  11. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

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    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  12. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

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    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    , (2) biomechanical properties, (3) serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and (4) collagen morphology of cortical bone from the right femurs was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease was found in serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3...... collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10...... and biomechanical properties in GHD rats compared to controls (P collagen microfibrils in GHD...

  13. Incidence and Evaluation of Incidental Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Gunjan L. Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has resulted in reports of incidental abnormal bone marrow (BM signal. Our goal was to determine the evaluation of an incidental abnormal BM signal on MRI and the prevalence of a subsequent oncologic diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients over age 18 undergoing MRI between May 2005 and October 2010 at Tufts Medical Center (TMC with follow-up through November 2013. The electronic medical record was queried to determine imaging site, reason for scan, evaluation following radiology report, and final diagnosis. Results. 49,678 MRIs were done with 110 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Twenty two percent underwent some evaluation, most commonly a complete blood count, serum protein electrophoresis, or bone scan. With median follow-up of 41 months, 6% of patients were diagnosed with malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. One patient who had not undergone evaluation developed breast cancer 24 months after the MRI. Conclusions. Incidentally noted abnormal or heterogeneous bone marrow signal on MRI was not inconsequential and should prompt further evaluation.

  14. Alveolar bone grafting in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and bisphosphonate-induced abnormal bone turnover in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

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    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Ogose, Akira; Oguri, Yoshimitsu; Ubaidus, Sobhan; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-09-01

    A case is presented of extensive alveolar bone grafting in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient previously underwent bisphosphonate therapy. Because of an abnormal and often decreased bone turnover caused by the fibrous dysplasia and the bisphosphonate therapy, bone grafting in such a patient poses several potential difficulties. In addition, the histomorphometric analysis of the bone grafts showed markedly decreased bone turnover. However, alveolar bone grafting using the iliac crest was performed successfully. Sufficient occlusion was achieved by postoperative low-loading orthodontic treatment.

  15. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

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    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  16. Computer aided diagnosis of bone tumours and tumour-like skeletal abnormalities: Critical evaluation of its clinical use

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    Fotter, R.; Gell, G.; Melzer, G.; Kopp, W.; Lehnert, M.; Weybora, W.

    1988-05-01

    Thirty-four patients with bone tumours and tumour-like abnormalities of the skeleton, of varying ages, were examined by a computer-aided diagnostic programm; the accuracy, clinical usefullness and specific advantages and disadvantages of the programm have been evaluated. This was done by two statistical methods, both with showed high accuracy and reliability of the system (97% and 88,2%). In addition to the diagnostic results, the growth rate of the lesion could be estimated. This indicates the biological behaviour of the tumour independently of the histological diagnosis.

  17. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

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    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  18. Novel, near-infrared spectroscopic, label-free, techniques to assess bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis and bone fractures

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    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-02-01

    Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.

  19. Slit-like jugular foramen due to abnormal bone growth at jugular fossa

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    Budhiraja V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal unilateral blockage of the jugular foramen by a bone growth converting it into a slit was noted in a skull during osteology demonstration classes for medical undergraduates. The left jugular foramen was narrowed by a thick bony projection filling the jugular fossa. This kind of narrowing of the foramen might results in neurovascular symptoms as it transmits important cranial nerves and internal jugular vein. Injury of ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves can occur due to narrowing of jugular foramen know as Vernet’s syndrome is discussed along with case.

  20. Chemical shift imaging at 3 Tesla: effect of echo time on assessing bone marrow abnormalities

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    Del Grande, F. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Radiologia, Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Subhawong, Ty [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Flammang, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Fayad, L.M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Our purpose is to test the effect of varied in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) sequence order on characterizing marrow signal changes at 3T. The study was HIPAA compliant and IRB approved. Informed consent was waived. At 3T, IP and OP sequences were acquired in three patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcomas, using two methods: approach 1 (OP acquisition before IP acquisition) and approach 2 (OP after IP). Signal intensity (SI) measurements in 12 locations of biopsy-proven osteosarcoma and in six locations with normal bone marrow were performed independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was measured within the marrow where there was T1 signal lower than skeletal muscle. A SIR < 20 % on the OP compared with IP imaging was considered positive for marrow replacement, while SIR > = 20 % was considered negative. Interobserver agreement was measured by the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). In 75 % (18/24) of locations within the biopsy-proven tumors, the SIR was >20 % (SI drop more than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 2 and in 100 % (24/24) of the locations the SIR was <20 % (SI drop less than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 1, indicating a high percentage of false-negative results by approach 2, and no false-negative results with approach 1. There was good agreement between observer measurement (CCC = 0.96). At 3T, the OP sequence should be acquired prior to the IP sequence, because susceptibility artifacts on a later-acquired OP sequence may lead to an erroneous interpretation of marrow signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  1. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

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    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  2. [Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionucleides. IV. The dynamics of uptake in normal and abnormal bone (author's transl)].

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    Creutzig, H; Gerdts, K G; Creutzig, A

    1977-03-01

    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scanning are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases.

  3. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

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    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  4. Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in kidney transplant patients--a review

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    Sprague, S.M.; Belozeroff, V.; Danese, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    for English language articles published between January 1990 and October 2006 that contained Medical Subject Headings and key words related to secondary or persistent hyperparathyroidism and kidney transplant. RESULTS: Parathyroid hormone levels decreased significantly during the first 3 months after......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is common in patients with kidney failure and often persists after successful kidney transplant. METHODS: To better understand the natural history of this disease in transplant patients, we reviewed the literature by searching MEDLINE...... transplant but typically stabilized at elevated values after 1 year. Calcium tended to increase after transplant and then stabilize at the higher end of the normal range within 2 months. Phosphorus decreased rapidly to within or below normal levels after surgery and hypophosphatemia, if present, resolved...

  5. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

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    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  6. MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow as predictors of segmental instability of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, J.; Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Min, K. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow can predict segmental instability of the lumbar spine as diagnosed on functional radiographs. Material and Methods: A consecutive review was made of 60 patients examined with MR imaging and with lateral flexion and extension views of the lumbar spine. Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were evaluated blindly with regard to abnormalities of the intervertebral disk and the adjacent bone marrow. Segmental instability was diagnosed when a.p. translation of 3 mm or more was present on the functional radiographs. Moreover, the presence of osteophytes was evaluated on lateral standard radiographs. Results: Of a total of 300 segments, 32 (10.7%) were unstable. Anular tears were the most relevant MR finding. Their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for segmental instability were 18.8%, 97.0%, 42.9% and 90.9%. The corresponding values for traction osteophytes were 12.5%, 98.1%, 44.4% and 90.4%. Abnormalities of bone marrow were not significantly related to segmental instability (p=0.35). Conclusion: Functional radiographs should be considered in patients with anular tears or traction osteophytes. No correlation was found between segmental instability and abnormalities of bone marrow adjacent to the endplates. (orig.).

  7. [Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Heumüller, I

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure.

  8. Immunophenotypic analysis of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow of primary systemic light chain amyloidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yang; Wang Mangju; Chen Yan; Chen Xue; Fang Fang; Liu Shiqin; Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare plasma cell disease,our purpose was to analyze the immunophenotypic characteristics of the plasma cells in bone marrow in AL patients,and explore whether the detection of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow by flow cytometry (FCM) could be used as an important indicator of AL diagnosis.Methods Fresh bone marrow samples were collected from 51 AL,21 multiple myeloma (MM),and 5 Waldenstr(o)m's macroglobulinemia (WM) patients.The immunophenotype of bone marrow cells were analyzed and compared by FCM using a panel of antibodies including CD45,CD38,CD138,CD117,CD56,and CD19.Results In AL,light chain restriction could be identified in 31 cases (60.9%),in which the λ light chain restriction was found in 24 cases (77.4%).In MM,κ light chain restriction was found in 13 cases (61.9%),and λ light chain restriction in eight cases.CD45 on abnormal plasma cells was negative to weakly positive in both AL and MM,but was positive to strongly positive in WM.In the bone marrow plasma cells of the 51 AL,78.4% were CD56+,68.6% were CD117+,and 88.2% were CD19-.While in the 21 MM cases,66.7% were CD56+,38.1% were CD117+,and 90.4% were CD19-.The plasmacytoid lymphocytes in the five WM patients were CD19+ and CD56-,CD117-.Conclusion Detection of abnormal plasma cell clones in bone marrow by FCM is valuable for the diagnosis of AL.

  9. Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; Fehlbildungen und Missbildungen des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum Kaiserslautern, Institut fuer Radiologie, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende CT ist das Verfahren der Wahl in der Diagnostik von Fehlbildungen des Mittel- und Innenohrs. Sie erlaubt die detaillierte Darstellung anatomischer Details und schafft die Voraussetzung fuer die unterschiedlichen Therapieoptionen. Durch detaillierte bildgebenden Analysen koennen die unterschiedlichsten Fehlbildungen beschrieben werden. Fehlbildungen mit einem nicht normal ausgebildeten Modiolus werden als fruehere embryologische Schaedigungen als die klassische Mondini-Dysplasie angesehen. Die wesentliche therapeutische Option bei Mittelohrfehlbildung bleibt das Kochleaimplantat. Die Domaene der MRT liegt nicht nur in der Analyse des N. cochlearis und im Ausschluss von Fibrosierungen oder Ossifikationen des Labyrinths, sondern darueber hinaus ist sie in der Lage, Details einzelner

  10. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.

  11. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  12. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  13. Differential gene expression profile associated with the abnormality of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    Full Text Available Aplastic anemia (AA is generally considered as an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome with defective hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and marrow microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated the defective HSCs and aberrant T cellular-immunity in AA using a microarray approach. However, little is known about the overall specialty of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. In the present study, we comprehensively compared the biological features and gene expression profile of BM-MSCs between AA patients and healthy volunteers. In comparison with healthy controls, BM-MSCs from AA patients showed aberrant morphology, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased apoptosis. BM-MSCs from AA patients were susceptible to be induced to differentiate into adipocytes but more difficult to differentiate into osteoblasts. Consistent with abnormal biological features, a large number of genes implicated in cell cycle, cell division, proliferation, chemotaxis and hematopoietic cell lineage showed markedly decreased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. Conversely, more related genes with apoptosis, adipogenesis and immune response showed increased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. The gene expression profile of BM-MSCs further confirmed the abnormal biological properties and provided significant evidence for the possible mechanism of the destruction of the bone marrow microenvironment in AA.

  14. Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, B.D. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St., Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)]|[Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Heslop, H.E. [Department of Hematology/Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Kaste, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Bodner, S. [Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We report three patients who developed severe supraglottic airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In addition to enlarged pharyngeal lymphoid tissue seen in all three patients, two had supraglottic airway narrowing and two developed pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease. They were treated with unmanipulated T cells or EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Life-threatening upper airway obstruction is a radiologically detectable complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  15. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/- and Klotho(-/- (Kl(-/- mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/- mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/- mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/- (Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- or DKO mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/- mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-, but not of Fgf23(-/- mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions into

  16. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension.

  17. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  18. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  19. FGFR2 abnormalities underlie a spectrum of bone, skin, and cancer pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masaru

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 is regulated on the basis of the balance of FGFs, heparan-sulfate proteoglycans, FGFR2 isoforms, endogenous inhibitors, and microRNAs. FGFR2 signals cross-talk with hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, and other regulatory networks. Some cases of congenital skeletal disorders with an FGFR2 mutation show skin phenotypes, including acne, cutis gyrata, and acanthosis nigricans. Gain-of-function mutations or variations of human FGFR2 occur in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and endometrial uterine cancer. Oral administration of AZD2171 or Ki23057 inhibits in vivo proliferation of cancer cells with aberrant FGFR2 activation in rodent therapeutic models. However, loss-of-function mutations of FGFR2 are reported in human melanoma. Conditional Fgfr2b knockout in the rodent epidermis leads to increased macrophage infiltration to the dermis and adipose tissue, epidermal thickening accompanied by basal-layer dysplasia and parakeratosis, and the promotion of chemically induced squamous-cell carcinoma. Dysregulation of FGFR2 results in a spectrum of bone and skin pathologies and several types of cancer.

  20. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone; Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie kongenitaler Veraenderungen des aeusseren Ohrs, Mittel- und Innenohrs sowie des inneren Gehoergangs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, C.; Imhof, H. [Abteilung fuer Osteologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Gstoettner, W. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone are mostly accompanied by conductive or sensori-neural hearing loss. Before any therapeutic procedures are done high resolution CT (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to establish the correct diagnosis and to plan the potentially surgical intervention. HRCT best depicts osseous changes especially those of the external auditory canal and the middle ear containing the ossicles and the osseous structures of the temporal bone and the petrous bone containing the inner ear. MRI excellently shows soft tissue changes of the inner ear especially on the high resolution 3DT2-weighted sequences which give a superb contrast between the nerves and the cerebro-spinal fluid. Malformations of the external auditory canal consists of aplasia or hypoplasia and those of the middle ear range form extreme hypoplasia or aplasia to very mild deformations of the ossicles. Malformations of the inner ear also range form complete aplasia to very mild hypoplasia of the organs of the inner ear as well as malformations concerning the nerves in the internal auditory canal range from aplasia to hypoplasia. Malformations of the temporal bone can either occur isolated or in combination in which malformations of the external and middle ear may be accompanied by those of the inner ear. Furthermore, malformations of the temporal bone may also occur in otofacial, otocervical or otoskeletal syndromes. These syndromes may be accompanied by certain malformations of the temporal bone. HRCT and MRI are both excellent methods to depict congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone and of the inner ear and should be used as complementary methods because HRCT best depicts osseous changes and MRI superbly depicts soft tissue changes. Both methods are important to establish the correct diagnosis to plan the therapeutic procedures. (orig.) [German] Angeborene Missbildungen des Schlaefenbeins sind oft mit Schwerhoerigkeit bis Taubheit

  1. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  2. Abnormal combustion caused by lubricating oil in high BMEP gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasueda, Shinji [Kyushu Univ. (Japan). GDEC Gas and Diesel Engine; Takasaki, Koji; Tajima, Hiroshi [Kyushu Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Engine and Combustion (ECO)

    2013-05-15

    In recent years, abnormal combustion with high peak firing pressure has been experienced on gas engines with high brake mean effective pressures. The abnormality is detected not as pre-ignition but as knocking. Research, including visualisation tests on a single-cylinder engine, has confirmed the phenomenon to be pre-ignition caused by the auto-ignition of in-cylinder lubricant, causing cyclical variations of peak firing pressure on premix combustion gas engines. (orig.)

  3. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korac, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kusec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-12-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease.

  4. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H;

    1997-01-01

    -eight women had a lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) above 0.860 g/cm2, and 278 women had a BMD below 0.860 g/cm2. Spinal fracture was diagnosed from lateral spine X-ray studies and defined as at least 20% height reduction (wedge, compression, or endplate fracture) in at least one vertebra (T4-L4). Bone......, and prevalence of spinal fracture, which supports the theory that high bone turnover is a risk factor for spinal fracture and osteoporosis....

  5. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  6. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  7. Comparative study on reduction of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovariectomized rats by soy isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, T; Toda, T; Tsuji, K; Ishida, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of the soy isoflavone glycoside, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin on bone loss and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (ovx) rats were compared with those of estrone. Thirty-six 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups, sham-operated, ovx, ovx+glycitin, ovx+daidzin, ovx+genistin, and ovx+estrone and fed matched amounts of a commercial calcium-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Throughout this period, daidzin, genistin or glycitin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/d) was given orally using a stomach tube, or estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) was administered subcutaneously. Daidzin, genistin and glycitin significantly prevented bone loss in ovx rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, like estrone. At this dose glycitin and daidzin also prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy and increases in body weight gain, abdominal fat, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, and urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline with statistical significance, like estrone. On the other hand, genistin prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy only at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but did not block any other change of ovx rats at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. These findings indicate that daidzin, glycitin, and genistin are effective in preventing bone loss and the former two compounds are effective in reversing the unfavorable changes of lipid metabolism in this model. It is suggested that the preventive effect of daidzin or glycitin on bone loss in ovx rats is due to suppression of bone turnover, as in the case of estrone, but genistin has a different mechanism of action from the other compounds. Soy isoflavone glycosides may represent a potential alternative therapy in the treatment of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovarian hormone-deficient women.

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lim, Young Tec; Cho, Sae Hyun; Lee, Jae Mun; Hahn, Seong-Tae

    2011-03-01

    We describe the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound for acute vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma in 2 young female patients. Both patients had episodes of abnormal vaginal bleeding with severe dysmenorrhea that was not efficiently controlled by medical treatment. After high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, both vaginal bleeding control and symptom relief were achieved without postinterventional complications. The patients remained free of symptoms during 2 months of follow-up and regained normal menstruation after high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment is one of the least invasive options for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding and may be an effective and safe alternative to other procedures in women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma.

  9. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is highly effective for excluding bone metastases even in patients with equivocal bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortot, Daniel C.; Amorim, Barbara J.; Oki, Glaucia C.; Santos, Allan O.; Lima, Mariana C.L.; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Ramos, Celso Dario [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Avenue Zeferino Vaz, S/N., PO Box 6149, Campinas (Brazil); Gapski, Sergio B. [Medicina Nuclear Diagnostico e Terapia, Nuclear Medicine Clinic, Campinas (Brazil); Barboza, Marycel F.; Mengatti, Jair [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN)-CNEN, Radiopharmacy Directory, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) has been used extensively for many years for the diagnosis of bone metastases despite its low specificity and significant rate of equivocal lesions. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT has been proven to have a high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant bone lesions, but its effectiveness in patients with inconclusive lesions on BS is not well documented. This study evaluated the ability of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT to exclude bone metastases in patients with various malignant primary tumours and nonspecific findings on BS. We prospectively studied 42 patients (34-88 years of age, 26 women) with different types of tumour. All patients had BS performed for staging or restaging purposes but with inconclusive findings. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT. All abnormalities identified on BS images were visually compared with their appearance on the PET/CT images. All the 96 inconclusive lesions found on BS images of the 42 patients were identified on PET/CT images. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT correctly excluded bone metastases in 23 patients (68 lesions). Of 19 patients (28 lesions) classified by PET/CT as having metastases, 3 (5 lesions) were finally classified as free of bone metastases on follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT were, respectively, 100 %, 88 %, 84 % and 100 % for the identification of patients with metastases (patient analysis) and 100 %, 82 % and 100 % for the identification of metastatic lesions (lesion analysis). The factors that make BS inconclusive do not affect {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT which shows a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for excluding bone metastases even in patients with inconclusive conventional BS. (orig.)

  10. Major influencing factors of water flooding in abnormally high-pressure carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingying, Hou; Kaiyuan, Chen; Zifei, Fan; Libing, Fu; Yefei, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The higher pressure coefficient is the major characteristics of the abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoirs, which the pressure coefficient generally exceeds 1.2 and the initial formation pressure is higher than normal sandstone reservoirs. Due to the large pressure difference between initial formation and saturated pressure, oil wells are capable to production with high flow rate by the natural energy at early production stage. When the formation pressure drops to the saturation pressure, the water or gas is usually injected to stabilize the well productivity and sustain the formation pressure. Based on the characteristics of Kenkiak oilfield, a typical abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoir, a well group model is designed to simulate and analyze the influence factors on water flooding. The conclusion is that permeability, interlayer difference and reserve abundance are the main three factors on the water flooding development in these reservoirs.

  11. Chromothripsis Is a Recurrent Genomic Abnormality in High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abáigar, María; Robledo, Cristina; Benito, Rocío; Ramos, Fernando; Díez-Campelo, María; Hermosín, Lourdes; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Alonso, Jose M.; Cuello, Rebeca; Megido, Marta; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; Aguilar, Carlos; Vargas, Manuel; Martín, Ana A.; García, Juan L.; Kohlmann, Alexander; del Cañizo, M. Consuelo; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases. 285 abnormalities were identified in 71 patients (23.6%). Three high-risk MDS cases (1.2%) displayed chromothripsis involving exclusively chromosome 13 and affecting some cancer genes: FLT3, BRCA2 and RB1. All three cases carried TP53 mutations as revealed by NGS. Moreover, in the whole series, the integrative analysis of aCGH and NGS enabled the identification of cryptic recurrent deletions in 2p23.3 (DNMT3A; n = 2.8%), 4q24 (TET2; n = 10%) 17p13 (TP53; n = 8.5%), 21q22 (RUNX1; n = 7%), and Xp11.4 (BCOR; n = 2.8%), while mutations in the non-deleted allele where found only in DNMT3A (n = 1), TET2 (n = 3), and TP53 (n = 4). These cryptic abnormalities were detected mainly in patients with normal (45%) or non-informative (15%) karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, except for those with TP53 deletion and mutation (15%), which had a complex karyotype. In addition to well-known copy number defects, the presence of chromothripsis involving chromosome 13 was a novel recurrent change in high-risk MDS patients. Array CGH analysis revealed the presence of cryptic abnormalities in genomic regions where MDS-related genes, such as TET2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and BCOR, are located. PMID:27741277

  12. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  13. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  14. NF1 frameshift mutation (c.6520_6523delGAGA) association with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S Y; Zhou, X; Pang, X M; Chen, C Y; Li, S H; Liu, J L

    2016-04-07

    Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body and multiple dermatofibromas. A brain glioma and multiple nerve sheath tumors inside and outside the vertebral canal were identified by magnetic resonance imaging, which also showed multiple intercostal nerve schwannomas and hydrocephalies above the cerebellar tentorium. Talipes equinus was also apparent. A mutation analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 43, consisting of a heterozygous deletion of four nucleotides (GAGA) between positions 6520 and 6523. No NF1 mutations were detected in the patient's parents or younger brother. These results extend the list of known mutations in this gene. The absence of the NF1 mutation in the healthy family members suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this frameshift mutation represents a novel NF1 case, and may be associated with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities.

  15. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-05-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  16. 小儿肾病综合征相关骨代谢异常及防治%Prevention and treatment of nephrotic syndrome associated bone metabolic abnormality in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海霞; 姚勇

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease in nephrotic syndrome(NS) are increasingly being renal physician's attention.As calcium binding protein and VitD binding protein losing with a large number of protenuria, the bone metabolic biochemical abnormalities had happened at the beginning of the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, and is further exacerbated by therapeutic high-dose or long course of glucocorticoids (GC) application.The main mechanism of the glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is for GC to inhibit the activity of osteoblasts and promote apoptosis of osteoblasts and formation of osteoclasts, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism,leading to increasing the risk of osteoporosis,slow growth and fracture,seriously harm to children's physical and mental health.The biomarkers of bone transform can prompt the NS with bone metabolic abnormalities early;vertebral body bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density detection is the best method and position to determine GIOP.As the most commonly used and effective means to prevent and control metabolic bone disease, calcium supplements and VitD were always taken when GC was treated for NS, even the dosage of GC was very low.So far, it is still lack of guideline of prevention and treatment of bone metabolic abnormalities in NS in children.%肾病综合征(NS)时的代谢性骨病正日益受到儿肾科医师的关注.在NS起病之初因钙结合蛋白、维生素D结合蛋白自尿中丢失,骨代谢生化异常即已发生.治疗性糖皮质激素(GC)大剂量、长疗程的应用则进一步加剧了骨代谢异常,其主要机制为GC抑制成骨细胞的活性、促进成骨细胞的凋亡以及促进破骨细胞的生成、引起继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进,导致骨质疏松、生长迟缓、骨折风险增加,严重危及儿童身心健康.骨转换的生物标志物可以早期反映NS患儿骨代谢的异常;椎体骨双能X线吸收法骨密度检测是判断GC相关性骨质疏松症的最佳

  17. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  18. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang J. Weninger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos.

  19. Induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in bone-marrow cells and abnormalities in sperm of Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium, lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapisso, Joaquim Torres; Marques, Carla Cristina; Mathias, Maria da Luz; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça

    2009-08-01

    As a consequence of human activities, large amounts of cadmium, lead and zinc are released in the environment, often simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate under experimental conditions the DNA damage induced in Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) separately, or in selected combinations. Three cytogenetic end points were considered: the frequencies of micronucleated cells (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in the bone marrow and the frequency of sperm abnormalities. Mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with 5 or 10 doses of aqueous solutions of cadmium acetate, lead acetate and zinc acetate in concentrations corresponding to 1/10 of the LD50, respectively, 21.5, 0.46 and 1.5 mg/kg bw. The control groups were injected in the same way with distilled water. With only one exception (Cd + Zn group treated with 5 doses), the results show a significant increase of MN in all groups for both treatments (5 and 10 doses). Similarly, the results concerning the SCE revealed a statistically significant increase in all treated animals, with the exception of the Zn group treated with 5 doses. The number of sperm abnormalities was significantly higher in animals treated with 5 doses, except in the group Pb + Zn. In animals treated with 10 doses the number of sperm abnormalities was always statistically higher compared with controls. This study indicates that cadmium, lead and zinc can induce MN, SCEs and sperm abnormalities in Algerian mice and that the clastogenic potential is dependent on the time of exposure and the interaction between the three elements, confirming the environmental damage that may result from the simultaneous action of several metals. Most relevant is the toxic potential for Zn, related with the dose, which may compromise its protective effect against other metal contaminations, such as cadmium.

  20. Abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer by gastric bleeding during {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We present a case in which a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastritis demonstrated abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer during {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy. A hemorrhagic gastritis was subsequently demonstrated by endoscopy. The mechanism for the intestinal localization of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in this patients is not clear, but we guess that the extravasated blood containing the radiopharmaceutical cannot recirculate and stays at the bleeding site, so we can see the intestinal activity.

  1. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  2. Bone Structure and Estimated Bone Strength in Obese Patients Evaluated by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine; Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hansen, Stinus;

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), but whether obesity-related higher bone mass increases bone strength and thereby protect against fractures is uncertain. We estimated effects of obesity on bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in 36 patients (12 males and 24...... females, age 25-56 years and BMI 33.2-57.6 kg/m(2)) matched with healthy controls (age 25-54 years and BMI 19.5-24.8 kg/m(2)) in regard to gender, menopausal status, age (±6 years) and height (±6 cm) using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  3. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  4. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  5. Abnormal joint and bone wound healing in hemophilia mice is improved by extending factor IX activity after hemarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjiang; Hua, Baolai; Livingston, Eric W; Taves, Sarah; Johansen, Peter B; Hoffman, Maureane; Ezban, Mirella; Monroe, Dougald M; Bateman, Ted A; Monahan, Paul E

    2016-12-30

    Wound healing requires interactions between coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis, cellular migration, and proliferation. Healing in dermal wounds of hemophilia B mice is delayed when compared to hemostatically normal wild type (WT) mice, with abnormal persistence of iron deposition, inflammation, and neovascularity. We observed healing following induced joint hemorrhage in WT and factor IX (FIX) knockout (FIX(-/-)) mice, examining also parameters previously studied in an excisional skin wound model. Hemostatically normal mice tolerated this joint bleeding challenge, cleared blood from the joint, and healed with minimal pathology, even if additional autologous blood was injected intra-articularly at the time of wounding. Following hemarthrosis, joint wound healing in hemophilia B mice was impaired and demonstrated similar abnormal histologic features as previously described in hemophilic dermal wounds. Therefore, studies of pathophysiology and therapy of hemophilic joint bleeding performed in hemostatically normal animals are not likely to accurately reflect the healing defect of hemophilia. We additionally explored the hypothesis that the use of a FIX replacement protein with extended circulating FIX activity could improve synovial and osteochondral wound healing in hemophilic mice, when compared to treatment with unmodified recombinant FIX (rFIX) in the established joint bleeding model. Significantly improved synovial wound healing and preservation of normal osteochondral architecture are achieved by extending FIX activity after hemarthrosis using glycoPEGylated FIX when compared to an equivalent dose of rFIX. These results suggest that treating joint bleeding only until hemostasis is achieved may not result in optimal joint healing, which is improved by extending factor activity.

  6. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  7. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  8. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  9. Abnormal Returns in the Ibovespa Using Models for High-Frequency Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Angel Bressan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify profitable trading strategies based on the effects of leads and lags between the spot and futures equity markets in Brazil, using high frequency data. To achieve this objective and based on historical data of the Bovespa and the Bovespa Future indexes, four forecasting models have been built: ARIMA, ARFIMA, VAR, and VECM. The trading strategies tested were: net trading strategy, buy and hold strategy, and filter strategy – better than average predicted return. The period of analysis of this paper extends from August 1, 2006 to October 16, 2009. In this work, it was possible to obtain abnormal returns using trading strategies with the VAR model on the effects of leads and lags between the Bovespa index and Bovespa Future index.

  10. 胎儿肢骨发育异常18例产前诊断%Prenatal diagnose of abnormalities of fetal limb bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晶; 王欣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities of fetal limb bone.Methods We selected 18 cases which long bone of fetus less than 2SD of average volume of gestational weeks or long bone changed into angle or other fetus's abnormalities by first B-mode ultrasonic. All above cases was delivered at Capital Medical University of Obstetric and Gynecological Hospital during Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2009. We B-mode ultrasonic was used to measure fetus's biparietal diameter (BPD) ,femur length (FL) ,abdominal circumference(AC) ,head circumference(HC) ,humerus length (HL) ,amniotic fluid index (AFI) and structures of organ and calculated FL/AC, growth speed of long bone. The standard of achondroplasia is that FL and HL are less than 4SD of average of gestational weeks or FL/AC less than 0. 16. The standard of Osteogenesis Imperfecta is fetal long bone of fetus shows short and thick, curves into angle, fracture in uterus by X-ray, or skull shows thin or sink by X-ray. Results (1) By B-mode ultrasonic and X-ray exam of all 18 cases: 7 cases shows that HC >2SD, 10 cases shows too much amniotic fluid, 12 cases shows AFI > 18.0, 9 cases shows abnormalities of narrow cavitas thoracis, disordered vertebral column, or unusual architecture of heart. For cases 1 to 14 are achondroplasia, among which,11 cases are FL<4SD and HL<4SD, 2 cases are FL <3SD and HL <4SD, 1 case is not only FL <2SD and HL <3SD but also hydroncus all over the body of fetus. The growth velocity of long bone of fetus in all the 14 cases is more slowly than the normal rate. For all the above 14 cases, 12 cases FL/AC <0. 16, 1 case FL/AC =0. 19, 1 case FL/AC =0. 20. The length of femur or humerus is shorter than the normal rate and have other abnormalities the above last two cases. For case 15 and 16, they don't show any abnormalities of bone growth though one year's follow up studying. For case 17 and 18, they are osteogenesis imperfecta. (2) The result of fetal perinatal period fate and

  11. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ...... and treated with lenalidomide up to 30 mg daily for 16 weeks. Three patients had isolated del(5q), six had del(5q) plus one additional aberration, 14 had del(5q) and a complex karyotype, four had monosomy 5, and one had del(5q) identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization only. RESULTS: Major and minor...... cytogenetic responses, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were achieved in 5/26 (19%) and 2/26 (8%) patients, respectively, who received one or more dose of lenalidomide, while two patients achieved only a bone marrow response. Nine of all 26 patients (35%) and nine of the ten who completed...

  12. High-resolution-cone beam tomography analysis of bone microarchitecture in patients with acromegaly and radiological vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoni, Filippo; Maddalo, Michele; Frara, Stefano; Mezzone, Monica; Zorza, Ivan; Baruffaldi, Fabio; Doglietto, Francesco; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Maroldi, Roberto; Giustina, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Vertebral fractures are an emerging complication of acromegaly but their prediction is still difficult occurring even in patients with normal bone mineral density. In this study we evaluated the ability of high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography to provide information on skeletal abnormalities associated with vertebral fractures in acromegaly. 40 patients (24 females, 16 males; median age 57 years, range 25-72) and 21 healthy volunteers (10 females, 11 males; median age 60 years, range: 25-68) were evaluated for trabecular (bone volume/trabecular volume ratio, mean trabecular separation, and mean trabecular thickness) and cortical (thickness and porosity) parameters at distal radius using a high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography system. All acromegaly patients were evaluated for morphometric vertebral fractures and for mineral bone density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and distal radius. Acromegaly patients with vertebral fractures (15 cases) had significantly (p cone-beam computed tomography at the distal radius may be useful to evaluate and predict the effects of acromegaly on bone microstructure.

  13. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  14. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  15. 高盐摄入与骨代谢%High salt intake and bone metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓峰; 张荣华

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a global public health problem, and dietary interventions may potentially be helpful in preventing this disorder.Salt ( sodium chloride) is one of the most important dietary nutrients.High sodium chloride intake may play an important role in bone metabolism.In this paper, we reviewed the effects of high sodium chlo-ride intake on bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone biochemical markers, and analyzed the possible causes through currently available literature.Although there are a few inconsistencies results, we conclude a long-term high salt intake can reduce bone density or bone mineral content, change many biochemical markers of bone resorption, which may be caused mainly by increasing urinary calcium excretion and a low-grade metabolic acidosis.However, there are still many unclear aspects need further exploration.

  16. Detection of protozoal Trichomonas vaginalis and abnormal vaginal flora in high vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills G. Sheela

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study reflects on our responsibility to create awareness among women regarding abnormal vaginal discharge through proper health education routine screening targeted treatment to envisage healthy quality life.

  17. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  18. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  20. High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography for Assessment of Bone Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia

    2014-03-01

    The study of bone quality is motivated by the high morbidity, mortality, and societal cost of skeletal fractures. Over 10 million people are diagnosed with osteoporosis in the US alone, suffering 1.5 million osteoporotic fractures and costing the health care system over 17 billion annually. Accurate assessment of fracture risk is necessary to ensure that pharmacological and other interventions are appropriately administered. Currently, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to determine osteoporotic status and predict fracture risk. Though aBMD is a significant predictor of fracture risk, it does not completely explain bone strength or fracture incidence. The major limitation of aBMD is the lack of 3D information, which is necessary to distinguish between cortical and trabecular bone and to quantify bone geometry and microarchitecture. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) enables in vivo assessment of volumetric BMD within specific bone compartments as well as quantification of geometric and microarchitectural measures of bone quality. HR-pQCT studies have documented that trabecular bone microstructure alterations are associated with fracture risk independent of aBMD.... Cortical bone microstructure - specifically porosity - is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue and may further explain the aBMD-independent effect of age on bone fragility and fracture risk. The application of finite element analysis (FEA) to HR-pQCT data permits estimation of patient-specific bone strength, shown to be associated with fracture incidence independent of aBMD. This talk will describe the HR-pQCT scanner, established metrics of bone quality derived from HR-pQCT data, and novel analyses of bone quality currently in development. Cross-sectional and longitudinal HR-pQCT studies investigating the impact of aging, disease, injury, gender, race, and

  1. Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout mice maintain high bone density during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Liu, Li-Fen; Patel, Shailja; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2011-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow and that removal of HSL function by gene deletion maintains high bone mass in aging mice. We compared littermate control wild-type (WT) and HSL(-/-) mice during aging for changes in serum biochemical values, trabecular bone density using micro-computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, and characteristics of primary bone marrow cells and preosteoblasts. There is a regulated expression of HSL and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the bone marrow during aging. HSL(-/-) mice have increased serum levels of insulin and osteocalcin with decreased leptin levels. Compared with the marked adipocyte infiltration in WT bone marrow (65% by area) at 14 mo, HSL(-/-) mice have fewer (16%, PHSL(-/-) mice maintain a higher bone density (bone volume/total volume 6.1%) with age than WT mice (2.6%, PHSL(-/-) mice show increased growth rates and higher osteogenic potential, manifested by increased expression of Runx2 (3.5-fold, PHSL directs cells within the bone marrow toward osteoblast differentiation and favors the maintenance of bone density with aging.

  2. Mechanical strain, induced noninvasively in the high-frequency domain, is anabolic to cancellous bone, but not cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C; Turner, A S; Mallinckrodt, C; Jerome, C; McLeod, K; Bain, S

    2002-03-01

    Departing from the premise that it is the large-amplitude signals inherent to intense functional activity that define bone morphology, we propose that it is the far lower magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals that continually barrage the skeleton during longer term activities such as standing, which regulate skeletal architecture. To examine this hypothesis, we proposed that brief exposure to slight elevations in these endogenous mechanical signals would suffice to increase bone mass in those bones subject to the stimulus. This was tested by exposing the hind limbs of adult female sheep (n = 9) to 20 min/day of low-level (0.3g), high-frequency (30 Hz) mechanical signals, sufficient to induce a peak of approximately 5 microstrain (micro epsilon) in the tibia. Following euthanasia, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to segregate the cortical shell from the trabecular envelope of the proximal femur, revealing a 34.2% increase in bone density in the experimental animals as compared with controls (p = 0.01). Histomorphometric examination of the femur supported these density measurements, with bone volume per total volume increasing by 32% (p = 0.04). This density increase was achieved by two separate strategies: trabecular spacing decreased by 36.1% (p = 0.02), whereas trabecular number increased by 45.6% (p = 0.01), indicating the formation of cancellous bone de novo. There were no significant differences in the radii of animals subject to the stimulus, indicating that the adaptive response was local rather than systemic. The anabolic potential of the signal was evident only in trabecular bone, and there were no differences, as measured by any assay, in the cortical bone. These data suggest that subtle mechanical signals generated during predominant activities such as posture may be potent determinants of skeletal morphology. Given that these strain levels are three orders of magnitude below strains that can damage bone tissue, we

  3. Abnormal fetal nasal bone in prediction of 21-trisomy in the second and third trimester%中晚孕期胎儿鼻骨异常预测21-三体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦英; 钱隽; 李谊; 赵晓虹; 郭汉涛; 许少兰; 丛淑珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of abnormal fetal nasal bone for screening trisomy 21 in the second and third trimester.Methods Data of 5460 pregnant women underwent prenatal ultrasound were analyzed.Routine ultrasound was performed to detect fetus and appendages.When abnormalities of fetal nasal bone were found,amniocentesis or removable cord blood karyotype were performed.Results Abnormalities of fetal nasal bone were found in 10 fetuses.Among 4 fetal nasal bone absent,1 appeared skeletal dysplasia and normal chromosome,3 were trisomy 21 combined with cardiac or other systems abnormalities.Among 6 fetuses of nasal bone hypoplasia,short nasal,one-side nasal absence or poor nasal bone ossification were detected,1 was trisomy 21 combined with other systems abnormalities,1 was normal chromosome combined with thalassemia,and the rest 4 had normal chromosome and solitary nasal bone hypoplasia not combined with other system anomalities.Conclusion Nasal bone absence is often found with ultrasound in trisomy 21 fetuses,but the value of solitary nasal bone hypoplasia for screening trisomy 21 needs further research.%目的 评价中晚孕期胎儿鼻骨异常对21-三体的诊断价值.方法 分析在我院接受胎儿产前超声检查的5460名孕妇的资料,以常规超声检查胎儿及其附属物,如发现胎儿鼻骨异常,行羊膜腔穿刺或抽取脐带血进行染色体核型分析.结果 共发现10胎鼻骨异常.4胎鼻骨缺失,其中1胎骨骼发育障碍,染色体正常;余3胎均为21-三体合并心脏或其他系统异常.6胎鼻骨发育不良,表现为鼻骨短小、一侧鼻骨缺失或鼻骨骨化不良,其中1胎为21-三体合并其他系统异常;1胎为地中海贫血,染色体正常;余4胎未合并其他系统异常,为孤立性鼻骨发育不良,染色体正常.结论 鼻骨缺失是21-三体的超声常见表现,但孤立性鼻骨发育不良对21-三体的诊断价值需要进一步探讨.

  4. Fish bones--a highly available calcium source for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Graff, I E; Siljander-Rasi, H; Venäläinen, E; Julshamn, K; Pedersen, J I; Valaja, J

    2010-10-01

    In general, there is a lack of scientific documentation of nutritional value of marine by-products. The bone fraction from fish has been regarded as waste. Due to the high mineral content of fish bones, this material can be well suitable as a natural calcium source. In the present study, apparent calcium absorption of different fish bone sources was tested using growing pigs. The experimental diets consisted of boiled salmon frames, or salmon, saithe or cod bones treated with enzymes. Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was used as control. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.7% total calcium of which the added calcium source to be tested contributed about 71% (study 1) and 86% (study 2). Except for the calcium and phosphorus sources, the animals received similar basal diets. Apparent calcium digestibility coefficient was calculated using yttrium as indicator (both studies) and was based on complete collection of faeces and urine (study 2). The experimental design was parallel and cross-over in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, piglets getting salmon bone treated with enzymes had significantly higher calcium absorption than piglets getting boiled fish bone or calcium carbonate. Therefore, in the second study only enzymatically treated fish bones were included. The higher calcium absorption from enzymatically treated salmon bone was also found in study 2, but this time not significant. Calcium from boiled salmon bones in study I, and from enzymatically treated saithe and cod bones in study II were absorbed as well as the calcium carbonate control. The results indicate that fish bones may be a useful and well absorbed calcium source. Due to the high mineral content of the bone fraction, salmon bones can be well suitable as a natural calcium and phosphorus source in, for example, food, feed or as supplement.

  5. High Goblet Cell Count Is Inversely Associated with Ploidy Abnormalities and Risk of Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Srivastava

    Full Text Available Goblet cells may represent a potentially successful adaptive response to acid and bile by producing a thick mucous barrier that protects against cancer development in Barrett's esophagus (BE. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between goblet cells (GC and risk of progression to adenocarcinoma, and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, in BE patients.Baseline mucosal biopsies (N=2988 from 213 patients, 32 of whom developed cancer during the follow up period, enrolled in a prospective dynamic cohort of BE patients were scored in a blinded fashion, for the total number (# of GC, mean # of GC/crypt (GC density, # of crypts with ≥ 1 GC, and the proportion of crypts with ≥1 GC, in both dysplastic and non-dysplastic epithelium separately. The relationship between these four GC parameters and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities and adenocarcinoma outcome was compared, after adjustment for age, gender, and BE segment length.High GC parameters were inversely associated with DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, such as aneuploidy, ploidy >2.7N, and an elevated 4N fraction > 6%, and with risk of adenocarcinoma. However, a Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total # of GC and the total # crypts with ≥1 GC were the only significant GC parameters (p<0.001 and 0.003, respectively.The results of this study show, for the first time, an inverse relationship between high GC counts and flow cytometric abnormalities and risk of adenocarcinoma in BE. Further studies are needed to determine if GC depleted foci within esophageal columnar mucosa are more prone to neoplastic progression or whether loss of GC occurs secondary to underlying genetic abnormalities.

  6. High strength bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Baino, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2009-02-01

    This research work is focused on the preparation of macroporous glass-ceramic scaffolds with high mechanical strength, equivalent with cancellous bone. The scaffolds were prepared using an open-cells polyurethane sponge as a template and glass powders belonging to the system SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaO-MgO-Na(2)O-K(2)O. The glass, named as CEL2, was synthesized by a conventional melting-quenching route, ground and sieved to obtain powders of specific size. A slurry of CEL2 powders, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder and water was prepared in order to coat, by a process of impregnation, the polymeric template. A thermal treatment was then used to remove the sponge and to sinter the glass powders, in order to obtain a replica of the template structure. The scaffolds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, morphological observations, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage, image analysis, capillarity tests, mechanical tests and in vitro bioactivity evaluation.

  7. Abnormal dissolutions of chlorpromazine hydrochloride tablets in water by paddle method under a high agitation condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Nobuo; Rimando, Annie Policarpio; Izutsu, Kenichi; Katori, Noriko; Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-09-01

    All sugar-coated tablets of chlorpromazine hydrochloride except for those produced by one manufacture showed concave dissolution profiles in water by paddle method at 100 rpm but not at 50 rpm. The study was undertaken to clarify the agitation-dependent abnormal dissolutions. The strange dissolutions were also observed in water at different ionic strengths but not in buffer solutions of pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8. When monitored, the pH's of water in dissolution vessels for the abnormal tablets increased with time at 100 rpm and some of them exceeded pH 8 but did not at 50 rpm. The solubility of chlorpromazine hydrochloride decreased with the increase of pH which was too low to dissolve the whole amount of drug contained in a tablet at pH 8. The elevation of pH seemed to be mainly brought about by dissolution of calcium carbonate popularly used for sugar-coated tablets, because larger amount of calcium ion was dissolved out from the abnormal tablets at 100 rpm than from a normal tablet and from them at 50 rpm. These findings indicate that the concave dissolution profiles should be caused by the decrease of drug solubility with increase in pH of water, probably because of dissolution of calcium carbonate. We should pay attention to the change in pH of water which may differ depending on the agitation speed of dissolution tests.

  8. Carpal and tarsal bone development is highly sensitive to three antiproliferative teratogens in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M E; Ishikawa, H; Watanabe, Y; Endo, A

    1996-01-01

    When pregnant mice were given small doses of teratogens (cytosine arabinoside, mitomycin C, or busulfan) that did not induce anomalies of any other organs, a high incidence of carpal and tarsal bone anomalies still occurred. The carpal and tarsal bones may be used as a sensitive target for teratogenicity testing.

  9. Bone metastasis treatment using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Elevelt, Aaldert; Donato, Katia; van Rietbergen, Bert; ter Hoeve, Natalie D.; van Diest, Paul J.; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bone pain resulting from cancer metastases reduces a patient's quality of life. Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising alternative palliative thermal treatment technique for bone metastases that has been tested in a few clinical studies. Here

  10. Inversion of the western Pacific subtropical high dynamic model and analysis of dynamic characteristics for its abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on time series data of 500 hPa potential field from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Forecast of American/National Center for Atmospheric Research, a novel consideration of empirical orthogonal function (EOF time–space separation and dynamic system reconstruction for time series is introduced. This method consists of two parts: first, the dynamical model inversion and model parameter optimization are carried out on the EOF time coefficient series using the genetic algorithm (GA, and, second, a nonlinear dynamic model representing the subtropical high (SH activity and its abnormality is established. The SH activity and its abnormal mechanism is studied using the developed dynamical model. Results show that the configuration and diversification of the SH equilibriums have good correspondence with the actual short–medium term abnormal activity of the SH. Change of SH potential field brought by the combination of equilibriums is more complex than that by mutation, and their exhibition patterns are different. The mutation behavior from high-value to low-value equilibriums of the SH in summer corresponds with the southward drop of the SH in the observed weather process. The combination behavior of the two steady equilibriums corresponds with disappearance of the "double-ridge" phenomenon of the SH. Dynamical mechanisms of these phenomena are explained.

  11. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  12. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p  0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  13. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇

    2014-01-01

    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  14. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  16. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Nonidet P - 40 , 10 mg/ml phenylmethylsulfonyl...5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 P e rc e n ta g e TC TA PC EC B6 C3H N=5, * p ɘ.01, a p ɘ.05 Fig.3 Fold change in expression of various genes in response to...mice and brown color represents C3H mice. A= p ɘ.05 vs unloaded control bones B= p ɘ.05 v C3H mice A,B A,B A,B A AA 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 10wk 16wk

  17. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee-Cheng Khor

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR, including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA. Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health

  18. High-fat diet-induced obesity stimulates ketone body utilization in osteoclasts of the mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Imai, Masahiko; Takahashi, Noriko; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2016-04-29

    Previous studies have shown that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity increases the acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS) gene expression in lipogenic tissue. To investigate the effect of obesity on the AACS gene in other tissues, we examined the alteration of AACS mRNA levels in HFD-fed mice. In situ hybridization revealed that AACS was observed in several regions of the embryo, including the backbone region (especially in the somite), and in the epiphysis of the adult femur. AACS mRNA expression in the adult femur was higher in HFD-fed mice than in normal-diet fed mice, but this increase was not observed in high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced obese mice. In addition, HFD-specific increases were observed in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and interleukin (IL)-6 genes. Moreover, we detected higher AACS mRNA expression in the differentiated osteoclast cells (RAW 264), and found that AACS mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by IL-6 treatment only in osteoclasts. These results indicate the novel function of the ketone body in bone metabolism. Because the abnormal activation of osteoclasts by IL-6 induces bone resorption, our data suggest that AACS and ketone bodies are important factors in the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis.

  19. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  20. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  1. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  2. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  3. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  4. The experiment in rat model with alendronate inhibiting abnormal alve olar bone resorption%Alendronate阻止牙槽骨骨吸收的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓敏; 杨宗萍; 于世凤

    2001-01-01

    Objective.Osteoporosis and periodontal disease animal models were used to evaluate the anti-resorption effect of alendr onate on bone.Methods.To establish osteoporosis and alveo lar bone resorption animal models.The experimental groups (ovariectomized dental ligature group and simple dental ligature group) were given alendronate in 0. 5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection after six weeks of ovariectomy and dental ligature,three times a week for 6 weeks.All the animals were sacrifised 12 weeks after the operation.The blood samples were collected for determination of bioch emical indexes.The left femora and jaw bone were processed for histomorphometry. The right femora and mendibles were prepared for determination of bone density and bone biodynamics.Results.As compared with the control groups (without alendronate),the values of experimental groups (with alendronate ) were all significantly improved on bone density and bone anti-curve power.The alkaline phosphatase,calcium in serum of ovariectomy groups (without alendronate ) were obviously increased.In the alendronate group,however,these indexes werec lose to normal levels.In histomorphometry,there were little inflammation in gingiva and less level alveolar bone resorption in the experimental groups;but there was obvious gingivitis and level alveolar bone resorption in the control groups .Conclusion.Alendronate can effectively treat osteoporosis,increase bone volume and prevent bone lose in ovariectomized female rats and inhibit pathological alveolar bone resorption.%目的 评价双膦酸盐Alendronate抑制牙槽骨骨吸收的作用。方法 建立骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收动物模型,建模术后六周,给实验组皮下注射Alendronate每周3次,共6周;用血生化指标骨生物力学、骨密度测量、组织形态学等方法进行药效评价。结果 股骨骨密度对照 组与用药组相比明显降低(P<0.01);血清碱性磷酸酶对照组与用药组相比明显升

  5. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  6. High bone mass in mice lacking Cx37 because of defective osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D; Davis, Hannah M; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Allen, Matthew R; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2014-03-21

    Connexin (Cx) proteins are essential for cell differentiation, function, and survival in all tissues with Cx43 being the most studied in bone. We now report that Cx37, another member of the connexin family of proteins, is expressed in osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Mice with global deletion of Cx37 (Cx37(-/-)) exhibit higher bone mineral density, cancellous bone volume, and mechanical strength compared with wild type littermates. Osteoclast number and surface are significantly lower in bone of Cx37(-/-) mice. In contrast, osteoblast number and surface and bone formation rate in bones from Cx37(-/-) mice are unchanged. Moreover, markers of osteoblast activity ex vivo and in vivo are similar to those of Cx37(+/+) littermates. sRANKL/M-CSF treatment of nonadherent Cx37(-/-) bone marrow cells rendered a 5-fold lower level of osteoclast differentiation compared with Cx37(+/+) cell cultures. Further, Cx37(-/-) osteoclasts are smaller and have fewer nuclei per cell. Expression of RANK, TRAP, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, DC-STAMP, ATP6v0d1, and CD44, markers of osteoclast number, fusion, or activity, is lower in Cx37(-/-) osteoclasts compared with controls. In addition, nonadherent bone marrow cells from Cx37(-/-) mice exhibit higher levels of markers for osteoclast precursors, suggesting altered osteoclast differentiation. The reduction of osteoclast differentiation is associated with activation of Notch signaling. We conclude that Cx37 is required for osteoclast differentiation and fusion, and its absence leads to arrested osteoclast maturation and high bone mass in mice. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of Cx37 in bone homeostasis that is not compensated for by Cx43 in vivo.

  7. High Bone Mass in Mice Lacking Cx37 Because of Defective Osteoclast Differentiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Davis, Hannah M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Allen, Matthew R.; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin (Cx) proteins are essential for cell differentiation, function, and survival in all tissues with Cx43 being the most studied in bone. We now report that Cx37, another member of the connexin family of proteins, is expressed in osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Mice with global deletion of Cx37 (Cx37−/−) exhibit higher bone mineral density, cancellous bone volume, and mechanical strength compared with wild type littermates. Osteoclast number and surface are significantly lower in bone of Cx37−/− mice. In contrast, osteoblast number and surface and bone formation rate in bones from Cx37−/− mice are unchanged. Moreover, markers of osteoblast activity ex vivo and in vivo are similar to those of Cx37+/+ littermates. sRANKL/M-CSF treatment of nonadherent Cx37−/− bone marrow cells rendered a 5-fold lower level of osteoclast differentiation compared with Cx37+/+ cell cultures. Further, Cx37−/− osteoclasts are smaller and have fewer nuclei per cell. Expression of RANK, TRAP, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, DC-STAMP, ATP6v0d1, and CD44, markers of osteoclast number, fusion, or activity, is lower in Cx37−/− osteoclasts compared with controls. In addition, nonadherent bone marrow cells from Cx37−/− mice exhibit higher levels of markers for osteoclast precursors, suggesting altered osteoclast differentiation. The reduction of osteoclast differentiation is associated with activation of Notch signaling. We conclude that Cx37 is required for osteoclast differentiation and fusion, and its absence leads to arrested osteoclast maturation and high bone mass in mice. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of Cx37 in bone homeostasis that is not compensated for by Cx43 in vivo. PMID:24509854

  8. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  9. Bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giuffrida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone complications occur frequently in Gaucher disease (GD and reduce the quality of life of these patients. Skeletal involvement is an important indication for treatment to ameliorate symptoms and reduce the risk of irreversible and debilitating disease. Bone biomarkers have been used to assess disease status and the response to therapy in a number of bone disorders. Here, we examine the literature for evidence of abnormalities in bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 GD to assess whether they might be useful for the assessment of bone involvement in GD. We have found that bone biomarkers in GD show highly variable results which do not currently support their routine use for clinical assessment of bone status, as an indication for therapy initiation, or for monitoring the response to therapy. A greater understanding of bone markers and their relation to the bone manifestations of GD is required.

  10. Loss of fibulin-4 results in abnormal collagen fibril assembly in bone, caused by impaired lysyl oxidase processing and collagen cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasaki, T.; Stoop, R.; Sakai, T.; Hess, A.; Deutzmann, R.; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U.; Chu, M.L.; Mark, K. von der

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibulin-4 has been shown to be indispensable for elastic fiber assembly, but there is also evidence from human mutations that it is involved in controlling skeletal development and bone stability. Fibulin-4 mutations were identified in patients suffering from vascula

  11. Abnormalities of chromosome 1p/q are highly associated with chromosome 13/13q deletions and are an adverse prognostic factor for the outcome of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ka Lung; Beverloo, Berna; Lokhorst, Henk M; Segeren, Christine M; van der Holt, Bronno; Steijaert, Monique M; Westveer, Petra H; Poddighe, Pino J; Verhoef, Gregor E; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2007-02-01

    The prognostic value of chromosomal abnormalities was studied in untreated multiple myeloma patients who were registered into a prospective randomised multicentre phase 3 study for intensified treatment (HOVON24). A total of 453 patients aged less than 66 years with stage II and III A/B disease were registered in the clinical study. Cytogenetic analysis was introduced as a standard diagnostic assay in 1998. It was performed at diagnosis in 160 patients and was successful in 137/160 patients (86%). An abnormal karyotype was observed in 53/137 (39%) of the patients. Abnormalities of chromosome 1p and 1q were found in 19 (36% of patients with an abnormal karyotype) and 21 patients (40%). There was a strong association between chromosome 1p and/or 1q abnormalities and deletion of chromosome 13 or 13q (n = 27, P < 0.001). Patients with karyotypic abnormalities had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than patients with normal karyotypes. Complex abnormalities, hypodiploidy, chromosome 1p abnormalities, chromosome 1q abnormalities, and chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with inferior OS on univariate analysis, as well as after adjustment for other prognostic factors. In conclusion, chromosome 13 abnormalities and chromosome 1p and/or 1q abnormalities were highly associated, and are risk factors for poor outcome after intensive therapy in multiple myeloma.

  12. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  13. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  14. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation: the value of high-resolution computed tomography in predicting their etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-sheng; ZHU Hong-xian; FAN Hong-xia; ZHU Ling; WANG Heng-xiang; SONG Yun-long

    2011-01-01

    Background The correct diagnosis of etiology of fungal infection after bone marrow transplantation is very important to the choice of antifungal drugs and a premise for improvement of therapeutic efficacy.This study aimed to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the pulmonary fungal infections to determine whether the etiology of various fungal infections could be diagnosed with HRCT.Methods Eighty-five cases were enrolled.According to the pathogens responsible for fungal infections,the patients were classified into three groups including invasive aspergillosis (n=52),candidiasis (n=19) and cryptococcosis (n=14)groups.All the patients underwent HRCT scans.Two independent radiologists retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans regarding CT patterns and distribution of lung abnormality.Results Most fungal infections in the three groups occurred in the neutropenic phase.There was no significant difference in the constituent ratio of fungal infections at different phases after bone marrow transplantation among the three groups.Agreement between the two observers for all the CT characteristics of fungal infections was excellent (k>0.75).There was a significant difference in occurrence ratio of mass among the three groups (P=0.02).Occurrence ratio of mass (43.3%,13/30) in the group with invasive aspergillosis was higher than in each of other two groups (20.0%,2/10;14.3%,1/7).There was no significant difference in other CT characteristics of nodules or masses; including number,margin,halo sign,cavitation and air-crescent sign.There was no significant difference in number,margin,air bronchogram and distribution of air-space consolidation.Conclusions The HRCT appearance of various pulmonary fungal infections has a great deal of overlap and is nonspecific.Mass is more common in invasive aspergillosis,which is helpful to the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis after bone marrow transplantation.

  15. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H. M. M.; Bošnački, D.; Elevelt, A.; Donato, K.; Di Tullio, A.; Breuer, B. J. T.; van Wijk, J. H.; van Dijk, E. V. M.; Modena, D.; Yeo, S. Y.; Grüll, H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  16. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H M M; Bošnački, D; Elevelt, A; Donato, K; Di Tullio, A; Breuer, B J T; van Wijk, J H; van Dijk, E V M; Modena, D; Yeo, S Y; Grüll, H

    2016-02-21

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  17. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells. PMID:28224984

  18. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials - Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  19. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed...... negative group. A high frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA was thus detected in bone marrow samples in rheumatic patients. The clinical data does not support a direct association between B19 PCR positivity and rheumatic disease manifestation. Therefore, the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone...

  20. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: yzyg@sh163.net; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: huangyan@fudan.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  1. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (pprotein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: pprotein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  2. Abnormally High Power Output of Wind Turbine in Cold Weather: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Leclerc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available According to popular belief, air temperature effects on wind turbine power output are produced solely by air density variations, and power is proportional to air density. However, some cases have been reported, all involving stall-controlled wind turbines, in which unexpected high power output was observed at very low temperatures.

  3. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  4. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  5. Space-time objective decomposition of vortex equations and mechanism analysis of subtropical high abnormal activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei HONG; Ren ZHANG; Feng XUE; Ke-feng LIU

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the dynamic mechanism of unusual activities of the subtropical high, the space-time varible separation of the partial differential vortex equations is carried out with Galerkin methods based on the heat force and the whirl movement dissi-pation effect. Aiming at the subjective and man-made conventional method of choice in the space basis functions, we propose to combine the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis with the genetic algorithm to inverse the space basis functions from the actual sequence of fields. A group of trigonometric functions are chosen as a generalized space basis function. With the least-squares error of the basis function and EOF typical fields, and with the complete orthogonality of basis functions, we can get the dual-bound func-tion. A genetic algorithm is then introduced to carry out surface fitting and coefficient optimization of the basis function. As a result, the objective and reasonable constant differential equation of the subtropical high is obtained by inversion. Finally, based on the obtained nonlinear dynamics model, the dynamic behavior and mechanism of the subtropical high is analyzed and discussed under the influence of heat force. We find that solar radiation and zonal differences in land and sea are important factors impacting the potential field and flow field changes of the subtropical areas. These factors lead to strength changes of the subtropical high and medium-term advance/retreat activities. The former is a gradual change, while the latter shows more break characteristics. Meaningful results are obtained in the analysis.

  6. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  7. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  8. Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

  9. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia (Posteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium.

  10. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  11. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus(R.nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice.Methods:Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet(60 kcal%fat) for 12 weeks.After the first six weeks of the diet,the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R.nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks.Subsequently,the blood glucose,lipid profiles,insulin,leptin,and adiponectin levels were measured.The liver and adipose tissues were excised for histopathological examination and protein expression study.Results:After six weeks of the treatment,R.nasutus extract(at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level,improve the insulin sensitivity,decrease the serum leptin,and increase the serum adiponectin levels.The obese mice treated with R.nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concentrations in their serum and liver tissues.Moreover,treatment with R.nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues.Interestingly,the administration with R.nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha,fat cell adiponectin,and glucose transporter 4 proteins.Conclusions:To the best of our knowledge,the present study is the first report on the impact of R.nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  12. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks of the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R. nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks. Subsequently, the blood glucose, lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured. The liver and adipose tissues were excised for his-topathological examination and protein expression study. Results: After six weeks of the treatment, R. nasutus extract (at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level, improve the insulin sensitivity, decrease the serum leptin, and increase the serum adiponectin levels. The obese mice treated with R. nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concen-trations in their serum and liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with R. nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues. Interestingly, the administration with R. nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, fat cell adiponectin, and glucose transporter 4 proteins. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  13. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  14. Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Fat Diet Is Associated with Mitochondrial Abnormality and Adenosine Triphosphate Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Woon Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObesity is well-known as a risk factor for heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction. However, this mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac dysfunction develops when rats are fed with a HFD for 10 weeks; additionally, we sought to investigate the association between mitochondrial abnormalities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels and cardiac dysfunction.MethodsWe examined myocardia in Wistar rats after 10 weeks of HFD (45 kcal% fat, n=6 or standard diet (SD, n=6. Echocardiography, histomorphologic analysis, and electron microscopy were performed. The expression levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS subunit genes, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC1α and anti-oxidant enzymes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial DNA copy number and myocardial ATP level were also examined.ResultsAfter 10 weeks, the body weight of the HFD group (349.6±22.7 g was significantly higher than that of the SD group (286.8±14.9 g, and the perigonadal and epicardial fat weights of the HFD group were significantly higher than that of the SD group. Histomorphologic and electron microscopic images were similar between the two groups. However, in the myocardium of the HFD group, the expression levels of OXPHOS subunit NDUFB5 in complex I and PGC1α, and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were decreased and the oxidative stress damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased, accompanied by reduced ATP levels.ConclusionDiastolic dysfunction was accompanied by the mitochondrial abnormality and reduced ATP levels in the myocardium of 10 weeks-HFD-induced rats.

  15. Predictors of persistent cytologic abnormalities after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study in a HIV high prevalence population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre James A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of both HIV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the risk of cancer development despite treatment may be greater. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ. Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL, less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. A LLETZ was performed on all patients with HSIL or higher on Papanicolaou (Pap smear or colposcopy, LSIL or higher in patients who are HIV-infected, where the colposcopy is inadequate, and when there was a discrepancy between colposcopy and cytology by one or more grades. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at 122 days. Persistent cytological abnormalities occurred in 49% of our patients after LLETZ. Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. Among the latter, disease at the excision margins and CD4+ cell count were important predictors. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  17. Selective deletion of the membrane-bound colony stimulating factor 1 isoform leads to high bone mass but does not protect against estrogen-deficiency bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang-Qing; Wu, Jian-Jun; Troiano, Nancy; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-Yan; Insogna, Karl

    2012-07-01

    To better define the biologic function of membrane-bound CSF1 (mCSF1) in vivo, we have generated mCSF1 knockout (k/o) mice. Spinal bone density (BMD) was 15.9% higher in k/o mice compared to wild-type (wt) controls (P bone marrow isolated from mCSF1 k/o mice was reduced compared to wt marrow. There were no defects in osteoblast number or function suggesting that the basis for the high bone mass phenotype was reduced resorption. In addition to a skeletal phenotype, k/o mice had significantly elevated serum triglyceride levels (123 ± 7 vs. 88 ± 3.2 mg/dl; k/o vs. wt, P bone loss following ovariectomy (OVX). OVX induced a significant fourfold increase in the expression of the soluble CSF1 isoform (sCSF1) in the bones of wt mice while expression of mCSF1 was unchanged. These findings indicate that mCSF1 is essential for normal bone remodeling since, in its absence, BMD is increased. Membrane-bound CSF1 does not appear to be required for estrogen-deficiency bone loss while in contrast; our data suggest that sCSF1 could play a key role in this pathologic process. The reasons why mCSF1 k/o mice have hypertriglyceridemia are currently under study.

  18. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. [Results] Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength. PMID:27757386

  19. A study with high resolution computed tomography of bone destruction in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamaso, Tatsuya; Higo, Ryusaburo (Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)); Senba, Tetsuo; Iinuma, Yoshitaka

    1992-07-01

    The modes and incidences of bone destruction in the middle ear cholesteatoma were evaluated by high resolution computed tomography, comparing with chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) as control. The head of the malleus, the body and long process of the incus were more markedly destroyed in cholesteatoma than in COM with statistical significance. With the further extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum, the tegmen of the aditus ad antrum, the lateral semicircular canal, the handle of the malleus and the Korner's septum were involved in bone destruction. (author).

  20. Effect of stress and temperature on the micromechanics of creep in highly irradiated bone and dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Anjali, E-mail: anjalisinghal2007@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deymier-Black, Alix C., E-mail: alixdeymier2010@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Almer, Jonathan D., E-mail: almer@aps.anl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dunand, David C., E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is used to study in situ the evolution of phase strains during compressive creep deformation in bovine bone and dentin for a range of compressive stresses and irradiation rates, at ambient and body temperatures. In all cases, compressive strains in the collagen phase increase with increasing creep time (and concomitant irradiation), reflecting macroscopic deformation of the sample. By contrast, compressive elastic strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase, created upon initial application of compressive load on the sample, decrease with increasing time (and irradiation) for all conditions; this load shedding behavior is consistent with damage at the HAP–collagen interface due to the high irradiation doses (from ∼ 100 to ∼ 9,000 kGy). Both the HAP and fibril strain rates increase with applied compressive stress, temperature and irradiation rate, which is indicative of greater collagen molecular sliding at the HAP–collagen interface and greater intermolecular sliding (i.e., plastic deformation) within the collagen network. The temperature sensitivity confirms that testing at body temperature, rather than ambient temperature, is necessary to assess the in vivo behavior of bone and teeth. The characteristic pattern of HAP strain evolution with time differs quantitatively between bone and dentin, and may reflect their different structural organization. Highlights: ► First systematic study of varying creep stresses on bone and dentin at nanoscale. ► HAP in highly irradiated bone and dentin sheds load during creep at all stresses. ► This suggests HAP–collagen interfacial damage due to irradiation and applied stress. ► HAP and fibril strain rates increase with stress, temperature and irradiation. ► Temporal evolution of strains different in bone and dentin.

  1. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  2. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  3. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  4. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover...... in breast and prostate cancer patients is associated with an increase in cartilage degradation and to test in vitro whether osteoclasts or cathepsin K alone generate CTXII from human bone. METHODS: The study included 132 breast and prostate cancer patient, where presence of bone metastases was graded...... according to the Soloway score. Total bone resorption (CTXItotal) and cartilage degradation (CTXII) were determined. RESULTS: Breast and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases revealed significant increased levels of CTXItotal at Soloway scores 1 and higher compared to patients without bone...

  5. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmonier, C B; McFadden, R-M T; Hill, F M; Schreiner, R; Ramalingam, R; Besselsen, D G; Ghishan, F K; Kiela, P R

    2013-07-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D₃ has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D₃ plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D₃ supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10-/- CD4⁺ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D₃ metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D₃ diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D₃ group. Our data suggest that vitamin D₃, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation in patients with active IBD.

  6. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  7. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  8. The atherogenic Scarb1 null mouse model shows a high bone mass phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the Scarb1 gene product, is a receptor associated with cholesteryl ester uptake from high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which drives cholesterol movement from peripheral tissues toward the liver for excretion, and, consequently, Scarb1 null mice are prone to atherosclerosis. Because studies have linked atherosclerosis incidence with osteoporosis, we characterized the bone metabolism in these mice. Bone morphometry was assessed through microcomputed tomography and histology. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) were used to characterize influence of endogenous SR-BI in cell functions. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol in null mice were increased by 32-60%, correlating with its role in lipoprotein metabolism. Distal metaphyses from 2- and 4-mo-old null mice showed correspondingly 46 and 37% higher bone volume fraction associated with a higher number of trabeculae. Histomorphometric analyses in 2-mo-old null male mice revealed 1.42-fold greater osteoblast surface, 1.37-fold higher percent mineralizing surface, and 1.69-fold enhanced bone formation rate. In vitro assays for MSCs from null mice revealed 37% higher proliferation rate, 48% more alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% greater mineralization potential and a 2-fold osterix (Sp7) expression, yet a 0.5-fold decrease in caveolin-1 (Cav1) expression. Selective uptake levels of HDL-associated cholesteryl oleate and estradiol were similar between MSC from wild-type and Scarb1 null mice, suggesting that its contribution to this process is not its main role in these cells. However, Scarb1 knockout stunted the HDL-dependent regulation of Cav1 genic expression. Scarb1 null mice are not prone to osteoporosis but show higher bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation.

  9. The osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy in people with abnormal bone density%骨密度异常人群骨质疏松知识与自我效能的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石倩; 杨雨佳; 高丽; 倪国玉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨骨密度异常(包括骨量减少和骨密度下降)人群的骨质疏松知识和自我效能,分析其骨质疏松知识和自我效能的水平,为进一步进行预防干预提供依据.方法 应用便利抽样的方法,于2012年4~5月在首都医科大学附属北京友谊医院选取符合入选标准的146名骨密度异常者,采用骨质疏松知识问卷、骨质疏松自我效能问卷进行调查.结果 146名骨密度异常者骨质疏松总知识标准分为57.26分,各分量表中,危险因素、运动量表和钙量表的标准分分别为58.46、52.54、59.67分.不同性别、年龄、文化程度人群的骨质疏松知识正确率之间的差异有统计学意义.146名骨密度异常者骨质疏松自我效能总量表、运动分量表和钙摄入分量表的平均得分分别为73.61、66.79、80.43分.结论 应加强骨质疏松相关知识的健康教育,增强骨密度异常人群的信心和信念,最终使他们形成健康的行为,达到预防和延缓骨质疏松的目的.%Objective To investigate the osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy in people with abnormal bone density, and to provide basis for further preventive interventions. Methods Totally 146 people with abnormal bone density were recruited from Beijing Friendship Hospital using the convenience sampling method. They were investigated with Osteoporosis Knowledge Tests(OKT) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES). Results The total score of osteoporosis knowledge was 57.26. The factor scores of risk factors of osteoporosis,exercise and calcium intake were 58.46, 52.54 and 59.67, respectively. The correct rates of osteoporosis knowledge were different in people with different gender, age and educational levels. The total score of self-efficacy and factor scores of exercise and calcium intake were 73.61, 66.79, and 80.43, respectively. Conclusion It is suggested to strengthen osteoporosis related health education for the people with abnormal bone

  10. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  11. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  12. Nasal bone abnormalities accompanied by protruding tongue on ultrasound screening in detecting Down syndrome in the second and third trimesters of gestation%中晚孕期超声显示鼻骨异常伴舌外伸检出唐氏综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓航; 李锐; 冉素真

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨中晚孕期超声显示胎儿颜面部鼻骨异常伴伸舌辅助诊断唐氏综合征(DS)的价值.方法 纳入资料完整的经胎儿系统超声筛查及羊水或脐带血染色体检查的中晚孕期孕妇5657名.观察并分析正中矢状切面胎儿鼻骨发育情况及舌尖位置,比较鼻骨异常、伸舌及鼻骨异常伴伸舌检出DS的效能.结果 经染色体检查确诊49胎DS,其中鼻骨异常伴伸舌33胎、单纯鼻骨异常10胎、单纯伸舌2胎,无阳性表现4胎.根据鼻骨异常伴伸舌诊断DS的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值分别为67.35%(33/49)、99.91%(5603/5608)、86.84%(33/38)和99.72%(5603/5619),其中阳性预测值较鼻骨异常、伸舌及鼻骨异常或伸舌明显增高(P<0.0001).结论 中晚孕期颜面部正中矢状切面观察胎儿鼻骨异常和伸舌的表现,可提高DS的产前检出率.%Objective To investigate the value of nasal bone abnormalities accompanied by protruding tongue on ultrasound screening in detecting Down syndrome during the second and third trimesters of gestation.Methods Data from 5657 pregnant women who had both ultrasound examination and cordocentesis or amniocentesis for antenatal karyotyping were enrolled.Nasal bone abnormalities and position of tongue tip of the fetus were observed and recorded.The diagnostic ability cacy of nasal bone abnormalities,protruding tongue and nasal bone abnormalities accompanied by protruding tongue for Down syndrome was calculated.Results Forty-nine fetuses of Down syndrome were diagnosed by antenatal karyotyping.Among them,33 with nasal bone abnormalities accompanied by protruding tongue,2 with protruding tongue alone,10 with nasal bone abnormalities alone and 4 with no abnormality.The diagnostic sensitivity,specificity,positive and negative predictive values of nasal bone abnormalities accompanied by protruding tongue was 67.35 % (33/49),99.91% (5603/5608),86.84% (33/38) and 99.72% (5603

  13. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  14. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  15. Usefulness of postoperative hip irradiation in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high risk group of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, I.; Keys, H.M.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a complication of total hip arthroplasty in 14 to 30% of patients. Significant functional impairment will occur in up to 28% of patients with ectopic bone. The high risk group includes those with preexisting heterotopic bone in either hip, those suffering from hypertrophic osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis and patients who have had multiple procedures on the hip. Fifty-eight patients (67 hips) were irradiated after surgical removal of ectopic bone (53 hips) or received radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (14 hips). Ninety-five percent of patients had either no bone visible or insignificant amounts of ectopic bone visible on postoperative hip X-rays. Only 5% of patients showed significant persistence of ectopic bone. Postoperative hip function was dramatically improved compared to preoperative function in all patients treated. The importance of early commencement of irradiation is emphasized.

  16. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.

  17. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization...

  18. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  19. [Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Zhioua, A; Grizon, F; Basle, M F; Rebel, A

    1993-12-01

    Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

  20. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the put......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT......-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  1. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  2. Progress in diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone metabolism abnormalities%慢性肾脏病-矿物质和骨代谢异常的诊断及治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏正坤; 杨晓

    2015-01-01

    慢性肾脏病-矿物质和骨代谢异常(CKD-MBD)是指慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者出现的与CKD相关的矿物质和钙磷代谢紊乱所致的一系列临床症状和知生化及影像学指标异常.自2006年CKD-MBD的概念首次被提出至今,其越来越引起临床医师的重视.现介绍CKD-MBD的流行病学特点、临床表现、检查方法、诊断标准、治疗及预防的研究进展.%Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) refers to a series of clinical symptoms and biochemical and imaging abnormalities caused by minerals and calcium phosphorus metabolic disorder,which is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Since 2006 ,the concept of CKD-MBD was put forward for the first time,doctors are increasingly paying more attention to it.This review introduces the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestation, examination methods, diagnostic criteria and the research progress of treatment and prevention of CKD-MBD.

  3. Effect of hydroxyapatite concentration on high-modulus composite for biodegradable bone-fixation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Bryant; Grassie, Kevin; Shaw, Montgomery T; Olson, James R; Wei, Mei

    2016-06-14

    There are over 3 million bone fractures in the United States annually; over 30% of which require internal mechanical fixation devices to aid in the healing process. The current standard material used is a metal plate that is implanted onto the bone. However, metal fixation devices have many disadvantages, namely stress shielding and metal ion leaching. This study aims to fix these problems of metal implants by making a completely biodegradable material that will have a high modulus and exhibit great toughness. To accomplish this, long-fiber poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) was utilized in combination with a matrix composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-rods. Through single fibril tensile tests, it was found that the PLLA fibers have a Young's modulus of 8.09 GPa. Synthesized HA nanorods have dimensions in the nanometer range with an aspect ratio over 6. By dip coating PLLA fibers in a suspension of PCL and HA and hot pressing the resulting coated fibers, dense fiber-reinforced samples were made having a flexural modulus up to 9.2 GPa and a flexural strength up to 187 MPa. The flexural modulus of cortical bone ranges from 7 to 25 GPa, so the modulus of the composite material falls into the range of bone. The typical flextural strength of bone is 130 MPa, and the samples here greatly exceed that with a strength of 187 MPa. After mechanical testing to failure the samples retained their shape, showing toughness with no catastrophic failure, indicating the possibility for use as a fixation material. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  4. The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira A O; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Zach, Patrícia Lins; Kunii, Ilda S; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Castro, Marise Lazaretti

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.

  5. Radiological appearances of sinonasal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Beltagi, A.H.; Sobeih, A.A.; Valvoda, M.; Dahniya, M.H.; Badr, S.S

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this pictorial review is to present a variety of abnormalities of the sinonasal cavities to emphasize the diversity of lesions occurring in this region. These include congenital, neoplastic and granulomatous disorders and some allergic and inflammatory lesions with uncommon radiological appearances, as well as expanding lesions of the facial bones or of dental origin with secondary involvement of the related sinus(es). El-Beltagi, A.H. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology 57, 702-718.

  6. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L

    2011-04-01

    High bone mineral density on routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may indicate an underlying skeletal dysplasia. Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), 236 relatives (41% with HBM) and 58 spouses were studied. Cases could not float, had mandible enlargement, extra bone, broad frames, larger shoe sizes and increased body mass index (BMI). HBM cases may harbour an underlying genetic disorder. INTRODUCTION: High bone mineral density is a sporadic incidental finding on routine DXA scanning of apparently asymptomatic individuals. Such individuals may have an underlying skeletal dysplasia, as seen in LRP5 mutations. We aimed to characterize unexplained HBM and determine the potential for an underlying skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained HBM (defined as L1 Z-score ≥ +3.2 plus total hip Z-score ≥ +1.2, or total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2) were recruited from 15 UK centres, by screening 335,115 DXA scans. Unexplained HBM affected 0.181% of DXA scans. Next 236 relatives were recruited of whom 94 (41%) had HBM (defined as L1 Z-score + total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2). Fifty-eight spouses were also recruited together with the unaffected relatives as controls. Phenotypes of cases and controls, obtained from clinical assessment, were compared using random-effects linear and logistic regression models, clustered by family, adjusted for confounders, including age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with unexplained HBM had an excess of sinking when swimming (7.11 [3.65, 13.84], p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval shown), mandible enlargement (4.16 [2.34, 7.39], p < 0.001), extra bone at tendon\\/ligament insertions (2.07 [1.13, 3.78], p = 0.018) and broad frame (3.55 [2.12, 5.95], p < 0.001). HBM cases also had a larger shoe size (mean difference 0.4 [0.1, 0.7] UK sizes, p = 0.009) and increased BMI (mean difference 2.2 [1.3, 3.1] kg\\/m(2

  7. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    -NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  8. Synergistic effects of high dietary calcium and exogenous parathyroid hormone in promoting osteoblastic bone formation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuxu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Qunhu; Liu, Huan; Xu, Yong; Shu, Lei; Zhang, Jue; Miao, Dengshun; Ren, Yongxin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether high dietary Ca and exogenous parathyroid hormone 1–34 fragments (PTH 1–34) have synergistic effects on bone formation in adult mice, and explored the related mechanisms. Adult male mice were fed a normal diet, a high-Ca diet, a PTH-treated diet, or a high-Ca diet combined with subcutaneously injected PTH 1–34 (80 μg/kg per d) for 4 weeks. Bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)- and type I colla...

  9. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  10. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  11. Obesity induced by high dietary fat leads to increased bone resorption marker, TRAP, and decreased bone mass in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity, which is growing in prevalence, is a risk factor for such chronic health disorders as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is thought to be a protective factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures in humans. Accumulating data in humans suggest that fat mass has a negative effect...

  12. Bone splint technique and plating application in adolescent high-energy comminuted fracture of distal femur with bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui; DING Zhen-qi; ZHAI Wen-liang; KANG Liang-qi; YAO Xiao-tao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Comminuted fracture of distal femur is a common lower limb injury from traffic accidents, especially from motor accidents. Routine dynamic condylar screw ( DCS ) or 95-degree condylar plate ( CP ) sometimes cannot solve the bone defect in the center of alignment and contralateral diaphysis for the reason of absent screw anchor point, especially for AO C2. 2-2. 3 types.

  13. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M. [Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Philips Healthcare Canada, Markham, ON, L6C 2S3 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada)

    2012-11-28

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1 Degree-Sign C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T{sub 2}, since T{sub 2} increases linearly in fat during heating. T{sub 2}-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T{sub 2}. Calibration of T{sub 2}-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T{sub 2} and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T{sub 2} temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/ Degree-Sign C was observed. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  14. Effect of stress and temperature on the micromechanics of creep in highly irradiated bone and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anjali; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, Jonathan D; Dunand, David C

    2013-04-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is used to study in situ the evolution of phase strains during compressive creep deformation in bovine bone and dentin for a range of compressive stresses and irradiation rates, at ambient and body temperatures. In all cases, compressive strains in the collagen phase increase with increasing creep time (and concomitant irradiation), reflecting macroscopic deformation of the sample. By contrast, compressive elastic strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase, created upon initial application of compressive load on the sample, decrease with increasing time (and irradiation) for all conditions; this load shedding behavior is consistent with damage at the HAP-collagen interface due to the high irradiation doses (from ~100 to ~9,000 kGy). Both the HAP and fibril strain rates increase with applied compressive stress, temperature and irradiation rate, which is indicative of greater collagen molecular sliding at the HAP-collagen interface and greater intermolecular sliding (i.e., plastic deformation) within the collagen network. The temperature sensitivity confirms that testing at body temperature, rather than ambient temperature, is necessary to assess the in vivo behavior of bone and teeth. The characteristic pattern of HAP strain evolution with time differs quantitatively between bone and dentin, and may reflect their different structural organization.

  15. Skeletal bone morphology is resistant to the high amplitude seasonal leptin cycle in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, K; Atcha, Z; Denton, J; Cagampang, F R A; Ennos, A R; Freemont, A J; Loudon, A S I

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, plays a role in the regulation of metabolism. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the seasonally breeding Siberian hamster, as this species exhibits profound seasonal changes in adiposity and circulating leptin concentrations driven by the annual photoperiodic cycle. Male hamsters were kept in either long (LD) or short (SD) photoperiods. Following exposure to short photoperiods for 8 weeks animals exhibited a significant weight-loss and a 16-fold reduction of serum leptin concentrations. At Week 9, animals in both photoperiods were infused with leptin or PBS via osmotic mini-pump for 14 days. Chronic leptin infusion mimicked LD-like concentrations in SD-housed animals and caused a further decline in body weight and adipose tissue. In LD-housed animals, leptin infusion resulted in a significant elevation of serum concentrations above natural LD-like levels, but had no discernable effect on body weight or overall adiposity. Both bending and compression characteristics and histomorphometric measurements of trabecular bone mass were unaltered by leptin treatment or photoperiod. Our data therefore show that despite a high natural amplitude cycle of leptin, this hormone has no apparent role in the regulation of bone metabolism, and therefore do not support recent propositions that this hormone is an important component in the metabolism of bone tissue.

  16. Bone quality in the lumbar spine in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Pfeil, J; Reiter, A

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of high-performance training on the bone quality of the lumbar spine, in particular, the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with high weight-bearing demands on the spine. Measurements were therefore performed in internationally top-ranked high-performance athletes of different disciplines (weight lifters, boxers, and endurance-cyclists). The measurements were carried out by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the results compared with the measurements of 21 age-matched male controls. The BMD of the high-performance weight lifters was greater than that of the controls by 24% (0.252 g/cm2) on the AP view by 23% (0.200 g/cm2) on the lateral view (P boxers and the controls was +17% (0.174 g/cm2) on the AP view and +19% (0.174 g/cm2) on the lateral view. The BMD of the lumbar spine in all endurance cyclists was lower than that in the controls (AP view -10%, 0.105 g/cm2; lateral view -8%, 0.067 g/cm2; P > 0.05). The results show that training program stressing axial loads of the skeleton may lead to a significant increase of BMD in the lumbar spine of young individuals. Other authors' findings that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease are confirmed. Nevertheless the 10% BMD loss of cyclists was surprisingly high.

  17. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S. [University of Michigan (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  18. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases....... This enables MRI to detect differences between fatty, fibrotic, aplastic and hypercellular marrow in patients with haematological disease. MRI can evaluate the distribution of bone marrow disease because it has the potential for visualization of almost the entire bone marrow compartment. However, MRI is unable...... to establish the primary diagnosis in haematological bone marrow disease with diffuse hypercellular marrow. In case of insufficient biopsy, MRI can provide important differential diagnostic information as well as guidance for further biopsy attempts. MRI is a useful complement to morphological bone marrow...

  19. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  20. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis.

  1. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  2. Disk abnormality coexists with any degree of synovial and osseous abnormality in the temporomandibular joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Arvidsson, Linda Z.; Larheim, Tore A. [University of Oslo, Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Hetlevik, Siri O. [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Rheumatology, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    MRI manifestation of temporomandibular joint arthritis is frequently reported in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, little attention has been paid to temporomandibular joint disk abnormalities. To assess combinations of MRI findings in the symptomatic temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with focus on disk abnormalities. This was a retrospective study of 46 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mean age 12 years (range: 5-17 years). Mean disease duration was 70 months (standard deviation: 61 months). MR images of 92 temporomandibular joints were scored for thickness of abnormally enhancing synovium (synovitis), joint effusion, bone marrow oedema, abnormal bone shape, bone erosion and disk abnormalities. The 92 temporomandibular joints were categorized as A: No synovitis and normal bone shape (30/92; 33%), B: Synovitis and normal bone shape (14/92: 15%), C: Synovitis and abnormal bone shape (38/92; 41%) and D: No synovitis but abnormal bone shape (10/92; 11%). Thirty-six of the 46 patients (78%) had synovitis and 33/46 (72%) had abnormal bone shape, most frequently in combination (30/46; 65%). Disk abnormalities (flat disk, fragmented disk, adherent disk and displaced disk) were found in 29/46 patients (63%). Disk abnormalities were found in all categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis involved temporomandibular joints (B: 8/14 [57%]; C: 25/38 [66%] and D: 7/10 [70%]). Disk displacement was found in half of the joints (7/14) in category B. Synovitis was most pronounced in this category. Disk abnormalities were frequent. Disk displacement also occurred in joints with early temporomandibular joint arthritis, i.e., with normal bone shape. Other disk abnormalities were found in joints with bone abnormalities. Attention should be paid to disk abnormalities both in early and long-standing temporomandibular joint arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (orig.)

  3. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  4. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  5. Fabrication of highly porous biodegradable biomimetic nanocomposite as advanced bone tissue scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdal-hay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of bioinspired or biomimetic materials is currently a challenge in the field of tissue regeneration. In-situ 3D biomimetic microporous nanocomposite scaffold has been developed using a simple lyophilization post hydrothermal reaction for bone healing applications. The fabricated 3D porous scaffold possesses advantages of good bonelike apatite particles distribution, thermal properties and high porous interconnected network structure. High dispersion bonelike apatite nanoparticles (NPs rapidly nucleated and deposited from surrounding biological minerals within chitosan (CTS matrices using hydrothermal technique. After that, freeze-drying method was applied on the composite solution to form the desired porous 3D architecture. Interestingly, the porosity and pore size of composite scaffold were not significantly affected by the particles size and particles content within the CTS matrix. Our results demonstrated that the compression modulus of porous composite scaffold is twice higher than that of plain CTS scaffold, indicating a maximization of the chemical interaction between polymer matrix and apatite NPs. Cytocompatibility test for MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cell line using MTT-indirect assay test showed that the fabricated 3D microporous nanocomposite scaffold possesses higher cell proliferation and growth than that of pure CTS scaffold. Collectively, our results suggest that the newly developed highly porous apatite/CTS nanocomposite scaffold as an alternative of hydroxyapatite/CTS scaffold may serve as an excellent porous 3D platform for bone tissue regeneration.

  6. Combined Microwave Ablation and Cementoplasty in Patients with Painful Bone Metastases at High Risk of Fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Claudio, E-mail: clapusceddu@gmail.com [Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Ocological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Sotgia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.sotgia@gmail.com; Fele, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosellafele@tiscali.it [Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Department of Oncological Radiology, Oncological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Ballicu, Nicola, E-mail: nicolaballicu77@gmail.com [Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Ocological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Melis, Luca, E-mail: doclucamelis@tiscali.it [Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Department of Oncological Radiology, Oncological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) and cementoplasty in patients with painful bone metastases at high risk of fracture.Materials and MethodsThirty-five patients with 37 metastatic bone lesions underwent computed tomography-guided MWA combined with cementoplasty (polymethylmethacrylate injection). Vertebrae, femur, and acetabulum were the intervention sites and the primary end point was pain relief. Pain severity was estimated by visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment; 1 week post-treatment; and 1, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Functional outcome was assessed by improved patient walking ability. Radiological evaluation was performed at baseline and 3 and 12 months post-procedure.ResultsIn all patients, pain reduction occurred from the first week after treatment. The mean reduction in the VAS score was 84, 90, 90 % at week 1, month 1, and month 6, respectively. Improved walking ability occurred in 100 and 98 % of cases at the 1- and 6-month functional outcome evaluations, respectively. At the 1-year evaluation, 25 patients were alive, and 10 patients (28 %) had died because of widespread disease. The mean reduction in the VAS score and improvement in surviving patients’ walking ability were 90 and 100 %, respectively. No patients showed evidence of local tumor recurrence or progression and pathological fracture in the treated sites.ConclusionOur results suggest that MWA combined with osteoplasty is safe and effective when treating painful bone metastases at high risk of fracture. The number of surviving patients at the 1-year evaluation confirms the need for an effective and long-lasting treatment.

  7. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  8. High SPARC Expression Starting from Dysplasia, Associated with Breast Carcinoma, Is Predictive for Bone Metastasis without Enhancement of Plasma Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Morelli, Daniele; Drago, Lorenzo; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bonini, Chiara; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-01

    In order to become established in the skeleton, metastatic cells disseminating from the breast carcinoma need to acquire organ-specific traits. There are no effective predictors for who will develop bone metastasis to guide long-term predictive therapy. Our purpose was to individuate events critical for bone colonization to make a molecular classification of breast carcinoma useful for bone-metastasis outcome. In dysplasia adjacent to carcinoma and in pair-matched specimens of bone metastasis we examined SPARC expression and localization as well as Endothelin 1/ETAR signals by immunohistochemistry, and the evaluation of plasma levels of SPARC by ELISA was also performed. In patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to bone, SPARC and Endothelin 1/ETAR axis were highly expressed from dysplasia until bone metastasis, but the SPARC plasma level was as low as that of normal women, in contrast to patients that never develop bone metastasis, suggesting that circulating SPARC was counter adhesive. Altogether, the early identification of SPARC/Endothelin 1/ETAR in dysplastic lesions would be important to devise therapies preventing metastasis engraftment, since often carcinoma cells spread to distant organs at the time or even before patients present with cancer. PMID:26703564

  9. High fat diet increases melanoma cell growth in the bone marrow by inducing osteopontin and interleukin 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Luo, Yubin; Eriksson, Daniel; Meng, Xianyi; Qian, Cheng; Bäuerle, Tobias; Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of metabolic stress induced by obesity on the bone marrow melanoma niche is largely unknown. Here we employed diet induced obese mice model, where mice received high-fat (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks before challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. Tumor size, bone loss and osteoclasts numbers were assessed histologically in the tibial bones. For defining the molecular pathway, osteopontin knock-out mice, interleukin 6 neutralizing antibody or Janus kinase 2 inhibition were carried out in the same model. Mechanistic studies such as adipocyte-melanoma co-cultures for defining adipocyte induced changes of tumor cell proliferation and expression profiles were also performed. As results, HFD enhanced melanoma burden in bone by increasing tumor area and osteoclast numbers. This process was associated with higher numbers of bone marrow adipocytes expressing IL-6 in direct vicinity to tumor cells. Inhibition of IL-6 or of downstream JAK2 blocked HFD-induced tumor progression. Furthermore, the phenotypic changes of melanoma cells triggered macrophage and osteoclast accumulation accompanied by increased osteopontin expression. Osteopontin triggered osteoclastogenesis and also exerted a positive feedback loop to tumor cells, which was abrogated in its absence. Metabolic stress by HFD promotes melanoma growth in the bone marrow by an increase in bone marrow adipocytes and IL-6-JAK2-osteopontin mediated activation of tumor cells and osteoclast differentiation. PMID:27049717

  10. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  11. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  12. Optimisation extraction of chondroitin sulfate from fish bone by high intensity pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guidan; Yin, Yongguang; Yan, Xiaoxia; Yu, Qingyu

    2014-12-01

    High intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was used to extract chondroitin sulphate (CS) from fish bone. Results show that PEF extraction speed is much faster, and the content of CS is much higher compared with traditional methods. Variation of PEF parameters and the content of CS were determined by single factor experiments. The processing conditions were optimised by quadratic general rotary unitised design experiments. The maximum yield of 6.92 g/L was achieved under the following conditions: material-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/mL, electric field intensity of 16.88 kV/cm, pulse number of 9, and NaOH concentration of 3.24%. The purity of CS was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. CS purity was high, and the extract did not contain any other glycosaminoglycans. PEF can be widely used to extract CS with non-thermal performance, high speed, and low pollution.

  13. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  14. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frotzler, Angela; Coupaud, Sylvie; Perret, Claudio; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Hunt, Kenneth J; Donaldson, Nick de N; Eser, Prisca

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced high-volume cycle training can partially reverse the loss of bone substance in the legs after chronic complete SCI. Eleven participants with motor-sensory complete SCI (mean age 41.9+/-7.5 years; 11.0+/-7.1 years post injury) were recruited. After an initial phase of 14+/-7 weeks of FES muscle conditioning, participants performed on average 3.7+/-0.6 FES-cycling sessions per week, of 58+/-5 min each, over 12 months at each individual's highest power output. Bone and muscle parameters were investigated in the legs by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the muscle conditioning (t1), and after six (t2) and 12 months (t3) of high-volume FES-cycle training. After 12 months of FES-cycling, trabecular and total bone mineral density (BMD) as well as total cross-sectional area in the distal femoral epiphysis increased significantly by 14.4+/-21.1%, 7.0+/-10.8% and 1.2+/-1.5%, respectively. Bone parameters in the femoral shaft showed small but significant decreases, with a reduction of 0.4+/-0.4% in cortical BMD, 1.8+/-3.0% in bone mineral content, and 1.5+/-2.1% in cortical thickness. These decreases mainly occurred between t1 and t2. No significant changes were found in any of the measured bone parameters in the tibia. Muscle CSA at the thigh increased significantly by 35.5+/-18.3%, while fat CSA at the shank decreased by 16.7+/-12.3%. Our results indicate that high-volume FES-cycle training leads to site-specific skeletal changes in the paralysed limbs, with an increase in bone parameters at the actively loaded distal femur but not the passively loaded

  15. Palpable pediatric thyroid abnormalities – diagnostic pitfalls necessitate a high index of clinical suspicion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopper Joshua P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 12-year-old girl presented with a 4 year history of an enlarged, firm thyroid gland. On exam, her thyroid was firm and fixed and an enlarged cervical lymph node was palpable as well. Though a thyroid ultrasound prior to referral was read as thyroiditis, clinical suspicion for thyroid carcinoma mandated continued investigation. The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was established and her workup revealed lymph node metastases as well as a tremendous burden of pulmonary metastases. Pediatric thyroid cancer is extremely rare, but often presents with aggressive disease. Palpable thyroid abnormalities in an individual under 20-years-old should be viewed with suspicion and should be thoroughly investigated to rule out malignancy even in the face of negative diagnostic procedures. Though pediatric papillary thyroid cancer often presents with loco-regional and even distant metastatic disease, mortality rates in follow-up for as long as 20 years are very favorable.

  16. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  17. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  18. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  19. Formation of abnormal high pressure and its application in the study of oil-bearing property of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShanWen; ZHANG LinYe; ZHANG ShouChun; LIU Qing; ZHU RiFang; BAO YouShu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denu-dation are the main factors influencing oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative re-lations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.

  20. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  2. Thermal effects generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams at normal incidence to a bone surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Diane M; Myers, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and computations were performed to study factors affecting thermal safety when high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are normally incident (i.e., beam axis normal to the interface) upon a bone/soft-tissue interface. In particular, the temperature rise and thermal dose were determined as a function of separation between the beam focus and the interface. Under conditions representative of clinical HIFU procedures, it was found that the thermal dose at the bone surface can exceed the threshold for necrosis even when the beam focus is more than 4 cm from the bone. Experiments showed that reflection of the HIFU beam from the bone back into the transducer introduced temperature fluctuations of as much as +/-15% and may be an important consideration for safety analyses at sufficiently high acoustic power. The applicability of linear propagation models in predicting thermal dose near the interface was also addressed. Linear models, while underpredicting thermal dose at the focus, provided a conservative (slight overprediction) estimate of thermal dose at the bone surface. Finally, temperature rise due to absorption of shear waves generated by the HIFU beam in the bone was computed. Modeling shear-wave propagation in the thermal analysis showed that the predicted temperature rise off axis was as much as 30% higher when absorption of shear waves is included, indicating that enhanced heating due to shear-wave absorption is potentially important, even for normally incident HIFU beams.

  3. High cholesterol diet increases osteoporosis risk via inhibiting bone formation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li YOU; Zheng-yan SHENG; Chuan-ling TANG; Lin CHEN; Ling PAN; Jin-yu CHEN

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high cholesterol diet on the development of osteoporosis and the underlying mechanisms in rats.Methods:Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 groups:(1) the high cholesterol fed rats were fed a high cholesterol diet containing 77% normal diet food,3% cholesterol and 20% lard for 3 months; (2) ovariectomised (OVX) rats were bilaterally ovariectomised and fed a standard diet; and (3) the control rats were fed the standard diet.Bone mineral density (BMD) of the rats was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Serum levels of oestradiol (E2),osteocalcin (BGP) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) were measured using ELISA.Gene expression profile was determined with microarray.Mouse osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were used for in vitro study.Proliferation,differentiation and oxidative stress of the osteoblasts were investigated using MTT,qRT-PCR and biochemical methods.Results:In high cholesterol fed rats,the femur BMD and serum BGP level were significantly reduced,while the CTX level was significantly increased.DNA microarray analysis showed that 2290 genes were down-regulated and 992 genes were up-regulated in this group of rats.Of these genes,1626 were also down-regulated and 1466 were up-regulated in OVX rats.In total,370 genes were up-regulated in both groups,and 976 genes were down-regulated.Some of the down-regulated genes were found to code for proteins involved in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling pathways.The up-regulated genes were found to code for IL-6 and Ager with bone-resorption functions.Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with cholesterol (12.5-50μg/mL) inhibited the cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner.The treatment also concentration-dependently reduced the expression of BMP2 and Cbfa1,and increased the oxidative injury in MC3T3-E1 cells.Conclusion:The results suggest a close

  4. Femtosecond laser bone ablation with a high repetition rate fiber laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Luke J; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Masek, Marissa; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Côté, Daniel C; Xu, Chris; Intini, Giuseppe; Lin, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to perform very precise cutting of material, including biological samples from subcellular organelles to large areas of bone, through plasma-mediated ablation. The use of a kilohertz regenerative amplifier is usually needed to obtain the pulse energy required for ablation. This work investigates a 5 megahertz compact fiber laser for near-video rate imaging and ablation in bone. After optimization of ablation efficiency and reduction in autofluorescence, the system is demonstrated for the in vivo study of bone regeneration. Image-guided creation of a bone defect and longitudinal evaluation of cellular injury response in the defect provides insight into the bone regeneration process.

  5. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  6. [Toxic complications of high-dose polychemotherapy in the transplantation of bone marrow and of peripheral blood stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uss, A L; Milanovich, N F; Skriagin, A E; Zmachinskiĭ, V A; Snegir', V M; Batan, Z E; Komarovskaia, M E; Mitskevich, P B; Levin, V I

    1997-01-01

    The authors propose their own system of assessment of high-dose polychemotherapy toxicity. The system was applied to toxic complications of high-dose polychemotherapy in 31 patients with hematological malignancies subjected to allogenic, autologous bone marrow transplantation and transplantation of stem cells from peripheral blood within the scope of different protocols of high-dose polychemotherapy in conditioning regimen. A special scale developed in the Belarus Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation basing on the above system provides prediction of survival in early post-transplantation period.

  7. High-density polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in guided bone and tissue regeneration procedures: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, J M; Martín, I Sanz; Santos, A; Pujol, A; Sanz-Moliner, J D; Nart, J

    2014-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) has been used successfully as a membrane barrier for regeneration procedures. However, when exposed to the oral cavity, its high porosity increases the risk of early infection, which can affect surgical outcomes. An alternative to e-PTFE is non-expanded and dense polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PFTE), which results in lower levels of early infection following surgical procedures. The aim of this literature review was to analyze and describe the available literature on n-PFTE, report the indications for use, advantages, disadvantages, surgical protocols, and complications. The medical databases Medline-PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched and supplemented with a hand search for reports published between 1980 and May 2012 on n-PTFE membranes. The search strategy was limited to animal, human, and in vitro studies in dental journals published in English. Twenty-four articles that analyzed the use of n-PTFE as a barrier membrane for guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration around teeth and implants were identified: two in vitro studies, seven experimental studies, and 15 clinical studies. There is limited clinical and histological evidence for the use of n-PTFE membranes at present, with some indications in guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration in immediate implants and fresh extraction sockets.

  8. High Frequency of Bone Marrow Involvement in Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchao; Ding, Wenshuang; Gao, Limin; Yao, Wenqing; Chen, Min; Zhao, Sha; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Wenyan

    2017-04-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Thirteen cases of IVLBCL with a median age of 56 years were analyzed retrospectively. Nonspecific symptoms such as fever and hepatosplenomegaly were the most common manifestations, and the bone marrow was usually involved in 8/13 (61.5%) cases. All tumors expressed CD20, and 12/13 (92.3%) of the tumors exhibited a nongerminal center phenotype by Hans algorithm. CD5 was expressed in 3/12 (25%) of the tumors. MYC was negative in all cases, and BCL2 was positive in 10/12 (83.3%) cases. Cytogenetic analysis revealed 5 cases that did not have rearrangements in either the MYC or the BCL2 gene. No association with Epstein-Barr virus was found. Seven of 11 patients received chemotherapy. The median survival time was 6 months. Patients with hemophagocytic syndrome had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that IVLBCL has a poor clinical outcome with a high frequency of bone marrow involvement and that the MYC gene may not play an important role in the poor prognosis of IVLBCL.

  9. Highly porous polymer-derived wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramics for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Li, S; Bernardo, E; Stevens, M M; Jones, J R

    2016-04-12

    A novel strategy was employed to synthesize highly porous wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. A commercial liquid preceramic polymer filled with micro-CaCO3 powders was foamed at low temperature (at 350 °C), using the decomposition of a hydrazine additive, and then converted into ceramic by a treatment at 700 °C. Hydroxycarbonate apatite was later developed by a phosphatization treatment of ceramized foams, in a P-rich solution, while wollastonite was obtained by a second firing, at 900 °C. The effectiveness of the method was proven by x-ray diffraction analysis, showing the presence of the two expected crystalline phases. Porosity, interconnect size distribution and mechanical strength were in the range that is thought to be suitable for bone regeneration in non-load bearing sites (compressive strength ≈ 3 MPa, porosity ≈ 90%, modal interconnect diameter ≈ 130-160 μm). In addition, bioactivity and ion release rate were assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF). MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells were able to colonize the material in vitro through the pore architecture and expressed osteogenic markers.

  10. High pulse pressure is not associated with abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in repaired aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T A L; Pedersen, E B; Munk, K; Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Andersen, N H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between pulse pressure (PP)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness-and activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adult patients with repaired coarctation and normal left ventricular (LV) function. A total of 114 patients (44 (26-74) years, 13 (0.1-40) years at repair) and 20 healthy controls were examined with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, vasoactive hormone levels and magnetic resonance of the thoracic aorta. Forty-one patients (36%) were taking antihypertensives (28 RAAS inhibitors). Fifty-one had mean 24-h blood pressures >130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension was not associated with age at repair (P=0.257). Patients had higher PP and LV mass compared with controls (52±11 vs. 45±5 mm Hg and 221±71 vs. 154±55 g, respectively; both Pcoarctation have increased PP and LV mass compared with controls. PP increased with increasing recoarctation. Hypertension was present also in the absence of recoarctation. These changes could not be explained by abnormal activation of the RAAS.

  11. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  12. Self-setting bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement with high strength and degradability for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wei, Jie; Guo, Han; Chen, Fangping; Hong, Hua; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, poor mechanical properties and a low biodegradation rate limit any further applications. Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is characterized by fast setting, high initial strength and relatively rapid degradation in vivo. In this study, MPC was combined with CPC to develop novel calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC). The setting time, compressive strength, phase composition of hardened cement, degradation in vitro, cells responses in vitro by MG-63 cell culture and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of CMPC in bone defect of rabbits were investigated. The results show that CMPC has a shorter setting time and markedly better mechanical properties than either CPC or MPC. Moreover, CMPC showed significantly improved degradability compared to CPC in simulated body fluid. Cell culture results indicate that CMPC is biocompatible and could support cell attachment and proliferation. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis, the CMPC samples were implanted into bone defects in rabbits. Histological evaluation showed that the introduction of MPC into CPC enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation. CMPC also exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results obtained suggest that CMPC, having met the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering, might have a significant clinical advantage over CPC, and may have the potential to be applied in orthopedic, reconstructive and maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Likelihood of Bone Recurrence in Prior Sites of Metastasis in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polishchuk, Alexei L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Li, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Little, Anthony [Division of Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hawkins, Randall A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Hamilton, Jeffrey; Lau, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Tran, Hung Chi [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Strahlendorf, Caron [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lemons, Richard S. [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Matthay, Katherine K.; DuBois, Steven G. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: Despite recent improvements in outcomes, 40% of children with high-risk neuroblastoma will experience relapse, facing a guarded prognosis for long-term cure. Whether recurrences are at new sites or sites of original disease may guide decision making during initial therapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were retrospectively identified from institutional databases at first metastatic relapse of high-risk neuroblastoma. Included patients had disease involving metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites at diagnosis and first relapse, achieved a complete or partial response with no more than one residual MIBG-avid site before first relapse, and received no total body irradiation or therapy with {sup 131}I-MIBG before first relapse. Anatomically defined metastatic sites were tracked from diagnosis through first relapse to determine tendency of disease to recur at previously involved versus uninvolved sites and to assess whether this pattern was influenced by site irradiation. Results: Of 159 MIBG-avid metastatic sites identified among 43 patients at first relapse, 131 (82.4%) overlapped anatomically with the set of 525 sites present at diagnosis. This distribution was similar for bone sites, but patterns of relapse were more varied for the smaller subset of soft tissue metastases. Among all metastatic sites at diagnosis in our subsequently relapsed patient cohort, only 3 of 19 irradiated sites (15.8%) recurred as compared with 128 of 506 (25.3%) unirradiated sites. Conclusions: Metastatic bone relapse in neuroblastoma usually occurs at anatomic sites of previous disease. Metastatic sites identified at diagnosis that did not receive radiation during frontline therapy appeared to have a higher risk of involvement at first relapse relative to previously irradiated metastatic sites. These observations support the current paradigm of irradiating metastases that persist after induction chemotherapy in high-risk patients. Furthermore

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF BONE METABOLISM DISORDERS IN ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Apolikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the most significant bone complications of cancer. About 1.5 million cancer patients worldwide have bone metastases. Patients with myeloma, breast cancer, prostate, thyroid, bladder and lung have very high risk of development of bone lesions and related complications. Currently, osteodensitometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. In recent years we frequently use the innovative imaging techniques for bone metastases, such as CT, MRI, PET/CT. Unfortunately, the diagnostic value of these methods is that it is not always possible to identify abnormalities of bone metabolism in cancer, especially in the early stages. This review shows the world experience of usage of biochemical markers of bone resorption (calcium, hydroxyproline, NTX, CTX, PYD, DPD, TRAP-5b, bone sialoprotein - BSP and markers of bone synthesis (osteocalcin, CSF, ACF, Karlovy vary IFF, their advantages and disadvantages. The level of these markers is increased in most patients with osteoporosis and bone metastases, it is suggesting a potential role in early diagnosis of bone metastases.

  15. Effect of High-Pass Filtering on the Neonatal Auditory Brainstem Response to Air- and Bone-Conducted Clicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Yang, Edward Y.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous 3- channel recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were obtained from 20 neonates with various high-pass filter settings and low intensity levels. Results support the advocacy of less restrictive high-pass filtering for neonatal and infant ABR screening to air-conducted and bone-conducted clicks. (Author/JDD)

  16. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  17. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  18. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in one-on-one conversations. CONCLUSION: BAHA is helpful in one-on-one conversations in quiet surroundings. Sound quality in group situations seems to be the main problem associated with BAHA. However, this study showed that BAHA is an effective hearing aid that is associated with a high degree...

  19. Neonatal High Bone Mass With First Mutation Of The NF-κB Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Heritable disorders that feature high bone mass (HBM) are rare. The etiology is typically a mutation(s) within a gene that regulates the differentiation and function of osteoblasts (OBs) or osteoclasts (OCs). Nevertheless, the molecular basis is unknown for approximately one-fifth of such entities...... within the genes that encode the NF-κB complex, including the Rela/p65 subunit, have not been reported. We describe a neonate who died suddenly and unexpectedly and was found at postmortem to have HBM documented radiographically and by skeletal histopathology. Serum was not available for study...... fibroblasts elicited impaired NF-κB responses compared with healthy control fibroblasts. Five unrelated patients with unexplained HBM did not show a RELA defect. Ours is apparently the first report of a mutation within the NF-κB complex in humans. The missense change is associated with neonatal osteosclerosis...

  20. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  1. Strategies for the chemical analysis of highly porous bone scaffolds using secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daming; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; van den Bergh, Wouter; Chater, Richard J; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R; McPhail, David S

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the distribution of critical elements (e.g. silicon and calcium) within silica-based bone scaffolds synthesized by different methods is central to the optimization of these materials. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to determine this information due to its very high surface sensitivity and its ability to map all the elements and compounds in the periodic table with high spatial resolution. The SIMS image data can also be combined with depth profiles to construct three-dimensional chemical maps. However, the scaffolds have interconnected pore networks, which are very challenging structures for the SIMS technique. To overcome this problem two experimental methodologies have been developed. The first method involved the use of the focused ion beam technique to obtain clear images of the regions of interest and subsequently mark them by introducing fiducial marks; the samples were then analysed using the ToF-SIMS technique to yield the chemical analyses of the regions of interest. The second method involved impregnating the pores using a suitable reagent so that a flat surface could be achieved, and this was followed by secondary ion mapping and 3D chemical imaging with ToF-SIMS. The samples used in this work were sol-gel 70S30C foam and electrospun fibres and calcium-containing silica/gelatin hybrid scaffolds. The results demonstrate the feasibility of both these experimental methodologies and indicate that these methods can provide an opportunity to compare various artificial bone scaffolds, which will be of help in improving scaffold synthesis and processing routes. The techniques are also transferable to many other types of porous material.

  2. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  3. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  4. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese dragon’s blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon’s blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon’s blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2013-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the μCT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the

  6. The evaluation of fetal nasal bone absence at second and third trimester and its relationship with chromosomal abnormalities%中晚孕期胎儿鼻骨缺失及染色体异常的超声诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁嘉; 孟华; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 徐钟慧; 杨萌; 欧阳云淑; 张一休

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ultrasonic characteristics of nasal bone absence at 16-34 weeks of pregnancy referring to fetal chromosomal anomalies. Methods The ultrasonic findings of the 20 fetuses with nasal bone absence at second or third trimester in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were reviewed referring to chromosomal karyotyping and labor induction or birth outcomes. Results The ultrasound features of the 20 fetuses including:(1) There were 17 fetuses showed bilateral nasal bones absence. The sonographic features were absence of hyper echo of nasal bone underneath the skin on either sagittal or transverse section. There were 5 fetuses showed multiple abnormalities:Four fetuses showed cardiac abnormalities (three showed atrioventricular septal defect, one showed ventricular septal defect, one showed ventricular septal defect with abnormal great vessels). One fetus showed duodenal obstruction′double bulbs′. The other minor abnormalities including short femur and humerus, increasing echogenetic bowels, aberrant right subclavian artery, mild unilateral ventriculomegaly, mild renal pelvic ectasia, outreached tongue, abnormal gestures of hands. (2) There were 3 fetuses showed unilateral nasal bone absence. The sonographic features were absence of hyper echo of either nasal bone on transverse section but with hyper echo on sagittal section. Two fetuses showed cardiac abnormalities (one fetus showed atrioventricular septal defect, one showed ventricular septal defect). The other minor abnormalities including short femur and humerus, hyper echogenetic bowels, increasing thickness of nuchal translucency or nuchal fold. Twelve fetuses were induced labor but only one had biopsy showed accordant result with ultrasound. (3) Karyotyping results:there were 9 of trisomy 21, 1 of 4p-and 7 of normal karyotype fetuses showed bilateral nasal bone absence. There were 2 of trisomy 21 and 1 of normal karyotype fetuses showed unilateral nasal bone absence. (4) Birth outcomes

  7. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  10. Congenital nasal piriform aperture stenosis with vestibular abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Smitha; Raghavan, Ashok [Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bateman, Neil [Sheffield Children' s Hospital, ENT Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    We present a neonate with congenital nasal piriform aperture stenosis associated with an abnormal vestibular aperture. Radiological evaluation with CT is essential to confirm the diagnosis and delineate the anatomy for surgical planning. Extension of the scan field of view to include the petrous temporal bone is essential to identify associated abnormalities of the vestibule. (orig.)

  11. A high mixed protein diet reduces body fat without altering the mechanical properties of bone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Kathleen M; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; House, James D; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-11-01

    Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.

  12. Heterogeneous pattern of bone disease in adult type 1 Gaucher disease: clinical and pathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach.

  13. Treatment of Abnormal Glucose Regulation and Huge Ovarian Cysts with High Dose Insulin Glargine in an Infant with Leprechaunism - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yasemin Çelik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. In this report; we present a 75 days old infant with leprecahunism treated by high dose insulin glargine.Case Report: Yetmiş day old girl was diagnosed as leprechaunism because of the hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and dysmorphic appearance. Huge cysts with multiple septa were determined in her ovaries. High dose insulin glargine were adjusted to achieve target blood glucose regulation. Huge ovarian cysts resolved by this treatment.Conclusion: Leprechaunism is characterized by intra-uterine and postnatal growth restriction, lipo-atrophy, characteristic facial features, severe acanthosis nigricans, abnormal glucose homeostasis, clitoromegaly and hirsutism. It is usually fatal within the 1st year of life because of diabetic ketoacidosis or recurrent infections. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 119-22

  14. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies.

  15. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  16. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  17. Canine cancellous bone microarchitecture after one year of high-dose bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Day, JS; Burr, DB

    2003-01-01

    that was typically plate-like, denser, with thicker and more trabeculae compared with those of the controls. Consistent with architectural changes, the Young's moduli of cancellous bone increased in all three directions with the greatest increase in primary axial loading (cephalo-caudal) direction after treatment....... Our results suggest a bone remodeling-adaptation mechanism stimulated by bisphosphonates that increases bone volume fraction, thickens trabeculae, changes trabeculae towards more plate-like, and increases mechanical properties. The secondary degree of anisotropy contributed significantly...... improvements of cancellous bone architecture provide a rationale for the clinical observation that fracture risk decreased by 50% in the first year of bisphosphonate therapy with only a 5% increase in bone mineral density. We conclude that bisphosphonates enhance mechanical properties and reduce fracture risk...

  18. Is gastrectomy-induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis and increase of mineralization a typical osteomalacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueyama

    Full Text Available Gastrectomy (GX is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or changed in compensation. Thus, GX-induced bone pathology was different from a typical osteomalacia. Gene expression profiles through microarray analysis and data mining using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that 612 genes were up-regulated and 1,097 genes were down-regulated in the GX bone. These genes were related functionally to connective tissue development, skeletal and muscular system development and function, Ca signaling and the role of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Network analysis indicated 9 genes (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1; Aquaporin 9; Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein; Very low density lipoprotein receptor; Periostin, osteoblast specific factor; Aggrecan; Gremlin 1; Angiopoietin-like 4; Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B were hubs connected with tissue development and immunological diseases. These results suggest that chronic systemic inflammation might underlie the GX-induced pathological changes in bone.

  19. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  20. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  1. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  2. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Department, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  3. High-fat Diet Decreases Cancellous Bone Mass But Has No Effect on Cortical Bone Mass in the Tibia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Body mass has a positive effect on bone mineral density and the strength. Whether mass derived from an obesity condition is beneficial to bone has not been established; neither have the mechanism by which obesity affects bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the effects...

  4. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  5. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  6. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  7. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  8. Pulmonary infections following bone marrow transplantation: High-resolution CT findings in 35 paediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davaus Gasparetto, Taisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology of the Federal Universitie Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: taisadavaus@gmail.com; Escuissato, Dante L. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology of the University of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Department of Diagnostic Radiology of the Federal Universitie Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the high-resolution CT findings of paediatric patients who had pulmonary infections following bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and to evaluate the differential diagnosis through high-resolution CT of the various pathogens responsible for pulmonary infections after BMT. Patients and methods: The study included 35 consecutive patients who had documented pulmonary infection, high-resolution CT of the chest performed within 24 h of the beginning of symptoms, and proven diagnosis within 1 week of the onset of symptoms. The pulmonary infections were due to viruses (n = 16), bacteria (n = 9), fungi (n = 9), and protozoa (n = 1). Two radiologists analyzed the CT scans and reached final decisions regarding the findings by consensus. Results: Four patients with confirmed pneumonia had normal high-resolution CT scans. Regarding the viral infections, the most frequent features were areas of ground-glass attenuation (43.7%) and small centrilobular nodules (31.2%). Airspace consolidation (88.9%), small centrilobular nodules (22.2%) and ground-glass attenuation (22.2%) were the most frequent findings in patients with bacterial pneumonia following BMT. Large nodules were seen in 66.7% of the patients with fungal pneumonia, and in only one case of virus infection. The 'halo sign' (n = 5) was seen only in patients with fungal pneumonia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the main causes of pulmonary infection in paediatric patients following BMT share similar high-resolution CT findings. Large nodules and 'halo sign' are more common in patients with fungal infections.

  9. LASER-INDUCED PROCESS OF DEFROSTING IN BIOLOGICAL TISSUES AFTER IMPREGNATION BY NANOPARTICLES WITH ABNORMAL HIGH PHOTOTHERMAL EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyaev, P.Y.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal effect of laser radiation on frozen biotissues is essential for a number of modern technologies. For example, tissue cryopreservation has potentials for cryosurgery and other types of medical treatment using tissue cooling, frizzing and laser heating. In the present study the self-propagating high temperature (SHT synthesis and application of biofunctional nanoparticles (NPs using high photo-thermal effect for laser heating of frozen biotissues are considered. Starch stabilized aqueous solutions of KxMoO3 and HxMoO3 NPs demonstrate high absorption of laser radiation with the wavelengths of 1.56 μm being applied to pig skin containing small amounts of NPs. For hydrogen-molybdenum oxide bronze the thermal effect on pig skin is higher at 1.44 μm than at 1.56 μm. Laser heating of frozen pig’s ear previously modified by bronze NPs injection allows controlling temperature of irradiated tissue up to +1 oC. Subcutaneous tissue impregnation with NPs of the metallic oxide bronzes can be used for careful laser treatment of frozen ear tissue.

  10. A two-year history of high bone loading physical activity attenuates ethnic differences in bone strength and geometry in pre-/early pubertal children from a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, Rebecca M; Avidon, Ingrid; Norris, Shane A; McVeigh, Joanne A

    2013-12-01

    We examined the interplay between ethnicity and weight-bearing physical activity on the content and volumetric properties of bone in a pre- to early pubertal South African Black and White population. Sixty six children [Black boys, 10.4 (1.4)yrs, n=15; Black girls, 10.1 (1.2)yrs, n=27; White boys, 10.1 (1.1)yrs, n=7; White girls, 9.6 (1.3)yrs, n=17] reported on all their physical activities over the past two years in an interviewer administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). All participants underwent a whole body and site-specific DXA scan and we also assessed bone structure and estimated bone strength with pQCT. Children were classified as being either high or low bone loaders based on the cohort's median peak bone strain score estimated from the PAQ. In the low bone loading group, Black children had greater femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (2.9 (0.08)g) than White children (2.4 (0.11)g; p=0.05). There were no ethnic differences in the high bone loaders for femoral neck BMC. At the cortical site, the Black low bone loaders had a greater radius area (97.3 (1.3) vs 88.8 (2.6)mm(2); p=0.05) and a greater tibia total area (475.5 (8.7) vs. 397.3 (14.0)mm(2); p=0.001) and strength (1633.7 (60.1) vs. 1271.8 (98.6)mm(3); p=0.04) compared to the White low bone loaders. These measures were not different between the Black low and high bone loaders or between the Black and White high bone loaders. In conclusion, the present study shows that there may be ethnic and physical activity associations in the bone health of Black and White pre-pubertal children and further prospective studies are required to determine the possible ethnic specific response to mechanical loading.

  11. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  12. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...

  13. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  14. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets.

  15. Abnormal pain processing in chronic tension-type headache: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L.; Egsgaard, L.L.; Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity...... in response to muscle pain in 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 19 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Intramuscular electrical stimuli (single and train of five pulses delivered at 2 Hz) were applied to the trapezius muscle and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded...... versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.001; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.002) and fifth (baseline versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04) stimulus in the train. In contrast, there were no differences between the conditions in patients. No consistent...

  16. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Barbara; Wu, Nian; Gyapon-Quast, Frederick; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Pickering, Matthew C; Linhardt, Robert J; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-07-05

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. (1)H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies.

  17. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  18. Changes in bone macro- and microstructure in diabetic obese mice revealed by high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhofs, G.; Durand, M.; Vangoitsenhoven, R.; Marin, C.; van der Schueren, B.; Carmeliet, G.; Luyten, F. P.; Geris, L.; Vandamme, K.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions. At 2 μm scale, no change was observed in the intracortical structure. At 1 μm scale, a decrease in the cortical vascular porosity of the HFD bone was evidenced. The study of a group of 8 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the diet challenge revealed that the decreased vascular porosity was T2DM-dependant and not related to the ageing process. Our results offer an unprecedented ultra-characterization of the T2DM compromised skeletal micro-architecture and highlight an unrevealed T2DM-related decrease in the cortical vascular porosity, potentially affecting the bone health and fragility. Additionally, it provides some insights into the technical challenge facing the assessment of the rodent bone structure using HR-microCT imaging.

  19. Anaesthesia in operations of congenital craniofacial abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangirie B

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Some syndromes that are characterized by abnormalities of the skull, facial bones, and mandibule, most of these patients are from the pediatric population. For the anaesthetic management of patients with various craniofacial dysostosis are as follows: 1 The necessary for careful evaluation of the airway by simply observing the patient. 2 Evaluation of the patient for abnormalities of the heart and lungs. 3 Patients may also have increased intracranial pressure. 4 Anaesthetic drugs and techniques: no particular drugs is recommended. Techniques controlled ventilation. 5 All patients should be cared in the intensive care unit after operation between 24-48 hours

  20. Biotribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composites containing bovine bone hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-long; ZHU Yuan-yuan; WANG Qing-liang; GE Shi-rong

    2008-01-01

    Wear particles of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are the main cause of long-term failure of total joint replacements. Therefore, increasing its wear resistance or bioactivity will be very useful in order to obtain high quality artificial joints. In our study, UHMWPE composites filled with the bovine bone hydroxyapatite (BHA) were prepared by the method of compression moulding. A ball-on-disc wear test was carried out with a Universal Micro-Tribometer to investigate the friction and wear behavior of a Si3N4 ceramic ball, cross-sliding against the UHMWPE/BHA composites with human plasma lubrication. At the same time, the profiles of the worn grooves on the UHMWPE/BHA surface were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the addition of BHA to UHMWPE had a significant effect on the biotribological behavior of UHMWPE cross-sliding against the Si3N4 ceramic ball. The addition of BHA powder enhanced the hardness and modulus of elasticity of these composites and decreased the friction coefficients and wear rates under conditions of human plasma lubrication. When the added amount of BHA powders was up to 20%~30%, UHMWPE/BHA composites demonstrated the designed performance of the mechanical properties and biotribological behavior.

  1. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  2. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Persson

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+ among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s.A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+.In total, 89 women (28.3% developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5-53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3-45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001.HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+.

  3. Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Bone Microarchitecture in Men Relative to Women Assessed by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasee Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The trabecular and cortical compartments of bone each contributes to bone strength. Until recently, assessment of trabecular and cortical microstructure has required a bone biopsy. Now, trabecular and cortical microstructure of peripheral bone sites can be determined noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT. Studies that have used HR-pQCT to evaluate cohorts of both men and women have provided novel insights into the changes in bone microarchitecture that occur with age between the sexes, which may help to explain the lower fracture incidence in older men relative to women. This review will highlight observations from these studies on both the sex- and age-related differences in trabecular and cortical microstructure that may underlie the differences in bone strength, and thereby fracture risk, between men and women.

  4. High Insulin Levels in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice Cause Increased Cortical Bone Mass and Impaired Trabecular Micro-Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Fu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and complications, including obesity and osteoporosis. Rodents have been widely used to model human T2DM and investigate its effect on the skeleton. We aimed to investigate skeletal alterations in Yellow Kuo Kondo (KK-Ay diabetic mice displaying high insulin and glucose levels. Bone mineral density (BMD, micro-architecture and bone metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The total femoral areal BMD (aBMD, cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD and thickness were significantly increased in KK-Ay mice, while the trabecular vBMD and mineralized bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness and number were decreased compared to C57BL mice. The expression of both osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC, bone sialoprotein, Type I Collagen, osteonectin, RUNX2 and OSX, and osteoclast-related genes, such as TRAP and TCIRG, were up-regulated in KK-Ay mice. Correlation analyses showed that serum insulin levels were positively associated with aBMD, cortical vBMD and thickness and negatively associated with trabecular vBMD and micro-architecture. In addition, serum insulin levels were positively related to osteoblast-related and osteoclast-related gene expression. Our data suggest that high insulin levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice may increase cortical bone mass and impair trabecular micro-structure by up-regulating osteoblast-and osteoclast-related gene expression.

  5. Novel tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement having high compressive strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Zhai, Dong; Huan, Zhiguang; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Although inorganic bone cements such as calcium phosphate cements have been widely applied in orthopaedic and dental fields because of their self-setting ability, development of high-strength bone cement with bioactivity and biodegradability remains a major challenge. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate (C3S/MPC) composite bone cement, which is intended to combine the excellent bioactivity of C3S with remarkable self-setting properties and mechanical strength of MPC. The self-setting and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation and degradation behaviour, and cytocompatibility of the composite cements were investigated. Our results showed that the C3S/MPC composite cement with an optimal composition had compressive strength up to 87 MPa, which was significantly higher than C3S (25 MPa) and MPC (64 MPa). The setting time could be adjusted between 3 min and 29 min with the variation of compositions. The hydraulic reaction products of the C3S/MPC composite cement were composed of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) derived from the hydration of C3S and gel-like amorphous substance. The C3S/MPC composite cements could induce apatite mineralization on its surface in SBF solution and degraded gradually in Tris-HCl solution. Besides, the composite cements showed good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. Our results indicated that the C3S/MPC composite bone cement might be a new promising high-strength inorganic bioactive material which may hold the potential for bone repair in load-bearing site.

  6. BURDEN OF ABNORMAL HEMATOPOIETIC CLONE IN PATIENTS WITH MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the burden of abnormal hematopoietic clone in the development of myelodys plastic syndromes (MDS).Methods The ratio of the bone marrow cells with abnormal chromosomes to the total counted bone marrow cells was regarded as the index of MDS clone burden. The disease severity related parameters including white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase level, bone marrow blast, myeloid differentiation index, micromegakaryocyte, transfusion, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor ( TNF), CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of MDS patients were assayed, and the correlations between those parameters and MDS clone burden were also analyzed.Results The clone burden of MDS patients was 67.4% ± 36. 2%. MDS clone burden positively correlated with bone marrow blasts (r=0.483, P<0.05), negatively with hemoglobin level (r=-0.445, P<0.05). The number of blasts, hemoglobin, and erythrocytes in high clone burden (>50%) and low clone burden (≤50%) groups were 7.78%±5.51% and 3.45%±3.34%, 56.06±14. 28 g/L and 76.40±24.44 g/L, (1.82±0.48)×1012/L and (2. 32±0.66)×1012/L, respectively (all P <0.05). CD4 + T lymphocytes of MDS patients and normal controls were (0. 274±0.719)×109/L and (0.455±0.206)×109/L, respectively (P<0.05). CD8 ± T lymphocytes of MDS patients and normal controls were (0.240±0.150)×109/L and (0.305 ±0.145)×109/L, respectively. The serum level of interleukin-2 of MDS patients (6.29±3.58 ng/mL) was significantly higher than normal control (3.11±1.40ng/mL, P<0.05). The serum level of TNF of MDS patients and normal control group were 2.42±1.79 ng/mL and 1.68 ±0.69 ng/mL, respectively. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 was higher in high clone burden MDS patients (1.90 ±0.52) than that in low clone burden patients (0.97±0.44, P<0.05).Conclusion The quantitive clonal karyotype abnormalities and deficient T cell immunity are important parameters for evaluating MDS severity and predicting its

  7. Genome-wide identification of bone metastasis-related microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and metastasis. The aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to play an important role in many cancers. RESULTS: To understand the roles of miRNAs in the bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, we constructed two small RNA libraries from blood of lung adenocarcinoma patients with and without bone metastasis. High-throughput sequencing combined with differential expression analysis identified that 7 microRNAs were down-regulated and 21 microRNAs were up-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis. A total of 797 target genes of the differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Functional annotation analysis indicated that a number of pathways might be involved in bone metastasis, survival of the primary origin and metastatic angiogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These include the MAPK, Wnt, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, as well as pathways involving the matrix metalloproteinase, cytoskeletal protein and angiogenesis factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie lung adenocarcinoma development, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  8. Non-invasive bone competence analysis by high-resolution pQCT: an in vitro reproducibility study on structural and mechanical properties at the human radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas L; Stauber, Martin; Kohler, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Müller, Ralph; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2009-02-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength. Bone strength depends, among others, on bone density, bone geometry and its internal architecture. With the recent introduction of a new generation high-resolution 3D peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) system, direct quantification of structural bone parameters has become feasible. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that bone mechanical competence can be derived from HR-pQCT based micro-finite element modeling (microFE). However, reproducibility data for HR-pQCT-derived mechanical indices is not well-known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify reproducibility of HR-pQCT-derived indices. We measured 14 distal formalin-fixed cadaveric forearms three times and analyzed three different regions for each measurement. For each region cortical and trabecular parameters were determined. Reproducibility was assessed with respect to precision error (PE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Reproducibility values were found to be best in all three regions for the full bone compartment with an average PE of 0.79%, followed by the cortical compartment (PE=1.19%) and the trabecular compartment with an average PE of 2.31%. The mechanical parameters showed similar reproducibility (PE=0.48%-2.93% for bone strength and stiffness, respectively). ICC showed a very high reproducibility of subject-specific measurements, ranging from 0.982 to 1.000, allowing secure identification of individual donors ranging from healthy to severely osteoporotic subjects. From these in vitro results we conclude that HR-pQCT derived morphometric and mechanical parameters are highly reproducible such that differences in bone structure and strength can be detected with a reproducibility error smaller than 3%; hence, the technique has a high potential to become a tool for detecting bone quality and bone competence of individual subjects.

  9. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-03-01

    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  10. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone can be adversely affected by obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects found in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung...

  11. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  12. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  13. A phase II clinical trial does not show that high dose simvastatin has beneficial effect on markers of bone turnover in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Teis Esben; Pedersen, PT; Levin Andersen, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the impact of low dose statin (20-80 mg/day) on bone metabolism with inconclusive results despite promising data of preclinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of high dose simvastatin (HD-Sim) on biochemical markers of bone turnover and disease a...

  14. Bone and gallium scans in mastocytosis: correlation with count rates, radiography, and microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslen, R.D. (Cross Cancer Inst., Edmonton, Alberta); Jackson, F.I.; Reid, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) was proven in a patient suffering from severe back pain. A bone scan showed diffusely increased bone activity. Count rates were also abnormally elevated over several areas of the skeleton. Radiographs were consistent with mastocytosis in bone.

  15. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  16. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  17. Hereditary urea cycle abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitro so the specific genetic cause is known. Teamwork between parents, the affected child, and doctors can help prevent severe illness. Alternative Names Abnormality of the urea cycle - hereditary; Urea cycle - hereditary abnormality Images Male urinary system Urea cycle References Lichter-Konecki ...

  18. Assessment of bone tissue during treatment dentoalveolar anomalies in children with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilenko A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to develop a rational method of treatment dentoalveolar anomalies aimed at reducing relapses dentoalveolar anomalies, duration of treatment, depending on bone density in patients with scoliosis. Scoliosis is often associated with osteopenia and impaired metabolism of connective tissue that manifested reduced bone mineral density and changes in metabolic status, impaired synthesis of the major structural components of connective tissue, resulting integral reaction to a combination of two abnormal situations - osteopenia and scoliotic deformity. Prevalence dentoalveolar anomalies abnormalities among patients with scoliosis reaches 81.6%, in most cases accompanied by gingivitis. Therefore, the need for orthodontic treatment in these patients is quite high. When scoliosis orthodontic treatment has an impact on pathologically changed bone, so the retention period of orthodontic treatment need prescriptions that enhance the adaptive capacity of the body and promote reparative bone formation and development of pathogenetically substantiated complex preventive measures aimed at improving the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies recurrence. A biometric study of control and diagnostic models of the jaws, biochemical oral fluid, determining bone density by ultrasonic osteography, the timing of orthodontic treatment in patients, with jaw abnormalities suffering from scoliosis and various sites of varying severity. We have developed medical centers showed high efficiency, which showed an increase density and improve bone metabolism.

  19. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention.

  20. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T.M.; Majumdar, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary An automated image processing method is presented for simulating areal bone mineral density measures using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the ultra-distal radius. The accuracy of the method is validated against clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique represents a useful reference to gauge the utility of novel 3D quantification methods applied to HR-pQCT in multi-center clinical studies and potentially negates the need for sepa...

  1. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [Department of Out-Patient, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Wei; Huang, Jing [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ren, Ning [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wu, Sheng-Xi, E-mail: shengxi@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li, Yong-Qi, E-mail: devneuro@fmmu.edu.cn [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-05-14

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1{beta} was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1{beta} was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1{beta}. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1{beta} expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  2. Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Ahola, Riikka; Guo, Hui; Korpelainen, Raija; Uchimaru, Jin; Vainionpää, Aki; Sato, Kyoko; Sakai, Aiko; Salo, Sinikka; Kishimoto, Koshi; Itoi, Eiji; Komatsu, Shoko; Jämsä, Timo; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, there are no previous studies to examine the effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise (HIE) on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of office-based HIE on BMD in healthy premenopausal Japanese women. Ninety-one healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive stretching exercise (SE) or HIE (stretching, along with up to 5 × 10 vertical and versatile jumps) for 12 months. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Several cardiovascular risk factors and leg strength also were assessed. An accelerometer-based recorder was used to measure daily impact loading in four 1-week samples. The progression of the HIE program was ensured by the accelerometer. Thirty-three women (71.7%) in the SE group and 34 (75.6%) in the HIE group completed the study. There was a significant difference in the change in the femoral neck BMD between the groups in favor of the HIE group [0.6% (95% CI: -0.4, 1.7) vs. -1.0% (95% CI: -2.2, 0.2)]. Adiponectin, LDL, HDL, and the leg strength of participants in both the groups improved during the intervention. These finding suggested that office-based brief HIE can be recommended for premenopausal women for preventing bone mineral loss.

  3. Fatal Fulminant Hepatic Failure from Adenovirus in Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin M. Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of fatal hepatic failure in patients who received matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Both patients presented with high fevers, abnormal liver functions tests, and hypodense lesions in the liver by CT scan. Histologic examination of postmortem liver samples demonstrated extensive necrosis, and immunohistochemistry was positive for adenovirus.

  4. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  5. The level of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and bone mineral density status in the female patients with bone abnormality in Changfeng Community%长风社区骨量异常女性患者25羟维生素D水平及骨密度状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李觅琼; 邹映红; 陈玉华; 杨芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate therelationship of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) with the bone mineral density (BMD) in the female patients with bone abnormality.Methods:Ninety-ifve female patients with BMD who ifrstly visited in Changfeng Community Health Service Center from Sept. to Nov. 2013 were collected.The Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to detect BMD in lumbar spine1-4 and left and right femoral necks. Simultaneously, the level of serum 25OHD was measured and classiifed into 4 groups of severe deifciency, deifciency, insufifciency and sufifciency according to its level. In addition, the patients were divided into 3 groups of 50-59 years old, 60-69 years old and≥70 years old by age.Results: The average level of serum 25OHD was(17.34±7.35)ng/ml, and the prevalence of vitamin D in the groups of severe deifciency, deifciency, insufifciency and sufifciency were 19 cases (20.0%), 44 ones (46.3%), 24 ones (25.3%), and 8 ones (8.4%), respectively. The BMD in lumbar spine1-4 was (0.831±0.062)g/cm2 in the severe deifciency group which was signiifcantly lower than (0.902±0.084) g/cm2 in the sufifciency group(P0.05).Conclusion:The female patients withbone abnormality have the severe deifciency and deifciency of vitamin D, but the level of vitamin D may have no direct relationship with BMD. It is necessary to further expand the sample size to study the relationship between the level of vitamin D and osteoporosis and fracture risk.%目的:评价骨量异常女性患者血清25羟维生素D(25OHD)与骨密度的关系.方法:收集2013年9-12月首次就诊的长风社区骨量异常女性患者95例,应用双能X线吸收仪(DXA)测定腰椎L1-4和左、右股骨颈骨密度,同时测定血清25OHD水平,按血清25OHD含量分为严重缺乏、缺乏、不足和充足4组.另外按年龄分为50~59岁、60~69岁和≥70岁3组.结果:95例患者平均血清25OHD水平为(17.34±7.35)ng/ml,维生素D严重缺乏19例(20.0%),缺乏44例(46.3%),不足24

  6. Osteoblast connexin43 modulates skeletal architecture by regulating both arms of bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marcus; Grimston, Susan K; Norris, Jin Yi; Guillotin, Bertrand; Shaw, Angela; Beniash, Elia; Civitelli, Roberto

    2011-04-15

    Connexin43 (Cx43) has an important role in skeletal homeostasis, and Cx43 gene (Gja1) mutations have been linked to oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), a human disorder characterized by prominent skeletal abnormalities. To determine the function of Cx43 at early steps of osteogenesis and its role in the ODDD skeletal phenotype, we have used the Dermo1 promoter to drive Gja1 ablation or induce an ODDD mutation in the chondro-osteogenic linage. Both Gja1 null and ODDD mutant mice develop age-related osteopenia, primarily due to a progressive enlargement of the medullary cavity and cortical thinning. This phenotype is the consequence of a high bone turnover state, with increased endocortical osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and increased periosteal bone apposition. Increased bone resorption is a noncell autonomous defect, caused by exuberant stimulation of osteoclastogenesis by Cx43-deficient bone marrow stromal cells, via decreased Opg production. The latter is part of a broad defect in osteoblast differentiation and function, which also results in abnormal structural and material properties of bone leading to decreased resistance to mechanical load. Thus Cx43 in osteogenic cells is a critical regulator of both arms of the bone remodeling cycle, its absence causing structural changes remindful of aged or disused bone.

  7. Gonadal dysgenesis and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, V; Euller-Ziegler, L

    2001-02-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis is defined as congenital hypogonadism related to abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Because sex steroids play a central role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass, studies have been done to investigate bone status in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, particularly Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome, which are the two most common types. The severe estrogen deficiency characteristic of Turner's syndrome (44, X0) is associated with a significant bone mass decrease ascribable to increased bone turnover, as shown by histological studies and assays of bone turnover markers. Estrogen therapy is followed by a significant bone mass gain and a return to normal of bone turnover markers, suggesting that it is the estrogen deficiency rather than the chromosomal abnormality that causes the bone mass deficiency, although abnormalities in the renal metabolism of vitamin D have been reported. Combined therapy with estrogens and growth hormone seems beneficial during the prepubertal period. In Klinefelter's syndrome (47XXY), serum testosterone levels are at the lower end of the normal range and dihydrotestosterone levels are low. Histological studies show depressed osteoblast function and a decrease in 5-alpha-reductase activity responsible for partial tissue resistance to androgens. Assays of bone turnover markers show evidence of increased bone turnover. The bone deficiency is most marked at the femoral neck and seems correlated with serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Androgen therapy has favorable effects on the bone only if it is started before puberty. Recent data suggest that estrogens may contribute to the development of demineralization in KS and that bisphosphonate therapy may be beneficial.

  8. Abnormally High Expression of BAFF on T Lymphocytes from Lung Cancer-associated Pleural Effusions and Its Potent Anti-tumor Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan XU; Xiaozhou HE; Yibei ZHU; Tiangzan YAN; Hongbin MA; Xueguang ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the expressions of B cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and its receptors (BAFF-R and TACI) on T lymphocytes from malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, and compared with those on the T lymphocytes from non-malignant pleural effusion (NMPE) and healthy controls. It was found that CD3 positive T lymphocytes (including CD4, CD8, and part of CD25 and CD69 positive cells) of MPE in lung cancer highly and consistently expressed the BAFF molecule, while high expressions of BAFF could only be found in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced T lymphocytes from NMPE or healthy controls. These results were consistent with the results from BAFF mRNA detection by real-time PCR. In addition, T lymphocytes from MPE expressed significantly more BAFF-R than those from NMPE or healthy controls, while the expression of TACI was increased on CD4+ T cells but decreased on CD8+ T cells when compared with controls. The Annexin/PI assay suggested that recombinant human BAFF (rhBAFF) could promote the survival rate of T lymphocytes from MPE, while the decoy receptor TACI-Fc fusion protein could promote the apoptosis rate of T lymphocytes. Cytokines in the supernatant detected by ELISA assay showed that rhBAFF could significantly upregulate the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro,and the IFN-γ level in the TACI-Fc-treated group resembled that of the control groups. All of these results indicated that the abnormally high expression of BAFF on T lymphocytes from MPE may play a role of antitumor effect.

  9. Analysis of Abnormal Phenomena in High Magnesium Boron Containing Salt Brine System%高镁含硼盐卤体系反常现象解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌志明; 崔香梅; 郑绵平

    2012-01-01

    Such phenomena as "supersaturated solubility", "salt formation by dilution" and "solubility increase of homonymy ion" exist in high magnesium boron containing salt brine system. Our research indicates that the magnesium chloride solution is neutral with medium or low concentration. It shows acidic property with high concentration and the pH value is lower than 4.5 when saturated. But many types of magnesium borate minerals are alkaline ones with pH value higher than 8.0. We know in general acid and base could hardly co-exist in an aqueous solution, but magnesium borate and magnesium chloride in high magnesium boron containing salt brine system do owing to the possession of the homonymy ion. The above mentioned abnormal phenomena can be satisfactorily interpreted with special acidity change of magnesium chloride solution and some related phase chemistry data.%高镁含硼盐卤体系中存在“过饱和溶解度”、“稀释成盐”和同名离子“增溶”等反常现象.研究发现:氯化镁溶液在中低浓度时显中性,在高浓度时显酸性,饱和时pH值小于4.5.而各种镁硼酸盐基本都是pH值大于8.0的碱性矿物.水溶液中酸碱难共存,但镁硼酸盐与氯化镁却因具有相同离子而能够在高镁含硼盐卤体系中共存.结合氯化镁溶液特殊酸度变化规律与相关相化学数据可较圆满的解释高镁含硼盐卤体系中的反常现象.

  10. Chronic kidney disease and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Matsuo, Koji; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a syndrome defined as a systemic mineral metabolic disorder associated with CKD, and the term renal osteodystrophy indicates a pathomorphological concept of bone lesions associated with CKD-MBD. Cortical bone thinning, abnormalities in bone turnover and primary/secondary mineralization, elevated levels of circulating sclerostin, increased apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes, disturbance of the coupling phenomenon, iatrogenic factors, accumulated micro-crackles, crystal/collagen disorientation, and chemical modification of collagen crosslinks are all possible candidates found in CKD that could promote osteopenia and/or bone fragility. Some of above factors are the consequences of abnormal systemic mineral metabolism but for others it seem unlikely. We have used the term uremic osteoporosis to describe the uremia-induced bone fragility which is not derived from abnormal systemic mineral metabolism. Interestingly, the disease aspect of uremic osteoporosis appears to be similar to that of senile osteoporosis.

  11. An Abnormal Vibrational Mode of Torsion Pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 涂英; 顾邦明; 胡忠坤; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    In the experiment for the determination of the gravitational constant G, we found an abnormal vibrational mode of the torsion pendulum. The abnormal mode disappeared as a magnetic damper was introduced to the torsion pendulum system. Our experimental results also show that the magnetic damper can be used to suppress the high frequency vibrational noises to torsion pendulums effectively.

  12. Targeted bone marrow irradiation in the conditioning of high-risk leukaemia prior to stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Buchmann, I.; Seitz, U.; Glatting, G.; Neumaier, B.; Kotzerke, J.; Buck, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Bunjes, D.; Doehner, H. [Abteilung Innere Medizin III, Haematologie und Onkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany); Martin, H.; Bergmann, L. [Klinik fuer Haematologie und Onkologie, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Disease recurrence following stem cell transplantation (SCT) remains a major problem. Despite the sensitivity of leukaemias to chemotherapy and irradiation, conventional conditioning before SCT is limited by significant organ toxicity. Targeted irradiation of bone marrow and spleen by radioimmunotherapy may provide considerable dose escalation, with limited toxicity to non-target organs. In this study, 27 patients with high-risk or relapsing leukaemia were treated with rhenium-188-labelled CD66a,b,c,e radioimmunoconjugates ({sup 188}Re-mAb) specific for normal bone marrow in addition to conventional conditioning with high-dose chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation prior to SCT. A mean activity of 10.2{+-}2.1 (range 6.9-15.8) GBq {sup 188}Re-mAb was administered intravenously. Acute side-effects were assessed according to the CTC classification and patient outcome was determined. Mean radiation doses (Gy; range in parentheses) to relevant organs and whole body were as follows: 13.1 (6.5-22) to bone marrow, 11.6 (1.7-31.1) to spleen, 5.0 (2.0-11.7) to liver, 7.0 (2.3-11.6) to kidneys, 0.7 (0.3-1.3) to lungs and 1.4 (0.8-2.1) to the whole body. Stem cells engrafted in all patients within 9-18 days post SCT. Acute organ toxicity of grade II or less was observed. During follow-up for 25.4{+-}5.3 (range 18-34) months, 4/27 (15%) patients died from relapse, and 9/27 (33%) from transplantation-related complications. Fourteen patients (52%) are still alive and in ongoing complete clinical remission. Radioimmunotherapy with the bone marrow-seeking {sup 188}Re-labelled CD66 mAb can double the dose to bone marrow and spleen without undue extramedullary acute organ toxicity, when given in addition to high-dose chemotherapy and 12 Gy TBI before allogeneic SCT. This intensified conditioning regimen may reduce the relapse rate of high-risk leukaemia. (orig.)

  13. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 2.: patologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author) 14 refs, 5 figs

  15. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  17. Abnormal menstrual periods (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  19. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  20. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ, its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10: Cordia dichotoma (10.6, Anchusa italic (10.6, Euphorbia humifusa (4.9, Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9, Ziziphus jujube (4.9, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1, Foeniculum vulgare (4.9, Lavandula angustifolia (4.9, Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9, and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3. Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were 0.999. Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ.

  1. Abnormal protein aggregationand neurodegenerativediseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abnormal protein aggregation or amyloid is the major cause ofmany neurodegenerative disorders. The present review focuses on the correlation between sequence and structure features of proteins related to the diseases and abnormal protein aggregation. Recent progress has improved our knowledge on understand-ing the mechanism of amyloid formation. We suggest a nucleation model for ordered protein aggregation, which can also explain pathogenesis mechanisms of these neurodegenerative diseases in vivo.

  2. High frequency bone conduction auditory evoked potentials in the guinea pig: Assessing cochlear injury after ossicular chain manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, M J; Bird, P A; Vlajkovic, S M; Thorne, P R

    2015-12-01

    Permanent high frequency (>4 kHz) sensorineural hearing loss following middle ear surgery occurs in up to 25% of patients. The aetiology of this loss is poorly understood and may involve transmission of supra-physiological forces down the ossicular chain to the cochlea. Investigating the mechanisms of this injury using animal models is challenging, as evaluating cochlear function with evoked potentials is confounded when ossicular manipulation disrupts the normal air conduction (AC) pathway. Bone conduction (BC) using clinical bone vibrators in small animals is limited by poor transducer output at high frequencies sensitive to trauma. The objectives of the present study were firstly to evaluate a novel high frequency bone conduction transducer with evoked auditory potentials in a guinea pig model, and secondly to use this model to investigate the impact of middle ear surgical manipulation on cochlear function. We modified a magnetostrictive device as a high frequency BC transducer and evaluated its performance by comparison with a calibrated AC transducer at frequencies up to 32 kHz using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP). To mimic a middle ear traumatising stimulus, a rotating bur was brought in to contact with the incudomalleal complex and the effect on evoked cochlear potentials was observed. BC-evoked potentials followed the same input-output function pattern as AC potentials for all ABR frequencies. Deterioration in CAP and SP thresholds was observed after ossicular manipulation. It is possible to use high frequency BC to evoke responses from the injury sensitive basal region of the cochlea and so not rely on AC with the potential confounder of conductive hearing loss. Ongoing research explores how these findings evolve over time, and ways in which injury may be reduced and the cochlea protected during middle ear surgery.

  3. A Phase 2 Trial on the Effect of Low-Dose Versus High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mass in Adults with Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Supplementation on Bone Mass in Adults with Neurofibromatosis 1 ( NF1 ) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Viskochil, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University...versus High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mass in Adults with Neurofibromatosis 1 ( NF1 ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1...regulatory processes have taken more time than anticipated in the Statement of Work. An IND from the FDA to use high-dose vitamin D in the NF1

  4. Effects of abnormally high heat stress on petroleum in reservoir——An example from the Tazhong 18 Well in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An igneous intrusion of 94m thick was discovered intruding into the Silurian sandstone from Tazhong 18 Well. The petroleum previously preserved in the Silurian sandstone reservoir was altered into black carbonaceous bitumen by abnormally high heat stress induced by the igneous intrusion. The reflec-tance of the carbonaceous bitumen reaches as high as 3.54%, indicating that the bitumen had evolved into a high thermal evolution level. Similar to the Silurian samples from the neighboring Tazhong 11, Tazhong 12, Tazhong 45 and Tazhong 47 wells, the distribution of C27, C28 and C29 steranes of the car-bonaceous bitumen is still "V" -shaped and can still be employed as an efficient parameter in oil source correlation. The "V" -shaped distribution indicates that the hydrocarbons from the Tazhong 18 and the neighboring wells were all generated from the Middle-Upper Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks. However, the oil source correlation parameters associated with and terpanes had been changed greatly by the high heat stress and can no longer be used in oil source correlation. The δ 13C values of the pe-troleum from the neighboring wells are between -32.53‰ and -33.37‰, coincident with those of the Paleozoic marine petroleum in the Tarim Basin. However, the δ 13C values of the carbonaceous bitumen from the Tazhong 18 Well are between -27.18‰ and -29.26‰, isotopically much heavier than the pe-troleum from the neighboring wells. The content of light hydrocarbons (nC14-nC20) of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction in the carbonaceous bitumen is extremely higher than the content of heavy hy-drocarbons. The light/heavy hydrocarbon ratios (ΣnC21-/ΣnC22+) are between 4.56 and 39.17. In the saturated fraction, the even numbered hydrocarbons are predominant to the odd numbered, and the OEP (Odd to Even Predominance) values are between 0.22 and 0.49. However, the content of light hy-drocarbons in the petroleum from the neighboring wells is relatively low and the content of

  5. Effects of abnormally high heat stress on petroleum in reservoir——An example from the Tazhong 18 Well in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU DongYa; JIN ZhiJun; HU WenXuan; ZHANG XueFeng

    2008-01-01

    An igneous intrusion of 94m thick was discovered intruding into the Silurian sandstone from Tazhong 18 Well. The petroleum previously preserved in the Silurian sandstone reservoir was altered into black carbonaceous bitumen by abnormally high heat stress induced by the igneous intrusion. The reflectance of the carbonaceous bitumen reaches as high as 3.54%, indicating that the bitumen had evolved into a high thermal evolution level. Similar to the Silurian samples from the neighboring Tazhong 11,Tazhong 12, Tazhong 45 and Tazhong 47 wells, the distribution of C27, C28 and C29 steranes of the carbonaceous bitumen is still "V"-shaped and can still be employed as an efficient parameter in oil source correlation. The "V"-shaped distribution indicates that the hydrocarbons from the Tazhong 18 and the neighboring wells were all generated from the Middle-Upper Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks. However, the oil source correlation parameters associated with and terpanes had been changed greatly by the high heat stress and can no longer be used in oil source correlation. The δ13C values of the petroleum from the neighboring wells are between -32.53‰ and -33.37‰, coincident with those of the Paleozoic marine petroleum in the Tarim Basin. However, the δ13C values of the carbonaceous bitumen from the Tazhong 18 Well are between -27.18‰ and -29.26‰, isotopically much heavier than the petroleum from the neighboring wells. The content of light hydrocarbons (nC14-nC20) of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction in the carbonaceous bitumen is extremely higher than the content of heavy hydrocarbons. The light/heavy hydrocarbon ratios (ΣnC21-/ΣnC22+) are between 4.56 and 39.17. In the saturated fraction, the even numbered hydrocarbons are predominant to the odd numbered, and the OEP (Odd to Even Predominance) values are between 0.22 and 0.49. However, the content of light hydrocarbons in the petroleum from the neighboring wells is relatively low and the content of the even

  6. Plasma Treated High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE Medpor Implant Immobilized with rhBMP-2 for Improving the Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Su Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the bone generation capacity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor surface through acrylic acid plasma-polymerization. Plasma-polymerization was carried out at a 20 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The plasma-polymerized Medpor surface showed hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. The rhBMP-2 was immobilized with covalently attached carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 immobilization on the Medpor surface were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activity of Medpor with rhBMP-2 immobilized was examined using an alkaline phosphatase assay on MC3T3-E1 cultured Medpor. These results showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor increased the level of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. These results demonstrated that plasma surface modification has the potential to immobilize rhBMP-2 on polymer implant such as Medpor and can be used for the binding of bioactive nanomolecules in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Site-specific Quantification of Bone Quality using Highly Nonlinear Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinkyu; Borkowski, Sean; Silvestro, Claudio; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Consequently, the need to effectively, efficiently, and affordably diagnose and identify those at risk is essential; moreover, site-specific assessment of bone quality is necessary, not only in the process of risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications. The present study evaluated a new one-dimensional granular crystal sensor, composed of a tightly packed chain of beads under Hertzian contact interaction, representing the most suitable fundamental component for solitary wave generation and propagation. First, the sensitivity of the novel sensor was tested using densities of rigid polyurethane foam, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy, to severely osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known densities was established, the sensor was used to measure several sites located in the proximal femur of ten human cadaveric specimens. The accuracy of the model was ...

  8. Bilateral Asymmetry of Radius and Tibia Bone Macroarchitecture and Microarchitecture: A High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Erin M; Manske, Sarah L; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing bone health often select the dominant or nondominant limb to scan, but not both, for efficiency reasons. New scanning technology allows 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of the microarchitecture in bone, but it is not well understood whether there are differences between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Using 3D high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of limb dominance on bone macroarchitecture and microarchitecture. Healthy male and female participants (N=100; 59 female, 41 male), mean age 30.7±12.1 years, were scanned at both radii and tibiae using HR-pQCT. Hand and foot dominance were determined by the participant's self-report. Most participants were right hand dominant (94.0%) and right foot dominant (91.0%). In the pooled cohort, the dominant radius had significantly greater cortical area (2.11%; p=0.002) and failure load (3.00%; p=0.001). At the tibia, the dominant foot had significantly lower bone mineral density (-0.77%; p=0.042), cortical area (-1.05%; p=0.031), and thickness (-1.51%; p=0.017). For females, there were no differences at the radius, but at the tibia, the dominant side had greater cross-sectional area (1.03%; p=0.044). Our data suggest that dominance has a small yet significant effect on macroarchitecture at both the ultradistal radius and tibia but not microarchitecture. This work emphasizes that it is important to be consistent in the selection of either dominant or nondominant limbs for HR-pQCT cohort studies; however, in the case where the opposite limb needs to be scanned, there would be small differences in macroarchitecture and no significant differences in microarchitecture anticipated.

  9. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P phytase linearly increased (P phytase showed a reduction (P phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  10. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  11. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.

  12. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2004-01-01

    randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P......The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  13. “盆”“山”耦合在异常高压盆地流体研究中的应用%Application of basin-orogeny coupling in study of abnormally high pressured basin fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴根耀; 梁江平; 杨建国; 朱德丰; 陈均亮; 申家年

    2012-01-01

    这是以“盆”“山”耦合理论指导盆地异常高压研究的首次尝试.异常高压的成因和分布特征主要取决于区域构造应力场,在挤压型盆地中形成异常高压的主控因素是挤压应力和天然气(油气)充注,异常高压呈平行造山带的(宽)带状或连续的面状分布;拉张型盆地和剪切—拉分盆地的主控因素是热作用.异常高压在拉张型盆地中为散点状或被分隔的面状分布,在剪切型盆地中呈点状或散点状分布.不同类型的盆地内断裂的产状不同,决定了异常高压有不同的传导方向,挤压—反转时异常高压的保存或释放(泄压)也各具特点.这为“盆”“山”耦合从指导盆地动态演化的研究发展引伸为指导储层和流体动态演化的研究跨出了重要的一步.%The basin-orogeny coupling theory was applied to study the abnormally high pressure in basin for the first time in this paper. The formation and distribution of abnormally high pressure were controlled by regional stress fields. In compressed basins, the key contributing factors for abnormally high pressure were compressive stress and charging of natural gas (or oil-gas), where the abnormally high pressure distributed zonaly or planar-ly. In extended and pull-apart basins, the abnormally high pressure was mainly resulted from thermal activities. In extended basins, the abnormally high pressure distributed in the shape of scattered points or restricted planes, and it distributed pointedly or in the shape of scattered points in sheared basins. The reverse, normal and strike -slip faults had different occurrences, which decided the oblique or vertical conductions of abnormally high pressure. There were different ways for pressure reservation or releasing in compression or reversion. From the dynamic evolution of basin to the dynamic evolution of reservoir and fluid, it was an important step for the application of basin-orogeny coupling theory.

  14. Greater default-mode network abnormalities compared to high order visual processing systems in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an integrated multi-modal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Rami, Lorena; Bargalló, Núria; Junqué, Carme; Molinuevo, José-Luis; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an integrated multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study based on functional MRI (fMRI) data during a complex but cognitively preserved visual task in 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) patients and 15 Healthy Elders (HE). Independent Component Analysis of fMRI data identified a functional network containing an Activation Task Related Pattern (ATRP), including regions of the dorsal and ventral visual stream, and a Deactivation Task Related Pattern network (DTRP), with high spatial correspondence with the default-mode network (DMN). Gray matter (GM) volumes of the underlying ATRP and DTRP cortical areas were measured, and probabilistic tractography (based on diffusion MRI) identified fiber pathways within each functional network. For the ATRP network, a-MCI patients exhibited increased fMRI responses in inferior-ventral visual areas, possibly reflecting compensatory activations for more compromised dorsal regions. However, no significant GM or white matter group differences were observed within the ATRP network. For the DTRP/DMN, a-MCI showed deactivation deficits and reduced GM volumes in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, excessive deactivations in the inferior parietal lobe, and less fiber tract integrity in the cingulate bundles. Task performance correlated with DTRP-functionality in the HE group. Besides allowing the identification of functional reorganizations in the cortical network directly processing the task-stimuli, these findings highlight the importance of conducting integrated multi-modal MRI studies in MCI based on spared cognitive domains in order to identify functional abnormalities in critical areas of the DMN and their precise anatomical substrates. These latter findings may reflect early neuroimaging biomarkers in dementia.

  15. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, Pinositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model.

  16. High-calcium diet modulates effects of long-term prolactin exposure on the cortical bone calcium content in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Tudpor, Kukiat; Thongchote, Kanogwun; Saengamnart, Wasana; Puntheeranurak, Supaporn; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2007-02-01

    High physiological prolactin induced positive calcium balance by stimulating intestinal calcium absorption, reducing renal calcium excretion, and increasing bone calcium deposition in female rats. Although prolactin-induced increase in trabecular bone calcium deposition was absent after ovariectomy, its effects on cortical bones were still controversial. The present investigation, therefore, aimed to study the effect of in vivo long-term high physiological prolactin induced by either anterior pituitary (AP) transplantation or 2.5 mg/kg prolactin injection on cortical bones in ovariectomized rats. Since the presence of prolactin receptors (PRLR) in different bones of normal adult rats has not been reported, we first determined mRNA expression of both short- and long-form PRLRs at the cortical sites (tibia and femur) and trabecular sites (calvaria and vertebrae) by using the RT-PCR. Our results showed the mRNA expression of both PRLR isoforms with predominant long form at all sites. However, high prolactin levels induced by AP transplantation in normal rats did not have any effect on the femoral bone mineral density or bone mineral content. By using (45)Ca kinetic study, 2.5 mg/kg prolactin did not alter bone formation, bone resorption, calcium deposition, and total calcium content in tibia and femur of adult ovariectomized rats. AP transplantation also had no effect on the cortical total calcium content in adult ovariectomized rats. Because previous work showed that the effects of prolactin were age dependent and could be modulated by high-calcium diet, interactions between prolactin and these two parameters were investigated. The results demonstrated that 2.0% wt/wt high-calcium diet significantly increased the tibial total calcium content in 9-wk-old young AP-grafted ovariectomized rats but decreased the tibial total calcium content in 22-wk-old adult rats. As for the vertebrae, the total calcium contents in both young and adult rats were not changed by high

  17. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  18. Missense Mutations in LRP5 Associated with High Bone Mass Protect the Mouse Skeleton from Disuse- and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziolek, Paul J; Bullock, Whitney; Warman, Matthew L; Robling, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5), a co-receptor in the Wnt signaling pathway, modulates bone mass in humans and in mice. Lrp5 knock-out mice have severely impaired responsiveness to mechanical stimulation whereas Lrp5 gain-of-function knock-in and transgenic mice have enhanced responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Those observations highlight the importance of Lrp5 protein in bone cell mechanotransduction. It is unclear if and how high bone mass-causing (HBM) point mutations in Lrp5 alter the bone-wasting effects of mechanical disuse. To address this issue we explored the skeletal effects of mechanical disuse using two models, tail suspension and Botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis, in two different Lrp5 HBM knock-in mouse models. A separate experiment employing estrogen withdrawal-induced bone loss by ovariectomy was also conducted as a control. Both disuse stimuli induced significant bone loss in WT mice, but Lrp5 A214V and G171V were partially or fully protected from the bone loss that normally results from disuse. Trabecular bone parameters among HBM mice were significantly affected by disuse in both models, but these data are consistent with DEXA data showing a failure to continue growing in HBM mice, rather than a loss of pre-existing bone. Ovariectomy in Lrp5 HBM mice resulted in similar protection from catabolism as was observed for the disuse experiments. In conclusion, the Lrp5 HBM alleles offer significant protection from the resorptive effects of disuse and from estrogen withdrawal, and consequently, present a potential mechanism to mimic with pharmaceutical intervention to protect against various bone-wasting stimuli.

  19. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  20. The effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Jafarabadi, M; Rouhi, G; Kaka, G; Sadraie, S H; Arum, J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) and low-amplitude high-frequency (LAHF) whole body mechanical vibration on bone fracture healing process when metallic plates are implanted in rats' femurs. Forty male rats weighing between 250 and 350 g, 12 weeks old, were employed in this study. A transverse critical size defect (CSD) was made in their right femurs that were fixed by stainless steel plates. After the surgery, the rats were divided equally into four groups: low-level laser therapy group (GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 40 mW, 4 J/cm(2), 0.35 cm beam diameter, LLLT), whole body vibration group (60 Hz, 0.1 mm amplitude, 1.5 g, WBV), a combination of laser and vibration group (LV), and the control group (C). Each group was divided into two subgroups based on sacrifice dates. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 3 and 6 weeks after the surgery to extract their right femurs for radiography and biomechanical and histological analyses, and the results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Radiographic analyses showed greater callus formation in the LLLT and WBV groups than in control group at both 3 (P low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process.

  1. EFFECTS OF SPORTS AND SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPORTS ACTIVITY LEVELS ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut AYSAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, effects of sports and science high school students’ sports activity levels on their body composition and bone development level were investigated. Material and Method: A total of 59 participants were voluntarily included in the study in which 29 people were the experimental group from Elazıg Kaya Karakaya Sports High School with a mean age of 17.10±1.25 (years and 30 people were the control group fr om Diyarbakır RekabetKurumu High School with a mean age of 17.70±1.67 (years . Sports activity of Sports High school students was found to include (in the first two years 384 hours, a total of 1088 hours in four years and sports activity of science high s chool students was found to include ( in the first 2 years 94, a total of 158 hours in four years. Those who had any disease that could have an effect on their bone mineral density and body compositions were not included in the study. Height and weight w ere measure with standardSecaStadiometre . Body Mass Index (BMI, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR, Body Fat Percentage (BFP, Body Fat Mass (BFM, Fat - Free Body Mass (FBM, Total Body Water (TBW , which constitute body composition and are accepted as sub parame ters, were measured with Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser (BIA - Tanita BC 418 . Bone densitometry device (DEXA; Hologic Discovery 4500 QDR was used in the measurements of bone mineral density. SPSS 16.0 was used in the process of the raw data obtained and T - Test was applied for independent samples. Findings : HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the E xperimental group are 171.62±7.078 (cm, 58.88±8.679 (kg, 19.89±1.745 (kg/m², 3435.6 ± 2660.55 (kcal, 13.64±2.446 (%,8.100± 2.150 (kg, 50.81±7.165 (kg respectively. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the Control group are 170.21±8.514 (cm, 59.77±9.749 (kg, 19.63±1.439 (kg/m², 2362.85 ± 2010.71 (kcal, 13.83±2.556 (%, 8.048±1.708 (kg, 5 0

  2. THE ROLE OF HIGH - IMPACTS EXERCISES IN IMPROVE BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPENIA OR OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca Ilona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high - impacts exercises program based on weightbearing and strengthening exercises in improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis.Material and Methods – This study included 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia whose diagnoses were made by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA showing T-scores of less than -2.5 and in a range of -1 to -2.5, respectively, aged between 43 and 65 years. Subjects were divided into two groups, the experimental group (N=23 and the control group (N=23.The experimental group followed a multiple therapy based on medication, a diet and exercises program (high - impacts exercises, while the control group was submitted only to diet and medication. Areal bone mineral density (BMD and T-score was measured on the lumbar spine (L1–L4 with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry– DEXA ( Osteocore Medilink at baseline and after 12 months of exercise.Results - After 12 months of high-impact exercise intervention, both groups exhibited significant improvements in T-score (-0,79 vs -0,42 mean variation, and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (0,091g/cm2 vs 0,042g/cm2 ; p<0.001. But, the exercise group demonstrated a significant gain compared with the control group in T- score(30,3% vs 21,83%; and Spine BMD (12,56% vs 6,25%.In terms of changes after the treatment, a significant difference between the two groups was observed (p<0.001. The two groups differ significantly with respect to the differences between the mean (-1,84 vs -2,19; p<0.001 for T score and 0,816 vs 0,748; p<0.001 improvements obtained after the exercise program.Conclusion - This study indicates that high-impact exercise is safe and effective in improving bone mineral density in the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. If done on a regular basis, this type of training may be an efficient, safe, and inexpensive way

  3. High-Dose Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuates Bone Loss with Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Chan, Ellen S.; Brown, Todd T.; Tebas, Pablo; McComsey, Grace A.; Melbourne, Kathleen M.; Napoli, Andrew; Hardin, William Royce; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Yin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-1 infection is associated with 2-6% loss in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective To evaluate vitamin D3 (4000 IU daily) plus calcium (1000 mg calcium carbonate daily) supplementation on bone loss associated with ART initiation. Design 48-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting Thirty nine AIDS Clinical Trials Network research units. Participants ART-naïve HIV-infected adults. Measurements BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate metabolism, markers of bone turnover and systemic inflammation. Results 165 eligible subjects were randomized (79 Vitamin D/calcium (VitD/Cal); 86 placebo); 142 subjects with evaluable DXA data were included in the primary analysis. The study arms were well-balanced at baseline: median age 33 years; 90% male; 33% non-Hispanic black; median CD4 count 341 cells/mm3; and median 25(OH)D 23 ng/mL (57 nmol/L). At 48 weeks, subjects receiving placebo had greater decline in total hip BMD than VitD/Cal: −3.19% median change (1st-3rd quartile (Q1, Q3) −5.12%, −1.02%) vs. (−1.46% −3.16%,−0.40%). respectively (p=0.001). Lumbar spine BMD loss for the two groups was similar: −2.91% (−4.84%, −1.06%) vs. −1.41% (−3.78%, 0.00%), (p=0.085). At week 48, 90% of participants achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Levels of 25(OH)D3 increased in the VitD/Cal but not the placebo group: median change of 24.5 (14.6, 37.8) vs. 0.7 (−5.3, 4.3) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). Additionally, increases in markers of bone turnover were blunted in the VitD/Cal group. Limitations No international sites were included; only 48 weeks of follow up Conclusion Vitamin D/calcium supplementation mitigates the loss of BMD seen with initiation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir, particularly at the total hip, which is the site of greatest concern for fragility fracture. Primary Funding

  4. Application of the Minkowski functionals in 3D to high-resolution MR images of trabecular bone: prediction of the biomechanical strength by nonlinear topological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Newitt, David; Majumdar, Sharmila; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2004-05-01

    Multi-dimensional convex objects can be characterized with respect to shape, structure, and the connectivity of their components using a set of morphological descriptors known as the Minkowski functionals. In a 3D Euclidian space, these correspond to volume, surface area, mean integral curvature, and the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. We introduce the Minkowski functionals to medical image processing for the morphological analysis of trabecular bone tissue. In the context of osteoporosis-a metabolic disorder leading to a weakening of bone due to deterioration of micro-architecture-the structure of bone increasingly gains attention in the quantification of bone quality. The trabecular architecture of healthy cancellous bone consists of a complex 3D system of inter-connected mineralised elements whereas in osteoporosis the micro-structure is dominated by gaps and disconnections. At present, the standard parameter for diagnosis and assessment of fracture risk in osteoporosis is the bone mineral density (BMD) - a bulk measure of mineralisation irrespective of structural texture characteristics. With the development of modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) with spatial resolutions allowing to depict individual trabeculae bone micro-architecture has successfully been analysed using linear, 2- dimensional structural measures adopted from standard histo-morphometry. The preliminary results of our study demonstrate that due to the complex - i.e. the non-linear - network of trabecular bone structures non-linear measures in 3D are superior to linear ones in predicting mechanical properties of trabecular bone from structural information extracted from high resolution MR image data.

  5. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  6. Bone scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  7. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  8. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  9. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  10. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.;

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative...

  11. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P=0.002. Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39, opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19, current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39, and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33 were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting.

  12. Bone mineral density in female high school athletes: interactions of menstrual function and type of mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana

    2007-09-01

    During adolescence, skeletal integrity of girls is largely dependent on menstrual function and impact exercise, yet currently there is limited research regarding the interaction between menstrual status and type of mechanical loading associated with various high school sports. Our purpose was to examine associations of menstrual status, type of mechanical loading, and bone mineral density (BMD) in female high school athletes participating in high/odd impact or repetitive/non-impact sport. Participants were 161 female high school athletes (15.7+/-1.3 years; 165.3+/-6.9 cm; 59.4+/-8.7 kg) representing high/odd impact (n=93, including soccer, softball, volleyball, tennis, lacrosse, and track sprinters and jumpers), or repetitive/non-impact sports (n=68, including swimmers, cross-country and track distance runners who participated in events>or=800 m). Areal BMD was measured by DXA at the spine (L1-L4), proximal femur, and total body. Menstrual status was determined by self-report. Athletes with primary, secondary or oligomenorrhea were combined into a single group (oligo/amenorrheic) and compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons adjusted for age, BMI, and gynecological age were used to compare BMD of athletes in combined mechanical loading and menstrual status groups. We found significantly greater total hip (p=0.04) and trochanter (p=0.02) BMD (g cm(-2)) among eumenorrheic high/odd impact compared to eumenorrheic repetitive/non-impact athletes, and greater spine (p=0.01) and trochanter (p=0.04) BMD among high/odd impact eumenorrheic athletes compared to repetitive/non-impact oligo/amenorrheic athletes. Chi-squared analysis of BMD Z-scores adjusted for gynecological age showed a significantly greater percentage of repetitive/non-impact athletes (33.9%) compared to high/odd impact athletes (11.8%) with low spine BMD for their age (BMD Z-scoresports, and especially those with oligo/amenorrhea, may not be

  13. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  14. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  15. EFFECT ON LIFESPAN OF HIGH YIELD NONMYELOABLATING TRANSPLANTATION OF BONE MARROW FROM YOUNG TO OLD MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eKovina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue renewal is a well-known phenomenon by which old and dying-off cells of various tissues of the body are replaced by progeny of local or circulating stem cells (SC. An interesting question is whether donor stem cells are capable to prolong the lifespan of an ageing organism by tissue renewal.. In this work we investigated the possible use of bone marrow SC for lifespan extension. To this purpose, chimeric C57BL/6 mice were created by transplanting bone marrow from young 1.5-month donors to 21.5-month-old recipients. Transplantation was carried out by means of a recently developed method which allowed to transplant without myeloablation up to 1.5×108 cells, that is, about 25 % of the total BM cells of the mouse. As a result, the mean survival time, counting from the age of 21.5 months, the start of the experiment, was +3.6 and +5.0 (± 0.1 months for the control and experimental groups, respectively, corresponding to a 39% ± 4% increase in the experimental group over the control. In earlier studies on BM transplantation a considerably smaller quantity of donor cells (5×106 was used, about 1 % of the total own BM cells. The recipients before transplantation were exposed to a lethal (for control animals X-ray dose which eliminated the possibility of studying the lifespan extension by this method.

  16. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  17. Utility of combined high-resolution bone SPECT and MRI for the identification of rheumatoid arthritis patients with high-risk for erosive progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian, E-mail: christian.buchbender@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Sewerin, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.sewerin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Mattes-György, Katalin, E-mail: katalin.mattes@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk, E-mail: falk.miese@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg, E-mail: hans-joerg.wittsack@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Specker, Christof, E-mail: c.specker@kliniken-essen-sued.de [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Kliniken Essen-Sud, Propsteistrasse 2, D-45239 Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Müller, Hans-Wilhelm, E-mail: HansW.Mueller@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schneider@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Scherer, Axel, E-mail: scherer@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ostendorf, Benedikt, E-mail: ostendorf@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the utility of sequentially acquired, post hoc fused, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (MPH-SPECT) with technetium-99m-labeled disphosphonates (Tc99m-DPD) for the identification of finger joints with later erosive progression in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients. Methods: Ten consecutive ERA patients prospectively underwent MPH-SPECT and MRI of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints prior to and after 6 months methotrexate therapy. Tc99m-DPD uptake was measured at proximal and distal MCP sites using regional analysis. The course of joint pathologies was scored according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Score (RAMRIS) criteria. Results: The frequency of increased Tc99m-DPD uptake, synovitis and bone marrow edemadecreased under MTX therapy; but the number of bone erosions increased. Joints with progressive and new erosions on follow-up had a higher baseline Tc99m-DPD uptake (2.64 ± 1.23 vs. 1.43 ± 0.91) (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Joints with erosive progression are characterized by an early increased Tc99m-DPD uptake, even in absence of MRI bone pathologies. Tc99m-DPD MPH-SPECT might thus be of additional value to morphological MRI for the identification of RA patients with a high risk for erosive progression.

  18. Selective deletion of the membrane-bound colony stimulating factor 1 isoform leads to high bone mass but does not protect against estrogen-deficiency bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Gang-Qing; Wu, Jian-Jun; Troiano, Nancy; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-Yan; Insogna, Karl

    2011-01-01

    To better define the biologic function of membrane-bound CSF1 (mCSF1) in vivo, we have generated mCSF1 knockout (k/o) mice. Spinal bone density (BMD) was 15.9% higher in k/o mice compared to wild-type (wt) controls (P < 0.01) and total BMD was increased by 6.8% (P < 0.05). A higher mean femur BMD was also observed but did not reach statistical significance (6.9% P = NS). The osteoclastogenic potential of bone marrow isolated from mCSF1 k/o mice was reduced compared to wt marrow. There were no...

  19. Acute renal failure after high-dose antibiotic bone cement: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alexia; Larson, Trent

    2015-07-01

    High-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) spacers are commonly used to treat prosthetic joint infections following total hip and knee arthroplasties. This methodology can provide high local antibiotic concentrations while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is rarely reported. Available literature suggests that the rate may be higher than previously thought. We report a case of significant systemic tobramycin absorption with concomitant acute renal failure in a 69-year-old female following the implantation of a high-dose ALBC spacer containing both tobramycin and vancomycin. The tobramycin level 24 h post-surgery was 5.8 mcg/mL. Due to concomitant renal failure, antibiotic clearance was poor and resulted in prolonged exposure to elevated aminoglycoside levels. Recovery of renal function occurred, but clinicians should be vigilant in considering the potential impact ALBC spacers can have on post-operative renal function if antibiotic elution is higher than expected.

  20. The diagnostic value of tumor abnormal protein and high sensitivity C reactive protein in screening for endometrial cancer with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Li; Ruiqin Yue; Dongrui Qin; Yanqing Wang; Xinling Zhou; Xinyong Jing; Chuanzhong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to combine tumor abnormal protein (TAP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level detection to diagnose endometrial cancer in patients with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm, and to provide a reference for clinical screening and diagnosis. Methods Clinical data from 19 cases of endometrial cancer, diagnosed on the basis of pathological find-ings, were col ected from September 2014 to December 2015. The inclusion criteria were as fol ows: the patients were first diagnosed with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm and were al in menopause. Peri-menopausal patients (n = 26) with uterine fibroids seen during the same period were selected as a control group. Serum TAP and hs-CRP levels of the patients in the two groups were simultaneously determined on admission. Results We found that both TAP and hs-CRP levels in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group [(182.95 ± 72.14) μm2 vs. (133.19 ± 55.18) μm2, P = 0.019; (7.52 ± 19.03) mg/L vs. (1.66 ± 2.31) mg/L, P = 0.136]. The sensitivity of TAP for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer was 73.68%, the specificity was 69.23%, and the Youden index was 0.4291. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of hs-CRP was 15.79% and 100%, respectively, and the Youden index was 0.1579. After plotting the receiver operating characteristics curves, the optimal cut-of value for TAP in diagnosing endometrial cancer was found to be 160.662 μm2 and that for hs-CRP was 1.07 mg/L. Conclusion For patients suspected of having endometrial cancer with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm, combined detection of TAP and hs-CRP levels can be used as a screening tool and can provide new ideas regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  2. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  3. Elucidation of real-time hardening mechanisms of two novel high-strength calcium phosphate bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Valery V; Rau, Julietta V; Generosi, Amanda; Albertini, Valerio Rossi; Ferro, Daniela; Barinov, Sergey M

    2010-04-01

    Despite the numerous literature data available in the field of calcium phosphate bone cements, the mechanism and kinetics of their hardening, both of which are of great importance for cements application, in most cases, is unknown. In this work, the mechanism and kinetics of hardening of two novel high-strength calcium phosphate bone cements were studied using the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique, which allows rapid collection of the patterns. The phase transformations occurring on the setting and hardening processes were monitored in situ. Containing minimal quantity of components, whose mixing leads to the formation of cements with pH close to neutral, the cements under study are simple in handling. The main component of both formulations is tetracalcium phosphate. In both cements, the effect of the addition of high- and low-molecular weight chitosan on phase development and kinetics was investigated in detail. One of the cements has the compressive strength of about 70 MPa, whereas the strength of the other, containing Ca(3)Al(2)O(6), is much higher, about 100 MPa. This latter cement could be regarded as an alternative to the common low-strength bioresorbable brushite cements.

  4. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  5. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan

    2015-04-28

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  6. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  7. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...

  8. Lacrimal system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines several of the more important abnormalities of the lacrimal system in infants and young children. Although rare, alacrima can be a very difficult clinical problem to treat. The most common cause of alacrima is the Riley-Day syndrome. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a very common anomaly in children. The clinical appearance and treatment of this disorder are discussed.

  9. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 {approx} 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic.

  10. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  11. When, how, and why a bone biopsy should be performed in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pablo Ureña; Bover, Jordi; Mazzaferro, Sandro; de Vernejoul, Marie Christine; Cohen-Solal, Martine

    2014-11-01

    In chronic kidney disease the excessive production of parathyroid hormone increases the bone resorption rate and leads to histologic bone signs of secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, in other situations, the initial increase in parathyroid hormone and bone remodeling may be slowed down excessively by a multitude of factors including age, ethnic origin, sex, and treatments such as vitamin D, calcium salts, calcimimetics, steroids, and so forth, leading to low bone turnover or adynamic bone disease. Both high and low bone turnover diseases actually are observed equally in chronic kidney disease patients treated by dialysis, and all types of renal osteodystrophy are associated with an increased risk of skeletal fractures, reduced quality of life, and poor clinical outcomes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of these bone abnormalities cannot be obtained correctly by current clinical, biochemical, and imaging methods. Therefore, bone biopsy has been, and still remains, the gold standard analysis for assessing the exact type of renal osteodystrophy. It is also the unique way to assess the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of new bone-targeting therapies.

  12. Non-invasive predictors of human cortical bone mechanical properties: T(2-discriminated H NMR compared with high resolution X-ray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Adam Horch

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have enabled clinical imaging of human cortical bone, providing a potentially powerful new means for assessing bone health with molecular-scale sensitivities unavailable to conventional X-ray-based diagnostics. To this end, (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and high-resolution X-ray signals from human cortical bone samples were correlated with mechanical properties of bone. Results showed that (1H NMR signals were better predictors of yield stress, peak stress, and pre-yield toughness than were the X-ray derived signals. These (1H NMR signals can, in principle, be extracted from clinical MRI, thus offering the potential for improved clinical assessment of fracture risk.

  13. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in a database. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% and the user percentage 88. The majority of the patients used their BAHA seven days a week and most of the day. 88% reported that it was in their best interest that they had received a BAHA. 80% of the respondents were able to communicate better using their BAHA...

  14. Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-12-06

    High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  15. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  16. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  17. Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Badr Wisam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal osteodystrophy (ROD, the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD.

  18. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Abdolali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas.

  19. Emerging bone problems in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a high incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been observed in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This problem appears to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Other bone-related complications in HIV-infected individuals, including avascular necrosis of the hip and compression fracture of the lumbar spine, have also been reported. People living with HIV have significant alterations in bone metabolism, regardless of whether they are receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms to account for these observations remain unknown, although studies are underway to examine the relationship between the bone abnormalities and other complications associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis should be treated similarly to HIV-seronegative patients with appropriate use of nutritional supplements (calcium and vitamin D) and exercise. Hormone replacement and antiresorptive therapies might be also indicated.

  20. 血液透析联合血液灌流治疗慢性肾衰竭合并骨代谢异常的疗效观察%Observation on effect of hemodialysis combined with hemoperfusion in treating chronic renal failure bone metabolic ab-normalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡煜琳; 彭泽民; 刘代强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨采用血液透析联合血液灌流治疗慢性肾衰竭合并矿物质‐骨代谢异常(CKD‐MBD)的临床疗效。方法选取2010年3月至2014年3月该院收治的98例慢性肾功能衰竭合并CKD‐MBD的患者为研究对象,随机分为对照组和治疗组。对照组给予单纯血液透析治疗,治疗组在血液透析基础上给予血液灌流联合治疗,比较2组患者治疗后的总有效率以及治疗前后血液Ca2+、P3+、iPT H水平的变化。结果(1)治疗组总有效率为89.79%(44/49),明显高于对照组总有效率61.22%(30/49),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);(2)治疗前后血液指标的变化:治疗后血液中P3+、iPTH水平较治疗前均有变化,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但2组Ca2+水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗组P3+、iPTH水平均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血液透析联合血液灌流治疗慢性肾功能衰竭并发CKD‐MBD临床效果确切,值得推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis in trea‐ting chronic renal failure complicating mineral substances bone metabolic abnormality .Methods 98 cases of chronic renal failure complicating mineral substances bone metabolic abnormality in our hospital from March 2010 to March 2014 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the control group and the treatment group .The control group was given simple hemodialysis treatment ,while on this basis the treatment group was combined with the he‐moperfusion therapy .The total effective rate and the changes of blood Ca2+ ,P3+ and iPTH levels were observed and compared between the two groups .Results (1) The total effective rate in the treatment group was 89 .79% ,which was significantly higher than 61 .22% in the control groups ,the difference was statistically significant(P<0 .05);(2) The

  1. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  2. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  3. Fabrication of highly porous scaffold materials based on functionalized oligolactides and preliminary results on their use in bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to repair bone defects. Its practical realisation is connected with the development of suitable scaffold materials. In the present work, functionalized oligolactides have been prepared and used as macromers for the scaffold fabrication The developed fabrication process leads to highly porous scaffolds, available in various shapes and sizes, with an open inter-connective pore structure and porosities up to 90 %. Degradable or even osteoconductive components as well as biocompatible co-monomers can be used as additives to modulate the scaffold properties. Under in vitro conditions, the scaffolds exhibit a continuous degradation with varying degradation rates depending on their material composition. In vitro studies on the cultivation of osteoblasts on the scaffolds were performed and revealed their excellent biocompatibility. Cell growth on the scaffold surfaces and inside the scaffolds, formation of extracellular matrix and starting mineralization were detected by microscopical and histological analyses. Based on these results the developed materials are well-suited candidates for the design of tailor-made matrices in bone tissue engineering

  4. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  5. The relationship between high risk of prenatal serological screening for Down's syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities%唐氏综合征产前血清学筛查高风险与染色体异常的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坚柱; 陈宝江; 陈健生; 谢英俊; 林少宾

    2011-01-01

    摘要;目的 探讨联合高龄和超声异常因素对唐氏综合征产前血清学筛查检出染色体异常的影响.方法 对2005年1月至2010年4月1598例因唐氏综合征产前血清学筛查高风险来中山大学附属第一医院就诊的患者行胎儿染色体核型分析,分成血清学筛查高风险组、血清学筛查高风险合并高龄组、血清学筛查高风险合并超声异常组和血清学筛查高风险合并高龄、超声异常组4组,分析和比较各组染色体异常检出情况.结果 血清学筛查高风险合并高龄、超声异常组和血清学筛查高风险合并超声异常组的21三体阳性率和染色体异常率均显著高于血清学筛查高风险组;血清学筛查高风险合并高龄组的21三体阳性率和染色体异常率与血清学筛查高风险组的差异无统计学意义;血清学筛查高风险合并高龄、超声异常组的21三体阳性率显著高于血清学筛查高风险合并超声异常组.结论 唐氏综合征产前血清学筛查高风险合并其他产前诊断指征越多,患唐氏综合征的可能性越大,其中超声异常影响最大,高龄影响较小.%Objective; To investigate the influence of detecting chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal serological screening for Down's syndrome when combined with factors of advanced age and ultrasonic abnormalities. Methods: 1598 cases were chosen. All patients were done fetal karyotype analysis for high risk of prenatal serological screening for Down's syndrome. They were divided into four groups; high risk of serological screening, high risk of serological screening complicating with advanced age, high risk of serologi-cal screening complicating with ultrasonic abnormalities and high risk of serological screening complicating with advanced age and ultra-sonic abnormalities. Compare the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in the groups. Results: Positive rate of trisomy 21 and chro-mosome abnormal rate were significant

  6. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  7. Bone marrow MR imaging findings in disuse osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. de [Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Wesselly, Michelle; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To demonstrate MR imaging findings in the cortical and trabecular bone as well as marrow changes in patients with disuse osteoporosis (DO). Sixteen patients (14 men, 2 women, aged 27-86 years) with clinical and radiographic evidence of DO of a lower limb joint (10 knees, 6 ankles) with MR examination of the same joint performed within a 1-month period were selected, as well as 16 healthy volunteers (7 men, 9 women, aged 25-75 years, 10 knees and 6 ankles). MR imaging findings of the bone marrow were analyzed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus regarding: diffuse or focal signal alteration, reinforcement of vertical or longitudinal trabecular lines, and presence of abnormal vascularization. All patients (100%,16/16) with DO presented MR imaging abnormalities of the bone marrow, such as: accentuation of vertical trabecular lines (50%, 8/16), presence of subchondral lobules of fat (37.5%, 6/16), presence of horizontal trabecular lines (31%, 5/16), prominence of bone vessels (25%, 4/16), and presence of dotted areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences (12.5%, 2/16). Such MR findings did not appear in the control individuals. There are several MR imaging findings in bones with DO that range from accentuation of vertical and horizontal marrow lines, presence of subchondral lobules of fat, prominent bone vascularization and the presence of dotted foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences. Recognition of these signs may prove helpful in the identification of DO as well as distinguishing these findings from other entities. (orig.)

  8. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  9. The BoneXpert method for automated determination of skeletal maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Kreiborg, Sven; Juul, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Bone age rating is associated with a considerable variability from the human interpretation, and this is the motivation for presenting a new method for automated determination of bone age (skeletal maturity). The method, called BoneXpert, reconstructs, from radiographs of the hand, the borders...... of 15 bones automatically and then computes "intrinsic" bone ages for each of 13 bones (radius, ulna, and 11 short bones). Finally, it transforms the intrinsic bone ages into Greulich Pyle (GP) or Tanner Whitehouse (TW) bone age. The bone reconstruction method automatically rejects images with abnormal...

  10. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Study of Mechanical Properties of Bone by Measuring Load Transfer via High-energy X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anjali

    Synchrotron high-energy X-ray scattering is used to investigate the in situ strains in hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and mineralized collagen fibrils in bovine cortical bone. Compressive load-unload tests at room temperature (27°C) and body temperature (37°C) show that the load transfer to the stiff nano-sized platelets from the surrounding compliant protein matrix does not vary significantly with temperature. This emphasizes that the stiffness of bone is controlled by the stiffness of the HAP phase, which remains unaffected by this change in temperature. Monotonic loading tests in compression and tension, conducted at 37°C, illustrate the spatial variation of properties within a single femur, which is correlated to the mineral content, porosity and microstructure of the samples. The average apparent modulus of HAP and fibrils (EappHAP and Eappfib, respectively), defined as the ratio of applied stress and phase strain, is obtained as 27.5 ± 6.6 and 18.5 ± 8.9 GPa, respectively, in compression. These values are significantly higher than the values of 20.0 ± 5.4 and 4.1 ± 2.6 GPa obtained for HAP and fibrils, respectively, in tension. The difference between the two types of loading is attributed to greater plastic deformation of collagen in tension, which results in greater strains in the collagen fibril, and concomitant greater load transfer to the HAP. Increasing synchrotron X-ray doses (5-3880 kGy) affect neither apparent HAP nor fibrillar modulus, up to stresses of -60 MPa (measured during in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction peak widths shows that unit cells of HAP which are under the highest initial residual strains are most able to relax due to irradiation, resulting in a net decrease in the strain distribution (RMS strain). The constancy of apparent moduli is explained by

  12. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.

  13. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  14. Prevention of liver fibrosis by intrasplenic injection of high-density cultured bone marrow cells in a rat chronic liver injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lian

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs from bone marrow have proven to be functional for the prevention of liver fibrosis in chronic liver injury. However, expansion of EPCs in culture is complicated and expansive. Previously, we have established a simple method that could enrich and expand EPCs by simple seeding bone marrow cells in high density dots. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether cells derived from high-density (HD culture of rat bone marrow cells could prevent the liver fibrosis in a chronic liver injury rat model, induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Flow cytometric analysis showed that cells from HD culture were enriched for EPCs, expressing high levels of EPC markers. Intrasplenic injection of HD cultured bone marrow cells in the CCl4-induced liver injury rat showed an enhanced antifibrogenic effect compared with animals treated with cells from regular-density culture. The antifibrogenic effect was demonstrated by biochemical and histological analysis 4 weeks post-transplantation. Furthermore, cells from HD culture likely worked through increasing neovascularization, stimulating liver cell proliferation, and suppressing pro-fibrogenic factor expression. HD culture, which is a simple and cost-effective procedure, could potentially be used to expand bone marrow cells for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WORMIAN BONES IN CADAVER SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha

    2015-01-01

    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  16. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  17. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in MRSA Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Patricia; Mandell, Gerald A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a severe form of infection characterized by multifocal or multiple segmental osseous involvement and subperiosteal abscess formation with increased frequency of extraosseous complications including pyomyositis, septic thrombus, and septic arthritis. Bone scan showed long segment and/or multifocal involvement in 4 of 5 patients with areas of abnormal increased and decreased uptake. The clinical presentations included limp and/or pain. Joint involvement was seen in 4 cases. Bone scan abnormalities correlated well with MRI findings of severe and extensive bone disease, abscess formation, muscle, as well as joint and soft tissue involvement.

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Guided proliferation and bone-forming functionality on highly ordered large diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Wu, Hongliu; Ni, Jiahua, E-mail: jiahua.ni@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhao, Changli; Chen, Yifan; Zheng, Chengjunyi; Zhang, Xiaonong, E-mail: xnzhang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    The significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed on TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface in recent studies in which the scale of nanotube diameter was restricted under 100 nm. In this paper, a series of highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with larger diameters ranging from 150 nm to 470 nm were fabricated via high voltage anodization. The behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to the diameter-controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were investigated. A contrast between the trend of proliferation and the trend of cell elongation was observed. The highest cell elongation (nearly 10:1) and the lowest cell number were observed on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with 150 nm diameter. While, the lowest cell elongation and highest cell number were achieved on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with 470 nm diameter. Furthermore, the ALP activity peaked on the 150 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and decreased dramatically with the increase of nanotube diameter. Thus a narrow range of diameter (100–200 nm) that could induce the greatest bone-forming activity is determined. It is expected that more delicate design of orthopedic implant with regional abduction of cell proliferation or bone forming could be achieved by controlling the diameter of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. - Highlights: • Improved anodization methods leading to more ordered large diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotubes • Significantly enhanced ALP activity was observed on 150 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The highest cell density was observed on 470 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. • Similar cell response was observed on the amorphous and anatase phased nanotube surface.

  20. Clinical and radiographic delineation of Bent Bone Dysplasia-FGFR2 type or Bent Bone Dysplasia with Distinctive Clavicles and Angel-shaped Phalanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H; Wilcox, William R; Noh, Grace J; Raffel, Leslie J; Sarukhanov, Anna; Ivanova, Margarita H; Danielpour, Moise; Grange, Dorothy K; Elliott, Alison M; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Rimoin, David L; Merrill, Amy E; Lachman, Ralph S

    2016-10-01

    Bent Bone Dysplasia-FGFR2 type is a relatively recently described bent bone phenotype with diagnostic clinical, radiographic, and molecular characteristics. Here we report on 11 individuals, including the original four patients plus seven new individuals with three longer-term survivors. The prenatal phenotype included stillbirth, bending of the femora, and a high incidence of polyhydramnios, prematurity, and perinatal death in three of 11 patients in the series. The survivors presented with characteristic radiographic findings that were observed among those with lethality, including bent bones, distinctive (moustache-shaped) small clavicles, angel-shaped metacarpals and phalanges, poor mineralization of the calvarium, and craniosynostosis. Craniofacial abnormalities, hirsutism, hepatic abnormalities, and genitourinary abnormalities were noted as well. Longer-term survivors all needed ventilator support. Heterozygosity for mutations in the gene that encodes Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) was identified in the nine individuals with available DNA. Description of these patients expands the prenatal and postnatal findings of Bent Bone Dysplasia-FGFR2 type and adds to the phenotypic spectrum among all FGFR2 disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic material, but its exact behaviour under the full range of physiological loading frequencies is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage at loading frequencies of up to 92 Hz. Methods Intact tibial plateau cartilage, attached to subchondral bone, was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. A sinusoidally varying compressive force of between 16 N and 36 N, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 92 Hz, was applied to the cartilage surface by a flat indenter. The storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle (between the applied force and the deformation induced were determined. Results The storage modulus, E', increased with increasing frequency, but at higher frequencies it tended towards a constant value. Its dependence on frequency, f, could be represented by, E' = Aloge (f + B where A = 2.5 ± 0.6 MPa and B = 50.1 ± 12.5 MPa (mean ± standard error. The values of the loss modulus (4.8 ± 1.0 MPa mean ± standard deviation were much less than the values of storage modulus and showed no dependence on frequency. The phase angle was found to be non-zero for all frequencies tested (4.9 ± 0.6°. Conclusion Articular cartilage is viscoelastic throughout the full range of frequencies investigated. The behaviour has implications for mechanical damage to articular cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Storage modulus increases with frequency, until the plateau region is reached, and has a higher value than loss modulus. Furthermore, loss modulus does not increase with loading frequency. This means that more energy is stored by the tissue than is dissipated and that this effect is greater at higher frequencies. The main mechanism for this excess energy to be dissipated is by the formation of cracks.

  3. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in Leukemic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo Sun; Park, Jeong Mi; Shon, Hyeong Seon; Chang, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    The leukemias represent diffuse lesions of the bone marrow and significant bony abnormalities are associated with the more aggressive varieties of leukemias and with the younger age groups. On plain film, several roentgenographic findings are observed such as diffuse osteopenia, radiolucent metaphyseal bands, osteolytic lesions and periostitis. We evaluated bone scintigraphic findings using {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) in ten patients with proven leukemia. The scan is abnormal in 90%. We classified abnormal scintigraphic findings to 3 types and these are increased diffuse juxta-articular uptake, focal increase of uptake and combined type. The common sites of focal uptake were femur, humerus, tibia, spine, ribs, calvarium, scapula and mandible. We concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy is sensitive imaging modality in leukemic patients with bone pain.

  4. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  5. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  6. Abnormal Behavior Detection and Control in High Speed Networks Based on Bidirectional Flow%应用交互式网络流模型的高速网络异常行为检测与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳静; 秦涛; 王晨旭

    2012-01-01

    针对网络异常流量的检测与定位问题,提出了一种根据网络流统计量异常变化和不完整网络流来有效识别并定位网络异常流量的方法.该方法建立在交互式网络流模型的基础上,分析了交互式网络流模型下各种网络流的交互特征;为准确实时获取网络异常源,采用中国余数定理,设计了连接度sketch结构中的哈希函数,满足了网络用户信息逆向求解的需要,实现了高速网络中异常网络流特征参数的实时获取;为减缓网络异常行为的扩散速度,提出采用动态软隔离方法实现网络异常行为的控制.真实环境下的实验结果表明,所提方法对于多种类型的网络异常行为具有良好的检测效果,检测的准确率和速率都得到了提高,同时可以准确地定位网络异常源,为有效控制网络异常行为的扩散奠定了基础.%A new method is proposed to effectively identify and locate the abnormal network flows based on the abnormal changes of the flow statistics and the incomplete flows. The method bases on the bidirectional flow model , and analyzes the interactive features of different network flows. A hash function in the structure of the connection degree sketch is designed by using the Chinese remainder theorem, so that the source of the abnormal behaviors can be accurately and timely achieved, and the users' information is obtained from the abnormal flows in the high-speed networks. The dynamic and soft isolation method is used to control the abnormal behaviors and hence to slow down the spread speed of the abnormal behaviors. The experimental results in an actual network show that the proposed method is efficient in improving both the detection accuracy and speed for most kinds of abnormal behaviors. At the same time, the source of the abnormal flow is exactly located, and it is helpful to control the spread of the abnormal behaviors.

  7. [Abnormal reaction for anaesthetics in a critically ill child with acute myeloid leukemia--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujok, Grzegorz; Knapik, Piotr; Macioł, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a case report of an abnormal reaction for anaesthetics correlated with cytostatic therapy in the course of preparation time for bone marrow transplantation due to acute myeloid leukemia. Problems of pharmacological interaction of ketamine and benzodiazepines are emphasized. Special attention was paid to the risk of abnormal drug reactions during general anaesthesia in children with leukemia.

  8. Diet-Induced Obesity and Its Differential Impact on Periodontal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluke, M; Gold, T; Kiefhaber, K; Al-Sahli, A; Celenti, R; Jiang, H; Cremers, S; Van Dyke, T; Schulze-Späte, U

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and impaired bone homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of specific elevated fatty acid (FA) levels on alveolar bone loss in a Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced model of periodontal disease and to analyze underlying cellular mechanisms in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts in mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided in groups and subjected to a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high-fat diet (HFD) (20% of calories from FA) or a normal caloric diet (C group) (10% of calories from FA) for 16 wk. Starting at week 10, mice were infected orally with P. gingivalis (W50) or placebo to induce alveolar bone loss. Animals were sacrificed, and percentage fat, serum inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), and bone metabolism (osteocalcin [OC], carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks [CTX], and N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen [P1NP]) markers were measured. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of elevated PA or OA levels and exposed to P. gingivalis. Animals on FA-enriched diets weighed significantly more compared with animals on a normal caloric diet (P diet rather than weight gain and obesity alone modulates bone metabolism and can therefore influence alveolar bone loss.

  9. Reduced diaphyseal strength associated with high intracortical vascular porosity within long bones of children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Carolyne; Jameson, John; Smith, Peter; Harris, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder resulting in bone fragility. The mechanisms behind this fragility are not well understood. In addition to characteristic bone mass deficiencies, research suggests that bone material properties are compromised in individuals with this disorder. However, little data exists regarding bone properties beyond the microstructural scale in individuals with this disorder. Specimens were obtained from long bone diaphyses of nine children with osteogenesis imperfecta during routine osteotomy procedures. Small rectangular beams, oriented longitudinally and transversely to the diaphyseal axis, were machined from these specimens and elastic modulus, yield strength, and maximum strength were measured in three-point bending. Intracortical vascular porosity, bone volume fraction, osteocyte lacuna density, and volumetric tissue mineral density were determined by synchrotron micro-computed tomography, and relationships among these mechanical properties and structural parameters were explored. Modulus and strength were on average 64-68% lower in the transverse vs. longitudinal beams (Pbone volume. Longitudinal properties were associated negatively with porosity (P≤0.006, linear regressions). Mechanical properties, however, were not associated with osteocyte lacuna density or volumetric tissue mineral density (P≥0.167). Bone properties and structural parameters were not associated significantly with donor age (P≥0.225, linear mixed models). This study presents novel data regarding bone material strength in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. Results confirm that these properties are anisotropic. Elevated vascular porosity was observed in most specimens, and this parameter was associated with reduced bone material strength. These results offer insight toward understanding bone fragility and the role of intracortical porosity on the strength of bone tissue in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

  10. High-Dose Diosgenin Reduces Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Attenuation of the RANKL/OPG Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of diosgenin (DG on rats that had osteoporosis-like features induced by ovariectomy (OVX. Seventy-two six-month-old female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy (n = 60 or Sham operation (SHAM group, n = 12. Beginning at one week post-ovariectomy, the OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group, n = 12, estradiol valerate (EV group, n = 12, or DG at three doses (DG-L, -M, -H group, n = 12, respectively. After a 12-week treatment, administration of EV or DG-H inhibited OVX-induced weight gain, and administration of EV or DG-H or DG-M had a significantly uterotrophic effect. Bone mineral density (BMD and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL in tibia were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our results show that DG at a high dose (DG-H had a significant anti-osteoporotic effect compared to OVX control. DG-H treatment down-regulated expression of RANKL and up-regulated expression of OPG significantly in tibia from OVX rats compared to control, and thus lowered the RANKL/OPG ratio. This suggests that the anti-osteoporotic effect of DG might be associated with modulating the RANKL/OPG ratio and DG had potential to be developed as alternative therapeutic agents of osteoporosis induced by postmenopause.

  11. Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on bone density in youth with osteogenesis imperfecta: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Laura; Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Glorieux, Francis H; Weiler, Hope; Rauch, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable condition characterized by fragile bones. Our previous studies indicated that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were positively associated with lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (LS-aBMD) in children and adolescents with OI. Here we assessed whether one year of high-dose vitamin D supplementation results in higher LS-aBMD z-scores in youth with OI. A one-year double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted at a pediatric orthopedic hospital in Montreal, Canada. Sixty patients (age: 6.0 to 18.9years; 35 female) were randomized in equal numbers to receive either 400 or 2000international units (IU) of vitamin D, stratified according to baseline bisphosphonate treatment status and pubertal stage. At baseline, the average serum 25OHD concentration was 65.6nmol/L (SD 20.4) with no difference between treatment groups (p=0.77); 21% of patients had results <50nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with higher serum 25OHD concentrations in 90% of participants. The increase in mean 25OHD was significantly higher (p=0.02) in the group receiving 2000IU of vitamin D (mean [95% CI]=30.5nmol/L [21.3; 39.6]) than in the group receiving 400IU (15.2nmol/L [6.4; 24.1]). No significant differences in LS-aBMD z-score changes were detected between treatment groups. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D at 2000IU increased serum 25OHD concentrations in children with OI more than supplementation with 400IU. However, in this study where about 80% of participants had baseline serum 25OHD concentrations ≥50nmol/L, this difference had no detectable effect on LS-aBMD z-scores.

  12. Fischer-344 Tp53-knockout rats exhibit a high rate of bone and brain neoplasia with frequent metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sarah A; Hart, Marcia L; Busi, Susheel; Parker, Taybor; Goerndt, Angela; Jones, Kevin; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations in the Tp53 tumor suppressor gene are the most commonly seen genetic alterations in cancer, and germline mutations in Tp53 predispose individuals to a variety of early-onset cancers. Development of appropriate translational animal models that carry mutations in Tp53 and recapitulate human disease are important for drug discovery, biomarker development and disease modeling. Current Tp53 mouse and rat models have significant phenotypic and genetic limitations, and often do not recapitulate certain aspects of human disease. We used a marker-assisted speed congenic approach to transfer a well-characterized Tp53-mutant allele from an outbred rat to the genetically inbred Fischer-344 (F344) rat to create the F344-Tp53(tm1(EGFP-Pac)Qly)/Rrrc (F344-Tp53) strain. On the F344 genetic background, the tumor spectrum shifted, with the primary tumor types being osteosarcomas and meningeal sarcomas, compared to the hepatic hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma identified in the original outbred stock model. The Fischer model is more consistent with the early onset of bone and central nervous system sarcomas found in humans with germline Tp53 mutations. The frequency of osteosarcomas in F344-Tp53 homozygous and heterozygous animals was 57% and 36%, respectively. Tumors were highly representative of human disease radiographically and histologically, with tumors found primarily on long bones with frequent pulmonary metastases. Importantly, the rapid onset of osteosarcomas in this promising new model fills a current void in animal models that recapitulate human pediatric osteosarcomas and could facilitate studies to identify therapeutic targets.

  13. High Physiological Concentrations of Progesterone Reverse Estradiol-Mediated Changes in Differentiation and Functions of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangming Xiu

    Full Text Available Female sex steroids, estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4, play a key role in regulating immune responses in women, including dendritic cell (DC development, and functions. Although the two hormones co-occur in the body of women throughout the reproductive years, no studies have explored their complex combinatorial effects on DCs, given their ability to regulate each other's actions. We examined murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC differentiation and functions, in the presence of a wide range of physiological concentrations of each hormone, as well as the combination of the two hormones. E2 (10(-12 to 10(-8M enhanced the differentiation of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs from BM precursor cells, and promoted the expression of CD40 and MHC Class-II, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, P4 (10(-9 to 10(-5M inhibited DC differentiation, but only at the highest concentrations. These effects on BMDCs were observed both in the presence or absence of LPS. When both hormones were combined, higher concentrations of P4, at levels seen in pregnancy (10(-6M reversed the E2 effects, regardless of the concentration of E2, especially in the absence of LPS. Functionally, antigen uptake was decreased and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IL-1 and IL-6 production by CD11b+CD11c+ DCs, was increased in the presence of E2 and these effects were reversed by high concentrations of P4. Our results demonstrate the distinct effects of E2 and P4 on differentiation and functions of bone marrow myeloid DCs. The dominating effect of higher physiological concentrations of P4 provides insight into how DC functions could be modulated during pregnancy.

  14. Adrenal gland and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  15. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  16. Three-dimensional CT imaging with a helical scan on temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Honghan; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Uesugi, Yasuo; Sakakura, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Shuji; Shimizu, Takaya; Sueyoshi, Kozo; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) CT on the lesions of temporal bone, we studied 19 patients with disorders on the region of temporal bone by high speed helical CT. The results showed that 8 patients with congenital hearing disorder had deficiency of the auditory ossicles, 2 patients with chronic otitis media had deformity and shortness of the auditory ossicles, 4 patients with trauma had fracture of the temporal bone (1 patient was complicated by doubtful fracture of the incus), 5 patients (4 patients with acquired hearing disorder and 1 patient with otorrhea) had space-occupying lesions. 3-D helical CT could detect abnormal findings on all the patients and it was an important examination for the temporal bone. (author)

  17. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  18. Chronological study for solitary bone metastasis in the sternum from breast cancer with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Hidenao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Tamada, Tsutomu; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Since breast cancer is frequently associated with bone metastasis, bone scintigraphies have been performed to determine pre-operative staging and to survey postoperative bone metastasis. The sternum, in particular, is a site at which is difficult to differentiate between benign bone disease and bone metastasis, because of varied uptake and wide individual variations. In this study, chronological bone images were scintigraphied in six cases with solitary sternal metastasis and three cases with benign bone disease including two fracture cases and one arthritis case. On bone scintigrams in which solitary sternal metastasis appeared, increased uptake was found in five cases, and photon deficiency was observed in one case. During follow-up scintigraphies, abnormal accumulations, such as hot spots and cold lesions, increased in the bone metastasis while abnormal uptake disappeared or was unchanged in the benign bone disease cases. On CT, four cases showed osteolytic change, and one exhibited osteosclerotic change. These findings indicate that sternal metastasis usually shows osteolytic change, even if a hot lesion is recognized on bone scintigraphy. In solitary sternal metastasis, for which early diagnosis is difficult, both an integrated diagnosis using other imaging techniques and chronological bone scintigraphy are important. (author)

  19. Histochemical examination of the effects of high-dose 1,25(OH)2D3 on bone remodeling in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Sun, Bao; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Juan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D has an anabolic effect on bone developmental processes and is involved in maintaining skeletal integrity. In recent years, pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication have attracted attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term administration of physiologically-high-dose calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) on bone remodeling in young developing rats. Neonatal rats received once-daily subcutaneous injection of calcitriol (250 ng/kg body weight), or PBS only as a control, for 3 weeks. At 1, 2 and 4 weeks' post-administration, rats were sacrificed and fixed by transcardial perfusion with 4 % paraformaldehyde, following which tibiae were extracted for histochemical analysis. Compared with the control group, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase- and Cathepsin K-positive osteoclasts were significantly increased, and the expression of alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts was decreased in trabecular bone of rats administered high-dose 1,25(OH)2D3, leading to decreased trabecular bone volume. In addition, the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) was increased, while that of osteoprotegerin was weaker in osteoblasts in the experimental group compared with the control group. Moreover, there was weaker immunoreactivity for EphrinB2 in osteoclasts and EphB4 in osteoblasts of trabecular bone in the experimental group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that long-term use of physiologically-high dose calcitriol may result in bone loss through RANKL/RANK/osteoprotegerin and EphrinB2-EphB4 signaling pathways, and that these negative effects could continue after drug withdrawal. Therefore, optimal limits for vitamin D administration need to be established for children and adolescents.

  20. The diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MRI in the assessment of joint abnormalities in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology (G1-235), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijpers, Taco W.; Veenendaal, Mira van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Rossum, Marion A.J. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology (G1-235), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of MRI without contrast enhancement in the evaluation of JIA knee joint abnormalities. JIA patients with clinically active knee involvement were prospectively studied using an 1-T open-bore magnet. MRI features were independently evaluated by two readers using the JAMRIS system. The first reading included unenhanced images, whereas complete image sets were available for the second reading. Imaging findings from 73 patients were analysed. Agreement between Gd-enhanced (+Gd) and Gd-unenhanced (-Gd) MRI scores of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions was good concerning sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. Inter-observer agreement was good for both -Gd and +Gd scores (ICC = 0.91-1.00, 0.93-1.00, respectively). Regarding the assessment of synovial hypertrophy, specificity of -Gd was high (0.97), but the sensitivity of unenhanced MRI was only 0.62. Inter-reader agreement for +Gd MRI was ICC = 0.94; however, omitting post-Gd acquisitions increased inter-reader variation (ICC = 0.86). If Gd-enhanced MRI is the reference standard, omitting Gd contrast medium is irrelevant for the assessment of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions as joint abnormalities in JIA. Omitting intravenous Gd in the MRI assessment of joints in JIA is inadvisable, because it decreases the reliability of detecting synovial disease. circle Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess juvenile idiopathic arthritis. circle Synovial hypertrophy, a marker of JIA activity, is well shown by MRI. (orig.)

  1. Identification and characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow by high-resolution flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Ine M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  3. High serum YKL-40 concentration is associated with severe bone disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard; Abildgaard, N.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In multiple myeloma (MM) YKL-40 is present in the bone marrow microenvironment and is suggested to play a role in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, the association between serum YKL-40 and severity of bone disease in MM is investigated. Methods: Serum YKL-40 was measured...... in 34 MM patients at diagnosis. Bone disease was assessed by radiography and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy and followed for up to 30 months. Results: Patients with a serum YKL-40 elevated above the age specific reference range (56%) had...... a higher total X-ray score (P = 0.003) and higher levels of the markers of bone resorption serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (P = 0.003), urine pyridinoline (P = 0.04) and urine deoxypyridinoline (P = 0.002), while the levels of urine N-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (NTX-1...

  4. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  5. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, Ditte Bang; Sørensen, P S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate the importa......BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate...... the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference...... population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. RESULTS: Osteopenia was present in 38...

  6. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 1.: anatomia prawidlowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author) 5 refs, 2 figs

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Rifampin-Resistant Propionibacterium namnetense NTS 31307302T Isolated from a Patient with a Bone Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Bémer, Pascale; Lawson, Paul A; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-08-11

    Propionibacterium namnetense was recently described as a potential bone pathogen, which is closely related to Propionibacterium acnes, a skin commensal microorganism. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the highly rifampin-resistant strain NTS 31307302(T) isolated from a patient with a tibia infection.

  8. High dietary sodium intake is associated with low bone mass in postmenopausal women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S-J; Ha, Y-C; Park, Y

    2017-01-10

    The present cross-sectional study performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 9526 women older than 18 years of age demonstrates that high sodium intake is associated with lower bone mineral density and sodium intake ≥2000 mg/day is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  9. New method for the fabrication of highly osteoconductive β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffold for bone tissue engineering: Structural, mechanical, and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Przekora, Agata; Pałka, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grażyna

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that thermal method for β-1,3-glucan (curdlan) gelation performed at temperature above 80°C enables fabrication of biocompatible bone scaffolds. The aim of this study was to establish new method for fabrication of β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (glu/HA) scaffold using ion-exchanging dialysis for curdlan gelation that allows for the modifications of the glu/HA material with thermo-sensitive agents like growth factors or adhesive proteins. Obtained results reveal that fabricated scaffold appears to be highly osteoconductive as it is nontoxic, promotes osteoblast growth and proliferation as well as increases bone alkaline phosphatase level thereby enhancing cell differentiation. It was demonstrated that developed new method for the glu/HA scaffold fabrication allows to obtain material that not only can be modified with thermo-sensitive agents at the stage of production process but also is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering applications to act as a framework for osteoblasts to spread and form new bone. It should be noted that dialysis method for curdlan gelation has never been used before to fabricate bone scaffold. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2528-2536, 2016.

  10. High resolution CT in the investigation of bone destruction in the outer ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with known malignant tumours of the outer ear and three patients with otitis externa maligna were examined by high resolution CT. CT provided accurate information concerning soft tissue infiltration into the parotid or subtemporal tissues, and of the bony destruction in the mastoid, meatus and tympanic cavity. Absolute differentiation between a malignant tumour and otitis cisterna maligna is not possible, not even by high resolution CT.

  11. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in chronic kidney disease: a comparison of 2D bone texture analysis and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Fouque-Aubert, Anne; Delmas, Pierre D; Lespessailles, Eric; Fouque, Denis; Chapurlat, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Bone microarchitecture can be studied noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). However, this technique is not widely available, so more simple techniques may be useful. BMA is a new 2D high-resolution digital X-ray device, allowing for bone texture analysis with a fractal parameter (H(mean)). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reproducibility of BMA at two novel sites (radius and tibia) in addition to the conventional site (calcaneus), (2) to compare the results obtained with BMA at all of those sites, and (3) to study the relationship between H(mean) and trabecular microarchitecture measured with an in vivo 3D device (HR-pQCT) at the distal tibia and radius. BMA measurements were performed at three sites (calcaneus, distal tibia, and radius) in 14 healthy volunteers to measure the short-term reproducibility and in a group of 77 patients with chronic kidney disease to compare BMA results to HR-pQCT results. The coefficient of variation of H(mean) was 1.2, 2.1, and 4.7% at the calcaneus, radius, and tibia, respectively. We found significant associations between trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitectural variables measured by HR-pQCT and H(mean) at the three sites (e.g., Pearson correlation between radial trabecular number and radial H(mean) r = 0.472, P technique with few technical constraints. Thus, it may represent an interesting tool for evaluating bone structure, in association with biological parameters and DXA.

  12. Instructive function of surface structure of calcium phosphate ceramics in bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of patients which require spinal fusion or bone regeneration in large bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, tumor resection, infections or abnormal skeletal development, is on the rise. Traditionally, in both spinal fusion surgery and other bone regeneration approaches, bone grafts ar

  13. Mechanisms of multiple myeloma bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galson, Deborah L; Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G David

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematological malignancy and the most frequent cancer to involve the skeleton. Multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD) is characterized by abnormal bone remodeling with dysfunction of both bone resorption and bone formation, and thus can be used as a paradigm for other inflammatory bone diseases, and the regulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in malignancy. Studies of MMBD have identified novel regulators that increase osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function, repress osteoblast differentiation, increase angiogenesis, or permanently alter stromal cells. This review will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms of osteoclast and osteoblast regulation in MMBD, and therapeutic approaches currently in use and under development that target mediators of bone destruction and blockade of bone formation for myeloma patients, including new anabolic therapies. PMID:23951515

  14. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. High genetic diversity on a sample of pre-Columbian bone remains from Guane territories in northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Gómez, Alberto; Briceño, Ignacio; Díaz-Matallana, Marcela; Bernal, Jaime E; Rodríguez, José Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA was recovered from 17 individuals found in a rock shelter in the district of "La Purnia" (Santander, Colombia). This region is the homeland of pre-Columbian Guane, whom spread over the "Río Suarez" to the "Río de Oro", and were surrounded to the west by the Central Andes, south and east by foothills of Eastern Andes, and north by the "Chicamocha" river canyon. Guanes established in a region that straddles the Andes and the northern Amazon basin, possibly making it an unavoidable conduit for people moving to and from South America. We amplified mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) segments from ancient bone remains, and the resulting sequences were compared with both ancient and modern mitochondrial haplogroups from American and non-American populations. Samples showed a distribution of 35% for haplogroup A, 41% for haplogroup B and 24% for haplogroup D. Nine haplotypes were found in 17 samples, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity on a single site ancient population. Among them, three haplotypes have not been previously found in America, two are shared in Asia, and one is a private haplotype. Despite geographical barriers that eventually isolated them, an important influence of gene flow from neighboring pre-Columbian communities, mainly Muiscas, could explain the high genetic polymorphism of this community before the Spanish conquest, and argues against Guanes as being a genetic isolate.

  16. The diagnostic and prognostic value of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the initial assessment of high-grade bone and soft tissue sarcoma. A retrospective study of 89 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Hanna Maria; Jørgensen, Simon Møller; Loft, Annika;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for initial assessment in high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS).......To evaluate the feasibility of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for initial assessment in high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS)....

  17. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  18. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma: review of 38 cases; L'apport du scanner dans les traumatismes du rocher: a propos de 38 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroual, M.R.; Zougarhi, A.; Cherif Idrissi El Ganouni, N.; Essadki, O.; Ousehal, A. [CHU Mohamed 6, Service de Radiologie, Marrakech (Morocco); Tijani Adil, O.; Maliki, O.; Aderdour, L.; Raji, A. [CHU Mohamed 6, Service d' ORL, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose Temporal bone trauma is frequent but difficult to assess due to the diversity of clinical presentations and complex anatomy. We have sought to assess the different types of fractures and complications on high-resolution CT. Materials and methods Descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period performed in the ENT radiology section of the Mohammed 6 university medical center in Marrakech. A total of 38 cases of temporal bone trauma were reviewed. All patients underwent ENT evaluation and high-resolution CT of the temporal bone using 1 mm axial and coronal sections. Results Mean patient age was 33 years (range: 14-55 years) with male predominance (sex ratio: 36/2). Clinical symptoms were mainly otorrhagia and conductive hearing loss. Oblique extra-labyrinthine fractures were most frequent. Two cases of pneumo-labyrinth were noted. Management was conservative in most cases with deafness in 3 cases. Conclusion High-resolution CT of the temporal bone provides accurate depiction of lesions explaining the clinical symptoms and helps guide management. MRI is complimentary to further assess the labyrinth and VII-VIII nerve complex. (author)

  19. "You Need Some Laugh Bones!": Leveraging AAL in a High School English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how a White teacher (Gina) responded to African American Language (AAL) in ways that situated students as valuable members of a high school English classroom. This 5-month qualitative study in a 10th grade classroom drew from positioning theory and discourse analysis to make sense of classroom interactions…

  20. Change in bone mass distribution induced by hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S; Sipilä, S; Taaffe, D R; Puolakka, J; Suominen, H

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this intervention trial was to determine whether changes in bone mass distribution could be observed in postmenopausal women following hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and/or high-impact physical exercise. Eighty healthy women, aged 50-57 years, at menopause and with no previous use of HRT, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: HRT; exercise (Ex); HRT + Ex (ExHRT); and control (Co). HRT administration was conducted in a double-blind manner for 1 year using estradiol plus noretisterone acetate (Kliogest). The exercise groups participated in a 1 year progressive training program consisting of jumping and bounding activities. Subjects participated in two supervised sessions per week and were asked to perform a series of exercises at home 4 days/week. Bone measurements using a quantitative computed tomography scanner (Somatom DR, Siemens) were obtained from the proximal femur, midfemur, proximal tibia, and tibial shaft. Data were analyzed with a software program (BONALYSE 1.3) calculating density (g/cm(3)), cross-sectional area (CSA; mm(2)), and moments of inertia (I(max), I(min), I(polar)). In addition, the bone mass spectrum was determined as a function of the angular distribution around the bone mass center (polar distribution) and the distance from the bone mass center through the diaphyseal wall (radial distribution). After the 1 year period, there was an overall interaction of group x time in bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur (p = 0.05) and tibial shaft (p = 0.035). Women in the ExHRT and HRT groups had increased proximal femur and tibial shaft BMD when compared with the change observed in the Co group (p = 0.024-0.011). The change was more pronounced in the cortical tibia, wherein the ExHRT group also differed from the Ex group (p = 0.038). No significant changes were found in bone CSA at any of the measured sites. The radial distribution indicated an increase of BMD in the endocortical part of the measured sites in the HRT

  1. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  2. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of nasal calcitonin on bone microarchitecture measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography in postmenopausal women — Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azria Moise

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone microarchitecture is a significant determinant of bone strength. So far, the assessment of bone microarchitecture has required bone biopsies, limiting its utilization in clinical practice to one single skeletal site. With the advance of high-resolution imaging techniques, non-invasive in vivo measurement of bone microarchitecture has recently become possible. This provides an opportunity to efficiently assess the effects of anti-osteoporotic therapies on bone microarchitecture. We therefore designed a protocol to investigate the effects of nasal salmon calcitonin, an inhibitor of osteoclast activity, on bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women, comparing weight bearing and non-weight bearing skeletal sites. Methods One hundred postmenopausal women will be included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial comparing the effect of nasal salmon calcitonin (200 UI/day to placebo over two years. Bone microarchitecture at the distal radius and distal tibia will be determined yearly by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (p-QCT with a voxel size of 82 μm and an irradiation of less than 5 μSv. Serum markers of bone resorption and bone formation will be measured every 6 months. Safety and compliance will be assessed. Primary endpoint is the change in bone microarchitecture; secondary endpoint is the change in markers of bone turnover. Hypothesis The present study should provide new information on the mode of action of nasal calcitonin. We hypothezise that - compared to placebo - calcitonin impacts on microstructural parameters, with a possible difference between weight bearing and non-weight bearing bones. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00372099

  3. Diagnosis of temporal bone diseases using three-dimensional images with multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Yoshihiro; Togami, Taro; Murota, Makiko; Fukunaga, Kotaro; Hino, Ichiro; Sato, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of three-dimensional images with multislice CT in the temporal bone diseases. Fifty-nine cases (26 with medial otitis, 8 choresteatoma, 10 congenital malformation, 3 high jugular bulb, 2 otosclerosis, and 10 others) were included in this study. In the ossicular and inner ear lesions, oblique multiplanar images of the long axis of each ossicle was useful the detection of abnormality. Structural deformity of ossicles and bony labyrinth were clearly delineated by surface rendering images. (author)

  4. Bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture in the distal radius and tibia in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta type I assessed by high-resolution pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Hansen, Stinus; Gram, Jeppe; Langdahl, Bente; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brixen, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased biosynthesis or impaired morphology of type I collagen that leads to decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. We hypothesized that patients with OI have altered bone microstructure and bone geometry. In this cross-sectional study we compared patients with type I OI to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 39 (13 men and 26 women) patients with OI, aged 53 (range, 21-77) years, and 39 controls, aged 53 (range, 21-77) years, were included in the study. Twenty-seven of the patients had been treated with bisphosphonates. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the distal radius and distal tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of total hip, femoral neck, trochanteric region, and the lumbar spine (L1-L4) were performed. The patients were shorter than the controls (159 ± 10 cm versus 170 ± 9 cm, p radius (p radius, total bone area was 5% lower in OI than in controls (p radius and tibia the number of trabeculae was lower in patients compared to the controls (35% and 38%, respectively, p radius (p < 0.001 at both sites) when compared with controls. We conclude that patients with type I OI have lower aBMD, vBMD, bone area, and trabecular number when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched controls.

  5. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  6. Secondary aneurysmal bone cystic change of the chondroblastoma, mistaken for a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2014-03-01

    A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms.

  7. Effects of a high intake of unsaturated and saturated oils on intestinal transference of calcium and calcium mobilization from bone in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, S; Islam, N; Ghosh, T K; Mitra, C

    1999-06-01

    Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

  8. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  9. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  10. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Belondrade

    Full Text Available The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA. This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  11. Fetal calcifications are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far.One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection.Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001. The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%, trisomy 18 (22%, and monosomy X (18%. A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004. Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001.The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer

  12. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  13. High serum total bilirubin as a protective factor against hip bone loss in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Ghi Su

    2013-06-01

    Bilirubin is known to have a physiologic role as an antioxidant that efficiently scavenges peroxyl radicals and suppresses oxidation, and oxidative stress has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. In the present study, we performed a 3-year longitudinal study of healthy middle-aged men, investigating the association between serum total bilirubin concentrations and annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The study enrolled a total of 917 Korean men aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average follow-up interval of 3 years. BMD at proximal femur sites was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss at the total femur, femoral neck, and trochanter were -0.25 %/year, -0.34 %/year, and -0.44 %/year, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss at all proximal femur sites were significantly attenuated in a dose-response fashion across increasing bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.006-0.046). Moreover, compared to subjects in the lowest bilirubin quartile category, those in the highest bilirubin quartile category showed significantly less bone loss at all proximal femur sites after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.010-0.048). This study provides the first clinical evidence that serum total bilirubin could be a protective marker against future bone loss, especially in subjects without liver diseases.

  14. The role of bone in CKD-mediated mineral and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouzam, Nadine M; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and vascular calcifications start early in the course of CKD. Based on the growing body of evidence that alterations of bone and mineral metabolism and the therapies designed to treat the skeletal consequences of CKD are linked to cardiovascular calcifications, the Kidney Disease, Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group redefined renal osteodystrophy as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, and this newly defined disorder is now known as "chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)". Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived protein, is the first biochemical abnormality to be associated with CKD-MBD, and high FGF23 levels correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that bone is central to both initiating and perpetuating the abnormal mineral metabolism and vascular disease in CKD. The current standard therapies for CKD-MBD affect FGF23 levels differently; non-calcium-based binders with or without concurrent use of dietary phosphate restriction reduce FGF23 levels, while calcium-based binders seem to either increase or have no effect on FGF23 levels. Active vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 levels, whereas therapy with calcimimetics decreases FGF23 levels. Thus, the appropriate therapy that will minimize the rise in FGF23 and prevent cardiovascular morbidity remains to be defined.

  15. Postural muscle atrophy prevention and recovery and bone remodelling through high frequency proprioception for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Rossitto, Franco; Battocchio, Luciano

    2009-09-01

    The difficulty in applying active exercises during space flights increases the importance of passive countermeasures, but coupling load and instability remains indispensable for generating high frequency (HF) proprioceptive flows and preventing muscle atrophy and osteoporosis. The present study, in microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight, verified whether an electronic system, composed of a rocking board, a postural reader and a bungee-cord loading apparatus creates HF postural instability comparable to that reachable on the Earth. Tracking the subject, in single stance, to real-time visual signals is necessary to obtain HF instability situations. The bungee-cord loading apparatus allowed the subject to manage the 81.5% body weight load (100% could easily be exceeded). A preliminary training programme schedule on the Earth and in space is suggested. Comparison with a pathological muscle atrophy is presented. The possibility of generating HF proprioceptive flows could complement current countermeasures for the prevention and recovery of muscle atrophy and osteoporosis in terrestrial and space environments. These exercises combine massive activation of spindles and joint receptors, applying simultaneously HF variations of pressure to different areas of the sole of the foot. This class of exercises could improve the effectiveness of current countermeasures, reducing working time and fatigue.

  16. MRI of fetal GI tract abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, C; Couture, A; Saguintaah, M; Baud, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) patterns of a variety of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Thirty-two fetuses between 23 and 38 weeks' gestation with abnormal appearance of the GI tract by ultrasound underwent MR imaging with T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The MR aspect of intestinal atresia (duodenal atresia, one case; small bowel atresia, nine cases) included dilatation of the bowel loops, accurate assessment of the normal bowel distal to the atresia (except in the patient with multiple atresia and apple-peel syndrome), and micro-rectum with decreased T1 signal (except in the patient with duodenal atresia). Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (one case) was indicated by an abnormal signal of the entire bowel and an abnormal pattern for the urinary tract. Meconium pseudocysts (two cases) were easily differentiated from enteric cysts (two cases). High anorectal malformations with (two cases) or without (one case) urinary fistula and cloacal malformation (one case) are described and MR findings are discussed. The capability of MR imaging to demonstrate the normal bowel with intraperitoneal anomalies (e.g., congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and sacrococcygeal teratoma) is emphasized. MR imaging is informative in the diagnosis of GI tract abnormalities, especially the severe malformations, with much more accuracy than sonography.

  17. Protective actions of soy isoflavones and n-3 PUFAs on bone mass in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Reinwald, Susan; Li, Yong; Seifert, Mark F

    2005-08-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX) in female rats precipitates a marked reduction in endogenous estrogen concentrations and induces bone remodeling abnormalities that augment bone loss and increase the risk of developing osteopenia. This research examined the combined effects of two levels of soy isoflavones (IFs), trace (-IF) and high (+IF) (0.03 and 3.43 mg/g protein, respectively), and two levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone conservation in 2-month-old sexually mature OVX Sprague-Dawley rats. All dietary treatments provided 110.4 g/kg of fat from either safflower oil (N6) or a blend of safflower oil and menhaden oil (N3). OVX rats were randomly assigned to the N6-IF, N6+IF, N3-IF and N3+IF groups. The OVX and sham rats were euthanized after 12 weeks of feeding. Data for sequential femoral and tibial in vivo bone mineral density and bone mineral content (BMC) measurements were determined every 4 weeks. The hindlimb mineral data indicated a trend toward a positive bone mineral-sparing effect related to +IF. Among the OVX rats, those fed the N3+IF diet had a significantly higher value for tibial BMC. The concentration of serum pyridinoline cross-links was significantly lower in the N3+IF group. These findings indicate a complementary action of soy IFs and n-3 PUFAs for attenuating bone mineral reduction in OVX rats.

  18. Bone marrow-infiltrating human neuroblastoma cells express high levels of calprotectin and HLA-G proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morandi

    Full Text Available Metastases in the bone marrow (BM are grim prognostic factors in patients with neuroblastoma (NB. In spite of extensive analysis of primary tumor cells from high- and low-risk NB patients, a characterization of freshly isolated BM-infiltrating metastatic NB cells is still lacking. Our aim was to identify proteins specifically expressed by metastatic NB cells, that may be relevant for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Sixty-six Italian children over 18 months of age, diagnosed with stage 4 NB, were included in the study. Metastatic NB cells were freshly isolated from patients' BM by positive immunomagnetic bead manipulation using anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody. Gene expression profiles were compared with those obtained from archived NB primary tumors from patients with 5 y-follow-up. After validation by RT-qPCR, expression/secretion of the proteins encoded by the up-regulated genes in the BM-infiltrating NB cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and ELISA. Compared to primary tumor cells, BM-infiltrating NB cells down-modulated the expression of CX3CL1, AGT, ATP1A2 mRNAs, whereas they up-regulated several genes commonly expressed by various lineages of BM resident cells. BM-infiltrating NB cells expressed indeed the proteins encoded by the top-ranked genes, S100A8 and A9 (calprotectin, CD177 and CD3, and secreted the CXCL7 chemokine. BM-infiltrating NB cells also expressed CD271 and HLA-G. We have identified proteins specifically expressed by BM-infiltrating NB cells. Among them, calprotectin, a potent inflammatory protein, and HLA-G, endowed with tolerogenic properties facilitating tumor escape from host immune response, may represent novel biomarkers and/or targets for therapeutic intervention in high-risk NB patients.

  19. High prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients within 10 years of onset of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, M A C; Claushuis, T A M; Nazari, T; Lems, W F; Dijkmans, B A C; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I E

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common complication of AS, with a prevalence range of 19 to 62 %. Many studies have shown decreased BMD in AS with long disease duration, but only a few studies investigated BMD in early AS. The prevalence of decreased BMD in early disease stages of AS has not yet been clearly described, and for that reason, we reviewed the literature which describes the prevalence of decreased BMD in AS patients with a short disease duration (articles which used the modified New York criteria for the diagnosis of AS, included patients with a disease duration of less than 10 years, and used the WHO criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Decreased BMD was defined as a T score articles that acquired BMD data of lumbar spine and femoral neck by DXA were used. The literature search provided us 35 articles of which 7 matched all our criteria, and they will be further outlined in this review. The overall prevalence of decreased BMD of the articles reviewed is 54 % (n = 229/424) for lumbar spine and 51 % (n = 224/443) for femoral neck. The prevalence of osteopenia vs. osteoporosis for lumbar spine is 39 vs. 16 % and for femoral neck, 38 vs. 13 %. This review showed a high total prevalence of 51-54 % decreased BMD and 13-16 % osteoporosis in AS with a short disease duration. This high prevalence was not to be expected in a relatively young and predominantly male population. Further research is needed to determine the clinical relevance of this low BMD by investigating the relation between low BMD and vertebral and nonvertebral fractures at this early stage in AS.

  20. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism: comparison among mandible, cranium, radius and femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)

  1. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning;

    2011-01-01

    The action of extracellular nucleotides is mediated by ionotropic P2X receptors and G-protein coupled P2Y receptors. The human genome contains 7 P2X and 8 P2Y receptor genes. Knockout mice strains are available for most of them. As their phenotypic analysis is progressing, bone abnormalities have...... been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  2. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  3. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  4. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami Minemura; Kazuto Tajiri; Yukihiro Shimizu

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  5. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats.

  6. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas.

  7. Improved outcome for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia patients using autologous bone marrow transplantation and monoclonal antibody-purged bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, K J; Wilson, J W; Mills, L E; Cornwell, G G; Hurd, D; Dodge, W; Gingrich, R; Martin, S E; McMillan, R; Miller, W

    1994-03-15

    We have conducted a 9-year multicenter trial of autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Remission BM was purged in vitro using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs; PM-81, AML-2-23) and complement targeting myeloid differentiation antigens (CD15, CD14). In 1988, the preparative regimen changed from 60 mg/kg/d cyclophosphamide x 2 and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) total dose, 1,200 cGy (Cy/fTBI), to 4 mg/kg/d busulfan x 4 and 60 mg/kg/d Cy x 2 (Bu/Cy2). Recent analysis (October 1, 1993) shows that the Bu/Cy2 regimen along with the same MoAb purging method yields an improved outcome. Seven first complete-remission (CR) (CR1), 45 second- or third-CR (CR2/3), and 11 first-relapse (R1) patients were treated with chemotherapy and TBI or chemotherapy alone followed by ABMT with MoAb-purged BM. Median age at ABMT for those patients in CR 2/3 and R1 patients was 36 years. Twenty-nine CR 2/3 and R1 patients were conditioned with Cy/fTBI, and 27 CR2/3 and R1 patients were conditioned with Bu/CY. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the CY/fTBI, CR2/3, and R1 patients have a 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 21%. On the other hand, the Bu/Cy2, CR2/3, and R1 patients have a 3-year DFS of 48%. Nineteen CR2/3 and R1 patients relapsed post-ABMT. On analysis by conditioning regimen, those treated with Cy/fTBI have a 3-year relapse rate (RR) of 58%, whereas the patients conditioned with Bu/Cy2 have a 39% 3-year RR. Long-term DFS can be achieved in about 50% of patients with advanced remissions and relapsed AML using Bu/Cy2 with MoAb-purged BM.

  8. Identification of Abnormal Stem Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Novikov, Sergey M; Beermann, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells in cell-based therapeutics for degenerative diseases requires development of criteria for defining normal stem cells to ensure safe transplantation. Currently, identification of abnormal from normal stem cells is based on extensive ex vivo and in vivo testing. Raman...... microscopy is a label-free method for rapid and sensitive detection of changes in cells' bio-molecular composition. Here, we report that by using Raman spectroscopy, we were able to map the distribution of different biomolecules within 2 types of stem cells: adult human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells...... and human embryonic stem cells and to identify reproducible differences in Raman's spectral characteristics that distinguished genetically abnormal and transformed stem cells from their normal counterparts. Raman microscopy can be prospectively employed as a method for identifying abnormal stem cells in ex...

  9. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composite as a possible bone substitute material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Roy; S Pal

    2002-12-01

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites were characterized for mechanical properties using destructive and non-destructive ultrasonic testing methods. The physical properties of the composite were determined and compared with those of cortical bone.

  10. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  11. High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sugiura

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent epidemiological studies show that high intakes of carotenoids might be useful to maintain bone health, but little is known about the association of serum carotenoids with change of bone mineral density (BMD. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with bone loss. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up on 146 male and 99 pre- and 212 post-menopausal female subjects from the Mikkabi study. Those who participated in previous BMD surveys and completed four years of follow-up were examined longitudinally. RESULTS: During a 4-year follow-up, 15 of the post-menopausal female subjects developed new-onset osteoporosis. In contrast, none of the male and pre-menopausal female subjects did. In male and pre-menopausal female subjects, the six serum carotenoids at the baseline were not associated with bone loss. On the other hand, in post-menopausal female subjects, the 4-year bone loss of radius was inversely associated with the serum carotenoid concentrations, especially in β-carotene. After adjustments for confounders, the odds ratios (OR for osteoporosis in the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin against the lowest tertiles were 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.05-1.21 and 0.07 (CI: 0.01-0.88, respectively. Serum β-cryptoxanthin was also inversely associated with the risk for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis (P for trend, 0.037. In addition, our retrospective analysis revealed that subjects who developed osteoporosis and/or osteopenia during the survey period had significantly lower serum concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene at the baseline than those in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant carotenoids, especially β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, are inversely associated with the change of radial BMD in post-menopausal female subjects.

  12. Simultaneous 3D segmentation of three bone compartments on high resolution knee MR images from osteoarthritis initiative (OAI) using graph cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hackjoon; Kwoh, C. Kent; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk; Bae, Kyongtae

    2009-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with degradation of cartilage and related changes in the underlying bone. Quantitative measurement of those changes from MR images is an important biomarker to study the progression of OA and it requires a reliable segmentation of knee bone and cartilage. As the most popular method, manual segmentation of knee joint structures by boundary delineation is highly laborious and subject to user-variation. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a semi-automated method for segmentation of knee bones, which consisted of two steps: placement of seeds and computation of segmentation. In the first step, seeds were placed by the user on a number of slices and then were propagated automatically to neighboring images. The seed placement could be performed on any of sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. The second step, computation of segmentation, was based on a graph-cuts algorithm where the optimal segmentation is the one that minimizes a cost function, which integrated the seeds specified by the user and both the regional and boundary properties of the regions to be segmented. The algorithm also allows simultaneous segmentation of three compartments of the knee bone (femur, tibia, patella). Our method was tested on the knee MR images of six subjects from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI). The segmentation processing time (mean+/-SD) was (22+/-4)min, which is much shorter than that by the manual boundary delineation method (typically several hours). With this improved efficiency, our segmentation method will facilitate the quantitative morphologic analysis of changes in knee bones associated with osteoarthritis.

  13. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  14. Bone fluoride concentrations in beluga whales from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Qualls, C W; De Guise, S; Whaley, M W; Martineau, D

    1999-04-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary have been reported to have dental and bone abnormalities. To determine whether these lesions could be caused by high exposure to fluorides, we measured bone fluoride levels in eight beluga whales stranded on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada), and in nine beluga whales killed by Inuit hunters in the Hudson Bay (North Western Territories, Canada). In both groups, fluoride concentrations were higher than those found in terrestrial mammals intoxicated by fluorides. Unexpectedly, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in beluga whales from the Hudson Bay (mean +/- SD: 10.365 +/- 1.098 ppm) than in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary (4.539 +/- 875 ppm) and was positively correlated with age in the latter population. Differences in diet might explain the differences in fluoride concentrations found between these two populations.

  15. Abnormal grain growth in undoped strontium and barium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeurer, M., E-mail: m.baeurer@ikm.uka.de [Institut fuer Keramik im Maschinenbau, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shih, S.-J.; Bishop, C. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Harmer, M.P. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Cockayne, D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, M.J. [Institut fuer Keramik im Maschinenbau, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Abnormal grain growth is a commonly observed phenomenon in perovskite materials. In order to study this phenomenon, grain growth experiments were conducted over a temperature range from 1425 to 1600 deg. C for the model system SrTiO{sub 3} to analyse the nucleation of abnormal grains and to identify the growth mechanism involved for normal and abnormal grains. Grain boundaries of normal and abnormal grains were investigated in quenched samples by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. No amorphous film was observed at the grain boundaries for either normal or abnormal grains. Non-stoichiometry at the grain boundaries was identified as a possible reason for the differences in growth speed. The results are compared to the nucleation and growth of abnormal grains in BaTiO{sub 3}.

  16. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with mental retardation in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Samikshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are thought to be the most common cause of mental retardation (MR. However, apart from a few selected types with typical aneuploidy, like Downs syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, etc., the frequency of detectable chromosomal abnormalities in association with idiopathic MR is very low. In this study, we have investigated chromosomal abnormalities in female MR subjects (n = 150 by high-resolution GTG banding. Of them, 30 cases were diagnosed as Downs syndrome. Among the remaining (n = 120, chromosomal abnormalities/marked polymorphisms were detectable in only three MR cases (0.025.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with mental retardation in female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Samikshan; Shaw, Jyothi; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are thought to be the most common cause of mental retardation (MR). However, apart from a few selected types with typical aneuploidy, like Downs syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, etc., the frequency of detectable chromosomal abnormalities in association with idiopathic MR is very low. In this study, we have investigated chromosomal abnormalities in female MR subjects (n = 150) by high-resolution GTG banding. Of them, 30 cases were diagnosed as Downs syndrome. Among the remaining (n = 120), chromosomal abnormalities/marked polymorphisms were detectable in only three MR cases (0.025).

  19. Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in highly porous alginate-foams supplemented with chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhao [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Nooeaid, Patcharakamon [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Kohl, Benjamin [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Roether, Judith A.; Schubert, Dirk W. [Institute of Polymer Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Meier, Carola [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Godkin, Owen; Ertel, Wolfgang; Arens, Stephan [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula, E-mail: gundula.schulze@pmu.ac.at [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the limited intrinsic cartilage repair, autologous chondrocyte or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) was implanted into cartilage defects. For this purpose suitable biocompatible scaffolds are needed to provide cell retention, chondrogenesis and initial mechanical stability. The present study should indicate whether a recently developed highly porous alginate (Alg) foam scaffold supplemented with chondroitin sulfate (CS) allows the attachment, survival and chondrogenesis of BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes. The foams were prepared using a freeze-drying method; some of them were supplemented with CS and subsequently characterized for porosity, biodegradation and mechanical profile. BM-MSCs were cultured for 1–2 weeks on the scaffold either under chondrogenic or maintenance conditions. Cell vitality assays, histology, glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay, and type II and I collagen immunolabelings were performed to monitor cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in the scaffolds. Scaffolds had a high porosity ~ 93–95% with a mean pore sizes of 237 ± 48 μm (Alg) and 197 ± 61 μm (Alg/CS). Incorporation of CS increased mechanical strength of the foams providing gradually CS release over 7 days. Most of the cells survived in the scaffolds. BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes formed rounded clusters within the scaffold pores. The BM-MSCs, irrespective of whether cultured under non/chondrogenic conditions and chondrocytes produced an ECM containing sGAGs, and types II and I collagen. Total collagen and sGAG contents were higher in differentiated BM-MSC cultures supplemented with CS than in CS-free foams after 14 days. The cell cluster formation induced by the scaffolds might stimulate chondrogenesis via initial intense cell–cell contacts. - Highlights: • Alginate foam scaffolds revealed a high porosity and mean pore size of 197–237 μm. • Chondroitin sulfate was released over 14 days by the scaffolds. • Chondrocytes

  20. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency.......Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  1. In vivo application of 3D-line skeleton graph analysis (LSGA) technique with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuaud, Laurent; Newitt, David C; Lu, Ying; MacDonald, Brian; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2004-05-01

    Over the last several years magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a means of measuring in vivo 3D trabecular bone structure. In particular, MR based diagnosis could be used to complement standard bone mineral density (BMD) methods for assessing osteoporosis and evaluating longitudinal changes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the 3D-LSGA technique for the evaluation of trabecular bone structure of high-resolution MR images, particularly for assessing longitudinal changes, in vivo. First, the reproducibility of topological 3D-LSGA based measurements was evaluated in a set of seven volunteers, and coefficients of variations ranged from 3.5% to 6%. Second, high-resolution MR images of the radius in 30 postmenopausal women from a placebo controlled drug study (Idoxifene), divided into placebo ( n=9) and treated ( n=21) groups, were obtained at baseline (BL) and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up, FU). In addition, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of BMD were obtained in the distal radius. Standard morphological measurements based on the mean intercept length (MIL) technique as well as 3D-LSGA based measurements were applied to the 3D MR images. Significant changes from BL to FU were detected, in the treated group, using the topological 3D-LSGA based measurements, morphological measures of volume of connected trabeculae and App Tb.N from MIL analysis. The duration of the study was short, and the number of patients remaining in the study was small, hence these results cannot be interpreted with regard to a true therapeutic response. Furthermore, the site (wrist) and the drug (idoxifene) are not optimal for follow-up study. However, this paper demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-LSGA based evaluation coupled with in vivo high-resolution MR imaging as a complementary approach for the monitoring of trabecular bone changes in individual subjects.

  2. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Gimenez, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Alegret, X. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rivas, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  3. Occult intraspinal abnormalities and congenital scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Erfani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis occurs because of either the failure of formation or the failure of segmentation or both. Evaluation of the incidence and the types of occult intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis is the subject of this study.

    METHODS: During a period of 29 years, 103 patients with congenital scoliosis were studied. MRI was used in 46 patients, myelography or CT myelography was used in 64 patients and both MRI and myelography or CT myelography were used in 7 patients for intraspinal abnormalities.

    RESULTS: In the MRI group, among the 46 patients, 19 patients (41.3% had intraspinal abnormalities consisting syringomyelia in 9 (19.5% diastematomyelia in 8 (17.4%, tethered cord syndrome in 6 (13%, low conus in 5 (10.8% and diplomyelia in 3 (6.5% of the patients. In the myelography group, among the 64 patients, 17 (26.5% had intraspinal abnormalities and diastematomyelia was the most common one found in 14 (21.8% patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intraspinal abnormalities are frequent in congenital scoliosis. Syringomyelia may be associated with congenital scoliosis. In congenital scoliosis, rib fusion may be an indicator of intraspinal abnormalities in MRI. A significant difference between clinical findings and intraspinal anomalies (P<0.05 was noted. Moreover, we believe that total spinal MRI with coronal, sagittal and axial views is a valuable tool in determining the intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis. This method is highly

  4. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  5. Application of high performance liquid chromatography in screening abnormal hemoglobinopathy%高效液相色谱法在异常血红蛋白病筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建红; 汪国庆; 肖奇志; 张永良; 周玉球; 胡利清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the incidence of abnormal hemoglobinopathy with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) among people.Methods Between October 2009 and September 2011,6297 inpatients and out-patients received the detections of various abnormal hemoglobins by HPLC,genotypes of deletion-α thalassemia by gap-PCR,genotypes of nondeletion-α thalassemia and β thalassemia by reverse dot blotting (RDB).Results Of 6297 samples,11 types of abnormal hemoglobins(n=68) were found,including Hb E(n=37,notably 2 cases of Hb E/β thalassemia trait double heterozygous),Hb Q (n=10,notably 2 cases of Hb Q combined with Hb H),Hb S(n=3,including 1 case of Hb S homozygous and 2 cases of Hb S heterozygous),Hb D-Iran(n=4),Hb Manitoba (n=4),Hb J-Bangkok (n=5),Hb C (n=1),Hb Lepore (n=1),Hb J-Mexico(n=1),Hb Osu-Christiansborg (n=1) and Hb K(o)ln (n=1).The incidence rate of abnormal hemoglobinopathy was 1.080% (68/6297).Conclusion HPLC can identify various hemoglobins rapidly and accurately,which is an ideal laboratory tool of screening abnormal hemoglobinopathy.%目的 应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)检测人群中异常血红蛋白病发生情况.方法 收集2009年10月至2011年9月本院住院及门诊患者6297例,采用HPLC检测各种异常血红蛋白,缺口-PCR(gap-PCR)检测缺失型α地中海贫血基因型,反向斑点杂交法(RDB)分析非缺失型α地中海贫血和β地中海贫血基因型.结果 应用HPLC检测6297份标本,共发现68例11种异常血红蛋白,分别为血红蛋白(Hb)E 37例(其中2例为Hb E合并β-地中海贫血)、Hb Q 10例(其中Hb Q-Hb H 2例)、Hb S 3例(1例Hb S纯合子和2例Hb S杂合子)、Hb D-Iran 4例、Hb Manitoba 4例、Hb J-Bangkok 5例、Hb C 1例、Hb Lepore 1例、Hb J-Mexico 1例、Hb Osu-Christiansborg 1例和Hb K(o)ln 1例.异常血红蛋白病的发病率为1.08%(68/6297).结论 HPLC能快速、准确地鉴定各种异常血红蛋白,是一种筛查异常血红蛋白病的理想工具.

  6. High EVI1 levels predict adverse outcome in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence of EVI1 overexpression and chromosome 3q26 abnormalities underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugthart, Sanne; van Drunen, Ellen; van Norden, Yvette; van Hoven, Antoinette; Erpelinck, Claudia A J; Valk, Peter J M; Beverloo, H Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Delwel, Ruud

    2008-04-15

    Inappropriate expression of EVI1 (ecotropic virus integration-1), in particular splice form EVI1-1D, through chromosome 3q26 lesions or other mechanisms has been implicated in the development of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To validate the clinical relevance of EVI1-1D, as well as of the other EVI1 splice forms and the related MDS1/EVI1 (ME) gene, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in 534 untreated adults with de novo AML. EVI1-1D was highly expressed in 6% of cases (n = 32), whereas 7.8% were EVI1(+) (n = 41) when all splice variants were taken into account. High EVI1 predicted a distinctly worse event-free survival (HR = 1.9; P = .002) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.1, P = .006) following multivariate analysis. Importantly, we distinguished a subset of EVI1(+) cases that lacked expression of ME (EVI1(+)ME(-); n = 17) from cases that were ME(+) (EVI1(+)ME(+); n = 24). The atypical EVI1(+)ME(-) expression pattern exhibited cytogenetically detectable chromosomal 3q26 breakpoints in 8 cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed 7 more EVI1(+)ME(-) cases that carried cryptic 3q26 breakpoints, which were not found in the EVI1(+)ME(+) group. EVI1(+)ME(-) expression predicts an extremely poor prognosis distinguishable from the general EVI1(+) AML patients (overall survival [OS]: P < .001 and event-free survival [EFS]: P = .002). We argue that EVI1/ME quantitative expression analysis should be implemented in the molecular diagnostic procedures of AML.

  7. Analysis on the Causes,Hazards and Governance Path to Abnormally High Housing Price%我国房价虚高的成因、危害及治理路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴佑; 高文进

    2012-01-01

    我国房价虚高的现状主要源于地方政府的土地财政和"GDP情结"、房地产开发商的垄断和暴利、房地产市场供需失衡以及地方政府调控执行力不足等方面。虚高并持续快速增长的房价水平将加大金融风险、抑制内需、延缓城市化进程、拉大贫富差距、降低居民生活质量、加大通货膨胀压力并导致经济资源配置效率低下。中央政府应强化房地产调控政策,平衡各方利益并破解土地财政,实现我国房价合理回归。%The status quo of China's abnormally high housing prices mainly due to land finance and "GDP sentiment" of local government,monopoly and profiteering of the real estate developers,the imbalance between supply and demand of real estate market and lack of execution of local government regulation and so on.The abnormally high and sustained rapid growth in house prices will lead to increase the risk of financial,contain domestic demand,slow down the process of urbanization,widen gap between rich and poor,reduce the quality of residents' life,increase the inflationary pressure and Result into inefficient allocation of economic resources.The central government should strengthen the real estate control policy,balance the interests of all parties and cracked the land finance to achieve the reasonable prices to return.

  8. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. These tests may include a detailed ultrasound, amniocentesis (to check for chromosomal abnormalities) and in some ... the provider may recommend additional tests, such as amniocentesis and a detailed ultrasound, to diagnose or rule ...

  10. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  11. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S

    2010-09-01

    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  12. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irene; Martinucci; Nicola; de; Bortoli; Maria; Giacchino; Giorgia; Bodini; Elisa; Marabotto; Santino; Marchi; Vincenzo; Savarino; Edoardo; Savarino

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophagealmotility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from nonerosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  13. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  14. Optimised, low cost, low field dedicated extremity MRI is highly specific and sensitive for synovitis and bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist and finger joints: comparison with conventional high field MRI and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbjerg, B.J; Narvestad, E; Jacobsen, S;

    2005-01-01

    of the wrist and 2nd-5th MCP joints was performed on a low field MRI unit (0.2 T Esaote Artoscan) and a high field MRI unit (1.0 T Siemens Impact) on 2 subsequent days. MRI was performed and evaluated according to OMERACT recommendations. Additionally, conventional x ray, clinical, and biochemical examinations......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a low field dedicated extremity MRI unit for detection of bone erosions, synovitis, and bone marrow oedema in wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, with a high field MRI unit as the standard reference. METHODS: In 37 patients with RA and 28 healthy controls MRI...... were performed. In an initial low field MRI 'sequence selection phase', based on a subset of 10 patients and 10 controls, sequences for comparison with high field MRI were selected. RESULTS: With high field, spin echo MRI considered as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy...

  15. Fibrillin microfibrils in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The severe skeletal abnormalities associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) underscore the notion that fibrillin assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) play a critical role in bone formation and function in spite of representing a low abundance component of skeletal matrices. Studies of MFS and CCA mice have correlated the skeletal phenotypes of these mutant animals with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that reflect the contextual contribution of fibrillin-1 and -2 scaffolds to TGFβ and BMP signaling during bone patterning, growth and metabolism. Illustrative examples include the unique role of fibrillin-2 in regulating BMP-dependent limb patterning and the distinct impact of the two fibrillin proteins on the commitment and differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings have important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive age- and injury-related processes of bone degeneration.

  16. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  17. 乳腺癌骨转移的高危因素分析%Analysis of high risk factors of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    藕院林; 王本忠; 颜蕴文

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨可能影响因素与乳腺癌骨转移发生的相关性.方法回顾分析2007年1月至2010年9月间172例乳腺癌患者中76例骨转移患者,对年龄、病理类型、腋窝淋巴结有无转移及数目、HER-2状况、原发肿块大小、激素受体状况、Ki-67等因素进行分析,了解其与骨转移发生是否有相关性.结果乳腺癌发生骨转移与腋窝淋巴结有无转移、HER-2状况、激素受体情况、Ki-67有相关性,与年龄无相关性.结论乳腺癌患者腋窝淋巴结转移4个及以上、HER-2高表达、激素受体阳性、Ki-67高表达患者,骨转移发生率相对较高,应加强术后定期随访,对同时具备多项骨转移高危因素的乳腺癌患者,术后化疗后可预防性应用骨保护药物.%Objective To investigate the correlation between the following related factors and bone metastases in breast cancer. Methods A total of 76 patients with bone metastases in breast cancer among 172 breast cancer patients during 2007 to 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Factors such as age, pathological types, axillary lymph node metastases and their number, HER-2, estrogen and progesteron receptor, tumor size, Ki-67 were analysed to clarify whether there was any correlation with bone metastases in breast cancer. Results Bone metastases in breast cancer were associated with axillary lymph node metastases and their number, HER-2, estrogen and progesteron receptor, Ki-67,but there was no correlation with age. Conclusion Breast cancers patients with more than 4 axillary lymph node metastases, positive HER-2, positive estrogen and progesteron receptor and high expression of Ki-67 are more likely to undergo bone metastases. These patients should strengthen the regular follow-up after operation. Patients who have several risk factors should use bone protection drugs after operation and adjuvant chemotherapy as preventive measures.

  18. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent