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Sample records for abnormally high bone

  1. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6-/- mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6-/- and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6-/- mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6-/- mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6-/- mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6-/- mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  2. [Craniofacial bone abnormalities in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis].

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    Abassi-Bakir, D; Graiess-Tlili, K; Turky, A; Gharbi, H; Bouzaiene, M; Kraiem, C; Bakir, A

    1995-01-01

    Cases of cranio-facial bone anomalies were observed in 40 cases of neurofibromatosis. The cranio-facial skeletal manifestations are numerous and varied. Radiographic investigation is important to confirm the diagnosis, when neurologic and cutaneous signs are absent. The diagnosis should be easily confirmed by a conventional radiographic study.

  3. Abnormal bone scan : Importance of clinical correlation

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    Dharm Raj Singh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of renal cell carcinoma which was diagnosed to have metastatic disease on the basis of two hot spots in ribs on bone scan, is presented. After careful and thor-ough history, it turned out to be fracture ribs which oc-curred due to bad positioning during radical nephrectoiny. This case highlights the importance of clinical judgement especially in the modern era of sophisticated investiga-tions.

  4. Study of /sup 201/Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. With special reference to bone marrow abnormalities

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    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Yano, Kesato; Ueda, Hitoshi

    1989-04-01

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K).

  5. Temporal bone changes in patients with Goldenhar syndrome with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities.

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    Hennersdorf, Florian; Friese, Natascha; Löwenheim, Hubert; Tropitzsch, Anke; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-06-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder presenting with orofacial and vertebral anomalies, which are also accompanied by abnormalities in other organs. We examined temporal bone changes with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities in these patients. A retrospective review of 7 new cases in addition to a previously published series of 14 cases with clinically diagnosed Goldenhar syndrome was carried out to search for inner ear anomalies. In addition, temporal bone imaging studies from the literature were summarized and compared with our results. Departments of Neuroradiology and Otorhinolaryngology at a university hospital. In addition to the previous series of 14 patients, 7 new patients with Goldenhar syndrome were identified. Patients underwent otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone. Temporal bone changes and specifically inner ear malformations. Nineteen of 21 patients showed changes of the external and middle ear correlating with the literature. Seven of 21 patients showed inner ear abnormalities constituting one-third of all patients. These ranged from mild such as vestibular enlargement to severe defects such as cochlear hypoplasia and common cavity. Inner ear abnormalities were present in one-third of patients. Although in some cases, these might not be of clinical significance, some patients show severe defects of the inner ear requiring more complex hearing loss therapy. Therefore, imaging of the temporal bone structures is important in the care of these patients.

  6. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

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    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  7. Piroxicam treatment augments bone abnormalities in interleukin-10 knockout mice

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    Holgersen, Kristine; Dobie, Ross; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and fractures are common complications of inflammatory bowel disease. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and has been partly attributed to intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone status and assess the association between bone loss and gut...... inflammation in an experimental colitis model. METHODS: Colitis was induced in interleukin-10 knockout mice (PAC IL-10 k.o.) by peroral administration of piroxicam for 12 days. The degree of colitis was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and microscopic evaluation. Trabecular and cortical bone...

  8. Abnormal bone marrow distribution following unsuccessful hip replacement: A potential confusion on white cell scanning

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    Cunningham, D.A. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Clinical Physics and Radiology)

    1991-01-01

    The use of indium 111 white blood cell imaging for the detection of bony sepsis is now well established. Labelled white cells are seen normally in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, and recent reports have stressed the need for concomitant bone marrow imaging to reduce the incidence of false-positive results. In the case described, a grossly abnormal distribution of bone marrow following failed hip replacement would have led to a false diagnosis of osteomyelitis. (orig.).

  9. Severe hyperparathyroidism with bone abnormalities and metastatic calcification in rats with adenine-induced uraemia.

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    Tamagaki, Keiichi; Yuan, Qunsheng; Ohkawa, Hiroyuki; Imazeki, Ikuo; Moriguchi, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Nobuo; Sasaki, Susumu; Takeda, Kazuo; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2006-03-01

    Marked parathyroid hyperplasia with bone diseases and vascular calcification are unsolved issues in dialysis patients. In this study, we made azotemic model rats by adenine feeding and analyzed the development and progression of the abnormalities. Renal failure was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by feeding 0.75% adenine-containing diet for 6 weeks. Serum parameters, parathyroid hyperplasia, bone changes and metastatic calcification were examined at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Progressive increase of serum creatinine and inorganic phosphate, and decreased levels of serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 were confirmed. Markedly enlarged parathyroid glands and extremely high PTH levels were observed in all adenine-fed rats compared with the control (PTH: 199.3+/-58.0 vs 10.5+/-3.0 pmol/l, Prats. Uraemic rats made by adenine diet developed severe abnormalities of calcium metabolism in a relatively short period and therefore they may serve as a useful model for the analysis of parathyroid hyperplasia and vascular calcification in chronic renal failure.

  10. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    patients with myelofibrosis differed from that in samples from controls. DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the microvascular density (MVD), vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrows from 19 myelofibrosis patients and nine controls. We also studied the same parameters in two mouse models...

  11. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the occurrence of traditional risk factors associated with decreased BMD in the above populations (oral corticosteroid use, smoking, alcohol, previous bone fracture, body mass index and physical inactivity). Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative group descriptive study of HIV positive adult patients on ...

  12. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

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    Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with

  13. Acute ketamine administration corrects abnormal inflammatory bone markers in major depressive disorder.

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    Kadriu, B; Gold, P W; Luckenbaugh, D A; Lener, M S; Ballard, E D; Niciu, M J; Henter, I D; Park, L T; De Sousa, R T; Yuan, P; Machado-Vieira, R; Zarate, C A

    2017-05-30

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation-the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)-play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD. OPG is a decoy receptor for RANKL, thereby increasing BMD. OPN is the bone glue that acts as a scaffold between bone tissues matrix composition to bind them together and is an important component of bone strength and fracture resistance. Twenty-eight medication-free inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 16 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Peripheral bone marker levels and their responses to IV ketamine infusion in MDD patients and HCs were measured at four time points: at baseline, and post-infusion at 230 min, Day 1, and Day 3. Patients with MDD had significant decreases in baseline OPG/RANKL ratio and in plasma OPN levels. Ketamine significantly increased both the OPG/RANKL ratio and plasma OPN levels, and significantly decreased RANKL levels. Bone marker levels in HCs remained unaltered. We conclude that the OPG-RANK-RANKL system and the OPN system play important roles in the serious bone abnormalities associated with MDD. These data suggest that, in addition to its antidepressant effects, ketamine also has a salutary effect on a major medical complication of depressive illness.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 30 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.109.

  14. A single nucleotide mutation in Nppc is associated with a long bone abnormality in lbab mice

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    Roe Bruce A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long bone abnormality (lbab mouse is a new autosomal recessive mutant characterized by overall smaller body size with proportionate dwarfing of all organs and shorter long bones. Previous linkage analysis has located the lbab mutation on chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit9 and D1Mit488. Results A genome-based positional approach was used to identify a mutation associated with lbab disease. A total of 122 genes and expressed sequence tags at the lbab region were screened for possible mutation by using genomic DNA from lbabl/lbab, lbab/+, and +/+ B6 mice and high throughput temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. A sequence difference was identified in one of the amplicons of gene Nppc between lbab/lbab and +/+ mice. One-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate the difference of Nppc in different types of mice at the mRNA level. The mutation of Nppc was unique in lbab/lbab mice among multiple mouse inbred strains. The mutation of Nppc is co-segregated with lbab disease in 200 progenies produced from heterozygous lbab/+ parents. Conclusion A single nucleotide mutation of Nppc is associated with dwarfism in lbab/lbab mice. Current genome information and technology allow us to efficiently identify single nucleotide mutations from roughly mapped disease loci. The lbab mouse is a useful model for hereditary human achondroplasia.

  15. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have an increased risk of bone fractures. In these patients, the well-described decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) may, however, not alone explain the increase in fracture rate. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate...... collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10...... and biomechanical properties in GHD rats compared to controls (P bone volume. Electron microscopy showed a significant decrease in the number and a significant increase in the diameter of collagen microfibrils in GHD...

  16. Frequency and spectrum of abnormalities in the bone marrow of the wrist: MR imaging findings

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    Alam, F.; Schweitzer, M.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Li Xiaoxian (Dept. of Radiology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan (China)); Malat, J. (Department of Radiology, Naples Radiologists, Naples (Italy)); Hussain, S.M. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1999-06-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of marrow abnormalities on wrist MR imaging and the MR findings of these various abnormalities.Design and patients. Five hundred and nineteen patients were studied at 1.5 T. Two observers recorded the presence and location of avascular necrosis, occult fractures and arthritic edema [focal osteoarthritis, ulnolunate abutment, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis, gouty arthritis and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC)].Results and conclusion. One hundred and eighty-seven (36%) patients demonstrated marrow abnormalities in the wrist, of which 101 were diagnosed as arthritis [64 (34%) as focal osteoarthritis, 17 (9%) as ulnolunate abutment, 15 (8%) as rheumatoid arthritis, 2 as septic arthritis, 2 as SLAC, and 1 as gouty arthritis]. Seventy-two patients had occult fractures and in 27 patients avascular necrosis was seen. MR imaging can reveal various abnormalities in bone marrow of the wrist when findings on radiography are normal or equivocal. (orig.) With 17 figs., 13 refs.

  17. Incidence and Evaluation of Incidental Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Gunjan L. Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has resulted in reports of incidental abnormal bone marrow (BM signal. Our goal was to determine the evaluation of an incidental abnormal BM signal on MRI and the prevalence of a subsequent oncologic diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients over age 18 undergoing MRI between May 2005 and October 2010 at Tufts Medical Center (TMC with follow-up through November 2013. The electronic medical record was queried to determine imaging site, reason for scan, evaluation following radiology report, and final diagnosis. Results. 49,678 MRIs were done with 110 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Twenty two percent underwent some evaluation, most commonly a complete blood count, serum protein electrophoresis, or bone scan. With median follow-up of 41 months, 6% of patients were diagnosed with malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. One patient who had not undergone evaluation developed breast cancer 24 months after the MRI. Conclusions. Incidentally noted abnormal or heterogeneous bone marrow signal on MRI was not inconsequential and should prompt further evaluation.

  18. Osteoclast abnormalities in fractured bone during bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis: a case report.

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    Vigorita, V J V; Silver, J S; Eisemon, E O E

    2012-07-01

    Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of an array of bone disorders. Recent complications have included unusual femoral fractures in patients who have received long term bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. Although it has been shown that bisphosphonates are effective by blunting osteoclast resorption, there has been little morphologic description of the local tissue activity at the site of these unusual fractures. To evaluate for local changes to bone morphology at the fracture site in patients presenting with a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture, a sample of cortical bone was obtained at the site of a bisphosphonate fracture and was processed in a nondecalcified manner. The specimen was evaluated for potential cellular changes consistent with bisphosphonate treatment. Significant osteoclast abnormalities at the fracture site were found in a 69-year-old woman treated for 2 years with Fosamax substantiating that bone remodeling at this site is distinctly abnormal. Addressing the osteoclast dysfunction should be a focus of future therapeutic attention and intervention.

  19. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

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    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  20. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis

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    Resnick, D.; Williamson, S.; Alazraki, N.

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding.

  1. The calcimimetic AMG 641 abrogates parathyroid hyperplasia, bone and vascular calcification abnormalities in uremic rats.

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    Henley, Charles; Davis, James; Miller, Gerald; Shatzen, Edward; Cattley, Russ; Li, Xiaodong; Martin, David; Yao, Wei; Lane, Nancy; Shalhoub, Victoria

    2009-08-15

    Calcimimetics and vitamin D sterols reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving dialysis, a disease state associated with parathyroid hyperplasia, vascular calcification, bone disease, and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the research calcimimetic AMG 641 (Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA) or calcitriol (Sigma Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO) on vascular calcification in a rodent model of progressive uremia with accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary adenine. Treatment effects on parathyroid gland hyperplasia and bone loss were also investigated. Rats were treated daily with vehicle, calcitriol (10 ng), AMG 641 (3 mg/kg), or no treatment during the 4 week period the animals were fed adenine. The uremia-induced increases in serum PTH levels were significantly attenuated by both AMG 641 (>90%) and calcitriol (approximately 50%). AMG 641 significantly reduced calcium-phosphorus product (CaxP) and significantly attenuated the development of both parathyroid hyperplasia and vascular calcification. In addition, AMG 641 prevented the defects in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and bone mineralization, as well as increases in trabecular spacing in this rodent model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcitriol (10 ng/rat) decreased osteoid surface/bone surface, but had no effects on other bone parameters, or parathyroid hyperplasia (likely due to the lower PTH suppressive effect of calcitriol at the dose used in this study). However, this dose of calcitriol significantly exacerbated vascular calcification. These results suggest that calcimimetics can reduce the development of vascular calcification, parathyroid hyperplasia and bone abnormalities associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  2. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

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    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  3. Loss of fibulin-4 results in abnormal collagen fibril assembly in bone, caused by impaired lysyl oxidase processing and collagen cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takako; Stoop, Reinout; Sakai, Takao; Hess, Andreas; Deutzmann, Rainer; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Chu, Mon-Li; von der Mark, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibulin-4 has been shown to be indispensable for elastic fiber assembly, but there is also evidence from human mutations that it is involved in controlling skeletal development and bone stability. Fibulin-4 mutations were identified in patients suffering from vascular abnormality and/or cutis laxa, and some of these patients exhibited bone fragility, arachnodactyly and joint laxity. In order to elucidate the role of fibulin-4 in bone structure and skeletal development, we analyzed structural changes in skeletal tissues of Fbln4(-/-) mice. Immunostaining confirmed that fibulin-4 is highly expressed in cartilage, bone, ligaments and tendons. No morphological abnormalities were found in the skeleton of Fbln4(-/-) mice as compared to wild type littermates except forelimb contractures as well as unusually thick collagen fibrils. Furthermore, fibulin-4 deficiency caused enhanced susceptibility of bone collagen for acid extraction, consistent with significantly reduced lysylpyridinoline and hydroxylysylpyridinoline cross-links in bone. In accordance with that, the amount of lysyl oxidase in long bones and calvaria was strongly decreased and proteolytic activation of lysyl oxidase was reduced in fibulin-4 deficient osteoblasts, while addition of recombinant fibulin-4 rescued the activation. The finding suggested that fibulin-4 is important for the proteolytic activation of lysyl oxidase which has a pivotal role in cross-linking of collagen and elastin. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

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    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  5. Methods of intra-operative treatment of cranioplasty in patients with abnormal bone window flap pressure after decompressive craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Fei, Xifeng; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Dongyi; Chen, Hanchun; Wang, Zhimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the method of cranioplasty in patients with abnormal bone window pressure after decompressive craniectomy. We performed a retrospective analysis for 25 cases after decompressive craniectomy in patients with abnormal flap pressure of clinical data. Flap pressure increased in 15 cases, including 6 cases of hydrocephalus, 5 cases of contralateral subdural effusion, 2 cases of subdural effusion bone window, 2 cases of bone window cystic encephalomalacia communicating with the ventricle; Flap pressure decreased in 10 cases, including 6 cases of hydrocephalus after ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and 4 cases of low intracranial pressure. ALL of patients were treated by appropriate measures to make the operation smoothly. Our data suggest that after analysis of the factors for abnormal bone window flap pressure by decompressive craniectomy and symptomatic treatment, the difficulty of operation and operative complications can be reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  7. High prevalence of abnormal Pap smears among young women co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... HIV prevalence .rate was 24.5% (95% confidence interval: 20.7 - 28.7%) and the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 16.9- 6.4% ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 9.2% LGSIL (low-grade squamous intra epithelial lesions), and 1.3% HGSIL (high-grade squamous intraepitheliallesions).

  8. Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in kidney transplant patients--a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprague, S.M.; Belozeroff, V.; Danese, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    for English language articles published between January 1990 and October 2006 that contained Medical Subject Headings and key words related to secondary or persistent hyperparathyroidism and kidney transplant. RESULTS: Parathyroid hormone levels decreased significantly during the first 3 months after......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is common in patients with kidney failure and often persists after successful kidney transplant. METHODS: To better understand the natural history of this disease in transplant patients, we reviewed the literature by searching MEDLINE...... transplant but typically stabilized at elevated values after 1 year. Calcium tended to increase after transplant and then stabilize at the higher end of the normal range within 2 months. Phosphorus decreased rapidly to within or below normal levels after surgery and hypophosphatemia, if present, resolved...

  9. MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow as predictors of segmental instability of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, J.; Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Min, K. [Orthopedic University Clinic Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether MR abnormalities of the intervertebral disks and adjacent bone marrow can predict segmental instability of the lumbar spine as diagnosed on functional radiographs. Material and Methods: A consecutive review was made of 60 patients examined with MR imaging and with lateral flexion and extension views of the lumbar spine. Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were evaluated blindly with regard to abnormalities of the intervertebral disk and the adjacent bone marrow. Segmental instability was diagnosed when a.p. translation of 3 mm or more was present on the functional radiographs. Moreover, the presence of osteophytes was evaluated on lateral standard radiographs. Results: Of a total of 300 segments, 32 (10.7%) were unstable. Anular tears were the most relevant MR finding. Their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for segmental instability were 18.8%, 97.0%, 42.9% and 90.9%. The corresponding values for traction osteophytes were 12.5%, 98.1%, 44.4% and 90.4%. Abnormalities of bone marrow were not significantly related to segmental instability (p=0.35). Conclusion: Functional radiographs should be considered in patients with anular tears or traction osteophytes. No correlation was found between segmental instability and abnormalities of bone marrow adjacent to the endplates. (orig.).

  10. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MRI evaluation of abnormalities of subchondral bone after tibial condyle valgus osteotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Kazutaka; Mimura, Hiroshi; Yuge, Daishiro [Yamaguchi Central Hospital, Hofu (Japan); Teramoto, Tsukasa [Nagasaki Friendship Hospital, Sanwa (Japan); Taguchi, Katsuki [Goto Central Hospital, Fukue, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated subchondral low signal intence abnormality on T1-weighted MRI in the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteonecrosis (ON), of the knee after tibial condyle valgus osteotomy (TCVO). Subjects consisted of 11 OA patients, aged 71 on average (range: 66-79) and 3 ON patients, aged 59 on average (range:46-72). The MRI follow-up period was 18 months (range: 12-25) in the OA group and 17 months (range: 12-24) in the ON group. Clinical improvement was observed in all patients. Except for one patient in the OA group, T1-weighteed MRI showed low signal intense area in the medial compartment of the knee. At follow-up, the MRI evaluation revealed a decrease in the low signal intense areas in 9 of the 10 OA patients and in 2 of the 3 ON patients. These results suggest that bone remodelling of the subchondral lesion can be expected after decompression and stabilizing surgery, TCVO. (author)

  12. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Bieghs

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor (IGF signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM. In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6, leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS (n = 37, and control individuals (n = 15, using ELISA (IGFs and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs. MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5-3.8 fold and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6-0.5 fold in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration.

  13. Evaluation of the bone status in high-level cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Gérard; Chappard, Daniel; Audran, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone status in highly trained professional cyclists subjected to regular training and tough competitions. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at different regions of interest by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and main biological parameters related to bone metabolism were obtained in 29 cyclists. Lumbar BMD was 0.94 ± 0.01g/cm(2) (Z-score=-1.28 ± 0.07), and 1 cyclist out of 4 had an abnormally low value (Z-score cyclists (15%) had Z-scores cyclists had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Blood testosterone and thyroid stimulating hormone were in the normal range. Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were in the normal range; however, a significant inverse correlation was found with lumbar BMD (r=0.495; p=0.003). We confirm that cycling has no positive effect on BMD, BMD being often lower than in normal controls at the lumbar site; femoral BMD is less concerned. The absence of beneficial changes at the spine can be explained by biomechanical conditions related to the cyclists' position, reducing loading strains. It is necessary to pay greater attention to the bone status of high-level athletes to prevent an increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  15. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  16. Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; Fehlbildungen und Missbildungen des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum Kaiserslautern, Institut fuer Radiologie, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende CT ist das Verfahren der Wahl in der Diagnostik von Fehlbildungen des Mittel- und Innenohrs. Sie erlaubt die detaillierte Darstellung anatomischer Details und schafft die Voraussetzung fuer die unterschiedlichen Therapieoptionen. Durch detaillierte bildgebenden Analysen koennen die unterschiedlichsten Fehlbildungen beschrieben werden. Fehlbildungen mit einem nicht normal ausgebildeten Modiolus werden als fruehere embryologische Schaedigungen als die klassische Mondini-Dysplasie angesehen. Die wesentliche therapeutische Option bei Mittelohrfehlbildung bleibt das Kochleaimplantat. Die Domaene der MRT liegt nicht nur in der Analyse des N. cochlearis und im Ausschluss von Fibrosierungen oder Ossifikationen des Labyrinths, sondern darueber hinaus ist sie in der Lage, Details einzelner

  17. A Modified Technique of Fixation for Proximal Femoral Valgus Osteotomy in Abnormal Bone: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logheswaren S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal size of intramedullary device to fix corrective osteotomy of proximal femur in abnormal bone in children and small patients may not be easily available. We report the successful use of Rush rod in combination with multiple Kirschner wires to fix the corrective osteotomy of coxa vara and shepherd crook deformity in two patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and fibrous dysplasia. The union was achieved on time, neck shaft angle and rotation were maintained.

  18. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.

  19. Dyslipidemic high-fat diet affects adversely bone metabolism in mice associated with impaired antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Cui, Jue; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Wang, Bin; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Zhou-Ping

    2011-02-01

    The present study examined impacts of dyslipidemic high-fat diet on the bone antioxidant system and bone metabolism in growing mice. Furthermore, the relationship was studied between them. Male C57BL/6 mice (4 wk old) were fed with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with 0.1% antioxidant lipoic acid (LA). After 13-wk feeding, the markers of plasma lipids status, bone metabolism in plasma and in urine, and femora oxidative stress were measured. To provide molecular evidence for abnormal bone metabolism affected by HFD, bone cell-specific mRNA levels were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor I and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and their mRNA levels in femur were measured. The feeding dyslipidemic HFD induced both inhibitory bone formation reactions and enhancement of bone resorption reactions, accompanied by impaired bone antioxidant system, low levels of insulin-like growth factor I in plasma and in bone, and high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma but not in bone. In contrast, these alternatives were prevented completely or partially in mice fed LA supplement. Further, plasma propeptide of І collagen C-propeptide as a marker of bone formation was positively correlated with both total antioxidant capacity (r=0.683, Pbone. Cross-linked N-telopeptides of bone type І collagen as a marker of bone resorption was negatively correlated with both total antioxidant capacity (r=-0.753, Pbone antioxidant system. Oxidative stress could be an important mediator of hyperlipidemia-induced bone loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  1. Differential gene expression profile associated with the abnormality of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    Full Text Available Aplastic anemia (AA is generally considered as an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome with defective hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and marrow microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated the defective HSCs and aberrant T cellular-immunity in AA using a microarray approach. However, little is known about the overall specialty of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. In the present study, we comprehensively compared the biological features and gene expression profile of BM-MSCs between AA patients and healthy volunteers. In comparison with healthy controls, BM-MSCs from AA patients showed aberrant morphology, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased apoptosis. BM-MSCs from AA patients were susceptible to be induced to differentiate into adipocytes but more difficult to differentiate into osteoblasts. Consistent with abnormal biological features, a large number of genes implicated in cell cycle, cell division, proliferation, chemotaxis and hematopoietic cell lineage showed markedly decreased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. Conversely, more related genes with apoptosis, adipogenesis and immune response showed increased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. The gene expression profile of BM-MSCs further confirmed the abnormal biological properties and provided significant evidence for the possible mechanism of the destruction of the bone marrow microenvironment in AA.

  2. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/- and Klotho(-/- (Kl(-/- mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/- mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/- mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/- (Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- or DKO mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/- mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-, but not of Fgf23(-/- mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions into

  3. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed...

  4. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  5. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and detection of infected bone marrow cells in asymptomatic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Baba, Kenji; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2009-05-12

    Peripheral blood cytopenia such as anemia, leukopenia with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although previous studies report that cytopenia has been observed in FIV-infected symptomatic cats, yet the asymptomatic cats also present cytopenia occasionally. In the present study, hematological and virological analyses in FIV-infected asymptomatic cats were carried out to understand the prevalence and pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia in FIV infection. Hematological abnormalities were detected in 24 of 50 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats (48%) in which no other cause of cytopenia than FIV infection was observed. Anemia only, neutropenia only, thrombocytopenia only, bicytopenia and pancytopenia were observed in 10%, 10%, 6%, 14% and 8%, respectively. Bone marrow (BM) examination was performed in 8 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats with peripheral blood cytopenia. Myeloid dysplasia was observed in 4 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia presented morphological abnormalities of megakaryocytes. FIV-infected BM cells in the 8 cats were analyzed by PCR and immunocytochemistry. Lobulated mononuclear cells in BM were infected with FIV in 5 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia showed FIV-infected megakaryocytes. Parts of isolated stromal cells from BM were infected with FIV in all the 8 cats. Present results suggest that FIV infection of BM cells can cause peripheral blood cytopenia and myelodysplasia even if the cat is asymptomatic. Such FIV-related hematological abnormalities are supposed to be diagnosed as FIV-myelopathy.

  6. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B

    2016-01-01

    ) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP...

  7. Abnormal body composition and reduced bone mass in growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshyah, S A; Freemantle, C; Thomas, E; Rutherford, O; Page, B; Murphy, M; Johnston, D G

    1995-02-01

    The role of growth hormone in maintaining normal body composition and bone strength in adults has attracted much interest recently. We have assessed body composition and bone mass in GH deficient hypopituitary adults on conventional replacement therapy and compared them with matched controls. A cross-sectional study of 64 growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults (29 males and 35 females) on conventional replacement therapy and a large number of healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Skinfold thicknesses at two sites (triceps and subscapular), waist and hip girth circumferences were assessed by standard methods. Body composition was assessed using total body potassium (TBK), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral mass was assessed at the lumbar spine and the total body by DEXA. Not every patient and control participated in every measurement. Obesity was common in the hypopituitary patients; BMI (mean +/- SD) was 27.5 +/- 4.6 kg/m2 and body weight was 111.8 +/- 18.5% of the maximal ideal for height (P body weight was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 44) than in controls (n = 31) (men 43.5 +/- 5.6 vs 50.1 +/- 5.9 mmol/kg, P body water content (corrected for body weight) was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 56) than in controls (n = 57) (0.492 +/- 0.064 vs 0.545 +/- 0.067 l/kg, P body fat derived from all the three methods was significantly higher in hypopituitary patients than in normal controls in both sexes (from TBK: men 34.7 +/- 9.4 vs 28.8 +/- 7.0%, P fat in both sexes and in TBK-derived percentage fat in females only. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in the L2-L4 region was lower in hypopituitary patients than in controls (men 1.116 +/- 0.129 vs 1.311 +/- 0.131 g/cm2, P body BMD was significantly lower in patients than in controls (men 1.186 +/- 0.102 vs 1.250 +/- 0.080 g/cm2, P body composition with increased fat

  8. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  9. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Abnormal Bone Acquisition With Early-Life HIV Infection: Role of Immune Activation and Senescent Osteogenic Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, John S; Arpadi, Stephen; Tharmarajah, Shenthuraan; Shah, Jayesh; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Foca, Marc; Neu, Natalie; Bell, David L; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Kousteni, Stavroula; Yin, Michael T

    2016-11-01

    Chronic immune activation associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may have negative consequences on bone acquisition in individuals infected with HIV early in life. Bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture were characterized in 38 HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (18 perinatally-infected, 20 adolescence-infected) and 20 uninfected men age 20 to 25 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT). Flow cytometry was utilized to measure CD4+/CD8+ activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28-CD57+) and to quantify circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using antibodies to RUNX2 and osteocalcin (OCN). Telomere lengths were measured in sorted COP cells using qPCR. DXA-derived areal BMD Z-scores and HRpQCT-derived volumetric BMD (vBMD) measures were lower in HIV-infected than uninfected men. Proportion of activated and senescent CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were higher in HIV-infected than uninfected men. The percentage of COP cells (mean ± SE) was lower in HIV-infected than uninfected (0.19% ± 0.02% versus 0.43% ± 0.06%; p < 0.0001) men, and also lower in perinatally-infected than adolescence-infected men (0.15% ± 0.02% versus 0.22% ± 0.03%; p < 0.04). A higher proportion of COP cells correlated with higher bone stiffness, a measure of bone strength, whereas a higher proportion of activated CD4+ T cells correlated with lower BMD and stiffness and lower proportion of COP cells. T cell activation with HIV-infection was associated with decreased numbers of osteogenic precursors as well as lower peak bone mass and bone strength. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of abnormal bone mineral metabolism in recently diagnosed adult celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sudheer D; Jain, Kapil; Kochhar, Rakesh; Bhadada, Sanjay K; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Bhansali, Anil; Dutta, Usha; Nain, Chander K; Singh, Kartar

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in recently diagnosed adult celiac patients and to identify the factors associated with this. We investigated 54 newly diagnosed adult celiac patients between February 2008 and April 2009. BMD was measured in all patients and its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters was analyzed. Fifty-four (24 male) newly diagnosed celiac patients with a mean±SD age of 30.6 ± 9.3 years (range 18-50) were included. Thirty-nine (72.2 %) presented with intestinal symptoms, and the rest with extraintestinal symptoms. Low vitamin D levels were seen in 11 (20.3 %) patients and elevated iPTH (secondary hyperparathyroidism) in 12 (22.2 %) patients. Twenty-one (39 %) patients had normal BMD, 23 (43 %) had osteopenia (T-score -1 to -2.5), and 10 (18 %) patients had osteoporosis (T-score celiac patients with approximately one fifth of them having osteoporosis. BMD should be measured in all newly diagnosed celiac patients and calcium and vitamin D supplementation included in the treatment regimen.

  12. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U,. Thawornchinsombut. S,. Pannangpetch P. Rice bran protein hydrolysates improve insulin resistance and decrease pro- inflammatory cytokine gene expression in rats fed a high carbohydrate-high fat diet. Nutrients 2015; 7(8): 6313-. 6329. 20. Kim SM, Rico CW, Lee SC, Kang MY. Modulatory effect of rice bran and phytic ...

  13. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  14. High resolution Ca/P maps of bone architecture in 3D synchrotron radiation microtomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzaphlidou, M. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, PO Box 1186, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)]. E-mail: mtzaphli@cc.uoi.gr; Speller, R. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Olivo, A. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Pani, S. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck and tibia of different animal species, using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Also, by comparing normal and abnormal bones, i.e. osteoporotic (induced by inflammation), changes in the Ca/P ratio brought about by bone diseases can be detected. MicroCT data sets were collected at 20 and 28keV for each bone sample and two calibration phantoms. From the 3D data sets, multiple 2D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of {approx}30{mu}m. Regions of interest were defined around suitable sites and were converted to Ca/P ratios using the data collected from the test phantoms. A significant difference (p0.001) between osteoporotics and age-matched normals at both energies was detected. Differences between different bone sites from the same animal are not significant (p>0.5) while those between the same bone sites from different animals are highly significant (p0.001). Differences between estimates made at 20 and 28keV are not significant (p>0.5). An important aspect is the ability to map the spatial distribution of the Ca/P ratio.

  15. Electrocardiography-inclusive screening strategies for detection of cardiovascular abnormalities in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David E; McWilliams, Andrew; Asif, Irfan M; Martin, Anthony; Elliott, Spencer D; Dulin, Michael; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2014-03-01

    The best protocol for cardiovascular preparticipation screening (PPS) in young athletes is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of integrating electrocardiographic (ECG) testing with standard history and physical examination during PPS to identify potentially serious cardiovascular abnormalities in young athletes. A total of 2017 high school athletes seeking clearance for competitive sports were prospectively evaluated using a standardized history and physical examination, 12-lead ECG, and two-dimensional echocardiogram (echo). Primary outcome measures included the identification of cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Secondary outcome measures included identification of abnormal, but nonlethal, cardiac conditions that required medical follow-up. Of these athletes, 14.7% had an abnormal history or physical examination and 3.1% had an abnormal ECG based on modern ECG interpretation criteria. Five primary outcomes (1 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 4 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) and four secondary outcomes were identified. History and physical examination detected 40% of primary and 50% of secondary abnormalities. ECG detected all five primary abnormalities but none of the secondary abnormalities. Echo was abnormal in 1.2% and detected one primary and four secondary abnormalities. The false-positive rates for primary and secondary outcomes for history and physical examination and ECG were 14.5% and 2.8%, respectively. ECG adds value to PPS through increased detection of arrhythmogenic and structural cardiovascular conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Use of modern ECG interpretation standards allows a low false-positive rate. Routine echo may detect other clinically important cardiac abnormalities, but its role in PPS remains uncertain. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Daniel S.; Ince, Can; Goedhart, Peter; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Grocott, Mike P. W.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  17. Prevalence of spinal abnormalities among the male junior high school students of Kermanshah city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Pirani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skeletal abnormalities affect physical efficiency and fitness during daily life and sports activities. This research was carried out to evaluate different spinal abnormalities of male junior high school students. Methods: The study population comprised of male junior high school students in Kermanshah, Iran, among whom 390 students were selected by cluster sampling. The required data were collected by spinal examination using New York test, Thomas test, Adam’s test, and flexible ruler, and the data of somatotypes were collected by Sheldon method. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The results showed that 18.93% of students were in normal physical condition, and 81.03% of them suffered from at least one kind of abnormality. Among spinal abnormalities, the sway back and flat back abnormalities (2.56% were found to have the lowest prevalence and right shoulder dropping (65.64% and hyperlordosis (38.46% were found to have the highest prevalence. Regarding their body type, 61.8% of the samples were ectomorphic, 21.79% were endomorphic, and 16.41% were mesomorphic. Conclusion: The findings showed a high incidence of abnormalities among students. Although this level of prevalence is less than those of some other societies, it is obviously indicative of a lack of sufficient attention to the physical health of students.

  18. Transient tone abnormalities in high risk infants and cognitive outcome at five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sudha; Bhalerao, Mangalmurti; Chitale, Anjali; Patil, Bharati; Pandit, Anand; Hoge, Mahendra

    2010-11-01

    to identify transient tone abnormalities and determine its prevalence in high risk infants and their cognitive outcome at 5 years. prospective cohort observational study. high risk infants discharged from a level II neonatal unit in a 12 month period, and followed upto 5 years. High risk infants and normal controls were assessed for abnormalities of tone using the method described by Amiel Tison at 3, 6, 9, 12 months. An IQ by Stanford Binet method and a preschool inventory by Ayres, Bobath was done at 5 years. Those infants who had normal tone at 6 and 12 months were called normal high risk (HR) group and those who had abnormalities at 6 months, which disappeared at 12 months, were called the transient tone abnormalities (TTA) group. out of 190 high risk infants, 113 were normal HR and 67 (35.2%) were labeled as TTA. Ten infants with cerebral palsy had abnormal tone throughout the first year. Controls had normal tone throughout the follow-up period. Although there was no difference in the IQ of the TTA group (98.5 ± 12.4) and the normal HR (99.1 ± 13.1) group, it was significantly less (P=0.04) than that of controls (106.1 ± 9.1). Preschool inventory in TTA children showed poor language development (P=0.014). many of the tone abnormalities detected at 6 months resolve by 12 months, hence a hasty diagnosis of cerebral palsy should not be made. High risk infants with transient tone abnormalities have a normal cognitive outcome at 5 years, except for poor language skills.

  19. Method of curved surface abnormal holes vision measurement based on high precision turntable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Laipeng; Bi, Chao; Fang, Jianguo; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    For solving the difficult problem that there is no effective way to measure abnormal holes located at blade erection loop of aero-engine case, an image measurement system based on high precision air-bearing turntable is established in this paper. The issue that monocular vision can't measure curved surface has overcome by using high precision turntable to make sure high positioning accuracy of the surface abnormal holes and high-resolution microscope lens which is used to image local tiny features. Besides, an algorithm of determining the boundary points of a trailing edge on the contour of abnormal hole is proposed to achieve a rapid fitting and accuracy. After experiments and analysis, results show that the system can be used to measure local tiny features on curved surfaces validly and efficiently.

  20. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kušec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-01-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease. PMID:16311361

  1. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    and internal waves may cause zooplankton abundance. Average biomass values in high sea surface temperature areas were higher (0.30 ml.m/3) than at the other stations (0.07 ml.m/3). Crustacean eggs, fish eggs and mysids clustered in pockets of abnormally high...

  2. Peripubertal female athletes in high-impact sports show improved bone mass acquisition and bone geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Philibert, Pascal; Briot, Karine; Mura, Thibault; Galtier, Florence; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Paris, Françoise; Sultan, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intensive physical training may have a sport-dependent effect on bone mass acquisition. This cross-sectional study evaluated bone mass acquisition in girls practicing sports that put different mechanical loads on bone. Eighty girls from 10.7 to 18.0 years old (mean 13.83 ± 1.97) were recruited: 20 artistic gymnasts (AG; high-impact activity), 20 rhythmic gymnasts (RG; medium-impact activity), 20 swimmers (SW, no-impact activity), and 20 age-matched controls (CON; leisure physical activity gymnast groups compared with SW and CON. In RG only, endocortical diameter and width were reduced, while Z was only increased in AG compared with SW and CON. Reduced bone remodeling was observed in RG compared with AG only when groups were subdivided according to menarcheal status. All groups showed similar OPG concentrations, while RANKL concentrations increased with age and were decreased in SW. High-impact activity clearly had a favorable effect on aBMD and bone geometry during the growth period, although the bone health benefits seem to be more marked after menarche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecka-Czernik, B; Stechschulte, L A; Czernik, P J; Dowling, A R

    2015-07-15

    Obesity is generally recognized as a condition which positively influences bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Positive effect of high body mass index (BMI) on bone has been recognized as a result of increased mechanical loading exerted on the skeleton. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is associated with increased incidence of fractures. The results presented here offer a new perspective regarding the mechanisms which may be responsible for the increase of bone mass and concurrent decrease in bone quality. Two groups of 12 week old C57BL/6 males were fed either high fat diet (HFD) or regular diet (RD) for 11 weeks. Metabolic profile, bone parameters and gene expression were assessed in these groups at the end of the experiment. Additionally, bone status was evaluated in a third group of 12 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the feeding period. Administration of HFD resulted in development of a diet-induced obesity (DIO), glucose intolerance, alteration in energy metabolism, and impairment in WAT function, as compared to the age-matched control animals fed RD. The expression of adiponectin, FABP4/aP2, DIO2 and FoxC2 were decreased in WAT of DIO animals, as well as transcript levels for IGFBP2, the cytokine regulating both energy metabolism and bone mass. At the end of experiment, DIO mice had higher bone mass than both control groups on RD, however they had decreased bone formation, as assessed by calcein labeling, and increased marrow adipocyte content. This study suggests that the bone mass acquired in obesity is a result of a two-phase process. First phase would consist of either beneficial effect of fat expansion to increase bone mass by increased mechanical loading and/or increased production of bone anabolic adipokines and/or nutritional effect of fatty acids. This is followed by a second phase characterized by decreased bone formation and bone turnover resulting from development of metabolic impairment

  4. Functional abnormality of the auditory brainstem in high-risk late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze D; Ping, Li L; Wilkinson, Andrew R

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether late preterm infants with perinatal problems are at risk of brainstem auditory impairment. 68 high-risk late preterm infants (gestation 33-36 weeks) with perinatal problems or conditions were studied at term using maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response. The controls were 41 normal term infants and 37 low-risk late preterm infants. Compared with normal term infants, the high-risk late preterm infants demonstrated a significant abnormal increase in MLS BAER variables that mainly reflect more central function of the brainstem auditory pathway, including wave V latency, III-V and I-V interpeak intervals, and III-V/I-III interval ratio. The abnormalities were more significant at higher than at lower click rates. The slopes of MLS BAER-rate function for these variables were increased. Compared with low-risk late preterm infants, the high-risk infants showed similar, though slightly less significant, abnormalities, mainly a significant increase in III-V and I-V intervals. Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response components that mainly reflect central function of the auditory brainstem were abnormal at term in high-risk late preterm infants. More central regions of the auditory brainstem are impaired in high-risk late preterm infants, which is mainly caused by associated perinatal problems or conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Craniosynostosis-Associated Fgfr2C342Y Mutant Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Cell Autonomous Abnormalities in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that cranial bones of craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons.

  6. High prevalence of genetic abnormalities in Middle Eastern patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalabi, Marwan; Kenj, Mazen; Monem, Fawza; Mahayri, Zaina; Abou Alchamat, Ghalia; Madania, Ammar

    2013-06-01

    Our objective is to detect the frequency and types of major genetic abnormalities of idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) to give appropriate genetic counseling before assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in Middle East and to compare the frequencies with other regions of the world. A total of 880 Middle Eastern patients with NOA were recruited in this multicenter study for genetic evaluation prior to use of ART. Karyotyping was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes according to standard G-banding methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to screen the microdeletions in the AZF region of the Y chromosome. The present study shows that the total prevalence of genetic abnormalities is 28.41 %, including 184 patients (20.91 %) with chromosome disorder and 66 patients (7.5 %) with Y chromosome microdeletions. The most prevalent chromosome abnormality is Klinefelter's syndrome, which includes 161 patients (18.3 %), 7 patients had XX reversal male sex (0.8 %), 2 patients had 47XYY (0.23 %) and 2 patients had 45XO/46XY (0.23 %). Structural abnormalities occurred in 12 patients (1.36 %). The high prevalence of genetic abnormalities (28.41 %) in our study strongly suggests the need for routine genetic testing and counseling prior to assisted reproduction in such population with idiopathic infertility, as a result may help determine the prognosis, as well as the choice of ART. Moreover it allows specific pre-implantation genetic testing to minimize the risk of transmitting genetic defects to offspring.

  7. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL...

  8. High-fat diet causes bone loss in young mice by promoting osteoclastogenesis through alteration of the bone marrow environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.

  9. Role of clozapine in the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in human bone-marrow cells in vivo and in cultured lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuutila, S; Helminen, E; Knuutila, L; Leisti, S; Siimes, M; Tammisto, P; Westermarck, T

    1977-08-31

    Bone-marrow chromosomes were examined from 38 mentally and physically retarded and two psychiatric patients who were being treated with a variety of neuropharmacologic drugs. Twenty of these patients used clozapine (Leponex). The clastogenic effects of clozapine in vitro were studied in the lymphocyte cultures of three patients--one free of hematologic disease and two who 6 months earlier had had agranulocytosis attributed to the use of clozapine. The mean frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in the bone-marrow cells of patients who used clozapine was significantly increased (P less than 0.05). The two patients who had had agranulocytosis had a greater frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in their cultured lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro than the patient free of hematologic disease. A clone with a 13/14 chromosome translocation was detected in one of the patients. As all patients received a number of drugs during the in vivo and in vitro studies no definite conclusions could be drawn regarding the role played by clozapine in the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities.

  10. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory.

  11. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is highly effective for excluding bone metastases even in patients with equivocal bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortot, Daniel C.; Amorim, Barbara J.; Oki, Glaucia C.; Santos, Allan O.; Lima, Mariana C.L.; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Ramos, Celso Dario [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Avenue Zeferino Vaz, S/N., PO Box 6149, Campinas (Brazil); Gapski, Sergio B. [Medicina Nuclear Diagnostico e Terapia, Nuclear Medicine Clinic, Campinas (Brazil); Barboza, Marycel F.; Mengatti, Jair [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN)-CNEN, Radiopharmacy Directory, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) has been used extensively for many years for the diagnosis of bone metastases despite its low specificity and significant rate of equivocal lesions. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT has been proven to have a high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant bone lesions, but its effectiveness in patients with inconclusive lesions on BS is not well documented. This study evaluated the ability of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT to exclude bone metastases in patients with various malignant primary tumours and nonspecific findings on BS. We prospectively studied 42 patients (34-88 years of age, 26 women) with different types of tumour. All patients had BS performed for staging or restaging purposes but with inconclusive findings. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT. All abnormalities identified on BS images were visually compared with their appearance on the PET/CT images. All the 96 inconclusive lesions found on BS images of the 42 patients were identified on PET/CT images. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT correctly excluded bone metastases in 23 patients (68 lesions). Of 19 patients (28 lesions) classified by PET/CT as having metastases, 3 (5 lesions) were finally classified as free of bone metastases on follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT were, respectively, 100 %, 88 %, 84 % and 100 % for the identification of patients with metastases (patient analysis) and 100 %, 82 % and 100 % for the identification of metastatic lesions (lesion analysis). The factors that make BS inconclusive do not affect {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT which shows a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for excluding bone metastases even in patients with inconclusive conventional BS. (orig.)

  12. Low bone mineral density and high bone metabolism turnover in premenopausal women with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijević, Milan; Petronijević, Natasa; Ivković, Maja; Stefanović, Dusan; Radonjić, Nevena; Glisić, Branislava; Ristić, Gorica; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Paunović, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    The majority of studies reporting decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with unipolar depression neglected sex and age differences and menopause as the most important risk factor for osteoporosis. We presumed that physically healthy premenopausal women with unipolar depression have decreased BMD and altered bone cell metabolism. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry, bone alkaline phosphatase sera activity, 5b-tartarate resistant acid phosphatase sera activity and urine N-terminal telopeptide were measured in 73 premenopausal women with unipolar depression and compared with 47 healthy, age- and osteoporosis risk factors-matched premenopausal women. The duration and severity of depression, hormonal status (cortisol, prolactin, parathormone, oestradiol), antidepressive treatment, and physical activity through whole and modified QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire were evaluated. The results were statistically elaborated by the chi-square test, Student's t-test for independent samples, one-way analysis of variance - ANOVA, one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were assessed by means of Pearson's coefficient. Patients with unipolar depression had significantly lower BMD, the decrease of which correlated only with the duration of depression. High bone metabolism turnover was found with a predomination of osteoresorption which, but not osteosynthesis, correlated with the severity of depression, estimated through Hamilton depression scores. Despite higher but not significant levels of cortisol in women with unipolar depression, the BMD decrease and high bone turnover seem not to be the consequence of hormonal changes or medical treatment. The significant correlations between physical activity and osteoresorption markers were found indicating possible underlying mechanism. Premenopausal women with unipolar depression have significantly lower BMD because of stimulated bone cell metabolism with predomination of osteoresorption process

  13. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Bone Cysts After Osteochondral Allograft Repair of Cartilage Defects in Goats Suggest Abnormal Interaction Between Subchondral Bone and Overlying Synovial Joint Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCA) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12 months in vivo. The ob...

  15. High-calcium exposure to frog heart: a simple model representing hypercalcemia-induced ECG abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-01-20

    By simply adding a high concentration of calcium solution to the surface of the bullfrog heart, we reproduced electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities representing those observed in hypercalcemia, such as Osborn waves and shortening of the QT interval. The rise in extracellular calcium concentration may have activated the outward potassium currents during phase 3 of the action potential, and thus decreased its duration. In addition to the known decrease in the duration of phase 2, such changes in phase 3 were also likely to contribute to the shortening of the QT interval. The dual recordings of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and the ECG waves enabled us to demonstrate the mechanisms of ECG abnormalities induced by hypercalcemia.

  16. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  17. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  18. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. High proportion of abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia in women with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Reynaud, Quitterie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaëlle; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Mekki, Yahia; Golfier, François; Durieu, Isabelle

    2017-12-09

    Insufficient gynecological follow-up and cervical screening has been reported in women with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some of these patients will require a pulmonary transplantation, known to be associated with a higher risk of cervical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to explore the results of cervical screening in adult women with CF, and to report the prevalence of abnormal pap smear tests in this population. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of sexually active women with CF who attended a gynecological consultation in Lyon University CF referral center between June 2014 and December 2015. The primary outcome was the result of the pap smear test. Forty-seven women (32 non-transplanted and 15 transplanted) were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 28 (range 18-53). The clinical examination revealed that 20 (42.5%) women presented an abnormality (inflammatory cervix, cervical or vulvovaginal condyloma). An abnormal pap smear was found in 8/32 (25%) non transplanted women and in 5/15 (33.3%) transplanted women, with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.75): seven atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), five low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), one atypical glandular cells (AGC). Six (12.8%) (four non transplanted, and two transplanted) women had an histologically proven dysplasia (four Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)1, one CIN2, and one endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ). Overall, ten (21.3%) women had a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) related disease (cervical and/or vulvovaginal). A high proportion of transplanted and non-transplanted women with CF had abnormal pap smear tests and cervical dysplasia. A regular gynaecological follow-up, periodic cervical screening, and routine HPV vaccination are strongly recommended in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  1. Abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer by gastric bleeding during {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We present a case in which a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastritis demonstrated abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer during {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy. A hemorrhagic gastritis was subsequently demonstrated by endoscopy. The mechanism for the intestinal localization of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in this patients is not clear, but we guess that the extravasated blood containing the radiopharmaceutical cannot recirculate and stays at the bleeding site, so we can see the intestinal activity.

  2. Injectable PolyHIPEs as High Porosity Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Robert S.; Holm, Jennifer L.; Sears, Nicholas A.; Wilson, Caitlin J.; Harrison, Dawn M.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) is a relatively new method for the production of high porosity scaffolds. The tunable architecture of these polyHIPE foams make them attractive candidates for tissue engineered bone grafts. Previously studied polyHIPE systems require either toxic diluents or high cure temperatures which prohibit their use as an injectable bone graft. In contrast, we have developed an injectable polyHIPE that cures at physiological temperatures to a rigid, high-porosity foam. First, a biodegradable macromer, propylene fumarate dimethacrylate (PFDMA), was synthesized that has appropriate viscosity and hydrophobicity for emulsification. The process of surfactant selection is detailed with particular focus on the key structural features of both polymer (log P values, hydrogen bond acceptor sites) and surfactant (HLB values, hydrogen bond donor sites) that enable stable HIPE formation. Incubation of HIPEs at 37°C was used to initiate radical crosslinking of the unsaturated double bond of the methacrylate groups to polymerize the continuous phase and lock in the emulsion geometry. The resulting polyHIPEs exhibited ~75% porosity, pore sizes ranging from 4 to 29 μm, and an average compressive modulus and strength of 33 and 5 MPa, respectively. These findings highlight the great potential of these scaffolds as injectable, tissue engineered bone grafts. PMID:21861465

  3. Injectable polyHIPEs as high-porosity bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Robert S; Holm, Jennifer L; Sears, Nicholas A; Wilson, Caitlin J; Harrison, Dawn M; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2011-10-10

    Polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) is a relatively new method for the production of high-porosity scaffolds. The tunable architecture of these polyHIPE foams makes them attractive candidates for tissue engineered bone grafts. Previously studied polyHIPE systems require either toxic diluents or high cure temperatures which prohibit their use as an injectable bone graft. In contrast, we have developed an injectable polyHIPE that cures at physiological temperatures to a rigid, high-porosity foam. First, a biodegradable macromer, propylene fumarate dimethacrylate (PFDMA), was synthesized that has appropriate viscosity and hydrophobicity for emulsification. The process of surfactant selection is detailed with particular focus on the key structural features of both polymer (logP values, hydrogen bond acceptor sites) and surfactant (HLB values, hydrogen bond donor sites) that enable stable HIPE formation. Incubation of HIPEs at 37 °C was used to initiate radical cross-linking of the unsaturated double bond of the methacrylate groups to polymerize the continuous phase and lock in the emulsion geometry. The resulting polyHIPEs exhibited ~75% porosity, pore sizes ranging from 4 to 29 μm, and an average compressive modulus and strength of 33 and 5 MPa, respectively. These findings highlight the great potential of these scaffolds as injectable, tissue engineered bone grafts.

  4. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  5. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  6. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  7. Increased bone resorption and impaired bone microarchitecture in short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Janina M; Kiefer, Florian W; Varga, Peter; Pail, Pamela; Rauner, Martina; Stupphann, Daniela; Resch, Heinrich; Moser, Doris; Zysset, Philippe K; Stulnig, Thomas M; Pietschmann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Although obesity traditionally has been considered a condition of low risk for osteoporosis, this classic view has recently been questioned. The aim of this study was to assess bone microarchitecture and turnover in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n = 18) were randomized into 3 diet groups. One third (n = 6) received a low-fat diet for 24 weeks, one third was kept on an extended high-fat diet (eHF), and the remaining was switched from low-fat to high-fat chow 3 weeks before sacrifice (sHF). Serum levels of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, and cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) were measured. In addition, bone microarchitecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography; and lumbar spine bone density was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin were significantly elevated in obese animals (sHF: +48%, +24%, +265%, and +102%; eHF: +43%, +52%, +761%, and +292%). The CTX, body weight, insulin, and leptin showed a negative correlation with bone density and bone volume. Interestingly, short-term high-fat chow caused similar bone loss as extended high-fat feeding. Bone volume was decreased by 12% in sHF and 19% in eHF. Bone mineral density was 25% (sHF) and 27% (eHF) lower when compared with control mice on low-fat diet. As assessed by the structure model index, bone microarchitecture changed from plate- to rod-like appearance upon high-fat challenge. Trabecular and cortical thickness remained unaffected. Short-term and extended high-fat diet-induced obesity caused significant bone loss in male C57BL/6J mice mainly because of resorptive changes in trabecular architecture. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  10. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High strain rate response of rabbit femur bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Gupta, Nikhil; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-11-16

    Strain rate dependence of the mechanical response of hard tissues has led to a keen interest in their dynamic properties. The current study attempts to understand the high strain rate characteristics of rabbit femur bones. The testing was conducted using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar equipped with a high speed imaging system to capture the fracture patterns. The bones were also characterized under quasi-static compression to enable comparison with the high strain rate results. The quasi-static compressive moduli of the epiphyseal and diaphyseal regions were measured to be in the range of 2-3 and 5-7GPa, respectively. Under high strain rate loading conditions the modulus is observed to increase with strain rate and attains values as high as 15GPa for epiphyseal and 30GPa for diaphyseal regions of the femur. The strength at high strain rate was measured to be about twice the quasi-static strength value. A large number of small cracks initiated on the specimen surface close to the incident bar. Coalescence of crack branches leading to fewer large cracks resulted in specimen fragmentation. In comparison, the quasi-static failure was due to shear cracking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors associated with developmental abnormalities among high-risk children attended at a multidisciplinary clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resegue, Rosa; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da

    2008-01-02

    Knowledge of risk factors associated with child development disorders is essential for delivering high-quality childcare. The objective here was to evaluate the relationships between risk factors and occurrences of developmental abnormalities among children attended at a reference clinic for children at risk of developmental abnormalities. Retrospective study at a multidisciplinary reference center, Embu, São Paulo. All cases followed up for more than three months between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. The risk factors assessed were low birth weight, gestational age, length of stay in neonatal ward, perinatal asphyxia, mothers age 5 days, prematurity and mothers age 18 years and older. Low birth weight, history of perinatal asphyxia and mothers age continued to be significant in multivariate analysis. Special attention must be paid to the development of low birth weight infants and/or infants with histories of neonatal complications. Low birth weight is easily assessed and should be considered to be an important marker when defining guidelines for following up child development.

  13. Risk factors associated with developmental abnormalities among high-risk children attended at a multidisciplinary clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Resegue

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of risk factors associated with child development disorders is essential for delivering high-quality childcare. The objective here was to evaluate the relationships between risk factors and occurrences of developmental abnormalities among children attended at a reference clinic for children at risk of developmental abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at a multidisciplinary reference center, Embu, São Paulo. METHODS: All cases followed up for more than three months between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. The risk factors assessed were low birth weight, gestational age, length of stay in neonatal ward, perinatal asphyxia, mother’s age 5 days, prematurity and mother’s age 18 years and older. Low birth weight, history of perinatal asphyxia and mother’s age continued to be significant in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Special attention must be paid to the development of low birth weight infants and/or infants with histories of neonatal complications. Low birth weight is easily assessed and should be considered to be an important marker when defining guidelines for following up child development.

  14. Noninvasive prenatal testing: more caution in counseling is needed in high risk pregnancies with ultrasound abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneda, Beatrice; Steindl, Katharina; Masood, Rahim; Reshetnikova, Irina; Krejci, Pavel; Baldinger, Rosa; Reissmann, Regina; Taralczak, Malgorzata; Guetg, Adriano; Wisser, Josef; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Rauch, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is increasingly being used in prenatal aneuploidy screening. The objective of this study was to assess the positive predictive value in our cohort of 68 cases with positive NIPT result. In addition, we wondered if the use of NIPT in cases with ultrasound abnormalities is appropriate, given the limited number of chromosomes investigated. We performed confirmative invasive testing using karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis. In line with the published data, the positive NIPT result was confirmed in 64.7% of cases. Inconclusive and negative NIPT results followed by cytogenetically pathologic findings were encountered in three and in five cases, respectively. Four of the five fetuses with negative NIPT but pathologic cytogenetic findings were born with several malformations and diagnosed right after birth with severe genetic conditions. Of note, in all of those four cases, NIPT was offered despite the finding of major fetal ultrasound abnormalities and despite the fact that the family would not have opposed invasive testing or pregnancy termination. More education of health care providers and caution in counseling and interpretation of test results are needed in order to meet the challenges that this new test, which enriches our diagnostic options in prenatal testing, poses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Epiphyseal bone-marrow abnormalities and restitution in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Evaluation by MR imaging in 86 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbergs, P.; Jonsson, K. [University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Eckerball, G.; Wingstrand, H. [University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics; Egund, N. [Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: By means of MR imaging, to determine signal abnormalities in the femoral epiphysis; to determine their location, extent and restitution over time; and to correlate these findings to the Catterall radiological classification. Material and Methods: A total of 247 MR images in 86 patients (101 hips) with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease were examined. The MR images were taken in the coronal plane, and the images through the center of the femoral head were used for this study. Results: T1-weighted images proved as good as T2-weighted images for the MR evaluation of the extent of the necrosis. In almost every case, the central-cranial part of the epiphysis showed a low initial signal. In Catterall group I, the medial part was never involved. In Catterall III and IV, almost the entire epiphysis showed signal changes. In the period 3-6 years after diagnosis, we still found signal changes in the epiphysis in some hips but there was no correlation with the Catterall classification. After 6 years, the epiphysis showed normal signal intensity in MR imaging. In T1-weighted images, Gd-enhancement occurred in the peripheral regions in the early stages of the disease. The central part of the epiphysis became more enhanced over time and peaked in the period 1-3 years after diagnosis. Conclusion: MR is a valuable modality for monitoring changes in the femoral epiphysis. We propose a new classification of the extent and pattern of epiphyseal bonemarrow abnormalities based on the 4 zones most commonly observed in MR imaging. (orig.).

  16. Error quantification of abnormal extreme high waves in Operational Oceanographic System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jinah; Heo, Ki-Young; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    In winter season, large-height swell-like waves have occurred on the East coast of Korea, causing property damages and loss of human life. It is known that those waves are generated by a local strong wind made by temperate cyclone moving to eastward in the East Sea of Korean peninsula. Because the waves are often occurred in the clear weather, in particular, the damages are to be maximized. Therefore, it is necessary to predict and forecast large-height swell-like waves to prevent and correspond to the coastal damages. In Korea, an operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) and KOOS provides daily basis 72-hours' ocean forecasts such as wind, water elevation, sea currents, water temperature, salinity, and waves which are computed from not only meteorological and hydrodynamic model (WRF, ROMS, MOM, and MOHID) but also wave models (WW-III and SWAN). In order to evaluate the model performance and guarantee a certain level of accuracy of ocean forecasts, a Skill Assessment (SA) system was established as a one of module in KOOS. It has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data and model errors have been quantified with skill scores. Statistics which are used in skill assessment are including a measure of both errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), root-mean-square-error percentage (RMSE%), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), scatter index (SI), circular correlation (CC) and central frequency (CF) that is a frequency with which errors lie within acceptable error criteria. It should be utilized simultaneously not only to quantify an error but also to improve an accuracy of forecasts by providing a feedback interactively. However, in an abnormal phenomena such as high-height swell-like waves in the East coast of Korea, it requires more advanced and optimized error quantification method that allows to predict the abnormal

  17. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  19. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H

    1997-01-01

    A group of 366 healthy, white postmenopausal women, aged 50-81 years, mean age 66 years, were selected from the screened population of Scandinavians who were part of a multicenter study of the efficacy of tiludronate, a new bisphosphonate, in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty-eight ......, and prevalence of spinal fracture, which supports the theory that high bone turnover is a risk factor for spinal fracture and osteoporosis.......A group of 366 healthy, white postmenopausal women, aged 50-81 years, mean age 66 years, were selected from the screened population of Scandinavians who were part of a multicenter study of the efficacy of tiludronate, a new bisphosphonate, in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty...... resorption was assessed by measurement of the urinary excretion of type I collagen degradation products by the CrossLaps enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Bone formation was assessed by ELISA measurement of the N-terminal-midfragment as well as the intact serum osteocalcin (OCN-MID), thus omitting...

  1. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  2. High Prevalence of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among HIV-infected Persons in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin E; Gottdiener, John; Overton, E Turner; Henry, Keith; Bush, Tim; Conley, Lois; Hammer, John; Carpenter, Charles C; Kojic, Erna; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-02-01

    in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher cardiovascular disease risk. Little is known about asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiac structure and function in this population. the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study) is a prospective, observational, multi-site cohort of 656 HIV-infected participants who underwent baseline echocardiography during 2004-2006. We examined prevalence of and factors associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), diastolic dysfunction (DD), pulmonary hypertension (PHTN), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and left atrial enlargement (LAE). participant characteristics were as follows: median age, 41 years; 24% women; 29% non-Hispanic black; 73% receiving HAART; and median CD4+ cell count, 462 cells/μL. Among evaluable participants, 18% had LVSD, 26% had DD, 57% had PHTN (right ventricular pressure >30 mm Hg), 6.5% had LVH, and 40% had LAE. In multivariate analyses, significant factors (P highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and current tobacco smoking; for DD, elevated hsCRP level and hypertension; for PHTN, current use of ritonavir; for LVH, hypertension, diabetes, non-white race, female sex with elevated body mass index, calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters, of ≥ 25, elevated hsCRP level, and current use of abacavir; for LAE, hypertension and recent marijuana use. in this large contemporary HIV cohort, the prevalence of subclinical functional and structural cardiac abnormalities was greater than expected for age. Abnormalities were mostly associated with expected and often modifiable risks. Lifestyle modification should become a greater priority in the management of chronic HIV disease.

  3. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  4. F-spondin deficient mice have a high bone mass phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn D Palmer

    Full Text Available F-spondin is a pericellular matrix protein upregulated in developing growth plate cartilage and articular cartilage during osteoarthritis. To address its function in bone and cartilage in vivo, we generated mice that were deficient for the F-spondin gene, Spon1. Spon1-/- mice were viable and developed normally to adulthood with no major skeletal abnormalities. At 6 months, femurs and tibiae of Spon1-/- mice exhibited increased bone mass, evidenced by histological staining and micro CT analyses, which persisted up to 12 months. In contrast, no major abnormalities were observed in articular cartilage at any age group. Immunohistochemical staining of femurs and tibiae revealed increased levels of periostin, alkaline phosphate and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity in the growth plate region of Spon1-/- mice, suggesting elevated bone synthesis and turnover. However, there were no differences in serum levels of TRAP, the bone resorption marker, CTX-1, or osteoclast differentiation potential between genotypes. Knockout mice also exhibited reduced levels of TGF-β1 in serum and cultured costal chondrocytes relative to wild type. This was accompanied by increased levels of the BMP-regulatory SMADs, P-SMAD1/5 in tibiae and chondrocytes. Our findings indicate a previously unrecognized role for Spon1 as a negative regulator of bone mass. We speculate that Spon1 deletion leads to a local and systemic reduction of TGF-β levels resulting in increased BMP signaling and increased bone deposition in adult mice.

  5. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  6. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

    2011-11-02

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future.

  7. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Katie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. Methods 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. Results There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0% patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7% patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0% patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31. Conclusions Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future.

  8. Circadian abnormalities in a mouse model of high trait anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesauer, Irene; Diao, Weifei; Ronovsky, Marianne; Elbau, Immanuel; Sartori, Simone; Singewald, Nicolas; Pollak, Daniela D

    2014-05-01

    Dysregulation of circadian rhythms is a key symptom of mood disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Whether the circadian abnormalities observed in depressed patients are cause or consequence of the disease remains elusive. Here we aimed to explore potential disturbances of circadian rhythms in a validated genetic animal model of high trait anxiety and co-morbid depression and examine its molecular correlates. Mice selectively bred for high (HAB) and normal (NAB) anxiety- and co-segregating depression-like behavior were subjected to analysis of circadian wheel-running activity to determine light-entrained (LD) and free-running circadian (DD) rhythms and a light-induced phase shift. Clock gene expression in HAB/NAB hippocampal tissue was analyzed by qRT-PCR and verified by Western blotting. Compared to NABs, HAB mice were found to present with altered DD length of daily cycle, fragmented ultradiem rhythms, and a blunted phase shift response. Clock gene expression analysis revealed a selective reduction of Cry2 expression in hippocampal tissue of HAB mice. We provide first evidence for a dysregulation of circadian rhythms in a mouse model of anxiety and co-morbid depression which suggests an association between depression and altered circadian rhythms at the genetic level and points towards a role for Cry2.

  9. Influence of abnormally high formation pressure on the porosity of reservoirs (on the example of Solokhovsk field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.; Omelin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Productive horizons of the Solokhovsk field are composed of alternating claystones, siltstones, and sandstones. Samples of rocks were investigated by using the automatic electronic analyzer, Kvantimet-720. It was found that abnormally high formation pressure causes a decompaction effect. This effect is observed not only in clays which cover a deposit, but also in reservoirs of the deposit. Increases in pore dimensions and in average area of pores are the consequences of the decompaction effect. An extent of decompaction effect in consolidated formations in zones of abnormally high formation pressure depends on an intensity of secondary local epigenetic processes. These processes take place in zones of abnormally high formation pressure and in aureoles of hydrocarbon inculcation.

  10. Comparison of predictors for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with abnormal smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne; Ambroisine, Laurence; Cadman, Louise; Austin, Janet; Ho, Linda; Terry, George; Liddle, Stuart; Dina, Roberto; McCarthy, Julie; Buckley, Hilary; Bergeron, Christine; Soutter, Pat; Lyons, Deirdre; Cuzick, Jack

    2008-11-01

    The detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA provides higher sensitivity but lower specificity than cytology for the identification of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of several adjunctive tests for the detection of high-grade CIN in a population referred to colposcopy because of abnormal cytology. 953 women participated in the study. Up to seven tests were carried out on a liquid PreservCyt sample: Hybrid Capture II (Digene), Amplicor (Roche), PreTect HPV-Proofer (NorChip), APTIMA HPV assay (Gen-Probe), Linear Array (Roche), Clinical-Arrays (Genomica), and CINtec p16INK4a Cytology (mtm Laboratories) immunocytochemistry. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were based on the worst histology seen on either the biopsy or the treatment specimen after central review. 273 (28.6%) women had high-grade disease (CIN2+) on worst histology, with 193 (20.2%) having CIN3+. For the detection of CIN2+, Hybrid Capture II had a sensitivity of 99.6%, specificity of 28.4%, and PPV of 36.1%. Amplicor had a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 21.7%, and PPV of 33.5%. PreTect HPV-Proofer had a sensitivity of 73.6%, specificity of 73.1%, and PPV of 52.0%. APTIMA had a sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 42.2%, and PPV of 39.9%. CINtec p16INK4a Cytology had a sensitivity of 83.0%, specificity of 68.7%, and PPV of 52.3%. Linear Array had a sensitivity of 98.2%, specificity of 32.8%, and PPV of 37.7%. Clinical-Arrays had a sensitivity of 80.9%, specificity of 37.1%, and PPV of 33.0%.

  11. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  12. Abnormal wiring of the connectome in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Tani, Pekka; Leppamaki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent brain imaging findings suggest that there are widely distributed abnormalities affecting the brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using graph theoretical analysis, it is possible to investigate both global and local properties of brain's wiring

  13. Cervical Abnormalities in South African Women Living With HIV With High Screening and Referral Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ingrid T; Butler, Lisa M; Crankshaw, Tamaryn L; Wright, Alexi A; Bramhill, Karen; Leone, Dominick A; Giddy, Janet; Mould, Sean

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of screening, cervical dysplasia, and malignancy on the basis of histologic diagnoses from colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women living with HIV (WLWH) who attended an urban antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine a random sample of 462 WLWH during a 5-year period from 2004 to 2009. Women on ART for Papanicolau test. At baseline, 237 women (54.9%) had an abnormal Papanicolau test, and of these patients, 181 (76.3%) had a Papanicolau test that qualified for further colposcopic evaluation. In addition, 115 women (63.5%) received colposcopy within a median of 39 days from referral. This yielded 74 evaluable histologic samples (64.3%), of which 21.6%, 27.0%, 27.0%, and 1.4% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN2, CIN3, and invasive cervical cancer, respectively. In a large sample of WLWH who received ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where Papanicolau test coverage and rates of referral for colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone were high, > 75% of women with evaluable histologic samples had evidence of cervical dysplasia or malignancy. These findings underscore the importance of routine cervical screening upon entry into HIV care to optimize survival.

  14. Combined high-fat-resveratrol diet and RIP140 knockout mice reveal a novel relationship between elevated bone mitochondrial content and compromised bone microarchitecture, bone mineral mass, and bone strength in the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Paula M; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Sacco, Sandra M; Wright, David C; Ward, Wendy E; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-09-01

    While resveratrol (RSV) is associated with the prevention of high-fat (HF) diet-induced insulin resistance, the effects on bone health combined with an HF-diet is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of RSV on bone microarchitecture in the presence of an HF-diet, while also elucidating molecular adaptations within bone that could contribute to bone health status. Male C57BL6 mice were provided control (10% fat) or HF-diet (60% fat) in the presence or absence of RSV for 12 weeks. While RSV prevented HF diet-induced glucose intolerance, HF-RSV compromised tibial microarchitecture, mineral mass, and strength. The compromised outcomes following HF-RSV corresponded with higher markers of osteoclast-activation and bone-resorption (decreased OPG/RANKL ratio; increased cathepsin K), as well as higher markers of tibial mitochondrial content. A molecular model of elevated mitochondrial content (RIP140 knock out (KO) mice) was utilized to determine proof-of-principle that increasing mitochondrial content coincides with decrements in bone health. RIP140 KO mice displayed higher markers of mitochondrial content, and similar to HF-RSV, had compromised bone microarchitecture, lower BMD/strength, and higher markers of osteoclast-activation/bone-resorption. These data show that in the presence of an HF-diet, RSV negatively alters bone health, a process associated with increased mitochondrial content and markers of bone resorption. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Right ventricular outflow tract high-density endocardial unipolar voltage mapping in patients with Brugada syndrome: evidence for electroanatomical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsas, Konstantinos P; Efremidis, Michael; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Georgopoulos, Stamatis; Karamichalakis, Nikolaos; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Valkanas, Kosmas; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Liu, Tong; Sideris, Antonios

    2017-05-02

    Epicardial structural abnormalities at the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) may provide the arrhythmia substrate in Brugada syndrome (BrS). Electroanatomical endocardial unipolar voltage mapping is an emerging tool that accurately identifies epicardial abnormalities in different clinical settings. This study investigated whether endocardial unipolar voltage mapping of the RVOT detects electroanatomical abnormalities in patients with BrS. Ten asymptomatic patients (8 males, 34.5 ± 11.2 years) with spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern of BrS and negative late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-c-MRI) underwent high-density endocardial electroanatomical mapping (>800 points). Using a cut-off of 1 mV and 4 mV for normal bipolar and unipolar voltage, respectively, derived from 20 control patients without structural heart disease established by LGE-c-MRI, the extend of low-voltage areas within the RVOT was estimated using a specific calculation software. The mean RVOT area presenting low-voltage bipolar signals in BrS patients was 3.4 ± 1.7 cm2 (range 1.5-7 cm2). A significantly greater area of abnormal unipolar signals was identified (12.6 ± 4.6 cm2 [range 7-22 cm2], P: 0.001). Both bipolar and unipolar electroanatomical abnormalities were mainly located at the free wall of the RVOT. The mean RVOT activation time was significantly prolonged in BrS patients compared to control population (86.4 ± 16.5 vs. 63.4 ± 9.7 ms, P voltage abnormalities that possibly reflect epicardial structural abnormalities are identified at the RVOT of BrS patients.

  16. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  17. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; FRANCIS, KIMBERLY; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Game...

  18. Analysis on the cause of the abnormally persistent high temperature in south of China in July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Yaohui; Wang, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    The cause of abnormally persistent high temperature in the south of China in July 2013 was analyzed by statistical and diagnostic methods using the station observational data in July 2013 and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1981—2013. Results indicated that the Western Pacific Subtropical High showed abnormal precursor in May 2013 and its characteristics index well pointed to the strengthening and westward and northward extension of the High. There was an advantageous condition for such weather in July: the High strengthened in the area between the south of China and Taiwan straits. As the High strengthened and kept abnormal, temperature increased in the troposphere over Eurasia. The development of the tropical cyclone in Pacific is weakened so that south winds decreased significantly in the region from 20 °S 20 °N and from 100 140 °E and north winds increased noticeably over the East Pacific. As a result, the High was sustainable and stable and even strengthened its control of the southern regions of the country. When the high temperature is abnormally persistent, the South Asia High goes persistently eastward from May to July, and its characteristic 1 660 gpdm contour is also persistently eastward. The characteristic 1 676 gpdm contour persists and goes much eastward from the 4th June. Both the South Asian High and Western Pacific Subtropical High were showing "relative motion" and "reversed motion", characteristics of oscillating from east to west during that time. Through a typical case from the 2th to 3rd of July, the eastward progression of South Asian High is found to have impact on the strengthening and westward extension of Western Pacific Subtropical High.

  19. High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography for Assessment of Bone Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia

    2014-03-01

    The study of bone quality is motivated by the high morbidity, mortality, and societal cost of skeletal fractures. Over 10 million people are diagnosed with osteoporosis in the US alone, suffering 1.5 million osteoporotic fractures and costing the health care system over 17 billion annually. Accurate assessment of fracture risk is necessary to ensure that pharmacological and other interventions are appropriately administered. Currently, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to determine osteoporotic status and predict fracture risk. Though aBMD is a significant predictor of fracture risk, it does not completely explain bone strength or fracture incidence. The major limitation of aBMD is the lack of 3D information, which is necessary to distinguish between cortical and trabecular bone and to quantify bone geometry and microarchitecture. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) enables in vivo assessment of volumetric BMD within specific bone compartments as well as quantification of geometric and microarchitectural measures of bone quality. HR-pQCT studies have documented that trabecular bone microstructure alterations are associated with fracture risk independent of aBMD.... Cortical bone microstructure - specifically porosity - is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue and may further explain the aBMD-independent effect of age on bone fragility and fracture risk. The application of finite element analysis (FEA) to HR-pQCT data permits estimation of patient-specific bone strength, shown to be associated with fracture incidence independent of aBMD. This talk will describe the HR-pQCT scanner, established metrics of bone quality derived from HR-pQCT data, and novel analyses of bone quality currently in development. Cross-sectional and longitudinal HR-pQCT studies investigating the impact of aging, disease, injury, gender, race, and

  20. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass in both pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Fledelius, C; Rosenquist, C

    1996-01-01

    In 979 healthy women, aged 30-75 years, bone mass was measured by DXA in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, and by SXA in the distal forearm. Bone turnover was assessed by urinary CrossLaps (CrossLaps ELISA), a new assay which measures type I collagen degradation products in urine and by osteoc...... with previous results, we found that bone turnover increased perimenopausally and in the early menopause.......In 979 healthy women, aged 30-75 years, bone mass was measured by DXA in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, and by SXA in the distal forearm. Bone turnover was assessed by urinary CrossLaps (CrossLaps ELISA), a new assay which measures type I collagen degradation products in urine...... below 50 years of age, the concentrations of the biochemical markers were stable with age. At menopause CrossLaps and OCN-Mid increased abruptly to a level 60% and 35% above the premenopausal mean values (p

  2. High-risk human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cervical cytology among Nepali and Bhutanese refugee women living in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Johnson, Derek C; Lama, Mingma; Aryal, Shilu; Lhaki, Pema; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Nepal and Bhutan. Data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhutanese women are sparse. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the prevalence of HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhutanese women living in Jhapa District in eastern Nepal; and examine the risk factors for HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in those women. Study participants were recruited from a women's health camp organized by NFCC-International, a Nepal-based non-governmental organization, in 2014. Consenting participants were administered a demographic and health questionnaire and cervico-vaginal specimens collected. Both self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens were tested for HR-HPV infection. Cytologic exam was performed on clinician-collected samples and cervical cytology results were categorized according to the Bethesda classification. A participant was classified as a Bhutanese if they were either born in Bhutan or currently lived in one of the United Nations administered Bhutanese refugee camps in Jhapa; otherwise, the participant was classified as a Nepali. Of the 647 study participants, 15.9% were Bhutanese women living in refugee camps and the overall age (± standard deviation) was 38.8 ± 8.2 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 8.9% and abnormal cervical cytology was 7.1% respectively, with no significant difference in HR-HPV positivity (p = 0.399) or abnormal cervical cytology (p = 0.698) between Nepali and Bhutanese women. Compared to women whose husbands had not migrated for employment, women whose husbands had migrated outside of the district had 3.30 times (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.13-9.64) the odds of being HR-HPV positive and women whose husbands had migrated outside the country had 2.92 times (95% CI: 1.32-6.49) the odds of

  3. High prevalence of diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in Thai women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisawat Wanthong

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Eighty-one percent of pGDM women developed AGT within 4 years after delivery. Risk factors for AGT were PG ≥ 150 mg/dl at 1 h after a 50 g-GCT and ≥3 abnormal PG values in a 100 g-OGTT.

  4. Dynamic T2-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-11-01

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1°C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T2, since T2 increases linearly in fat during heating. T2-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T2. Calibration of T2-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T2 and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T2 temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/°C was observed. Dynamic T2-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  5. Levels of serotonin, sclerostin, bone turnover markers as well as bone density and microarchitecture in patients with high bone mass phenotype due to a mutation in Lrp5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Andersen, Tom E.; Gossiel, F

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with an activation mutation of the Lrp5 gene exhibit high bone mass (HBM). Limited information is available regarding compartment specific changes in bone. The relationship between the phenotype and serum serotonin is not well documented. Objective: to evaluate bone, serotonin...... and bone turnover markers (BTM) in Lrp5-HBM patients. DESIGN: We studied 19 Lrp5-HBM patients (T253I) and 19 age- and sex-matched controls. DXA and HR-pQCT were used to assess BMD and bone structure. Serum serotonin, sclerostin, DKK1 and BTM were evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores for the forearm, total hip......, lumbar spine, forearm and whole body were significantly increased (mean ± SD) between 4.94 ± 1.45 and 7.52 ± 1.99 in cases as compared to -0.19 ± 1.19 to 0.58 ± 0.84 in controls. Tibial and radial cortical areas, thicknesses and BMD were significantly higher in cases. In cases, BMD at the lumbar spine...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  7. Fish bones--a highly available calcium source for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Graff, I E; Siljander-Rasi, H; Venäläinen, E; Julshamn, K; Pedersen, J I; Valaja, J

    2010-10-01

    In general, there is a lack of scientific documentation of nutritional value of marine by-products. The bone fraction from fish has been regarded as waste. Due to the high mineral content of fish bones, this material can be well suitable as a natural calcium source. In the present study, apparent calcium absorption of different fish bone sources was tested using growing pigs. The experimental diets consisted of boiled salmon frames, or salmon, saithe or cod bones treated with enzymes. Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was used as control. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.7% total calcium of which the added calcium source to be tested contributed about 71% (study 1) and 86% (study 2). Except for the calcium and phosphorus sources, the animals received similar basal diets. Apparent calcium digestibility coefficient was calculated using yttrium as indicator (both studies) and was based on complete collection of faeces and urine (study 2). The experimental design was parallel and cross-over in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 1, piglets getting salmon bone treated with enzymes had significantly higher calcium absorption than piglets getting boiled fish bone or calcium carbonate. Therefore, in the second study only enzymatically treated fish bones were included. The higher calcium absorption from enzymatically treated salmon bone was also found in study 2, but this time not significant. Calcium from boiled salmon bones in study I, and from enzymatically treated saithe and cod bones in study II were absorbed as well as the calcium carbonate control. The results indicate that fish bones may be a useful and well absorbed calcium source. Due to the high mineral content of the bone fraction, salmon bones can be well suitable as a natural calcium and phosphorus source in, for example, food, feed or as supplement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, pbone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, pmarrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, pbone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. PMID:23954507

  9. Is Age an Independent Predictor of High-Grade Histopathology in Women Referred for Colposcopy after Abnormal Cervical Cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingnate, Chalita; Supoken, Amornrat; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Chumworathayi, Bundit; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether advancing age is an independent predictor of increased risk of high-grade pathologies among women referred for colposcopy after abnormal cervical cytology. Medical records were reviewed for women with abnormal cervical cytology who underwent colposcopy at Khon Kaen University Hospital. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent impact of age on the risk of high-grade pathologies. Mean age of the women was 42.8 years. Of 482 women, 97 (20.1%) were postmenopausal, and 92 (19.1%) were nulliparous. The rate of high-grade pathologies included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2-3, 99 (20.5%), adenocarcinoma in situ, 4 (0.8%), cervical cancer, 30 (6.2%), and endometrial cancer, 1 (0.2%). The prevalence of significant lesions was 26.9% (95% CI, 23.1%-31.2%). In total, 31 women had cancers (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.4%-9.0%). When controlling for smear types and parity, age was noted to be a significant independent predictor of high-grade histopathology. Women older than 35-40 years were approximately 2 times as likely to have severe histopathology as the younger women. This study illustrates the substantial risk of underlying significant lesions especially invasive cancer in Thai women with abnormal cervical cytology. Age was a significant independent factor predicting the risk of high-grade pathologies.

  10. Influence of high insertion torque on implant placement: an anisotropic bone stress analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas-Júnior, Amilcar Chagas; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the high values of insertion torques on the stress and strain distribution in cortical and cancellous bones. Based on tomography imaging, a representative mathematical model of a partial maxilla was built using Mimics 11.11 and Solid Works 2010 softwares. Six models were built and each of them received an implant with one of the following insertion torques: 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 or 80 Ncm on the external hexagon. The cortical and cancellous bones were considered anisotropic. The bone/implant interface was considered perfectly bonded. The numerical analysis was carried out using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The convergence of analysis (6%) drove the mesh refinement. Maximum principal stress (δmax) and maximum principal strain (εmax) were obtained for cortical and cancellous bones around to implant. Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between insertion torque and stress concentration in the periimplant bone tissue, considering the significance level at 5%. The increase in the insertion torque generated an increase in the δmax and εmax values for cortical and cancellous bone. The δmax was smaller for the cancellous bone, with greater stress variation among the insertion torques. The εmax was higher in the cancellous bone in comparison to the cortical bone. According to the methodology used and the limits of this study, it can be concluded that higher insertion torques increased tensile and compressive stress concentrations in the periimplant bone tissue.

  11. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates.

  12. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates.

  13. The Analysis and Processing of Spectra with Splicing Abnormality in LAMOST Based on High Performance Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanlong; Pan, Jingchang; Yu, Jingjing

    2017-10-01

    Since the completion of LAMOST the observation had produced a large number of data, and officially released data. There are some poor quality spectra in the observation data and even the data released to the outside world. Splicing abnormal spectra is one kind of them. Splicing abnormality is poor continuity spectrum showed in the splicing wavelengths of the red and blue end. This problem can be caused by several factors, such as stability of instrument, observation condition, the response function, and so on. It has important effect on the research and analysis of spectra. It is of great significance to study the automatic identification of the splicing abnormal spectra. The method in this paper we first do the spectrum pretreatment, then the spectral was intercepted into red and blue in order to fit curves. For the two fitting curves, a series of wavelength points are selected to calculate the difference of these points. For the difference set, the statistical characteristics of the difference are analyzed, such as mean and standard deviation. Then we calculate the area of the two curves. Based on these values, we proposed an evaluation function. At the same time, we provided a method for detecting the splicing abnormal spectra based on the high performance computing platform. Through a lot of experiments, the efficiency was greatly improved compared to stand-alone.

  14. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that produces pictures of the bones called scintigrams. Abnormalities are indicated by areas of abnormal bone that take up more or less of the radiopharmaceutical which appear brighter or darker than normal bone on the scintigram. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to image the functions ...

  15. Bone metastasis treatment using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Elevelt, Aaldert; Donato, Katia; van Rietbergen, Bert; ter Hoeve, Natalie D.; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bone pain resulting from cancer metastases reduces a patient's quality of life. Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising alternative palliative thermal treatment technique for bone metastases that has been tested in a few clinical studies.

  16. Sliding Malar Bone Augmentation Technique with a High Le Fort I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... osteotomy design, including the malar bones, which allows segment sliding over the zygoma and forces the osteotomized ... Sliding Malar Bone Augmentation Technique with a High Le Fort I. Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion .... or Crouzon syndrome.[19] Kim et al.'s study investigating.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure for disinfection of bone grafts and biomaterials: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Hans; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Brendle, Monika; Weber, Patrick; Miethke, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Schauwecker, Johannes; Diehl, Peter

    2009-01-29

    Autoclaving, heat, irradiation or chemical detergents are used to disinfect autografts, allografts and biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. These methods are often associated with deterioration of mechanical, physical, and biological properties of the bone grafts and synthetic implants. High hydrostatic pressure has been proposed as a novel method preserving biomechanical and biological properties of bone, tendon and cartilage. This is the first study to assess the inactivation of clinically relevant bacteria on biomaterials and human bone by high hydrostatic pressure. Bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, implants covered with infected blood, human bone infected in vitro, and biopsies of patients with chronic osteomyelitis were subjected to different protocols of high hydrostatic pressure up to 600 MPa. Bacterial survival after high hydrostatic pressure treatment was determined and compared with bacterial growth in untreated controls. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in suspension were completely inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure (> 5log levels), whereas E. faecium showed barotolerance up to 600 MPa. Blood and adherence to metal implants did not significantly alter inactivation of bacteria, and complete disinfection was achieved with barotolerant bacteria (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa). However, osteoarthritic bone demonstrated a non-homogeneous baroprotective effect, with single bone samples resistant to treatment resulting in unaltered bacterial growth, and complete disinfection of artificially infected bone specimens was achieved in 66% for S. aureus, 60% for P. aeruginosa and 0% for E. faecium. Human bone samples of patients with chronic osteomyelitis could be completely disinfected in 2 of 37 cases. High hydrostatic pressure offers new perspectives for disinfection of sensitive biomaterials and bone grafts, and contamination by blood did not significantly affect bacterial inactivation rates

  18. Bone histological correlates of soaring and high-frequency flapping flight in the furculae of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica; Legendre, Lucas J; Lefèvre, Christine; Cubo, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The furcula is a specialized bone in birds involved in flight function. Its morphology has been shown to reflect different flight styles from soaring/gliding birds, subaqueous flight to high-frequency flapping flyers. The strain experienced by furculae can vary depending on flight type. Bone remodeling is a response to damage incurred from different strain magnitudes and types. In this study, we tested whether a bone microstructural feature, namely Haversian bone density, differs in birds with different flight styles, and reassessed previous work using phylogenetic comparative methods that assume an evolutionary model with additional taxa. We show that soaring birds have higher Haversian bone densities than birds with a flapping style of flight. This result is probably linked to the fact that the furculae of soaring birds provide less protraction force and more depression force than furculae of birds showing other kinds of flight. The whole bone area is another explanatory factor, which confirms the fact that size is an important consideration in Haversian bone development. All birds, however, display Haversian bone development in their furculae, and other factors like age could be affecting the response of Haversian bone development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of trabecular bone structure in the distal radius using high-resolution MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Genant, H.K. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Grampp, S. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jergas, M.D. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Newitt, D.C. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gies, A.A. [Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Musculoskeletal Section, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance techniques to resolve the structure of trabecular bone in conjunction with image processing techniques to quantify variations in trabecular bone structure. Such techniques could then potentially be applied to assess osteoporotic changes and predict the risk fractures. Axial and coronal volumetric MRI images of the distal radius were obtained using a modified gradient echo sequence on a 1.5 T imager, at a spatial resolution of {approx} 150 {mu}m and a slice thickness of 0.7 mm. Image thresholding techniques were used to identify trabecular bone and bone marrow; thereafter the area occupied by trabecular bone, mean trabecular width and mean intercept length as a function of angle were computed. An automatic boundary tracking algorithm was used to identify the bone and marrow interface. Fractal analysis was used to quantify the convolutedness of the marrow-trabecular bone interface. It is well known that the trabecular bone density is the greater at distal sites of the radius and decreases proximally. These variations were reflected by the decreases in the trabecular width, fractional area and fractal dimension. Over a 28 mm range, starting at 7 mm proximal from the joint line and extending 35 mm proximal to the joint line, the mean trabecular width decreased from 444.6 {mu}m to 341.6 {mu}m, the fractional area of trabecular bone decreased from 0.44 to 0.15, and the fractal dimension decreased from 1.67 to 1.10. The choice of the threshold affected the quantification of the mean trabecular width and fractional trabecular bone area measurements, but the fractal dimension was more robust. High-resolution MRI images combined with image analysis techniques can be used to quantify structural variations in trabecular bone in the distal radius. (orig.)

  20. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    pQCT system from Stratec XCT Research. The mice were anesthetized using a solution of sterile water, ketamine (16.6 mg/mL), and xylazine (3.3 mg/mL). The...Trizol was added to each sample and ground until it became a finer powder. This fine bone powder were removed from the cold mortar using a sterile razor...were infertile while mice with deficiency in either midkine or PTN gene were able to produce similar number of offspring [27]. Another study has shown

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  2. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  3. A comparison of high viscosity bone cement and low viscosity bone cement vertebroplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shengfei; Cai, Jun; Huang, Jijun

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical outcome and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity poly-methyl methacrylate bone cement PVP for severe OVCFs. From December 2010 to December 2012, 32 patients with severe OVCFs were randomly assigned to either group H using high viscosity cement (n=14) or group L using low viscosity cement (n=18). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 General Health Survey (SF-36), kyphosis Cobb's angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvement in the VAS, ODI, SF-36 scores, kyphosis Cobb's angle, and vertebral height were noted in both the groups, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. Cement leakage was seen less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 5 of 17 (29.4%) vertebrae in group H and in 15 of 22 (68.2%) vertebrae in group L (P=0.025). The PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcome and fewer complications compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Unusually stable abnormal karyotype in a highly aggressive melanoma negative for telomerase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irminger-Finger Irmgard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant melanomas are characterized by increased karyotypic complexity, extended aneuploidy and heteroploidy. We report a melanoma metastasis to the peritoneal cavity with an exceptionally stable, abnormal pseudodiploid karyotype as verified by G-Banding, subtelomeric, centromeric and quantitative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH. Interestingly this tumor had no detectable telomerase activity as indicated by the Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol. Telomeric Flow-FISH and quantitative telomeric FISH on mitotic preparations showed that malignant cells had relatively short telomeres. Microsatellite instability was ruled out by the allelic pattern of two major mononucleotide repeats. Our data suggest that a combination of melanoma specific genomic imbalances were sufficient and enough for this fatal tumor progression, that was not accompanied by genomic instability, telomerase activity, or the engagement of the alternative recombinatorial telomere lengthening pathway.

  5. Bone conduction errors at high frequencies: implications for clinical and medico-legal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, G R; Hughes, J B

    1993-04-01

    The magnitude and origin of audiometric air-bone gaps in the range 3 kHz to 8 kHz was investigated in 20 normal subjects. The average gap ranged from a minimum of about 3 dB at 3 kHz to a maximum of about 19 dB at 6 kHz. Approximately 5 dB of the gap at high frequencies is caused by excess air-radiated sound from the bone vibrator. A larger error appears to result from discrepancies between the air and bone conduction standards to which audiometers are calibrated. These errors may influence diagnosis and we recommend that bone conduction tests at frequencies greater than 4 kHz are avoided. These findings have implications for medico-legal work where small air-bone gaps have diagnostic significance.

  6. High-grade MRI bone oedema is common within the surgical field in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing joint replacement and is associated with osteitis in subchondral bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, F M; Gao, A; Ostergaard, M

    2007-01-01

    was observed at 60% of surgical sites vs 38% of non-surgical sites. High-grade bone oedema (score >/=50% maximum) was strongly associated with the surgical field (OR 9.3 (3.5 to 24.2), p... in resected bone. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI scans were obtained in 11 RA patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery to the hands/wrists or feet. In 9, MRI scans were scored by 2 readers for bone oedema (RAMRIS system). Its distribution with respect to surgical site was investigated. In 4...... samples, there was concordance between bone oedema and subchondral osteitis. In 3, there was no MRI bone oedema, and osteitis was "slight". CONCLUSION: High-grade MRI bone oedema was common within the field of intended surgery and associated with pain. There was concordance between the presence...

  7. High-fat diet-induced obesity stimulates ketone body utilization in osteoclasts of the mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Imai, Masahiko; Takahashi, Noriko; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2016-04-29

    Previous studies have shown that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity increases the acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS) gene expression in lipogenic tissue. To investigate the effect of obesity on the AACS gene in other tissues, we examined the alteration of AACS mRNA levels in HFD-fed mice. In situ hybridization revealed that AACS was observed in several regions of the embryo, including the backbone region (especially in the somite), and in the epiphysis of the adult femur. AACS mRNA expression in the adult femur was higher in HFD-fed mice than in normal-diet fed mice, but this increase was not observed in high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced obese mice. In addition, HFD-specific increases were observed in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and interleukin (IL)-6 genes. Moreover, we detected higher AACS mRNA expression in the differentiated osteoclast cells (RAW 264), and found that AACS mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by IL-6 treatment only in osteoclasts. These results indicate the novel function of the ketone body in bone metabolism. Because the abnormal activation of osteoclasts by IL-6 induces bone resorption, our data suggest that AACS and ketone bodies are important factors in the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  9. Arthritis induces early bone high turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vidal

    Full Text Available We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone.Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers.AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046. Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002 and bone volume (p = 0.0003 and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009 in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively in the arthritic group.We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness.

  10. Feasibility of fabricating personalized 3D-printed bone grafts guided by high-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Abigail L.; Newman, Benjamin T.; Khalid, Arbab; Teter, Olivia M.; Kobe, Elizabeth A.; Shukurova, Malika; Shinde, Rohit; Sipzner, Daniel; Pignolo, Robert J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2017-03-01

    Current methods of bone graft treatment for critical size bone defects can give way to several clinical complications such as limited available bone for autografts, non-matching bone structure, lack of strength which can compromise a patient's skeletal system, and sterilization processes that can prevent osteogenesis in the case of allografts. We intend to overcome these disadvantages by generating a patient-specific 3D printed bone graft guided by high-resolution medical imaging. Our synthetic model allows us to customize the graft for the patients' macro- and microstructure and correct any structural deficiencies in the re-meshing process. These 3D-printed models can presumptively serve as the scaffolding for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) engraftment in order to facilitate bone growth. We performed highresolution CT imaging of a cadaveric human proximal femur at 0.030-mm isotropic voxels. We used these images to generate a 3D computer model that mimics bone geometry from micro to macro scale represented by STereoLithography (STL) format. These models were then reformatted to a format that can be interpreted by the 3D printer. To assess how much of the microstructure was replicated, 3D-printed models were re-imaged using micro-CT at 0.025-mm isotropic voxels and compared to original high-resolution CT images used to generate the 3D model in 32 sub-regions. We found a strong correlation between 3D-printed bone volume and volume of bone in the original images used for 3D printing (R2 = 0.97). We expect to further refine our approach with additional testing to create a viable synthetic bone graft with clinical functionality.

  11. High-grade MRI bone oedema is common within the surgical field in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing joint replacement and is associated with osteitis in subchondral bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, F M; Gao, A; Ostergaard, M

    2007-01-01

    was observed at 60% of surgical sites vs 38% of non-surgical sites. High-grade bone oedema (score >/=50% maximum) was strongly associated with the surgical field (OR 9.3 (3.5 to 24.2), pCRP (r = 0.86, p = 0.01). In 4 of the 7 bone...... and severity of MRI bone oedema and osteitis on histology, with an MRI threshold effect due to differences in image resolution....

  12. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee-Cheng Khor

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR, including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA. Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health

  15. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease.

  16. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  17. Time-lapse imaging provides further evidence that planar arrangement of blastomeres is highly abnormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Thomas; Höggerl, Alexandra; Oppelt, Peter; Radler, Elisabeth; Enzelsberger, Simon-Hermann; Mayer, Richard B; Petek, Erwin; Shebl, Omar

    2017-12-01

    Recently, guidelines on the annotation of dynamic human embryo monitoring recommended screening for the presence of planar blastomere arrangement at the 4-cell stage. This observational study was set up in order to analyze whether developmental kinetics of planar human embryos are different from tetrahedral ones. Therefore, embryos of 115 consecutive ICSI patients (showing 32 planar and 554 tetrahedral embryos) were cultured in a new time-lapse system (Miri TL) and their embryos were annotated for morphokinetic development and screened for irregular cleavages and morphological dysmorphisms. Significantly less planar embryos reached blastocyst stage and showed worse quality as compared to regular tetrahedral embryos. The rate of bi- and/or multinucleation was also significantly higher in the affected group. Irregular cleavages, particularly embryo rolling, were more often seen in planar embryos. Morphokinetics between planar and tetrahedral were distinguishable up to 4-cell stage (t2-t4), thereafter the observed delay in planar embryos (t8) was more likely the result of a higher rate of arrested embryos in the planar group. Planar embryos are associated with both a significant increase in irregular cleavage as well as a delay in preimplantation development. This indicates that planar embryos are rather abnormal and should only be considered for transfer if no other embryos are available.

  18. High-fat diets affect energy and bone metabolism in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Elisa V; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Mandalunis, Patricia; Zeni, Susana; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M

    2012-06-01

    High-fat diets are usually associated with greater weight (W) gain and body fat (BF). However, it is still unclear whether the type and amount of fat consumed influence BF. Additionally, dietary fat intake may also have consequences on skeletal health. To evaluate in healthy growing rats the effects of high-fat diets and type of dietary fat intake (saturated or vegetable oils) on energy and bone metabolism. At weaning, male Wistar rats (n = 50) were fed either a control diet (C; fat = 7% w/w) or a high-fat diet (20% w/w) containing either: soybean oil, corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), or beef tallow (BT) for 8 weeks. Zoometric parameters, BF, food intake and digestibility, and total and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) were assessed. Total skeleton bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), BMC/W, spine BMD, and bone volume (static-histomorphometry) were measured. Animals fed BT diet achieved lower W versus C. Rats fed high-fat vegetable oil diets showed similar effects on the zoometric parameters but differed in BF. BT showed the lowest lipid digestibility and BMC. In contrast, high vegetable oil diets produced no significant differences in BMC, BMC/W, BMD, spine BMD, and bone volume. Marked differences were observed for LO and BT groups in b-AP and CO and BT groups in bone volume. BT diet rich in saturated fatty acids had decreased digestibility and adversely affected energy and bone metabolisms, in growing healthy male rats. There were no changes in zoometric and bone parameters among rats fed high vegetable oil diets.

  19. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  20. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  1. [A study of bone density and lifestyles of high school girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisaka, M; Zakouji, H; Ariizumi, M

    1997-07-01

    To obtain basic data on the bone density of high school girls, the bone density of the right heel was measured in principle and their lifestyles were surveyed. The subjects were 142 girls (15-18 years, mean +/- SD = 16.5 +/- 0.8 years old) of a high school in Nagano Prefecture, who accepted our visiting bone health check. Bone density was measured with an 'Achilles' ultrasound bone-densitometer (Lunar Co.) and a self-registered questionnaire on their lifestyles was also employed in this study. The main results were as follows: 1. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and, age, grade, bone fracture, family history, and regularity of menstruation. However, Stiffness significantly correlated to the age of menophania (r = -0.191, p = 0.002) 2. High school girls who belonged to a sports club had significantly higher bone density than other girls. Those who did-exercises which consist mainly of jumping, had significantly higher bone density than others who participated in running sports or did no exercise. There were also significant differences in the frequency of exercise and the duration of exercise. Moreover, those who had a regular exercise history had higher bone density than those who had no regular exercise history, and the mean Stiffness of the group that did exercises daily was higher than for those who did not. 3. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and food intakes. There also were no significant difference for Stiffness concerning intake of calcium-containing food groups. Regarding the cause of weight loss of more than 2 kg/month, the mean Stiffness of the group with intense exercise was significantly higher than those in the no-weigh loss group and the group that had reduced dietary intake. 4. Regarding the relationships between bone density and the lifestyles of high school girls, a delayed age of menophania had a significantly decreasing effect on Stiffness, whereas three variables of regular exercise habits at

  2. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively.

  3. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  4. Mapping of genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC by high-resolution SNP arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayagués, José María; Fontanillo, Celia; Abad, María del Mar; González-González, María; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; Chillon, Maria del Carmen; Garcia, Eva; Bengoechea, Oscar; Fonseca, Emilio; Gonzalez-Diaz, Marcos; De las Rivas, Javier; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luís; Orfao, Alberto

    2010-10-29

    For years, the genetics of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been studied using a variety of techniques. However, most of the approaches employed so far have a relatively limited resolution which hampers detailed characterization of the common recurrent chromosomal breakpoints as well as the identification of small regions carrying genetic changes and the genes involved in them. Here we applied 500K SNP arrays to map the most common chromosomal lesions present at diagnosis in a series of 23 primary tumours from sporadic CRC patients who had developed liver metastasis. Overall our results confirm that the genetic profile of metastatic CRC is defined by imbalanced gains of chromosomes 7, 8q, 11q, 13q, 20q and X together with losses of the 1p, 8p, 17p and 18q chromosome regions. In addition, SNP-array studies allowed the identification of small (1.5 Mb) altered DNA sequences, many of which contain cancer genes known to be involved in CRC and the metastatic process. Detailed characterization of the breakpoint regions for the altered chromosomes showed four recurrent breakpoints at chromosomes 1p12, 8p12, 17p11.2 and 20p12.1; interestingly, the most frequently observed recurrent chromosomal breakpoint was localized at 17p11.2 and systematically targeted the FAM27L gene, whose role in CRC deserves further investigations. In summary, in the present study we provide a detailed map of the genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC patients, which confirm and extend on previous observations as regards the identification of genes potentially involved in development of CRC and the metastatic process.

  5. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  6. High Hydrostatic Pressure for Disinfection of Bone Grafts and Biomaterials: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Hans; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Brendle, Monika; Weber, Patrick; Miethke, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Schauwecker, Johannes; Diehl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autoclaving, heat, irradiation or chemical detergents are used to disinfect autografts, allografts and biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. These methods are often associated with deterioration of mechanical, physical, and biological properties of the bone grafts and synthetic implants. High hydrostatic pressure has been proposed as a novel method preserving biomechanical and biological properties of bone, tendon and cartilage. This is the first study to assess the inactivation...

  7. Sports Participation in High School and College Leads to High Bone Density and Greater Rates of Bone Loss in Young Men: Results from a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Maggie M; Weidauer, Lee; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L

    2018-01-04

    Estimated lifetime risk of an osteoporotic fracture in men over the age of 50 years is substantial and lifestyle factors such as physical activity may explain variation in bone mass and bone loss associated with aging. Men (n = 253) aged 20-66 years were followed for 7.5 years and factors that influence changes in means and rates of change in bone mass, density, and size using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were investigated; in particular, seasons of sports participation during high school and college. Men with greater sports participation had higher total hip bone mineral content (BMC) (48.4 ± 0.9 and 48.6 ± 0.9 g for 7-12 and 13+ seasons vs. 45.6 ± 0.8 and 45.4 ± 0.7 g for 0 and 1-6 seasons, respectively p participated in less sport-seasons. However, men with higher sports participation also had greater rates of bone loss in their mid-twenties at the hip (BMC - 0.8 and - 1.2% and aBMD - 0.8 and - 0.9% for 7-12 and 13+ seasons of sport participation, respectively) compared to those with 0 seasons of sport participation (BMC - 0.6% and aBMD - 0.6%) (all p sport participation had higher cross-sectional area at the 20% distal radius site than those with no sports participation (all p sports participation on bone mass and geometry in men throughout adulthood.

  8. A novel NF1 mutation in a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait macule in neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H-X; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, J; Lu, W-Q

    2012-08-29

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; OMIM#162200) is a common neurocutaneous disorder that is characterized by multiple café-au-lait, skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas. Mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the neurofibromin protein, have been identified as the pathogenic gene of NF1. In this study, we present a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait in NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body, axillary freckling, and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas. He also had a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormalities. The germline mutational analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 13. It is a novel heterozygous nucleotide G>A transition at position 2241 of the NF1 gene. We found no mutation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor DNA from this patient. This expands the database for NF1 gene mutations in NF1. Its absence in the normal chromosomes suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first case of giant café-au-lait macule in NF1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

  9. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding in low- and high-resource settings: consideration of cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haththotuwa, Rohana; Goonewardene, Malik; Desai, Shyam; Senanayake, Lakshman; Tank, Jaydeep; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    In non industrialized countries the incidence of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) appears to be similar to that of industrialized countries, although data is scanty. In low-resource settings, women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) often delay seeking medical care because of cultural beliefs that a heavy red menstrual bleed is healthy. Efforts to modify cultural issues are being considered. A detailed history and a meticulous examination are the important foundations of a definitive diagnosis and management in low-resource settings but are subject to time constraints and skill levels of the small numbers of health professionals. Women's subjective assessment of blood loss should be combined, if possible, with a colorimetric hemoglobin assessment, if full blood count is not possible. Outpatient endometrial sampling, transvaginal sonography, and hysteroscopy are available in some non industrialized countries but not in the lowest resource settings. After exclusion of serious underlying pathology, hematinics should be commenced and antifibrinolytic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considered during menses to control the bleeding. Intrauterine or oral progestogens or the combined oral contraceptive are often the most cost-effective long-term medical treatments. When medical treatment is inappropriate or has failed, the surgical options available most often are myomectomy or hysterectomy. Hysteroscopic endometrial resection or newer endometrial ablation procedures are available in some centers. If hysterectomy is indicated the vaginal route is the most appropriate in most low-resource settings. In low-resource settings, lack of resources of all types can lead to empirical treatments or reliance on the unproven therapies of traditional healers. The shortage of human resources is often compounded by a limited availability of operative time. Governments and specialist medical organizations have rarely included attention to AUB and HMB in their health programs

  10. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism in haemodialysis patients, there is limited data on the pattern of mineral bone disorder in African CKD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mineral ...

  11. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases...

  12. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  13. Abnormal Skeletal Strength and Microarchitecture in Women With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Rogers, Halley; Leib, Alexa; McMahon, Donald J; Young, Polly; Nishiyama, Kyle; Guo, X Edward; Lewis, Suzanne; Green, Peter H; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Osteoporosis is often a presenting sign of celiac disease (CD). Whether skeletal fragility in CD is associated with microarchitectural abnormalities is not known. The objective of the study was to evaluate microarchitecture and biomechanical properties of bone in CD. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at a university hospital outpatient facility. Patients included premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (n = 33) and healthy controls (n = 33). Areal bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was measured as was trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia. Whole-bone stiffness estimated by finite element analysis. PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and bone turnover markers were also measured. Groups had similar age, race, and body mass index. Both groups had sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D and normal calcium and PTH. Areal bone mineral density was lower in CD. By high-resolution peripheral computed tomography, CD had lower trabecular vBMD, fewer, more widely, and irregularly spaced trabeculae at both the radius and tibia (8%-33%). At the tibia, they also had lower total density (8%) and thinner cortices (10%). Whole-bone stiffness and failure load were lower (11%-21%) in CD at both sites. Biomechanical deficits were associated with trabecular abnormalities. Women with CD had abnormal vBMD and microarchitecture at both the radius and tibia. Trabecular bone was preferentially affected. These deficits were associated with lower estimates of skeletal strength. These findings suggest a potential structural mechanism for skeletal fragility in CD and support further research into the pathogenesis of fracture in this population.

  14. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with short-term or long-term gait disorders. Therapy will reduce the risk of falls and other injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are ...

  16. Local bone pain and osseous scintigraphic findings in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaeda, Takeyoshi; Iinuma, Gen; Hirota, Keiichi; Inoue, Akemi; Sone, Yasuhiro; Seki, Matsuzo; Suzuki, Masao; Doi, Hidetaka

    1988-12-01

    Local bone pain and osseous scintigraphic findings were evaluated in patients with cancer of the lung, breast or prostate. (1) In 77-92% out of the patients with local pain, metastatic bone lesions were detected. (2) The sacrum and scapulae were the frequent sites of pain as estimated from the metastatic bone lesions. On the other hand, the incidence of pain was low in the ribs, cervical vertebrae, skull and femurs. (3) When calculated by the weight of red bone marrow, the most likely sites for bone metastases consisted of the scapulae, clavicles, sternum, humeri, ribs and cervical vertebrae, somewhat different from previous reports. Those bones involved were all proximate to the heart. (4) Extensive bone metastases were already detected in more than 50% of patients who complain of pain in the metastatic bone lesion. On the other hand, extensive bone metastases occurred in less than 6% of patients who didn't complain of pain. (5) The appearance of pain in the metastatic bone lesion was earlier in only 3% and was later in 71% than the detection of abnormal radioisotope accumulation on scintigram. (6) Majority of the patients with pain in the metastatic bone lesion showed a high degree of abnormal radioisotope accumulation which measured more than 5 cm in diameter on scintigram. On the other hand, the abnormal radioisotope accumulation in most of patients without pain was mild and mostly measured less than 5 cm in diameter. (7) The positive rate of bone metastasis amounted to 29% by plain X-ray and 41% by local bone pain as compaired to positive bone scintigram.

  17. A high-fat diet induces obesity and impairs bone acquisition in young male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhao, Hong; Wang, En-Hua

    2013-04-01

    The postnatal development of obesity is highly associated with the excessive consumption of a high-calorie, high-fat diet (HFD). However, the correlation between HFD-induced pediatric obesity and skeletal development remains to be elucidated. In the present study, postnatal day 17 (PND17) mice were weaned on a HFD for eight weeks ad libitum to induce obesity. The HFD mice showed a significant increase in the total body weight and gonadal and abdominal fat mass compared with the control animals. Peripheral quantitative (pQ) CT scans of the tibial bone revealed that the bone mineral density (BMD), including the total, trabecular and cortical BMD, was unchanged between the HFD and control diet groups, but that it was inversely associated with body fat. By contrast, the bone mineral content (BMC) and trabecular area were significantly decreased in the HFD group compared with the control. RNA and protein were isolated from the femur. qPCR and western blot analyses showed a significant downregulation in the gene expression of the key canonical Wnt signaling molecule β-catenin, the osteoblastic cell differentiation marker Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and also in the β-catenin gene encoded protein levels of the HFD mice when compared with the controls. Consistent with the increased fat mass in the HFD-induced obese animals, the expression of the adipogenic genes and aP2 was increased compared with the controls. Bone marrow cells were aspirated and the ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures showed that the number of colony-forming unit osteoblasts (CFU-OBs) per bone was significantly decreased in the samples from the HFD mice compared with those from the controls. These observations suggested that HFD-induced obesity in growing animals may affect the total available osteoblastic cell differentiation progenitors in the bone, while increasing adipogenesis. This may result in negative consequences for the bone later on in adult life.

  18. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  19. Site-specific quantification of bone quality using highly nonlinear solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Borkowski, Sean L; Silvestro, Claudio; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The ability to diagnose problems in an effective, efficient, and affordable manner and identify individuals at risk is essential. Site-specific assessment of bone mechanical properties is necessary, not only in the process of fracture risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications, such as making intraoperative decisions during spine and joint replacement surgeries. The present study evaluates the use of a one-dimensional granular crystal sensor to measure the elastic properties of bone at selected locations via direct mechanical contact. The granular crystal is composed of a tightly packed chain of particles that interact according to the Hertzian contact law. Such chains represent one of the simplest systems to generate and propagate highly nonlinear acoustic signals in the form of compact solitary waves. First, we investigated the sensitivity of the sensor to known variations in bone density using a synthetic cancellous bone substitute, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy to osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known bone properties was established, the sensor was used to assess the bone quality of ten human cadaveric specimens. The efficacy and accuracy of the sensor was then investigated by comparing the sensor measurements with the bone mineral density (BMD) obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of detecting differences in bone quality. The ability to measure site-specific properties without exposure to radiation has the potential to be further developed for clinical applications.

  20. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H. M. M.; Bošnački, D.; Elevelt, A.; Donato, K.; Di Tullio, A.; Breuer, B. J. T.; van Wijk, J. H.; van Dijk, E. V. M.; Modena, D.; Yeo, S. Y.; Grüll, H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  1. Chromium (d-Phenylalanine)3 Alleviates High Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance and Lipid Abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, MK; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (d-phenylalanine)3 [Cr(d-Phe)3] on -glucose and -insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(d-Phe)3 (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body -glucose and- insulin tolerance and elevated...

  2. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J

    2017-02-22

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells.

  3. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (pprotein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: pprotein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  4. Loss of fibulin-4 results in abnormal collagen fibril assembly in bone, caused by impaired lysyl oxidase processing and collagen cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasaki, T.; Stoop, R.; Sakai, T.; Hess, A.; Deutzmann, R.; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U.; Chu, M.L.; Mark, K. von der

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibulin-4 has been shown to be indispensable for elastic fiber assembly, but there is also evidence from human mutations that it is involved in controlling skeletal development and bone stability. Fibulin-4 mutations were identified in patients suffering from

  5. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: yzyg@sh163.net; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: huangyan@fudan.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  6. High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Javoroski, S.; Saha, P. K.; Liang, G.; Li, C.; Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Summary People with spinal cord injury (SCI) lose bone and muscle integrity after their injury. Early doses of stress, applied through electrically induced muscle contractions, preserved bone density at high-risk sites. Appropriately prescribed stress early after the injury may be an important consideration to prevent bone loss after SCI. Introduction Skeletal muscle force can deliver high compressive loads to bones of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effective osteogenic dose of load for the distal femur, a chief site of fracture, is unknown. The purpose of this study is to compare three doses of bone compressive loads at the distal femur in individuals with complete SCI who receive a novel stand training intervention. Methods Seven participants performed unilateral quadriceps stimulation in supported stance [150% body weight (BW) compressive load—“High Dose” while opposite leg received 40% BW—“Low Dose”]. Five participants stood passively without applying quadriceps electrical stimulation to either leg (40% BW load—“Low Dose”). Fifteen participants performed no standing (0% BW load—“Untrained”) and 14 individuals without SCI provided normative data. Participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) assessment between one and six times over a 3-year training protocol. Results BMD for the High Dose group significantly exceeded BMD for both the Low Dose and the Untrained groups (p0.05), indicating that BMD for participants performing passive stance did not differ from individuals who performed no standing. High-resolution CT imaging of one High Dose participant revealed 86% higher BMD and 67% higher trabecular width in the High Dose limb. Conclusion Over 3 years of training, 150% BW compressive load in upright stance significantly attenuated BMD decline when compared to passive standing or to no standing. High-resolution CT indicated that trabecular architecture was preserved by the 150% BW dose of load. PMID:22187008

  7. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  8. Peripheral immune abnormalities in two high-risk populations for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Brouwer, R.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; de Wit, H; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Objective: Mounting data support the hypothesis for a role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine immune alterations in two unique familial high-risk cohorts for bipolar disorder. Methods: The study population comprised bipolar

  9. Abnormally High Power Output of Wind Turbine in Cold Weather: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Leclerc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available According to popular belief, air temperature effects on wind turbine power output are produced solely by air density variations, and power is proportional to air density. However, some cases have been reported, all involving stall-controlled wind turbines, in which unexpected high power output was observed at very low temperatures.

  10. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  11. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  12. Sliding malar bone augmentation technique with a high le fort I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effectiveness of a high Le Fort I osteotomy design, including the malar bones, which allows segment sliding over the zygoma and forces the osteotomized segment to move forward with distraction. Two patients (male, 23- and 30-year-old) with malar deficiency underwent high Le ...

  13. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P 76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia ( P osteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium.

  14. Influence of High-Fat Diet on Bone Tissue: An Experimental Study in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Yanagihara, G; Carminati Shimano, R; Atsuko Tida, J; Suzuki Yamanaka, J; Yasuyo Fukada, S; Mardegan Issa, J P; Shimano, A C; Tavares, J M

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and bone tissue remains contradictory, especially when the effect of high-fat diet is assessed in experimental models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-fat diet on bone metabolism of growing rats. Twenty weaned female Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups: SD (standard diet) and HFD (high-fat diet with 60 % of energy as fat). After five weeks of the two diets, the rats were euthanized, and the liver, blood and bones extracted. The liver was analysed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Blood was analysed by the ELISA method for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11/RANKL). The bone tissue was analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), mechanical tests, computed microtomography, histological quantitative analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The gene expressions of PPAR-γ Runx-2, RANKL and Cathepsin-K were also evaluated. HFD caused an increase in the MDA concentration, indicating oxidative stress. It also increased the expression of PPAR-γ, which is the gene that is related to adipocyte differentiation. There was an increase in BMD of the tibia of animals fed with the HFD, but other microstructural and mechanical properties were maintained unaltered. In addition, there were no changes in the gene expressions related to the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as no changes to the biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. Liver and gene parameters are changed in response to the HFD. However, although there was an increase in BMD, the microstructure and function of the bone did not change after a 5-week HFD.

  15. Successful disinfection of femoral head bone graft using high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Michiel A J; Bovée, Judith V M G; van Domselaar, Mark; van Wijk, Marja J; Sanders, Ingrid; Kuijper, Ed

    2017-12-20

    The current standard for sterilization of potentially infected bone graft by gamma irradiation and thermal or chemical inactivation potentially deteriorates the biomechanical properties of the graft. We performed an in vitro experiment to evaluate the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP); which is widely used as a disinfection process in the food processing industry, to sterilize bone grafts. Four femoral heads were divided into five parts each, of which 16 were contaminated (in duplicate) with 10 5 -10 7  CFU/ml of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Candida albicans, respectively. Of each duplicate, one sample was untreated and stored similarly as the treated sample. The remaining four parts were included as sterile control and non-infected control. The 16 parts underwent HHP at the high-pressure value of 600 MPa. After HHP, serial dilutions were made and cultured on selective media and into enrichment media to recover low amounts of microorganism and spores. Three additional complete femoral heads were treated with 0, 300 and 600 MPa HHP respectively for histological evaluation. None of the negative-control bone fragments contained microorganisms. The measured colony counts in the positive-control samples correlated excellent with the expected colony count. None of the HHP treated bone fragments grew on culture plates or enrichment media. Histological examination of three untreated femoral heads showed that the bone structure remained unchanged after HHP. Sterilizing bone grafts by high hydrostatic pressure was successful and is a promising technique with the possible advantage of retaining biomechanical properties of bone tissue.

  16. Bone augmentation using a highly porous PLGA/β-TCP scaffold containing fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Miyaji, H; Otani, K; Inoue, K; Nakane, K; Nishimura, H; Ibara, A; Shimada, A; Ogawa, K; Nishida, E; Sugaya, T; Sun, L; Fugetsu, B; Kawanami, M

    2015-04-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), a bio-absorbable ceramic, facilitates bone conductivity. We constructed a highly porous three-dimensional scaffold, using β-TCP, for bone tissue engineering and coated it with co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid (PLGA) to improve the mechanical strength and biological performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of implantation of the PLGA/β-TCP scaffold loaded with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) on bone augmentation. The β-TCP scaffold was fabricated by the replica method using polyurethane foam, then coated with PLGA. The PLGA/β-TCP scaffold was characterized by scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, compressive testing, cell culture and a subcutaneous implant test. Subsequently, a bone-forming test was performed using 52 rats. The β-TCP scaffold, PLGA-coated scaffold, and β-TCP and PLGA-coated scaffolds loaded with FGF-2, were implanted into rat cranial bone. Histological observations were made at 10 and 35 d postsurgery. SEM and TEM observations showed a thin PLGA layer on the β-TCP particles after coating. High porosity (> 90%) of the scaffold was exhibited after PLGA coating, and the compressive strength of the PLGA/β-TCP scaffold was six-fold greater than that of the noncoated scaffold. Good biocompatibility of the PLGA/β-TCP scaffold was found in the culture and implant tests. Histological samples obtained following implantation of PLGA/β-TCP scaffold loaded with FGF-2 showed significant bone augmentation. The PLGA coating improved the mechanical strength of β-TCP scaffolds while maintaining high porosity and tissue compatibility. PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds, in combination with FGF-2, are bioeffective for bone augmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover...... experiments revealed that osteoclasts released CTXI fragments but not CTXII from bone specimens. The same was observed for cathepsin K. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that an uncoupling between bone resorption and cartilage degradation occurs in breast and lung cancer patient....

  18. A variant alkaline phosphatase found in a case of gastric carcinoma with super bone scan.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, F; Ikeda, T; Tozuka, S; Noguchi, O; Fukuma, T; Sakamoto, S.; Marumo, F; Komoda, T; Sakagishi, Y; Sato, C

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of gastric carcinoma associated with increased serum variant alkaline phosphatase activities is presented. A 54 year old man had extremely high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (18,607 U/l) with normal calcium and phosphate concentrations. His bone scintigram showed abnormal findings, 'super bone scan'. He was diagnosed as having Borrmann type 4 gastric carcinoma with diffuse bone metastases by examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract and iliac bone biopsy. The alkaline...

  19. High-speed Imaging of Vocal Fold Vibration Onset Delay: Normal Versus Abnormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak

    2017-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration onset delay (VFVOD) is heard frequently in spasmodic dysphonia and in muscle tension dysphonia. VFVOD changes due to other vocal pathologies have not been investigated. VFVOD during sustained vowel production was estimated with high-speed video in 10 normal and 40 pathologic subjects (scars, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold nodules, and polyps). Analysis of high-speed video was done using digital kymography. VFVOD can be divided into two portions. Pre-phonation delay (PPD) is the duration when the vocal folds are nearly approximated to the time of first observed oscillation. Steady state delay (SSD) is the time when vocal folds are observed to come into oscillation until steady state of oscillation is observed. Normal subjects have almost zero PPD with vocal fold oscillation observed before full vocal fold adduction. Pathologic cases showed prolonged PPD because of (1) false cord adduction, (2) prolonged true vocal fold adduction, and (3) delay to onset of vocal fold vibration. Normal subjects have SSD of three to five cycles before steady state. Pathologic states result in increased SSD. Causes for increased SSD include (1) slow ramping up to steady state, (2) partial vibration of vocal folds, and (3) diplophonia with alternating beats before achieving steady state. There are significant differences between normal and pathology groups in both PPD and SSD. VFVOD is elevated in pathologic states. This can be due to increase in PPD or SSD. VFVOD is an under-recognized phenomenon that may contribute to complaints of vocal fatigue and dysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Coronary Abnormalities and Cardiac Function in a Murine Model of Kawasaki Disease Using High-frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Echocardiography could identify the consecutive changes of coronary artery in KD mice. Echocardiography is more convenient and direct in evaluating the coronary abnormalities in this animal model.

  1. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  2. High grade hemangioendothelioma of the temporal bone in a child: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Im, Soo Ah; Lim, Gye Yeon; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Park, Hyun Jin; Byun, Jae Young [The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    Hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor characterized by endothelial tumor cells and variable malignant behavior, and it's not common for this lesion to involve the bone. Although there are a few reports of cranial involvement by hemangioendothelioma, only rare cases arising in temporal bone have been published. We present the radiologic findings of a 7-year-old boy who had a high grade hemangioendothelioma involving the temporal bone with intracranial extension. Evidence of flow voids on MR images suggested a tumor of vascular origin, and the ill-defined margins, cortical destruction and intracranial extension on the CT and MR images were correlated with the tumor's high histologic grade.

  3. Visualizing the root-PDL-bone interface using high-resolution microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    The root/periodontal ligament/bone (RPB) interface is important for a correct understanding of the load transfer mechanism of masticatory forces and orthodontic loads. It is the aim of this study to assess the three-dimensional structure of the RPB interface using high-resolution microtomography. A human posterior jaw segment, obtained at autopsy from a 22-year old male donor was first scanned using a tomograph at the HASYLAB/DESY synchrotron facility (Hamburg, Germany) at 31μm resolution. Afterwards the first molar and its surrounding bone were removed with a 10mm hollow core drill. From this cylindrical sample smaller samples were drilled out in the buccolingual direction with a 1.5mm hollow core drill. These samples were scanned at 4μm resolution. The scans of the entire segment showed alveolar bone with a thin lamina dura, supported by an intricate trabecular network. Although featuring numerous openings between the PDL and the bone marrow on the other side to allow blood vessels to transverse, the lamina dura seems smooth at this resolution. First at high resolution, however, it becomes evident that it is irregular with bony spiculae and pitted surfaces. Therefore the stresses in the bone during physiological or orthodontic loading are much higher than expected from a smooth continuous alveolus.

  4. Bone Structure and Estimated Bone Strength in Obese Patients Evaluated by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine; Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hansen, Stinus

    2014-01-01

    females, age 25-56 years and BMI 33.2-57.6 kg/m(2)) matched with healthy controls (age 25-54 years and BMI 19.5-24.8 kg/m(2)) in regard to gender, menopausal status, age (±6 years) and height (±6 cm) using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry....... In radius, total bone area and trabecular area were significantly higher in obese patients (both p radius. Trabecular integrity was strengthened in obese...... patients compared with controls in radius and tibia with higher trabecular number (p = 0.002 and p radius in obese patients. FL was significantly...

  5. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  6. Reduced size-independent mechanical properties of cortical bone in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionova-Martin, S S; Do, S H; Barth, H D; Szadkowska, M; Porter, A E; Ager, J W; Ager, J W; Alliston, T; Vaisse, C; Ritchie, R O

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly expanding health problems in children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically, however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Prior studies have shown some reduced mechanical properties as a result of high-fat diet (HFD) but do not fully address size-independent measures of mechanical properties, which are important to understand material behavior. To clarify the effects of HFD on the mechanical properties and microstructure of bone, femora from C57BL/6 mice fed either a HFD or standard laboratory chow (Chow) were evaluated for structural changes and tested for bending strength, bending stiffness and fracture toughness. Here, we find that in young, obese, high-fat fed mice, all geometric parameters of the femoral bone, except length, are increased, but strength, bending stiffness, and fracture toughness are all reduced. This increased bone size and reduced size-independent mechanical properties suggests that obesity leads to a general reduction in bone quality despite an increase in bone quantity; yield and maximum loads, however, remained unchanged, suggesting compensatory mechanisms. We conclude that diet-induced obesity increases bone size and reduces size-independent mechanical properties of cortical bone in mice. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to "classical" forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM)-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders such as hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification. Little is known about the impact of the mutation on bone tissue/material level in untreated and bisphosphonate-treated patients. Therefore, investigations of transiliac bone biopsy samples from a cohort of OI type V children (n = 15, 8.7 ± 4 years old) untreated at baseline and a subset (n = 8) after pamidronate treatment (2.6 years in average) were performed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) was used to determine bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as well as osteocyte lacunar density. The BMDD of type V OI bone was distinctly shifted toward a higher degree of mineralization. The most frequently occurring calcium concentration (CaPeak) in cortical (Ct) and cancellous (Cn) bone was markedly increased (+11.5%, +10.4%, respectively, p V Ct and Cn bone (+171%, p V patients is hypermineralized, similar to other forms of OI. The elevated osteocyte lacunar density in connection with lack of regular bone lamellation points to an exuberant primary bone formation and an alteration of the bone remodeling process in OI type V. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. High dietary protein intake and protein-related acid load on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is an essential nutrient for humans and is required for maintaining optimal bone structure and growth. Consumption of high protein diets in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of (0.8 g protein/kg body weight/d) is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lea...

  9. Correlates of Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters in Patients with Diabetes: The Study on the Assessment of Determinants of Muscle and Bone Strength Abnormalities in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Conti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS provides an estimate of bone mineral density (BMD and also evaluates bone quality, which has been related to increased fracture risk in people with diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the correlates of calcaneal QUS parameters in diabetic subjects encompassing various degrees of micro and macrovascular complications and a wide-range of peripheral nerve function. Methods. Four hundred consecutive diabetic patients were examined by QUS to obtain values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, the speed of sound (SOS, quantitative ultrasound index (QUI, and BMD. Results. Among surrogate measures of complications, sensory and motor nerve amplitude and heart rate response to cough test and standing correlated with QUS parameters at univariate analysis, together with age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, and renal function. Multivariate analysis revealed that BUA, SOS, QUI, and BMD were independently associated with age, male gender, hemoglobin A1c, BMI (or fat, but not fat-free mass, and somatic and autonomic nerve function parameters. Conclusions. These data indicate that peripheral nerve dysfunction is associated with worse QUS parameters, possibly contributing to increased fracture risk in diabetes. The positive relation of QUS measures with adiposity needs further investigation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01600924.

  10. A study with high resolution computed tomography of bone destruction in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamaso, Tatsuya; Higo, Ryusaburo (Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)); Senba, Tetsuo; Iinuma, Yoshitaka

    1992-07-01

    The modes and incidences of bone destruction in the middle ear cholesteatoma were evaluated by high resolution computed tomography, comparing with chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) as control. The head of the malleus, the body and long process of the incus were more markedly destroyed in cholesteatoma than in COM with statistical significance. With the further extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum, the tegmen of the aditus ad antrum, the lateral semicircular canal, the handle of the malleus and the Korner's septum were involved in bone destruction. (author).

  11. The potential impact of NIPT as a second-tier screen on the outcomes of high-risk pregnancies with rare chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; Dickinson, Jan E; Murch, Ashleigh; O'Leary, Peter

    2015-10-01

    To describe the potential impact of using noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a second-tier test, on the diagnosis and outcomes of pregnancies identified as high risk through first trimester screening (FTS) in a cohort of real pregnancies. Western Australian FTS and diagnostic data (2007-2009) were linked to pregnancy outcomes. Karyotype results from invasive prenatal testing in high-risk women were analysed. The outcomes of abnormal results that would not be detected by NIPT, assuming a panel of trisomy 21/18/13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies, and the likelihood of diagnosis in a screening model using NIPT as a second-tier test are described. Abnormal karyotype results were reported in 224 of 1488 (15%) women with high-risk pregnancies having invasive diagnostic testing. NIPT potentially would have identified 85%. The 33 abnormalities unidentifiable by NIPT were triploidies (n = 7, 21%), balanced (n = 8, 24%) and unbalanced rearrangements (n = 10, 30%) and level III mosaicisms (n = 8, 24%). For conditions not identifiable by NIPT, fetal sonographic appearance was likely to have led to invasive testing for 10 of 17 (59%) pathogenic abnormalities. If a policy was adopted recommending invasive testing for FTS risk >1:50 and/or ultrasound detected abnormality, the residual risk of an unidentified pathogenic chromosomal abnormality in those without a diagnosis would have been 0.33% (95% CI 0.01-0.65%). A screening model with NIPT as a second-tier for high-risk pregnancies would be unlikely to have changed the outcome for the majority of pregnancies. Optimising the diagnosis of rare pathogenic abnormalities requires clear indicators for invasive testing over NIPT. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Weakening Pin Bone Attachment in Fish Fillets Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Skjelvareid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish fillets to enable easier removal of such bones. This was shown in the present study, where a series of experiments were performed on HIFU phantoms and fillets of cod and salmon. In thin objects such as fish fillets, the heat is mainly dissipated at the surfaces. However, bones inside the fillet absorb ultrasound energy more efficiently than the surrounding tissue, resulting in a “self-focusing” heating of the bones. Salmon skin was found to effectively block the ultrasound, resulting in a significantly lower heating effect in fillets with skin. Cod skin partly blocked the ultrasound, but only to a small degree, enabling HIFU treatment through the skin. The treatment of fillets to reduce the pin bone attachment yielded an average reduction in the required pulling force by 50% in cod fillets with skin, with little muscle denaturation, and 72% in skinned fillets, with significant muscle denaturation. Salmon fillets were treated from the muscle side of the fillet to circumvent the need for penetration through skin. The treatment resulted in a 30% reduction in the peak pulling force and 10% reduction in the total pulling work, with a slight denaturation of the fillet surface.

  13. [Influence of high molecular weight polyethylene on viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gaohong; Lin, Angru; Pei, Guoxian; Hu, Basheng

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the influence of high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWP) on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation in the process of fracture healing, the osteoblasts derived from adult human bone marrow were cultured in HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium. The viability of the osteoblasts was measured by MTT assay, and the function of the osteoblasts was detected by use of alkaline phosphatase test kit. The locked double-plating (steel plate and HMWP plate) was implanted and fixed at the artificial fracture of distal femur of dogs. Specimens were gained at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks postoperatively, examined with macroscopy, microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that HMWP did no harm to osteoblasts. There is no significant difference in activities of proliferation and alkaline phosphatase between HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium at each observation time of at 2,4,8, and 14 dyas (P>0. 05). Bone tissue under the implanted HMWP plate manifested no absorption; the new bones formed under the HMWP plate and gradually matured as time went on. It is demonstrated in this study that HMWP has no adverse influence on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation and it can be used as internal fixation implant in treating fractures.

  14. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed....... However, B19 DNA was detected by PCR in 13 of 50 (26%) bone marrow samples from these patients indicating a high frequency of persistent infection compared with previous reports of patient groups and healthy controls. In the study, 22 patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 7 of these RA patients were...

  15. Comparison of bone metabolism based on the different ages and competition levels of junior and high school female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Naka, Tatsuki

    2017-06-30

    This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts. For comparison by competition level, the 7 junior high school gymnasts were separated into 3 gymnasts who competed at national level (junior high school elite), and 4 gymnasts who did not compete at that level (junior high school non-elite), and the 12 high school gymnasts were separated into 7 gymnasts who competed at national level (high school elite) and 5 gymnasts who did not compete at that level (high school non-elite). The measurement items were bone mineral density, bone metabolism markers (undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx)). We also surveyed the gymnasts' height, weight and nutrition. In this study we found: 1) The high school gymnasts who competed at high-level rhythmic gymnastics had good results for bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density. 2) Elite high school gymnasts had restricted diets. 3) Nutritionally, their energy intake and carbohydrate intake was low, but their intake of protein, calcium, iron, vitamin D and vitamin K was good. The results found that the elite gymnastics showed a higher bone density than the non-elite group that suggests the possibility of inhibiting bone formation in the bone metabolism.

  16. [Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a metal grinder with an abnormally high level of serum CA19-9].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, M; Usuki, J; Uematsu, K; Enomoto, T; Shinoda, K; Yoshimori, K; Fukuda, Y; Kudoh, S; Niitani, H

    1995-08-01

    Interstitial pneumonia and recurrent pneumothorax developed in a 48-year-old man who had worked as a metal grinder. He died of respiratory failure despite having received antibiotics and steroids, and despite having undergone pleural sclerosis therapy. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed; innumerable bizarre giant cells engulfing black granules were found within the alveoli. The results of high-energy dispersion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the patient had hard metal pneumoconiosis associated with tungsten in the black granules. When he was admitted to the hospital, his serum CA19-9 and SLEX concentrations were abnormally high (2600 and 200 ng/ml, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissue was done with anti-CA19-9 and SLEX antibodies. CA19-9 staining revealed strong bronchialization and squamous metaplasia in contrast to type II hyperplasia. SLEX staining showed strong type II hyperplasia. Further investigations will be needed to determine the mechanism of elevated tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens in serum.

  17. Sperm morphological abnormalities visualised at high magnification predict embryonic development, from fertilisation to the blastocyst stage, in couples undergoing ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Vingris, Livia; Serzedello, Thais; Figueira, Rita de Cássia Sávio; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the predictive value of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) on embryo morphology. The morphologies of 540 embryos obtained from 60 couples undergoing ICSI were evaluated from days 1 to 5 of development and were examined for associations with the percentages of morphologically normal paternal sperm and of the paternal sperm with large nuclear vacuoles (LNVs) as determined by MSOME. An increased percentage of LNV sperm was associated with increased odds of a zygote presenting with pronuclear abnormalities. It was also associated with decreased odds of (i) normal cleavage on days 2 and 3 of development, (ii) the presence of a high-quality embryo on day 3, (iii) the development of an embryo to the blastocyst stage, and (iv) an embryo possessing a normal trophectoderm and inner cell mass. The calculated areas under the curves differed for the embryos that did and did not develop to the blastocyst stage and for the high- and low-quality blastocysts. The optimal cut-off value for the percentage of LNV sperm that maximised proper blastocyst formation was ≤24.5 %, and the cut-off value that maximised blastocyst quality was ≤19.5 %. These results suggest a very early onset of paternal influences on embryo development. The evaluation of the incidence of vacuoles by MSOME may significantly improve upon the prognostic information provided by conventional semen analyses.

  18. Effect of stress and temperature on the micromechanics of creep in highly irradiated bone and dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Anjali, E-mail: anjalisinghal2007@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deymier-Black, Alix C., E-mail: alixdeymier2010@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Almer, Jonathan D., E-mail: almer@aps.anl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dunand, David C., E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is used to study in situ the evolution of phase strains during compressive creep deformation in bovine bone and dentin for a range of compressive stresses and irradiation rates, at ambient and body temperatures. In all cases, compressive strains in the collagen phase increase with increasing creep time (and concomitant irradiation), reflecting macroscopic deformation of the sample. By contrast, compressive elastic strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase, created upon initial application of compressive load on the sample, decrease with increasing time (and irradiation) for all conditions; this load shedding behavior is consistent with damage at the HAP–collagen interface due to the high irradiation doses (from ∼ 100 to ∼ 9,000 kGy). Both the HAP and fibril strain rates increase with applied compressive stress, temperature and irradiation rate, which is indicative of greater collagen molecular sliding at the HAP–collagen interface and greater intermolecular sliding (i.e., plastic deformation) within the collagen network. The temperature sensitivity confirms that testing at body temperature, rather than ambient temperature, is necessary to assess the in vivo behavior of bone and teeth. The characteristic pattern of HAP strain evolution with time differs quantitatively between bone and dentin, and may reflect their different structural organization. Highlights: ► First systematic study of varying creep stresses on bone and dentin at nanoscale. ► HAP in highly irradiated bone and dentin sheds load during creep at all stresses. ► This suggests HAP–collagen interfacial damage due to irradiation and applied stress. ► HAP and fibril strain rates increase with stress, temperature and irradiation. ► Temporal evolution of strains different in bone and dentin.

  19. Computationally-optimized bone mechanical modeling from high-resolution structural images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy F Magland

    Full Text Available Image-based mechanical modeling of the complex micro-structure of human bone has shown promise as a non-invasive method for characterizing bone strength and fracture risk in vivo. In particular, elastic moduli obtained from image-derived micro-finite element (μFE simulations have been shown to correlate well with results obtained by mechanical testing of cadaveric bone. However, most existing large-scale finite-element simulation programs require significant computing resources, which hamper their use in common laboratory and clinical environments. In this work, we theoretically derive and computationally evaluate the resources needed to perform such simulations (in terms of computer memory and computation time, which are dependent on the number of finite elements in the image-derived bone model. A detailed description of our approach is provided, which is specifically optimized for μFE modeling of the complex three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. Our implementation includes domain decomposition for parallel computing, a novel stopping criterion, and a system for speeding up convergence by pre-iterating on coarser grids. The performance of the system is demonstrated on a dual quad-core Xeon 3.16 GHz CPUs equipped with 40 GB of RAM. Models of distal tibia derived from 3D in-vivo MR images in a patient comprising 200,000 elements required less than 30 seconds to converge (and 40 MB RAM. To illustrate the system's potential for large-scale μFE simulations, axial stiffness was estimated from high-resolution micro-CT images of a voxel array of 90 million elements comprising the human proximal femur in seven hours CPU time. In conclusion, the system described should enable image-based finite-element bone simulations in practical computation times on high-end desktop computers with applications to laboratory studies and clinical imaging.

  20. Is curettage and high-speed burring sufficient treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward H M; Marfori, Michael L; Serrano, Ma Victoria T; Rubio, Donnel Alexis

    2014-11-01

    To decrease the recurrence rate after intralesional curettage for aneurysmal bone cysts, different adjuvant treatments have been recommended. Liquid nitrogen spray and argon beam coagulation have provided the lowest recurrence rates, but unlike the high-speed burr, these adjuvants are not always available in operating rooms. We asked: (1) Is high-speed burring alone sufficient as an adjuvant to curettage with respect to recurrence rates? (2) What is the complication rate from this technique? (3) What are the risk factors for local recurrence? A retrospective review of the database of the University Musculoskeletal Tumor Unit and the private files of the senior author (EHW) for a period of 19 years (1993-2011) was performed to identify all patients histologically diagnosed with primary aneurysmal bone cyst. During that period, patients with aneurysmal bone cysts were treated with intralesional curettage, burring, and bone grafting if the lesions showed an adequate cortical wall or a wall with thinned out portions which could be reconstructed with bone grafting. Based on those indications, we treated 54 patients for this condition. Of those, 18 were treated using approaches other than burring because they did not meet the defined indications, and an additional five patients were lost to followup before 2 years, leaving 31 patients for analysis, all of whom were followed up for at least 2 years (mean, 7 years; range, 2-18 years). Of these 31 patients, one had a recurrence (3.2%). Complications using this approach occurred in three patients (9.7%), and included growth plate deformity (1) and genu varus (2) secondary to collapse of the reconstructed condyle. With only one recurrence, we cannot answer what the risk factors might be for recurrence; however, the one patient with recurrence presented with a large lesion and a pathologic fracture. Curettage, burring, and bone grafting compare favorably in the literature with other approaches for aneurysmal bone cysts

  1. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  2. Participation in high-impact sports predicts bone mineral density in senior olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and -0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R(2) change 3.2%, P sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  5. Abnormal pelvic morphology and high cervical length are responsible for high-risk pregnancies in women displaying achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre J; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Baujat, Geneviève; Benachi, Alexandra

    2016-12-05

    Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathological anatomy of the pelvis. Thus, there is a foreseeable dystocia owing to cephalopelvic disproportion. Furthermore, this situation could also complicate cervical ripening prior to fetal extraction.

  6. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  7. Bone edema on magnetic resonance imaging is highly associated with low bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danmin Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between bone marrow edema (BME on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS.The study included 333 patients with AS who underwent BMD measurements and axial MRI. Additionally, 106 normal controls were included. The modified New York criteria were used as the classification criteria of AS. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected and analyzed. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined by a Z-score ≤-2. The Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC MRI index was used to assess inflammation at the sacroiliac joint (SIJ and spine.Among the 333 patients, the male:female ratio was 4.6:1, mean patient age was 28.5±10.6 years, and mean disease duration was 7.3±6.8 years. The prevalences of low BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis were significantly higher among AS patients than among controls (19.8%, 62.8%, and 5.7% vs. 4.7%, 33.0%, and 0%, respectively, P = 0.000. The BMD values were significantly lower and prevalences of low BMD at both the spine and femur were significantly higher among patients with BME on MRI than among those without BME. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (OR 3.87, 95% CI 1.21-7.36, P = 0.023, high ASDAS-CRP score (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36-4.76, P = 0.015, the presence of BME on sacroiliac MRI (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.77-6.23, P = 0.000 and spinal MRI (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.96-8.46, P = 0.000, and high grade of sacroiliitis (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.82-4.45, P = 0.002 were risk factors for low BMD (any site. The SPARCC scores of the SIJ were negatively correlated with femoral BMD (r = -0.22, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.10, P = 0.000. Additionally, the SPARCC scores of the spine were negatively correlated with BMD values (r = -0.23, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.09, P = 0.003 and Z-scores (r = -0.24, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.12, P = 0.001 at the

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  11. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  12. Usefulness of {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with high grade non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yukyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Hong, Jun Shik; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jeong Yeal; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hae Jun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Shin, Ji Young [Gachon Univ. Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To assess the usefulness of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in the detection of bone marrow (BM) involvement of high grade non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). One hundred twenty patients with newly diagnosed nosed diffuse large b cell lymphoma or peripheral t cell lymphoma between January 2007 and dune 2011, who re received bw trephine biopsy and {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT images and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) results. After reviewing the images, we reviewed the medical records and radiological findings of interesting patients. There were 23 {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT scans in which the marrow was considered to be abnormal (either positive or equivocal), and 97 {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT scans were regarded as having negative FDG uptake. Of 120 patients, 100 (83.3%) had a concordant result of BM interpretation between {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT and BMB, and the remaining 20 patients had discordant results. Among 23 patients with either positive or equivocal {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT scans, 1 of 12 patients with 'positive' {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT had a lymphomatous involvement on BMB. In contrast, 10 of 11 patients with 'equivocal' BM hypermetabolism were reported as having positive involvement on BMB. Patients with abnormal {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT had significantly higher mSUV{sup highestt}han those with normal FDG PET/CT. {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT and BMB are complementary techniques in assessing the presence of BM involvement in patients with high grade NHL. the increasing availability of {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT will raise the need for additional biopsy for FDG avid lesions, especially in patients with negative standard BMBs {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT can be useful as a decision as an initial staging procedure. a direct bone biopsy for FDG avid lesion as an initial staging procedure. a direct bone biopsy for FDG positive bone lesions should be included in staging guidelines in future. In {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT negative cases, BMB is still a powerful procedure, but BMB alone is insufficient

  13. High-throughput phenotyping and genetic linkage of cortical bone microstructure in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Kevin S; Donahue, Leah Rae; Müller, Ralph; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-07-03

    Understanding cellular structure and organization, which plays an important role in biological systems ranging from mechanosensation to neural organization, is a complicated multifactorial problem depending on genetics, environmental factors, and stochastic processes. Isolating these factors necessitates the measurement and sensitive quantification of many samples in a reliable, high-throughput, unbiased manner. In this manuscript we present a pipelined approach using a fully automated framework based on Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) for performing a full 3D characterization of millions of substructures. We demonstrate the framework on a genetic study on the femur bones of in-bred mice. We measured 1300 femurs from a F2 cross experiment in mice without the growth hormone (which can confound many of the smaller structural differences between strains) and characterized more than 50 million osteocyte lacunae (cell-sized hollows in the bone). The results were then correlated with genetic markers in a process called quantitative trait localization (QTL). Our findings provide a mapping between regions of the genome (all 19 autosomes) and observable phenotypes which could explain between 8-40 % of the variance using between 2-10 loci for each trait. This map shows 4 areas of overlap with previous studies looking at bone strength and 3 areas not previously associated with bone. The mapping of microstructural phenotypes provides a starting point for both structure-function and genetic studies on murine bone structure and the specific loci can be investigated in more detail to identify single gene candidates which can then be translated to human investigations. The flexible infrastructure offers a full spectrum of shape, distribution, and connectivity metrics for cellular networks and can be adapted to a wide variety of materials ranging from plant roots to lung tissue in studies requiring high sample counts and sensitive metrics such as the drug

  14. MRI abnormalities in children following sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa for high-risk primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thust, Stefanie C; Blanco, Esther; Michalski, Antony J; Chong, W K; Gaze, Mark N; Phipps, Kim; Mankad, Kshitij

    2014-12-01

    Intensive postsurgical therapies have improved survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumour, but there is concern that the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy may result in a compound injury to normal brain. The purposes of this analysis were to characterise what types of imaging abnormalities occur, identify risk factors and explore how treatment-related changes may be distinguished from tumour. One hundred fifty-three MRI studies in 14 children treated with sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa were retrospectively analysed at a paediatric national referral centre. We observed 11 episodes of new focal enhancing lesions, 5 of which were transient and judged to be treatment related. In addition, 7/14 (50%) of children demonstrated moderate to severe brain volume loss featuring a leukodystrophy pattern. Treatment-related brain MRI abnormalities occurred frequently in this series with a risk of misdiagnosis as tumour. A proportion of patients suffer generalised white matter injury, which has not been appreciated as a side effect of this particular therapy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Micro-architectural changes in cancellous bone differ in female and male C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet-induced low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jyoti; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Khedgikar, Vikram; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Singh, Ravi Shankar; Singh, Divya; Tiwari, Swasti; Trivedi, Ritu

    2014-05-28

    The relationship between fat and bone mass at distinct trabecular and cortical skeletal compartments in a high-fat diet (HFD) model was studied. For this, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups of eight animals each. Two groups, each of males and females, received a standard chow diet while the remaining other two groups received the HFD for a period of 10 weeks. Male mice on the HFD were heavier and gained more weight (15·8 %; Pbones showed that compared with female mice on the HFD, male mice on the HFD showed more deterioration at the trabecular region. This was corroborated by plasma osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx) levels confirming greater loss in males (about 20 %; Pbone parameters and strength remained unchanged after 10 weeks of HFD treatment. The direct effect of the HFD on bone at the messenger RNA level in progenitor cells isolated from femoral bone marrow was a significantly increased expression of adipogenic marker genes v. osteogenic genes. Overall, the present data indicate that obesity induced by a HFD aggravates bone loss in the cancellous bone compartment, with a greater loss in males than females, although 10 weeks of HFD treatment did not alter cortical bone mass and strength in both males and females.

  16. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  17. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  18. Female high-school varsity athletics: an opportunity to improve bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth A

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (Pschool athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (PAthletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.

  19. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  20. Highly efficient release of simvastatin from simvastatin-loaded calcium sulphate scaffolds enhances segmental bone regeneration in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, XIN; HUANG, ZHONGMING; LI, WEIXU

    2014-01-01

    A number of clinical and experimental studies have investigated the effect of simvastatin on bone regeneration. In the present study, the release of simvastatin from simvastatin-loaded calcium sulphate (CS) scaffolds and the effect of these scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and the effect of simvastatin locally applied from CS scaffolds on bone regeneration were investigated. A total of 26 complete 1.2-cm bone defects were created in the ulna of rabbits, which were treated with CS, simvastatin-loaded CS or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP)-2-loaded CS. Simvastatin was highly efficiently released from simvastatin-loaded CS at the onset and stable release was maintained. Alkaline phosphatase was highly expressed in the MSCs co-cultured with simvastatin/CS scaffolds for 7 and 14 days. The defects treated with rhBMP-2-loaded CS and simvastatin-loaded CS showed significantly higher X-ray analysis scores and a larger amount of bone formation as determined by histology compared with the CS group (Psimvastatin-loaded CS (P>0.05). Simvastatin is capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and stimulating bone regeneration when locally released from CS scaffolds into bone defects. The beneficial effect of simvastatin was similar to that of rhBMP-2. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the simvastatin-loaded CS scaffolds may have great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24691672

  1. Trabecular bone volume and osteoprotegerin expression in uremic rats given high calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Ettenger, Robert B; Salusky, Isidro B; Kuizon, Beatriz D

    2010-11-01

    Calcium (Ca)-containing phosphate binders have been recommended for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in children with chronic kidney disease. To study the effects of high Ca levels on trabecular bone volume (BV) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in uremic young rats, a model of marked overcorrection of secondary hyperparathyroidism was created by providing a diet of high Ca to 5/6 nephrectomized young rats (Nx-Ca) for 4 weeks. The results of chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, osteoclastic activity, OPG expression and BV were compared among intact rats given the control diet, intact rats given a high Ca diet and 5/6 nephrectomized rats given the control diet (Nx-Control) and the high Ca diet (Nx-Ca). Ionized Ca levels were higher and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in Nx-Ca rats than in the other groups. Final weight, final length and final tibial length of Nx-Ca rats were significantly less than those of the other groups, although the length gain did not differ among the groups. The hypertrophic zone width was markedly enlarged in Nx-Ca rats. Chondrocyte proliferation rates did not differ among the groups, whereas osteoclastic activity was decreased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control animals. The OPG expression and BV were increased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control rats. Increased BV should improve bone strength, whereas disturbance of osteoclastogenesis interferes with bone remodeling. Bone quality has yet to be determined in high Ca-fed uremic young rats.

  2. Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the associations between knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography (CR) and by high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biomechanical factors and findings from physical examination in patients with knee OA. Methods This was an explorative cross-sectional study of 105 patients with knee OA. Index knees were imaged using CR and MRI. Multiple features from CR and MRI (cartilage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, effusion and synovitis) were related to biomechanical factors (quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, proprioceptive accuracy and varus-valgus laxity) and physical examination findings (bony tenderness, crepitus, bony enlargement and palpable warmth), using multivariable regression analyses. Results Quadriceps weakness was associated with cartilage integrity, effusion, synovitis (all detected by MRI) and CR-detected joint space narrowing. Knee joint laxity was associated with MRI-detected cartilage integrity, CR-detected joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation. Multiple tissue abnormalities including cartilage integrity, osteophytes and effusion, but only those detected by MRI, were found to be associated with physical examination findings such as crepitus. Conclusion We observed clinically relevant findings, including a significant association between quadriceps weakness and both effusion and synovitis, detected by MRI. Inflammation was detected in over one-third of the participants, emphasizing the inflammatory component of OA and a possible important role for anti-inflammatory therapies in knee OA. In general, OA-related tissue abnormalities of the knee, even those detected by MRI, were found to be discordant with biomechanical and physical examination features. PMID:23039323

  3. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  4. Effects of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation on bone mechanical properties and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Arias Moreno, Andrés J; van Rietbergen, Bert; Ter Hoeve, Natalie D; van Diest, Paul J; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for palliative treatment of bone pain. In this study, the effects of MR-HIFU ablation on bone mechanics and modeling were investigated. METHODS: A total of 12 healthy rat femurs were ablated

  5. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the put......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P......-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  6. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, Phyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Effects of a standard high-fat diet with or without multiple deficiencies on bone parameters in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a standard high fat diet (D12451 with or without vitamin D3, phosphorus, and calcium (i.e., high-fat diet [HFD] or high-fat deficient diet [HFDD] on the bone parameters of ovariectomized female rats. Six-month-old of female Sprauge Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into six study groups: sham operation with standard chow diet (SSCD, sham operation with a HFD (SHFD, sham operation with a HFDD (SHFDD, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX with a HFD (OVX-HFD, and OVX with a HFDD (OVX-HFDD. A bilateral ovariectomy was administered to the OVX, OVX-HFD, and OVX-HFDD rats, while the SSCD, SHFD, and SHFDD rats were only given a laparotomy. Multiple analyses concerning the glucose and insulin tolerance, structure, bone strength, bone matrix, and mineralization of the rats were conducted in order to produce a detailed characterization of the effects of a HFD and a HFDD on postmenopausal osteoporotic rats. Seven months of HFD and HFDD feeding resulted in obesity and insulin resistance in female SD rats. A standard HFD increased the bone calcium content and bone strength of OVX rats. Conversely, the serum N-mid osteocalcin (N-MID-OT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP levels in the OVX-HFDD group were increased, accompanied by a clear decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone calcium and bone strength, as well as reduced osteocalcin expression. A HFDD weakened the activity of the osteoblasts while aggravating bone loss and decreasing bone strength in ovariectomized rats, which may be due to the calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 deficiencies in the diet.

  8. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Unsaturation level decreased in bone marrow fat of postmenopausal women with low bone density using high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Shet, Keerthi; Xu, Kaipin; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Pino, Ana María; Kurhanewicz, John; Schwartz, Ann; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-12-01

    There are increasing evidences suggesting bone marrow adiposity tissue (MAT) plays a critical role in affecting both bone quantity and quality. However, very limited studies that have investigated the association between the composition of MAT and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of this study was to quantify MAT unsaturation profile of marrow samples from post-menopausal women using ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, and to investigate the relationship between MAT composition and BMD. Bone marrow samples were obtained by iliac crest aspiration during surgical procedures from 24 postmenopausal women (65-89years) who had hip surgery due to bone fracture or arthroplasty. Marrow fat composition parameters, in particular, unsaturation level (UL), mono-unsaturation level (MUL) and saturation level (SL), were quantified using HRMAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. The patients were classified into three groups based on the DXA BMD T-scores: controls, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Marrow fat composition was compared between these three groups as well as between subjects with and without factures using ANOCOVA, adjusted for age. Subjects with lower BMD (n=17) had significantly lower MUL (P=0.003) and UL (P=0.039), and significantly higher SL (P=0.039) compared to controls (n=7). When separating lower BMD into osteopenia (n=9) and osteoporosis (n=8) groups, subjects with osteopenia had significantly lower MUL (P=0.002) and UL (P=0.010), and significantly higher SL (P=0.010) compared to healthy controls. No significant difference was observed between subjects with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Using HRMAS 1H NMR, significantly lower unsaturation and significantly higher saturation levels were observed in the marrow fat of subjects with lower BMD. HRMAS 1H NMR was shown to be a powerful tool for identifying novel MR markers of marrow fat composition that are associated with bone quality and potentially fracture

  10. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Between Marginal Bone Resorption and High Insertion Torque of Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyan; Liang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque value (> 50 Ncm) of dental implants and to assess the significance of immediate and early/conventional loading of implants under a certain range torque value. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to retrieve eligible articles from Ovid, PubMed, and EBSCO up to December 2013. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. The results were expressed as random/fixed-effects models using weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Initially, 154 articles were selected (11 from Ovid, 112 from PubMed, and 31 from EBSCO). After exclusion of duplicate articles and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, six clinical studies were selected. Assessment of P values revealed that correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque were not statistically significant and that there was no difference between immediately versus early/conventionally loaded implants under a certain range of torque. None of the meta-analyses revealed any statistically significant differences between high insertion torque and conventional insertion torque in terms of effects on marginal bone resorption.

  11. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L

    2011-04-01

    High bone mineral density on routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may indicate an underlying skeletal dysplasia. Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), 236 relatives (41% with HBM) and 58 spouses were studied. Cases could not float, had mandible enlargement, extra bone, broad frames, larger shoe sizes and increased body mass index (BMI). HBM cases may harbour an underlying genetic disorder. INTRODUCTION: High bone mineral density is a sporadic incidental finding on routine DXA scanning of apparently asymptomatic individuals. Such individuals may have an underlying skeletal dysplasia, as seen in LRP5 mutations. We aimed to characterize unexplained HBM and determine the potential for an underlying skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained HBM (defined as L1 Z-score ≥ +3.2 plus total hip Z-score ≥ +1.2, or total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2) were recruited from 15 UK centres, by screening 335,115 DXA scans. Unexplained HBM affected 0.181% of DXA scans. Next 236 relatives were recruited of whom 94 (41%) had HBM (defined as L1 Z-score + total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2). Fifty-eight spouses were also recruited together with the unaffected relatives as controls. Phenotypes of cases and controls, obtained from clinical assessment, were compared using random-effects linear and logistic regression models, clustered by family, adjusted for confounders, including age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with unexplained HBM had an excess of sinking when swimming (7.11 [3.65, 13.84], p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval shown), mandible enlargement (4.16 [2.34, 7.39], p < 0.001), extra bone at tendon\\/ligament insertions (2.07 [1.13, 3.78], p = 0.018) and broad frame (3.55 [2.12, 5.95], p < 0.001). HBM cases also had a larger shoe size (mean difference 0.4 [0.1, 0.7] UK sizes, p = 0.009) and increased BMI (mean difference 2.2 [1.3, 3.1] kg\\/m(2

  12. Constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasome causes inflammation and abnormal skeletal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Bonar

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID. While excessive production of IL-1β and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3. NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue "spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling.

  13. Serum leptin levels negatively correlate with trabecular bone mineral density in high-fat diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Watanabe, K; Maki, K

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diet-induced obesity on bone tissue quantity and quality in the proximal tibiae of growing mice and also examined the relationships between the serum total cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin levels and trabecular and cortical bone mineral parameters. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups; one received a control diet, and the other received a high-fat-diet. After treatment for 4, 8, or 12 weeks, the bone quantity and quality were analyzed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. In the early stages, trabecular bone density decreased with an increase in the number of adipocytes and the deterioration of trabeculae. In contrast, although cortical bone formation was slower in obese mice compared with control mice, bone formation on the periosteal surface increased with age. Serum leptin levels were correlated with trabecular, but not cortical bone density, whereas neither the adiponectin nor total cholesterol level was correlated with bone mass in mice with diet-induced obesity. We conclude that bone loss at these two sites is differentially regulated in mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that serum leptin may be a useful indicator of risk for osteoporosis associated with diet-induced obesity.

  14. Green tea polyphenols improve bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet-induced obese female rats through suppressing bone formation and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J; Yeh, James K

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old female rats were fed either a control diet or a HFD for 4 months. Animals in the control group continued on the control diet for another 4 months. Animals in the HFD group were divided into two groups, with 0.5 g/100 mL GTP (the HFD+GTP group) or without GTP (the HFD group) in drinking water, in addition to the HFD for another 4 months. Compared to the control group, the HFD group increased bone formation and erosion rates at the tibia, decreased trabecular volume and thickness, but had no impact on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N), and separation. Compared to the control group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates a greater Tb.N at the proximal tibia, and a greater trabecular thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, but a smaller trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and mineralizing surface at the proximal tibia, and a reduced endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR) at the tibia shaft. Relative to the HFD group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates (1) a higher BMD at the femur, a greater trabecular volume, thickness, and number at the proximal tibia, a larger cortical area and thickness at the tibial shaft, and a greater trabecular volume and thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, (2) a smaller Tb.Sp, MAR, bone formation rate, and eroded surface at the tibia. We concluded that GTP supplementation in drinking water improves bone microarchitecture in the HFD-induced obese female rats, possibly through suppressing bone turnover, resulting in a larger net bone volume.

  15. The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira A O; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Zach, Patrícia Lins; Kunii, Ilda S; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Castro, Marise Lazaretti

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.

  16. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  17. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  18. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.

  19. High fat diet attenuates hyperglycemia, body composition changes, and bone loss in male streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Adriana Lelis; DeMambro, Victoria E; Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Motyl, Katherine J

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk, and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin-deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures, and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin-deficient mice. We evaluated the impact of a 6-week high-fat (HFD) rich in medium chain fatty acids or low-fat diet (LFD) on bone mass and MAT in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model using male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age. Dietary intervention was initiated after diabetes confirmation. At the endpoint, lower non-fasting glucose levels were observed in diabetic mice fed with high fat diet compared to diabetic mice fed the low fat diet (STZ-LFD). Compared to euglycemic controls, the STZ-LFD had marked polydipsia and polyphagia, as well as reduced lean mass, fat mass, and bone parameters. Interestingly, STZ-HFD mice had higher bone mass, namely less cortical bone loss and more trabecular bone than STZ-LFD. Thus, we found that a HFD, rich in medium chain fatty acids, protects against bone loss in a T1DM mouse model. Whether this may also translate to T1DM patients who are overweight or obese in respect to maintenance of bone mass remains to be determined through longitudinal studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... way for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray ...

  2. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  3. Autologous bone marrow infusion following high dose chemotherapy of the canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R B; Sarpel, S C

    1980-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate infusion of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow following supralethal chemotherapy in canines bearing a solid tumor thought to be moderately sensitive to cytotoxic agents. Initial studies in 5 dogs established a combination of busulfan (Bu) 3 mg/kg X 2 days and cyclophosphamide (Cy) 50 mg/kg on day 3 to produce bone marrow lethality within 14 days (high dose regime). Bu 1 mg/kg, Cy 20 mg/kg produced tolerable toxicity (low dose regime). Eight pairs of dogs were challenged with 3 X 10(8) transmissible venereal tumor cells. Measurable progressive tumor growth occurred in all instances. Marrow aspirated from the femoral shafts of the animals was cryopreserved in 10% DMSO. One dog of each pair received the high dose Bu + Cy regime followed in 30 h by marrow infusion and his partner received the low dose regime without marrow. Tumors were measured serially for at least 2 months. Infusion of marrow resulted in evidence of hematologic recovery within 2 weeks following the high dose regime. Tumor responses occurred in both groups when compared to 8 untreated tumor challenged controls. High dose animals had greater initial responses than low dosed dogs but long term responses were not significantly different. Eight dogs rechallenged with tumor cells after initial successful therapy failed to develop tumors. It was concluded that: a) cryopreserved autologous bone marrow infusion was effective in protecting tumor bearing canines from otherwise lethal chemotherapy; b) the transmissible venereal tumor of canines responded to both high and low dose regimes; c) the rescue of dogs by stored autologous marrow did not offer additional benefits in tumor control over a standard regime; d) chemotherapy treated dogs resisted tumor rechallenge. This model may offer a large animal system to study the autologous marrow rescue concept during controlled periods of tumor evolution.

  4. Bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected men with hypogonadism prior to highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alterations of bone metabolism have been observed in numerous studies of HIV-infected patients. Sex steroids are known to profoundly influence bone mass and bone turnover. Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infection. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of 80 male HIV-infected patients without wasting syndrome, and 20 healthy male controls, in whom we analyzed urine and serum samples for both calciotropic hormones and markers of bone metabolism and of endocrine testicular function. Bone mineral density (BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both in the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle of the left hip. None of the patients received highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART. Compared to eugonadal HIV-infected patients, subjects with hypogonadism (n = 32; 40% showed statistically significant decrease of serum osteocalcin (p

  5. Internal strains and stresses measured in cortical bone via high-energy x-ray diffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almer, J. D.; Stock, S. R.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); Northwestern Univ.,

    2005-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to study internal stresses in bone under in situ compressive loading. A transverse cross-section of a 12-14 year old beagle fibula was studied with 80.7 keV radiation, and the transmission geometry was used to quantify internal strains and corresponding stresses in the mineral phase, carbonated hydroxyapatite. The diffraction patterns agreed with tabulated patterns, and the distribution of diffracted intensity around 00.2/00.4 and 22.2 diffraction rings was consistent with the imperfect 00.1 fiber texture expected along the axis of a long bone. Residual compressive stress along the bone's longitudinal axis was observed in the specimen prior to testing: for 22.2 this stress equaled -95 MPa and for 00.2/00.4 was between -160 and -240 MPa. Diffraction patterns were collected for applied compressive stresses up to -110 MPa, and, up to about -100 MPa, internal stresses rose proportionally with applied stress but at a higher rate, corresponding to stress concentration in the mineral of 2.8 times the stress applied. The widths of the 00.2 and 00.4 diffraction peaks indicated that crystallite size perpendicular to the 00.1 planes increased from t = 41 nm before stress was applied to t = 44 nm at -118 MPa applied stress and that rms strain {var_epsilon}{sub rms} rose from 2200 {mu}{var_epsilon} before loading to 4600 {mu}{var_epsilon} at the maximum applied stress. Small angle X-ray scattering of the unloaded sample, recorded after deformation was complete, showed a collagen D-period of 66.4 nm (along the bone axis).

  6. Bone quantitative ultrasound measurements in relation to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulló, M; Garcia-Aloy, M; Basora, J; Covas, M I; Salas-Salvado, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether metabolic syndrome, its individual components, or the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with a better bone status estimated by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics. 251 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED study were included. MetS was defined according to the ATPIII diagnosis criteria. Calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment was performed using the Sahara system. Subjects with MetS showed significantly lower 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (u-DPD/creatinine) levels and higher broadband ultrasound attenuation, and a tendency to higher bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) than their counterparts. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) showed a significantly higher bone broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and QUI than their non-diabetic counterparts, despite they shown a higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that quantitative ultrasound parameters were positively associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. Of the bone biochemical markers, only u-DPD/creatinine was related to MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia component of the MetS, and the number of features that define the MetS. This is the first study showing a positive association between MetS or T2DM with better bone status and lower bone resorption markers measured by quantitative ultrasound. Our results suggest that metabolic abnormalities have a positive effect on healthy bone in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M. [Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Philips Healthcare Canada, Markham, ON, L6C 2S3 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada)

    2012-11-28

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1 Degree-Sign C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T{sub 2}, since T{sub 2} increases linearly in fat during heating. T{sub 2}-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T{sub 2}. Calibration of T{sub 2}-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T{sub 2} and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T{sub 2} temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/ Degree-Sign C was observed. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  8. Fructose consumption does not worsen bone deficits resulting from high-fat feeding in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Toklu, Hale Z; Balaez, Alex; Phillips, Ean G; Otzel, Dana M; Chen, Cong; Wronski, Thomas J; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Sakarya, Yasemin; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Dietary-induced obesity (DIO) resulting from high-fat (HF) or high-sugar diets produces a host of deleterious metabolic consequences including adverse bone development. We compared the effects of feeding standard rodent chow (Control), a 30% moderately HF (starch-based/sugar-free) diet, or a combined 30%/40% HF/high-fructose (HF/F) diet for 12weeks on cancellous/cortical bone development in male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8weeks. Both HF feeding regimens reduced the lean/fat mass ratio, elevated circulating leptin, and reduced serum total antioxidant capacity (tAOC) when compared with Controls. Distal femur cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) was 23-34% lower in both HF groups (pbone volume (BV/TV, pbone deficits were observed at the proximal tibia, along with increased bone marrow adipocyte density (pbone biomechanical characteristics were not different among groups. These results demonstrate that "westernized" HF diets worsen cancellous, but not cortical, bone parameters in skeletally-immature male rats and that fructose incorporation into HF diets does not exacerbate bone loss. In addition, they suggest that leptin and/or oxidative stress may influence DIO-induced alterations in adolescent bone development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Semen analysis by electron and fluorescence microscopy in a case of partial hydatidiform mole reveals a high incidence of abnormal morphology, diploidy, and tetraploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Sioga, Antonia; Oikonomou, Louisa; Charalampidou, Sophia; Kantartzi, Persa; Zournatzi, Vasiliki; Panidis, Dimitrios; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Papadimas, Ioannis; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2011-06-01

    To perform a highly detailed semen analysis in a man whose wife had a partial mole. Case report. Gynecology departments of two university hospitals and a laboratory of histology/embryology. A 32-year-old man whose wife had a partial mole. Sperm characteristics were examined by light microscopy, morphology was analysed by electron microscopy (TEM), DNA fragmentation was evaluated by TUNEL using fluorescence microscopy, and chromosomal abnormalities were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for chromosomes 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y. Sperm count, motility, morphology, DNA fragmentation, and incidence of diploidy, tetraploidy, and aneuploidy. Sperm concentration was 61 million/mL, with 31% progressive motility and 4% normal morphology. TEM revealed a high incidence of head, neck, and tail abnormalities as well as the presence of phagocytes. DNA fragmentation was within normal limits (11.6%). Aneuploidy levels were low for all chromosomes tested. However, there was a high level of diploidy, with XY, XX, and YY constitution. Tetraploid sperm (XXYY) were also noted. Semen analysis revealed a high incidence of abnormal morphology and increased diploidy. It may be important to perform FISH testing, to verify increased diploidy in sperm, in men whose wives have had partial moles. These couples could be informed of the option to have preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a means to distinguish between diploid and triploid embryos arising from fertilization of a haploid egg by diploid sperm. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Anne Géraldine; Puetzer, Jennifer L; Armgarth, Astrid; Littmann, Elena; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Malliaras, George G; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-10-15

    Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6±5.9µm and a total pore surface area of 7.72±1.7m(2)·g(-1). The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140µS·cm(-1) with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1µS·cm(-1) after 28days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold

  11. Optimised, low cost, low field dedicated extremity MRI is highly specific and sensitive for synovitis and bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist and finger joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbjerg, B J; Narvestad, E; Jacobsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate a low field dedicated extremity MRI unit for detection of bone erosions, synovitis, and bone marrow oedema in wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, with a high field MRI unit as the standard reference....

  12. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biliary lithiasis in early pregnancy and abnormal development of facial and distal limb bones (Binder syndrome): a possible role for vitamin K deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillet, Jessica; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Till, Marianne; Vinciguerra, Christine; Edery, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Binder syndrome is a maxillonasal dysostosis characterized by midface and nasal hypoplasia, sometimes associated with short terminal phalanges of fingers and toes and transient radiological features of chondrodysplasia punctata. Warfarin- or phenytoin-induced vitamin K deficiency during early pregnancy is a well-established etiology for this syndrome, which occurs nevertheless sporadically in most cases. We describe here the first case, to our knowledge, of Binder syndrome in a child whose mother presented with biliary lithiasis in early pregnancy. The mother proved to have a decrease in clotting factors II, VII, and X, and in prothrombin time, at 11 weeks of gestation, which was highly suggestive of vitamin K deficiency. The biliary lithiasis-induced vitamin K deficiency in early pregnancy is likely to have resulted in Binder syndrome. This observation should prompt physicians to carefully check for vitamin K deficiency in pregnant women presenting with biliary lithiasis, in order to prevent Binder syndrome in the fetus by providing intravenous vitamin K supplementation as soon as possible. Finally, reassuring genetic counseling regarding the genetic risk for future pregnancies is to be provided to the parents. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. High-strength porous biomaterials for bone replacement: A strategy to assess the interplay between cell morphology, mechanical properties, bone ingrowth and manufacturing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnejad, Sajad; Burnett Johnston, R; Pura, Jenny Ann; Singh, Baljinder; Tanzer, Michael; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    High-strength fully porous biomaterials built with additive manufacturing provide an exciting opportunity for load-bearing orthopedic applications. While factors controlling their mechanical and biological response have recently been the subject of intense research, the interplay between mechanical properties, bone ingrowth requirements, and manufacturing constraints, is still unclear. In this paper, we present two high-strength stretch-dominated topologies, the Tetrahedron and the Octet truss, as well as an intuitive visualization method to understand the relationship of cell topology, pore size, porosity with constraints imposed by bone ingrowth requirements and additive manufacturing. 40 samples of selected porosities are fabricated using Selective Laser Melting (SLM), and their morphological deviations resulting from SLM are assessed via micro-CT. Mechanical compression testing is used to obtain stiffness and strength properties, whereas bone ingrowth is assessed in a canine in vivo model at four and eight weeks. The results show that the maximum strength and stiffness ranged from 227.86±10.15 to 31.37±2.19MPa and 4.58±0.18 to 1.23±0.40GPa respectively, and the maximum 0.2% offset strength is almost 5 times stronger than that of tantalum foam. For Tetrahedron samples, bone ingrowth after four and eight weeks is 28.6%±11.6%, and 41.3%±4.3%, while for the Octet truss 35.5%±1.9% and 56.9%±4.0% respectively. This research is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of bone ingrowth into high-strength porous biomaterials which have higher structural efficiency than current porous biomaterials in the market. We present two stretch-dominated cell topologies for porous biomaterials that can be used for load-bearing orthopaedic applications, and prove that they encourage bone ingrowth in a canine model. We also introduce an intuitive method to visualize and understand the relationship of cell topology, pore size, porosity with constraints imposed by bone ingrowth

  15. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S. [University of Michigan (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  16. Recovery of hematopoietic activity in bone marrow from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrò, A; Mezzaroma, I; Aiuti, A; De Vita, L; Franchi, F; Pandolfi, F; Alario, C; Ficara, F; Riva, E; Antonelli, G; Aiuti, F

    2000-10-10

    The mechanisms responsible for the hematopoietic failure in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients are still unknown. Several findings indicate that the in vitro proliferative potential of precursor cells from AIDS patients is reduced. The changes seen in bone marrow (BM) morphology and the defective BM functions associated with cytopenias have both been proposed as potential explanations. In patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) an immune reconstitution associated with increased whole blood cell counts has been described. We have investigated the effects of HAART on the number of colony-forming cells (CFCs) and long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs), using long-term BM cell cultures (LTBMC) in a group of subjects with HIV-1 infection enrolled in an open study to evaluate the mechanisms of immune reconstitution during HAART. In each patient, the increase in colony growth was homogeneous, regardless of the type of hematopoietic progenitor cells assayed; in four subjects an increase in the most primitive progenitor cells (LTC-ICs) was observed. These findings were associated with the in vivo data showing increased numbers of BM mononuclear cells (BMMCs) after HAART and with a rise in peripheral CD4(+) T cell counts and decreased levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA. A decreased number of hematopoietic progenitor cells and/or a defective modulation of progenitor cell growth might be the cause of the hematological abnormalities in AIDS patients. Controlling HIV-1 replication by HAART could determine a restoration of stem cell activity, probably because of the suppression of factors that inhibit normal hematopoiesis.

  17. High dose vitamin D supplementation does not affect biochemical bone markers in multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Trygve; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Steffensen, Linn Hofsøy; Kampman, Margitta T

    2017-04-04

    People with multiple sclerosis have high risk of osteoporosis and fractures. A poor vitamin D status is a risk factor for MS, and vitamin D supplementation has been recommended both to prevent MS progression and to maintain bone health. We assessed the effect of 20,000 IU vitamin D3 weekly compared to placebo on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in 68 persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D more than doubled in the vitamin D group, and parathyroid hormone decreased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group at week 48 and week 96. There was however no effect on bone formation as measured by procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), or on bone resorption as measured by C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1). Neither PINP nor CTX1 predicted bone loss from baseline to week 96. These findings corroborate the previously reported lack of effect of weekly high dose vitamin D supplementation on bone mass density in the same patients, and suggest that such vitamin D supplementation does not prevent bone loss in persons with MS who are not vitamin D deficient. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on April 4 2008, registration number NCT00785473 .

  18. High impact exercise is more beneficial than dietary calcium for building bone strength in the growing rat skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J M; Turner, C H; Devareddy, L; Arjmandi, B H; Weaver, C M

    2008-04-01

    The benefits of impact exercise and dietary calcium on bone development are controversial. We used inbred rats under highly controlled conditions to test the independent and combined effects of impact exercise and physiological levels of calcium intakes on the growing skeleton. Forty growing F-344 female rats were fed diets containing either 100% (Ca+; 0.5% Ca) or 40% (Ca(-); 0.2% Ca) of their calcium requirements. Half of each dietary group was subjected to either 10 impacts per day from 45 cm freefall drops (Impact+), or no impact (Impact(-)). All rats received a free choice of physical activity period daily. After 8 weeks, the mechanical strength, volumetric density, geometry, and microarchitecture of their ulnae were measured. Body weight and bone length did not differ among groups. On both diets, freefall impact resulted in greater bone strength, cross-sectional moments of inertia, and endosteal and periosteal circumferences in the shaft. Only Ca+ resulted in greater shaft volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) but that did not affect shaft breaking strength. In the bone ends, both Impact+ and Ca+ positively affected density and structure of both cortical and trabecular bone but the effects of Impact+ were more pervasive. In the proximal end, Impact+ resulted in greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the trabecular bone due to greater trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness was greater due to a smaller endosteal circumference. Impact+ exerted a compensatory effect on vBMD and BV/TV in Ca(-) rats at the proximal site. In Impact(-) rats only, Ca+ resulted in greater total and cortical vBMD and BV/TV in the proximal ulna. Impact+ and Ca+ exerted additive effects on cortical bone area (BA) in the proximal ulna and on total BA, periosteal circumference, and trabecular vBMD in the distal ulna. In conclusion, impact exercise was more beneficial than adequate dietary calcium to growing bones, although sufficient dietary calcium was beneficial in rats not

  19. The effectiveness of the bone bridge transtibial amputation technique: A systematic review of high-quality evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason; Kenney, John; Ruth, Tim; Lunseth, Paul A; Ertl, Janos

    2017-06-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine if commonly held views about the benefits of a bone bridge technique are supported by the literature. Four databases were searched for articles pertaining to surgical strategies specific to a bone bridge technique of the transtibial amputee. A total of 35 articles were identified as potential articles. Authors included methodology that was applied to separate topics. Following identification, articles were excluded if they were determined to be low quality evidence or not pertinent. Nine articles were identified to be pertinent to one of the topics: Perioperative Care, Acute Care, Subjective Analysis and Function. Two articles sorted into multiple topics. Two articles were sorted into the Perioperative Care topic, 4 articles sorted into the Acute Care topic, 2 articles into the Subjective Analysis topic and 5 articles into the Function topic. There are no high quality (level one or two) clinical trials reporting comparisons of the bone bridge technique to traditional methods. There is limited evidence supporting the clinical outcomes of the bone bridge technique. There is no agreement supporting or discouraging the perioperative and acute care aspects of the bone bridge technique. There is no evidence defining an interventional comparison of the bone bridge technique. Current level III evidence supports a bone bridge technique as an equivalent option to the non-bone bridge transtibial amputation technique. Formal level I and II clinical trials will need to be considered in the future to guide clinical practice. Clinical relevance Clinical Practice Guidelines are evidence based. This systematic literature review identifies the highest quality evidence to date which reports a consensus of outcomes agreeing bone bridge is as safe and effective as alternatives. The clinical relevance is understanding bone bridge could additionally provide a mechanistic advantage for the transtibial amputee.

  20. Subsidence of titanium straight stems in combination with highly viscous bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Christian; Sauer, Ulf; Albrecht, Tobias; Rader, Christof P

    2005-04-01

    Varying results and a high rate of subsidence have been reported for the straight femoral stem (M.E. Muller) made of titanium alloy. We examined subsidence in 135 titanium-alloy straight stems implanted with high viscosity cement after 68.8+/-11.5 months using a digital high-precision method (EBRA-FCA). One revised implant showed a subsidence of 14.6 mm and another 2.5 mm over 5 years. A third implant without migration was found to be loose. The 122 implants without loosening showed a mean subsidence of 0.1+/-0.1 mm, and focal osteolysis was seen in two. Altogether, we found subsidence of the titanium stems very small. The small subsidence may be related to the use of high viscosity bone cement.

  1. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

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    Jitender Mokta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS, whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG, A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5% or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%. A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38% had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38% had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT and 60 (24% had diabetes; 48 (19.2% were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8% had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT

  2. Combined Microwave Ablation and Cementoplasty in Patients with Painful Bone Metastases at High Risk of Fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Claudio, E-mail: clapusceddu@gmail.com [Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Ocological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Sotgia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.sotgia@gmail.com; Fele, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosellafele@tiscali.it [Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Department of Oncological Radiology, Oncological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Ballicu, Nicola, E-mail: nicolaballicu77@gmail.com [Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Ocological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy); Melis, Luca, E-mail: doclucamelis@tiscali.it [Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Department of Oncological Radiology, Oncological Hospital “A. Businco” (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) and cementoplasty in patients with painful bone metastases at high risk of fracture.Materials and MethodsThirty-five patients with 37 metastatic bone lesions underwent computed tomography-guided MWA combined with cementoplasty (polymethylmethacrylate injection). Vertebrae, femur, and acetabulum were the intervention sites and the primary end point was pain relief. Pain severity was estimated by visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment; 1 week post-treatment; and 1, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Functional outcome was assessed by improved patient walking ability. Radiological evaluation was performed at baseline and 3 and 12 months post-procedure.ResultsIn all patients, pain reduction occurred from the first week after treatment. The mean reduction in the VAS score was 84, 90, 90 % at week 1, month 1, and month 6, respectively. Improved walking ability occurred in 100 and 98 % of cases at the 1- and 6-month functional outcome evaluations, respectively. At the 1-year evaluation, 25 patients were alive, and 10 patients (28 %) had died because of widespread disease. The mean reduction in the VAS score and improvement in surviving patients’ walking ability were 90 and 100 %, respectively. No patients showed evidence of local tumor recurrence or progression and pathological fracture in the treated sites.ConclusionOur results suggest that MWA combined with osteoplasty is safe and effective when treating painful bone metastases at high risk of fracture. The number of surviving patients at the 1-year evaluation confirms the need for an effective and long-lasting treatment.

  3. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subject-specific abnormal region detection in traumatic brain injury using sparse model selection on high dimensional diffusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Matineh; Erdogmus, Deniz; Dy, Jennifer; Bouix, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    We present a method to estimate a multivariate Gaussian distribution of diffusion tensor features in a set of brain regions based on a small sample of healthy individuals, and use this distribution to identify imaging abnormalities in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. The multivariate model receives apriori knowledge in the form of a neighborhood graph imposed on the precision matrix, which models brain region interactions, and an additional L1 sparsity constraint. The model is then estimated using the graphical LASSO algorithm and the Mahalanobis distance of healthy and TBI subjects to the distribution mean is used to evaluate the discriminatory power of the model. Our experiments show that the addition of the apriori neighborhood graph results in significant improvements in classification performance compared to a model which does not take into account the brain region interactions or one which uses a fully connected prior graph. In addition, we describe a method, using our model, to detect the regions that contribute the most to the overall abnormality of the DTI profile of a subject's brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  6. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  7. Trabecular bone in the bird knee responds with high sensitivity to changes in load orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pontzer, H; Lieberman, D E; Momin, E; Devlin, M J; Polk, J D; Hallgrímsson, B; Cooper, D M L

    2006-01-01

    ... that may affect trabecular bone growth. Here we report an experimental test of Wolff's law using a within-species design in age-matched subjects experiencing physiologically normal levels of bone strain...

  8. Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (presults indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age.

  9. High-resolution MRI vs multislice spiral CT: which technique depicts the trabecular bone structure best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Thomas M; Vieth, Volker; Stehling, Christoph; Lotter, Albrecht; Beer, Ambros; Newitt, David; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular bone structure parameters obtained from high-resolution magnetic resonance (HRMR) and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) images with those determined in contact radiographs from corresponding specimen sections. High-resolution MR and MSCT images were obtained in 39 distal radius specimens. For HRMR the in-plane spatial resolution was 0.152x0.153 mm(2) with a slice thickness of 0.9 and 0.3 mm using a 3D T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. For MSCT the resolution was 0.247x0.247 mm(2) with a collimation of 1 mm. Using a diamond saw, 117 0.9- to 1-mm-thick sections were obtained from these specimens and contact radiographs were acquired. In the corresponding sections structure parameters analogous to bone histomorphometry were determined. Significant correlations between MR- and CT-derived structure parameters and those derived from the contact radiographs were found (pbone structure parameters assessed in distal radius HRMR and MSCT images are significantly correlated with those determined in corresponding specimen sections (pbone structure.

  10. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  11. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  12. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

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    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  13. Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, S.A.; Dieppe, P.; Gregson, C.L.; Arden, N.K.; Spector, T.D.; Hart, D.J.; Edwards, M.H.; Dennison, E.M.; Cooper, C.; Sayers, A.; Williams, M.; Davey Smith, G.; Tobias, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren–Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM–OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8 years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4 years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren–Lawrence grade ≥ 2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p < 0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

  14. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan; Junnila, Riia; Sustarsic, Elahu; Herbach, Nadja; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Milz, Stefan; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Bielohuby, Maximilian

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay. Trabecular bone volume, serum IGF-I and the bone formation marker P1NP were lower in male rats fed both LC-HF diets versus CD. LC-HF diets did not impair bone health in female rats, with no change in trabecular or cortical bone volume nor in serum markers of bone turnover between CD versus both LC-HF diet groups. Pituitary GH secretion was lower in female rats fed LC-HF diet, with no difference in circulating IGF-I. Circulating sex hormone concentrations remained unchanged in male and female rats fed LC-HF diets. A 4-week consumption of LC-HF diets has sex-specific effects on bone health-with no effects in adult female rats yet negative effects in adult male rats. This response seems to be driven by a sex-specific effect of LC-HF diets on the GH/IGF system.

  15. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  16. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ...... hybridization for del(5q31). DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients at diagnosis or with relapsed disease and not eligible for standard therapy (16 with acute myeloid leukemia, 12 with intermediate-risk 2 or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome) were enrolled in this prospective phase II multicenter trial...

  17. Palpable pediatric thyroid abnormalities – diagnostic pitfalls necessitate a high index of clinical suspicion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopper Joshua P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 12-year-old girl presented with a 4 year history of an enlarged, firm thyroid gland. On exam, her thyroid was firm and fixed and an enlarged cervical lymph node was palpable as well. Though a thyroid ultrasound prior to referral was read as thyroiditis, clinical suspicion for thyroid carcinoma mandated continued investigation. The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was established and her workup revealed lymph node metastases as well as a tremendous burden of pulmonary metastases. Pediatric thyroid cancer is extremely rare, but often presents with aggressive disease. Palpable thyroid abnormalities in an individual under 20-years-old should be viewed with suspicion and should be thoroughly investigated to rule out malignancy even in the face of negative diagnostic procedures. Though pediatric papillary thyroid cancer often presents with loco-regional and even distant metastatic disease, mortality rates in follow-up for as long as 20 years are very favorable.

  18. Disk abnormality coexists with any degree of synovial and osseous abnormality in the temporomandibular joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Arvidsson, Linda Z.; Larheim, Tore A. [University of Oslo, Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Hetlevik, Siri O. [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Rheumatology, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    MRI manifestation of temporomandibular joint arthritis is frequently reported in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, little attention has been paid to temporomandibular joint disk abnormalities. To assess combinations of MRI findings in the symptomatic temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with focus on disk abnormalities. This was a retrospective study of 46 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mean age 12 years (range: 5-17 years). Mean disease duration was 70 months (standard deviation: 61 months). MR images of 92 temporomandibular joints were scored for thickness of abnormally enhancing synovium (synovitis), joint effusion, bone marrow oedema, abnormal bone shape, bone erosion and disk abnormalities. The 92 temporomandibular joints were categorized as A: No synovitis and normal bone shape (30/92; 33%), B: Synovitis and normal bone shape (14/92: 15%), C: Synovitis and abnormal bone shape (38/92; 41%) and D: No synovitis but abnormal bone shape (10/92; 11%). Thirty-six of the 46 patients (78%) had synovitis and 33/46 (72%) had abnormal bone shape, most frequently in combination (30/46; 65%). Disk abnormalities (flat disk, fragmented disk, adherent disk and displaced disk) were found in 29/46 patients (63%). Disk abnormalities were found in all categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis involved temporomandibular joints (B: 8/14 [57%]; C: 25/38 [66%] and D: 7/10 [70%]). Disk displacement was found in half of the joints (7/14) in category B. Synovitis was most pronounced in this category. Disk abnormalities were frequent. Disk displacement also occurred in joints with early temporomandibular joint arthritis, i.e., with normal bone shape. Other disk abnormalities were found in joints with bone abnormalities. Attention should be paid to disk abnormalities both in early and long-standing temporomandibular joint arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (orig.)

  19. Intrauterine stress induces bone loss in adult offspring of C3H/HeJ mice having high bone mass phenotype but not C57BL/6J mice with low bone mass phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raygorodskaya, M; Gabet, Y; Shochat, C; Kobyliansky, E; Torchinsky, A; Karasik, D

    2016-06-01

    In this study we examined to what extent and how genetics may modify osteoporosis risk arising due to environmental stresses which act during the antenatal period of life and have the potential to induce bone loss in adulthood. C57Bl/6J (C57) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice were used as a model system. The mice were exposed to a single injection of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) on day 10 of pregnancy and the structure and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and 3rd lumbar vertebra of 3- and 6-month-old male and female offspring were evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Besides, we also attempted to evaluate whether 5-AZA affects the expression of some osteogenic genes in the embryonic limb buds. The main observation of this study is that 5-AZA-induced loss of bone quality was registered in 6-mo-old C3H offspring but not in their C57 counterparts. We also observed that C57 and C3H embryos may differ in their response to 5-AZA-induced detrimental stimuli: whereas 5-AZA treated C3H embryos exhibited a decreased expression of Col1a1, C57 embryos exhibit a decreased expression of Sox9. Overall, our study, by thorough characterization of bone homeostasis in 3- and 6-month-old offspring of 5-AZA-exposed C57 and C3H mice, allows hypothesizing that the adaptive response to antenatal insults may be stronger in offspring inherently exhibiting a low bone mass phenotype than in offspring inherently exhibiting a high bone mass phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A high incidence of WT1 abnormality in bilateral Wilms tumours in Japan, and the penetrance rates in children with WT1 germline mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Y; Okita, H; Haruta, M; Arai, Y; Oue, T; Tanaka, Y; Horie, H; Hinotsu, S; Koshinaga, T; Yoneda, A; Ohtsuka, Y; Taguchi, T; Fukuzawa, M

    2015-03-17

    Bilateral Wilms tumours (BWTs) occur by germline mutation of various predisposing genes; one of which is WT1 whose abnormality was reported in 17-38% of BWTs in Caucasians, whereas no such studies have been conducted in East-Asians. Carriers with WT1 mutations are increasing because of improved survival. Statuses of WT1 and IGF2 were examined in 45 BWTs from 31 patients with WT1 sequencing and SNP array-based genomic analyses. The penetrance rates were estimated in WT1-mutant familial Wilms tumours collected from the present and previous studies. We detected WT1 abnormalities in 25 (81%) of 31 patients and two families, which were included in the penetrance rate analysis of familial Wilms tumour. Of 35 BWTs from the 25 patients, 31 had small homozygous WT1 mutations and uniparental disomy of IGF2, while 4 had large 11p13 deletions with the retention of 11p heterozygosity. The penetrance rate was 100% if children inherited small WT1 mutations from their fathers, and 67% if inherited the mutations from their mothers, or inherited or had de novo 11p13 deletions irrespective of parental origin (P=0.057). The high incidence of WT1 abnormalities in Japanese BWTs sharply contrasts with the lower incidence in Caucasian counterparts, and the penetrance rates should be clarified for genetic counselling of survivors with WT1 mutations.

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  2. High-density polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in guided bone and tissue regeneration procedures: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, J M; Martín, I Sanz; Santos, A; Pujol, A; Sanz-Moliner, J D; Nart, J

    2014-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) has been used successfully as a membrane barrier for regeneration procedures. However, when exposed to the oral cavity, its high porosity increases the risk of early infection, which can affect surgical outcomes. An alternative to e-PTFE is non-expanded and dense polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PFTE), which results in lower levels of early infection following surgical procedures. The aim of this literature review was to analyze and describe the available literature on n-PFTE, report the indications for use, advantages, disadvantages, surgical protocols, and complications. The medical databases Medline-PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched and supplemented with a hand search for reports published between 1980 and May 2012 on n-PTFE membranes. The search strategy was limited to animal, human, and in vitro studies in dental journals published in English. Twenty-four articles that analyzed the use of n-PTFE as a barrier membrane for guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration around teeth and implants were identified: two in vitro studies, seven experimental studies, and 15 clinical studies. There is limited clinical and histological evidence for the use of n-PTFE membranes at present, with some indications in guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration in immediate implants and fresh extraction sockets. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High speed insertion of bone fracture fixation pins: a finite element penetration model with experimental comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prygoski, Matthew P; Pasang, Timotius; Schmid, Steven R; Lozier, Antony J

    2011-12-01

    A new method of bone fracture fixation is considered in which small pins/darts are dynamically inserted into bone to prevent translation and rotation at the fracture site. An ABAQUS model was developed to analyze dart penetration in cortical and cancellous bone for varying dart diameter, material, and velocity, and cortical thickness. The method is advocated for bioresorbable darts, so polylactide (PLA) and magnesium are the materials examined in this study. Numerical results showed that magnesium darts can achieve full penetration in bone while suffering little damage. The PLA darts penetrated thin bone well, but substantial deformation was seen as the cortical thickness increased, especially for small diameter darts. As partial validation, prototype PLA fixation darts were fired into cadaveric bone with a custom nailer. As in the model, the PLA darts could penetrate thin cortices but saw gross deformation when impacted against thicker bone.

  4. The anterolateral complex in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees demonstrate sonographic abnormalities on high-resolution sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahito; Herbst, Elmar; Albers, Macio; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; Onishi, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    The presence of anterolateral ligament of the knee is still controversial, and some physicians prefer to call this structure anterolateral complex (ALC) to infer plural nature of structures involved. The purpose of this study was to describe the scanning techniques and to classify various sonographic appearances of the tibial-side ALC of the knee in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It was hypothesized that sonographic abnormity of the ALC would be associated with ACL injury history. Patients with a history of unilateral ACL injury were prospectively recruited, and the ALC was sonographically evaluated. During the evaluation, the lateral femoral epicondyle was visualized in anatomic transverse view first. At this location, the ALC was typically most conspicuous between the short head of the biceps femoris muscle and the posterior and deep aspect of the iliotibial band superficial to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament. The ALC was followed distally to the broad insertion centralizing to the area posterior to Gerdy's tubercle. The appearance of the distal insertion of the ALC was classified based both on echogenicity and on the presence of a Segond fracture as follows: Grade 0: isoechoic to the rest of the ALC, Grade 1: hypoechoic, Grade 2: anechoic, and Grade 3: Segond fracture. The uninjured side was similarly scanned for comparison. A total of 28 patients (13 men; mean age 22.1 ± 8.1 years old with range: 12-44; mean body mass index 25.0 with range: 18.9-39.2) were included in this study. The average time from injury to sonograhpic evaluation was 4 months (range: 2 days to 1 year). Of 28 ACL-deficient knees, 19 were (68%) graded as Grade 0 in the distal insertion of the ALC, 7 (25%) as Grade 1, 1 (3.5%) as Grade 2, and 1 (3.5%) as Grade 3. Contralateral knees showed 25 knees (89%) with Grade 0 and 3 knees (11%) with Grade 1. ACL injury history was associated with a higher incidence of sonographic abnormalities within the

  5. High Bone Mass is associated with bone-forming features of osteoarthritis in non-weight bearing joints independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, C L; Hardcastle, S A; Murphy, A; Faber, B; Fraser, W D; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2017-04-01

    High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype. HBM cases (BMD Z-scores≥+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment. 314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade≥1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs. HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Likelihood of Bone Recurrence in Prior Sites of Metastasis in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polishchuk, Alexei L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Li, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Little, Anthony [Division of Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hawkins, Randall A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Hamilton, Jeffrey; Lau, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Tran, Hung Chi [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Strahlendorf, Caron [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lemons, Richard S. [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); Matthay, Katherine K.; DuBois, Steven G. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: Despite recent improvements in outcomes, 40% of children with high-risk neuroblastoma will experience relapse, facing a guarded prognosis for long-term cure. Whether recurrences are at new sites or sites of original disease may guide decision making during initial therapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were retrospectively identified from institutional databases at first metastatic relapse of high-risk neuroblastoma. Included patients had disease involving metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites at diagnosis and first relapse, achieved a complete or partial response with no more than one residual MIBG-avid site before first relapse, and received no total body irradiation or therapy with {sup 131}I-MIBG before first relapse. Anatomically defined metastatic sites were tracked from diagnosis through first relapse to determine tendency of disease to recur at previously involved versus uninvolved sites and to assess whether this pattern was influenced by site irradiation. Results: Of 159 MIBG-avid metastatic sites identified among 43 patients at first relapse, 131 (82.4%) overlapped anatomically with the set of 525 sites present at diagnosis. This distribution was similar for bone sites, but patterns of relapse were more varied for the smaller subset of soft tissue metastases. Among all metastatic sites at diagnosis in our subsequently relapsed patient cohort, only 3 of 19 irradiated sites (15.8%) recurred as compared with 128 of 506 (25.3%) unirradiated sites. Conclusions: Metastatic bone relapse in neuroblastoma usually occurs at anatomic sites of previous disease. Metastatic sites identified at diagnosis that did not receive radiation during frontline therapy appeared to have a higher risk of involvement at first relapse relative to previously irradiated metastatic sites. These observations support the current paradigm of irradiating metastases that persist after induction chemotherapy in high-risk patients. Furthermore

  7. Prevalence of anal infection due to high-risk human papillomavirus and analysis of E2 gene integrity among women with cervical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gómez-Carvallo, Jesús; Euán-López, Alejandra; Cisneros-Cutz, José I; Rosado-López, Ariel; Echeverría Salazar, Jesúa; Conde-Ferráez, Laura

    2017-01-06

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) infection has been associated with 90% of anal cancer cases. Women with abnormal cytology are a high-risk group to develop anal neoplasia. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and epidemiology of HR-HPV 16, 18, 45, and 58 anal infections in women with cervical abnormalities, as well as to assess E2 gene integrity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 311 cervical and 311 anal samples from patients with abnormal cytology in two colposcopy clinics in Yucatan, Mexico. A specific PCR for oncogenes was performed in order to identify HVP 16, 18, 45 and 58. Real time PCR was used to amplify the whole HPV 16, 18, and 58 E2 gene to verify its integrity in anal samples. High risk HPV 16, 18, 58, and/or 45 were found in 41.47% (129/311) of cervical samples, and in 30.8% (96/331) of anal samples, with 18% (57/311) of the patients being positive in both samples. The same genotypes in both anatomical sites were observed in 11.25% (35/311). The E2 gene was disrupted in 82% of all tested samples. The frequency of genome disruption viral integration in anal samples by genotype was: HPV 58 (97.2%); HPV 16 (72.4%), and HPV 18 (0%). Women with cervical disease have HR-HPV anal infections, and most of them have the E2 gene disrupted, which represents a risk to develop anal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  9. Soy protein isolate inhibits high fat diet-induced senescence pathways in osteoblasts to maintain bone acquisition in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic consumption by experimental animals of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life has been demonstrated to impair skeletal development. However, the underlying mechanism by which high fat, energy dense diets affect bone-forming cell phenotypes is poor...

  10. Despite a high prevalence of menstrual disorders, bone health is improved at a weight-bearing bone site in world-class female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Regular physical activity during puberty improves bone mass acquisition. However, it is unknown whether extreme intense training has the same favorable effect on the skeleton. We evaluated the bone mass acquisition in a unique cohort of world-class rhythmic gymnasts. A total of 133 adolescent girls and young women with a mean age of 18.7 ± 2.7 (14.4-26.7) years participated in this study: 82 elite rhythmic gymnasts (RGs) and 51 controls (CONs). Anthropometric variables and body composition were assessed, and all participants completed questionnaires on their general medical, menstrual, and training histories. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA in decibels per megahertz) was determined by quantitative ultrasound at the heel. RGs presented lower weight (-8.5%, P rhythmic gymnastics appeared to have a beneficial effect on the bone health of a weight-bearing site. This effect was nevertheless modulated by the age of menarche. The high mechanical loading generated by this activity may counterbalance the negative effect of menstrual disorders.

  11. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992...... in one-on-one conversations. CONCLUSION: BAHA is helpful in one-on-one conversations in quiet surroundings. Sound quality in group situations seems to be the main problem associated with BAHA. However, this study showed that BAHA is an effective hearing aid that is associated with a high degree......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...

  12. Bone marrow dendritic cells are reduced in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saft, Leonie; Björklund, Elisabet; Berg, Elisabeth; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Porwit, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells that play a pivotal role in coordinating functions of the immune system. Previous studies suggest that bone marrow (BM) failure in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) may be in part immune-mediated, and that the high propensity for relapse may reflect decreased immune surveillance. This study aimed to assess the frequency of DC in BM samples from well-annotated untreated MDS patients by using 4-colour flow cytometry. DC levels were markedly reduced in all subtypes of MDS. The clinical impact of this finding on therapy response and relapse after, e.g. allogeneic stem cell transplantation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Impingement between Patella Bone and Bearing Post in Cruciate-Substituting High-Flexion Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jegyun; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Sangyeop; Jang, Gunil; Jeon, Taehyeon

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the causes of impingement between the patella bone and the bearing post during high flexion in cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty and proposed a treatment strategy. This prospective cohort study included 218 cases that had undergone cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty from February 2014 to January 2015; a single surgeon performed the operation using the same method without patellar resurfacing in all patients. In these patients, the occurrence of impingement was determined by performing more than 120° high knee flexion after inserting a bearing perioperatively. The incidence of impingement was significantly associated with bearing design, femoral implant size, patella bone length, and patella inferior pole angle (p patella bone. In the cruciate-substituting high-flexion total knee arthroplasty, impingement between the patella bone and bearing post was more common in patients with mobile bearing, small-size femoral component, and a long patella or a large inferior pole angle. In cases of intraoperative impingement between the patella bone and the bearing post, resection in the lower portion of the patella prevented impingement of the bearing with soft tissue or the patella by widening the space between the patella and the bearing post, which in turn prevented postoperative reduction in range of motion.

  14. The role of bone void fillers in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, Omer; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Tischer, Thomas; Feucht, Matthias J; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2016-11-01

    A variety of bone void filling materials and methods are available in opening medial wedge HTO (OWHTO). The pertinent question revolves around if and when bone void fillers are needed. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically review outcomes and complications after OWHTO with and without the use of bone void fillers. The EMBASE, PubMed\\MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify articles that reported OWHTO results using different bone void fillers until March 2016. Only articles reporting the exact bone void filler type, the opening gap size and the fixation method were included. The extracted data included the study design, demographic data, the radiological and clinical results and complication rates. Outcomes were analysed with regard to bone void filler type, and comparison was made between the groups (allograft, autograft, synthetic bone void filler and OWHTO without bone void filling). Twenty-two articles reporting the results of 1421 OWHTO met the inclusion criteria. In total, 647 osteotomies were completed with allogeneic graft as bone void filler, 367 with synthetic materials, 199 with autograft and 208 without any bone void filling material. The maximum opening gap size was similar in all groups with mean of 9.8 mm (range 4-17.5 mm). Locking plate fixation was used in 90 % of the osteotomies that were completed without bone void filler, while all allograft cases and more then 90 % of the autograft cases were done with non-locking systems. The highest rates of non-union (1.1 %) were seen in the synthetic group, compared to 0.5 % in the all the other groups. This systematic review showed no definitive advantages for OWHTO with any bone void filler in terms of union rates and loss of correction. Moreover, the use of autografts or allografts showed more favourable outcomes than synthetic bone substitutes. OWHTO with gaps smaller then 10 mm and rigid fixation might be successfully managed without

  15. Genetic analysis of high bone mass cases from the BARCOS cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sarrión

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600 displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4. While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F, which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM.

  16. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  17. Juxtaepiphyseal aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Biagini, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Giunti, A.; Springfield, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nine cases of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in juxtaepiphyseal locations with gross invasion of the adjacent growth plate are reported. In five of these patients in abnormality of growth, due to premature fusion of the affected growth plate, ultimately developed. Treatment of these lesions should attempt to avoid this complication, which appears to be more common than has been appreciated in the past. These nine cases represent 23% of 39 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in a long bone adjacent to an open epiphyseal plate. This series was extrapolated from a total of 198 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst in the files of the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

  18. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  19. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Cao, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and soy protein isolate (SPI) augmentation have been reported to be beneficial for bone health. We hypothesized that combining voluntary running and SPI intake would alleviate detrimental changes in bone induced by a high-fat diet. A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment was designed with diets containing 16% or 45% of energy as corn oil and 20% SPI or casein fed to sedentary or running male C57BL/6 mice for 14 weeks. Distal femurs were assessed for microstructural changes. The high-fat diet significantly decreased trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Soy protein instead of casein, regardless of fat content, in the diet significantly increased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and decreased Tb.Sp. Voluntary running, regardless of fat content, significantly decreased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and increased Tb.Sp. The high-fat diet significantly decreased osteocalcin and increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) concentrations in plasma. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin were increased by both SPI and running. Running alleviated the increase in TRAP 5b induced by the high-fat diet. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet is deleterious, and SPI is beneficial to trabecular bone properties. The deleterious effect of voluntary running on trabecular structural characteristics indicates that there may be a maximal threshold of running beyond which beneficial effects cease and detrimental effects occur. Increases in plasma osteocalcin and decreases in plasma TRAP 5b in running mice suggest that a compensatory response occurs to counteract the detrimental effects of excessive running. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Low load, high repetition resistance training program increases bone mineral density in untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bailey A; Hastings, Bryce; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2017-01-01

    High load, low repetition resistance training increases BMD in untrained adults; however, many older and untrained adults cannot maintain this type of strenuous program. Our goal was to evaluate whether a low load, high repetition resistance training program would increase BMD in untrained adults. Twenty sedentary, but otherwise healthy, adults (6 men and 14 women, age 28-63 yrs) completed a 27-week group exercise program. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two strength groups: one group completed full body, low load, high repetition weight training classes (S-WEIGHT), while the other group completed core focused fusion classes (S-CORE). Both groups also completed indoor cycling classes for cardiovascular conditioning. After a 3-week familiarization period, all participants completed a 12-week block of 5 fitness classes per week (3 cycling + 2 strength) and concluded with another 12-week block of 6 classes per week (3 cycling + 3 strength). We completed iDXA scans at baseline (week 3) and final (week 28). Compared to baseline, BMD significantly increased for S-WEIGHT in the arms (+4%, Pload, high repetition resistance training program may be an effective method to improve bone mass in adults.

  1. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fat diet-induced obesity triggers alveolar bone loss and spontaneous periodontal disease in growing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuko; Maki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between high-fat food consumption and obesity is well-established. However, it is as yet unclear whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in childhood and adolescence determines age-related changes in jaw bone health. The aim of this study is to examine the age-related influence of HFD-induced obesity on mandibular bone architecture and the structure of the periodontium in growing mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice (6-weeks-old) were divided into two groups (n = 6 each): the control group received a control diet and the experimental group a HFD. After treatment for 4, 8, or 12 weeks, trabecular and cortical bone architecture was assessed using micro-computed tomography. The periodontium and alveolar bone structure were evaluated by histopathology. In HFD mice, body weight, serum total cholesterol, and serum leptin levels were significantly higher than those in age-matched control mice (p periodontal ligament fibres were disrupted, having lost their orientation with respect to the bone surface, and constriction of the periodontal ligament space was inhibited. These results suggest that HFD-induced obesity during growth not only triggers mandibular osteoporosis but also increases the risk of spontaneous periodontal disease.

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection among women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu-Mu-Shwe; Harano, Teruo; Okada, Shigeru; Aye-Aye-Win; Khin-Saw-Aye; Hlaing-Myat-Thu; Mo-Mo-Win; Khin-Khin-Oo; Myo-Khin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of normal and abnormal cervical cytology in women who attended the cervical cancer screening clinic of the Department of Medical Research in Lower Myanmar, and to determine the proportion of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV genotypes in women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology. A total of 1,771 women were screened from 2010 to 2011. Among them, 762 women (43.0%) had a normal smear, and 866(48.9%) and 87 (4.9%) were diagnosed with inflammatory smears and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), respectively. Diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) numbered 42 (2.3%) and 11 (0.6%) respectively. Three cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.2%) were detected. Cervical swabs were collected from 96 women with abnormal cervical cytology and 20 with normal cytology. HR-HPV DNA testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with pU1M/pU2R primers. HR-HPV were identified in 35.5% (22/62) of inflammatory smears, 60% (6/10) of ASCUS, 86.7% (13/15) of LSIL, 50% (3/6) of HSIL, 100% (3/3) of SCC and 5% (1/20) of normal cytology. In PCR-positive cases, HPV genotyping was analyzed by the cleaved amplification polymorphism method. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (60.4%) followed by HPV-31 (14.6%), HPV-18 (12.5%) and HPV-58 (12.5%). Women with abnormal cervical cytology were 10 times more likely to be HR-HPV positive than those with normal cytology (p=0.0001). This study suggests that the implementation of a cervical cytology screening program and routine vaccination against HPV in preadolescent and adolescent groups are needed to reduce the burden of HPV-associated cervical cancer.

  4. A Retrospective Study of Cytogenetic Results From Amniotic Fluid in 5328 Fetuses With Abnormal Obstetric Sonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Lei, Caixia; Wu, Junping; Sun, Haiyan; Yang, Yuezhou; Zhang, Yueping; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid for fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings and to determine the detection rates of abnormal karyotypes. We conducted a retrospective study of 5328 fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings in the first or second trimester enrolled from October 1998 and September 2015. Cytogenetic results from amniotic fluid were obtained in all of these pregnancies. Sonographic abnormalities were stratified according to anatomic system involvement. A total of 238 abnormal karyotypes were encountered in the 5328 fetuses (4.5%). The highest rate of chromosomal anomalies was in fetuses with structural abnormalities in multiple organ systems (25.7%), followed by an abnormal amniotic fluid volume (7.9%), structural abnormalities in a single system (7.3%), multiple nonstructural anomalies (7.2%), isolated placental abnormalities (7.1%), and isolated soft markers for aneuploidy (2.4%; P abnormalities in a single system, gastrointestinal and neck/body fluids had particularly high detection rates (26.1% and 26.2%, respectively). A detailed analysis suggested that the probability of an abnormal karyotype among every anatomic system was statistically significant (P abnormal rates: duodenal atresia (53.1%), holoprosencephaly (48.8%), fetal hydrops (39.5%), cerebellar hypoplasia (32.0%), cystic hygroma (31.5%), absent/short nasal bone (11.0%), and bilateral choroid plexus cysts (8.5%). Cytogenetic analysis has important clinical utility in a wide range of settings, such as prenatal diagnosis. For fetuses with indications of a highly abnormal detection rate, karyotype analysis should be suggested. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. DIAGNOSTICS OF BONE METABOLISM DISORDERS IN ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Apolikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the most significant bone complications of cancer. About 1.5 million cancer patients worldwide have bone metastases. Patients with myeloma, breast cancer, prostate, thyroid, bladder and lung have very high risk of development of bone lesions and related complications. Currently, osteodensitometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. In recent years we frequently use the innovative imaging techniques for bone metastases, such as CT, MRI, PET/CT. Unfortunately, the diagnostic value of these methods is that it is not always possible to identify abnormalities of bone metabolism in cancer, especially in the early stages. This review shows the world experience of usage of biochemical markers of bone resorption (calcium, hydroxyproline, NTX, CTX, PYD, DPD, TRAP-5b, bone sialoprotein - BSP and markers of bone synthesis (osteocalcin, CSF, ACF, Karlovy vary IFF, their advantages and disadvantages. The level of these markers is increased in most patients with osteoporosis and bone metastases, it is suggesting a potential role in early diagnosis of bone metastases.

  6. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  7. Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the wrist caused by a disturbance of growth that retards the development of the ulnar and volar aspect of the distal radial physis, usually idiopathic, but can be associated with bone dysplas.

  8. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) protects ovariectomized rats fed with high-saturated fat-sucrose diet from bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X L; Yu, W X; Li, C M; He, S; Zhou, L P; Poon, C W; Wong, M S

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property. However, dietary patterns may interfere with the effects of herbal intervention. We hypothesized that dietary fat and sucrose levels could influence the effects of SM supplementation on bone in estrogen-deficient animals. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley sham or OVX rats were fed either a low-saturated fat-sucrose (LFS, a diet that was similar in composition to normal rat chow) or a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet and OVX rats were treated (8 rats/group) with SM aqueous extract (SMA, 600 mg/kg/day), 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 12 weeks. SMA significantly improved bone properties as revealed by the increase in trabecular bone mineral density and decrease in trabecular separation at proximal metaphysis of the tibia (PT) in HFS-fed OVX rats, but not in LFS-fed OVX rats. SMA greatly reduced lipid deposition and malondialdehyde levels, improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the livers of HFS-fed OVX rats. SMA could directly improve the proliferation and differentiation in vitro in an H2O2-induced preosteoblast cell model by attenuating cellular reactive oxygen species levels. The protective effects of SMA on bone metabolism were influenced by dietary fat and sucrose levels in OVX rats. The ability of SMA to reduce bone loss in HFS-fed OVX rats was associated with the attenuation of lipid deposition and oxidative stress levels.

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Bone Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horas, Konstantin; Maier, Gerrit; Jakob, Franz; Maus, Uwe; Kurth, Andreas; Jakuscheit, Axel; Rudert, Maximilian; Holzapfel, Boris Michael

    2017-09-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with different types of bone tumors and to elucidate whether or not there are differences in prediagnostic vitamin D levels in patients with malignant compared to benign bone tumors. Prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D levels of 105 consecutive patients that presented with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions to two Orthopedic Level I University Centers in Germany between 2011 and 2016 were measured on admission. We found an alarming and widespread rate of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bone tumors. Specifically, 83% of all patients had low vitamin D levels with a mean 25(OH)D level of 19.82 ng/ml. Notably, patients diagnosed with malignant bone tumors had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to patients with benign bone lesions (p = 0.0008). In conclusion, it is essential to assess vitamin D levels in patients with tumors involving bone. In addition, there might be an association between vitamin D deficiency and the onset or course of primary malignant bone tumors.

  10. High-fat Diet Enhances and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Bone Loss in Mice with Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (Pai1(-/-)) on the bone structure in male C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Significant reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) in femurs and vertebrae were found in LLC-bearing mice compared to non-tumor-bearing mice. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G control diet significantly reduced BV/TV, Tb.N and BMD in femurs and BV/TV in vertebrae. The high-fat diet significantly reduced BMD in vertebrae in wild-type mice but not in Pai1(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type mice, PAI1 deficiency significantly increased BV/TV and Tb.N in femurs. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin was significantly lower and that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was significantly higher in LLC-bearing mice. The high-fat diet significantly reduced plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b. Deficiency in PAI1 prevented the high-fat diet-induced increases in plasma TRAP5b. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet enhances, whereas PAI1 deficiency, attenuates metastasis-associated bone loss, indicating that a high-fat diet and PAI1 contribute to metastasis-associated bone deterioration. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  12. Whole Body Bone Scan Findings after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ye Young; O, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Han, Eun Ji; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Sung Hoon [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study aims to examine the findings of {sup 99mT}c diphosphonate bone scans in cancer patients with a history of HIFU treatment. Bone scan images of patients with a history of HIFU treatment for primary of metastatic cancer from January 2006 to July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases of primary bone tumor or HIFU treatment reaching only the superficial soft tissue layer were excluded. Bone scan images of 62 patients (26 female, 36 male; mean age 57{+-}9 years) were studied. HIFU treatment was performed in the liver (n=40), pancreas (n=40), pancreas (n=16), and breast (n=6). Mean interval time between HIFU treatment and bone scan was 106{+-}105 days (range: 1-572 days). Of 62 scans, 43 showed diffusely decreased uptake of bone within the path of HIFU treatment: antero axillary and/or posterior arcs of right 5th to 11th ribs in 34 cases after treatment of hepatic lesions; anterior arcs of 2nd to 5th ribs in 5 cases after treatment for breast tumors; and posterior arcs of left 9th to 11th ribs or thoraco lumbar vertebrae in 4 cases after treatment for pancreas tumor. Of 20 patients who had bone scans more than twice, five showed recovered uptake of the radiotracer in the involved ribs in the follow up bone scan. Of 62 bone scans in patients with a history of HIFU treatment for primary of metastatic cancer, 69% presented diffusely decreased uptake in the bone in the path of HIFU treatment.

  13. Patients With High Bone Mass Phenotype Exhibit Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibition of Adipogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Andersen, Tom; Bollerslev, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Genetic mutations in the LRP5 gene affect Wnt signaling and lead to changes in bone mass in humans. Our in vivo and in vitro results show that activated mutation T253I of LRP5 enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis. Inactivating mutation T244M of LRP5 exerts opposite effects. Introduction......: Mutations in the Wnt co-receptor, LRP5, leading to decreased or increased canonical Wnt signaling, result in osteoporosis or a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, respectively. However, the mechanisms whereby mutated LRP5 causes changes in bone mass are not known. Materials and Methods: We studied bone marrow composition...... in iliac crest bone biopsies from patients with the HBM phenotype and controls. We also used retrovirus-mediated gene transduction to establish three different human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) strains stably expressing wildtype LRP5 (hMSC-LRP5WT), LRP5T244 (hMSC-LRP5T244, inactivation mutation leading...

  14. Gene trap mutation of murine Outer dense fiber protein-2 gene can result in sperm tail abnormalities in mice with high percentage chimaerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer dense fiber protein 2, Odf2, is a major component of the outer dense fibers, ODF, in the flagellum of spermatozoa. ODF are associated with microtubule doublets that form the axoneme. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of Odf2 is important for sperm motility. In the course of a study of Odf2 using Odf2 mouse knockout lines we observed that males of a high percentage chimaerism, made using XL169 embryonic stem cells, were infertile, whereas mice of low-medium percentage chimaerism were fertile. Results XL169 ES cells have a β-geo gene trap cassette inserted in the Odf2 gene. To determine possible underlying mechanisms resulting in infertility we analyzed epididymal sperm and observed that >50% displayed bent tails. We next performed ultrastructural analyses on testis of high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice. This analysis showed that high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice produce elongating spermatids that miss one or more entire outer dense fibers in their midpiece and principal piece. In addition, we observed elongating spermatids that show thinning of outer dense fibers. No other obvious abnormalities or defects are present in elongating spermatids. Spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymis of XL169 mice of high percentage chimaerism show additional tail defects, including absence of one or more axonemal microtubule doublets and bent tails. Sperm with bent tails display abnormal motility. Conclusions Our results document the possible impact of loss of one Odf2 allele on sperm tail structure and function, resulting in a novel sperm tail phenotype.

  15. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell ... side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your ... clothes and to wear a gown during the exam. You may also be asked to remove jewelry, ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  20. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients With Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome of the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horas, Konstantin; Fraissler, Lukas; Maier, Gerrit; Jakob, Franz; Seefried, Lothar; Konrads, Christian; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMOS) is a phenomenon primarily affecting the lower extremity. It is characterized by a sudden onset of pain and an ill-defined osseous hyperintense signal in magnetic resonance imaging. The main cause of BMOS is still largely unknown. Its pathophysiology is presumably multifactorial and it has recently been demonstrated that it usually involves an increase in bone turnover and alterations within the bone microenvironment. Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in maintaining a healthy and well-balanced bone microenvironment. However, to date only limited information has been reported on vitamin D status in patients with BMOS. Moreover, it is still uncertain whether hypovitaminosis D is associated with the etiology and course of the disease. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin D levels (25(OH)D) of patients diagnosed with BMOS of the foot and ankle. Patients were identified and laboratory results collected by retrospective review of the medical records between year 2011 and 2015. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, the existence of prolonged foot pain, the presence of abnormal bone marrow signal intensity in T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient's medical history. All patients who demonstrated other concomitant diagnoses were excluded from the study. Overall, 31 patients were affected by BMOS with a mean age of 44.4 (range, 18-76) years. Notably, 84% of patients (26/31) had low vitamin D levels with a mean 25(OH)D level of 19.03 ng/mL. Specifically, 61% of patients (19/31) were vitamin D deficient, 23% (7/31) vitamin D insufficient, and only 5 patients (16%) had sufficient vitamin D levels. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference comparing vitamin D levels with patient age, sex, and time of diagnosis. Moreover, there was no correlation between vitamin D status and the number of bony foci or location of BMOS. We found a widespread rate of vitamin D deficiency in

  1. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Waihan; Ho, Waiyin; Lai, Andrew S. H.; Wong, Kwongkuen; Law, Martin [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-12-15

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis.

  2. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  3. Bone turnover, joint damage and bone mineral density in early rheumatoid arthritis treated with combination therapy including high-dose prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.C.; Boers, M.; Koppele, J.M. te; Laan, W.H. van der; Markusse, H.M.Geusens, P.; Linden, S. van der

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. Exploration of bone metabolism changes at different levels of disease activity, both with and without oral corticosteroid therapy, and prediction of changes in joint damage and bone density from the observed changes in markers of bone turnover. Methods. Data analysis from a randomized

  4. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  5. High survival of uncemented proximally porous-coated titanium alloy femoral stems in osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meding, John B; Galley, Matthew R; Ritter, Merrill A

    2010-02-01

    Because the initial fixation of an uncemented stem may be compromised in patients with osteoporotic bone (Class C, Dorr et al.), many surgeons prefer a cemented stem in this setting. We therefore determined the survival of an uncemented, proximally porous-coated, straight-stemmed, titanium alloy femoral component in patients with Class C bone when compared with Class A and B bone. We implanted proximally plasma-sprayed, straight-stemmed titanium alloy stems in 1994 patients (2321 hips). Of these, 625 hips (27%), 1569 hips (67%), and 127 hips (6%) were classified as Classes A, B, and C, respectively. Minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 5.9 years; range, 2-19.5 years). We identified no differences in Harris hip scores, pain, radiolucencies, or osteolysis among Classes A, B, and C hips. Stem survival at 5, 10, and 15 years for aseptic loosening (failure) was 100% in all patients with Class A bone; 99+% in all patients with Class B bone; and 100% in all patients with Class C bone. Initial stability and durable fixation can be achieved with the use of this uncemented stem in patients in whom a cemented stem traditionally has been preferred as a result of poor bone quality. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L; Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  7. Assessment of bone metastasis using nuclear medicine imaging in breast cancer: comparison between PET/CT and bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae Hyoun; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Sung Min [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    Bone metastasis in breast cancer patients are usually assessed by conventional Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate whole-body bone scan, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. However, positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) can offer superior spatial resolution and improved specificity. FDG-PET/CT can offer more information to assess bone metastasis than PET alone, by giving a anatomical information of non-enhanced CT image. We attempted to evaluate the usefulness of FDG-PET/CT for detecting bone metastasis in breast cancer and to compare FDG-PET/CT results with bone scan findings. The study group comprised 157 women patients (range: 28 {approx} 78 years old, mean {+-} SD = 49.5 {+-}8.5) with biopsy-proven breast cancer who underwent bone scan and FDG-PET/CT within 1 week interval. The final diagnosis of bone metastasis was established by histopathological findings, radiological correlation, or clinical follow-up. Bone scan was acquired over 4 hours after administration of 740 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Bone scan image was interpreted as normal, low, intermediate or high probability for osseous metastasis. FDG PET/CT was performed after 6 hours fasting. 370 MBq F-18 FDG was administered intravenously 1 hour before imaging. PET data was obtained by 3D mode and CT data, used as transmission correction database, was acquired during shallow respiration. PET images were evaluated by visual interpretation, and quantification of FDG accumulation in bone lesion was performed by maximal SUV(SUVmax) and relative SUV(SUVrel). Six patients (4.4%) showed metastatic bone lesions. Four (66.6%) of 6 patients with osseous metastasis was detected by bone scan and all 6 patients (100%) were detected by PET/CT. A total of 135 bone lesions found on either FDG-PET or bone scan were consist of 108 osseous metastatic lesion and 27 benign bone lesions. Osseous metastatic lesion had higher SUVmax and SUVrel compared to benign bone lesion (4.79 {+-} 3.32 vs 1

  8. Are the High Hip Fracture Rates Among Norwegian Women Explained by Impaired Bone Material Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Vilaplana, Laila; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Wang-Fagerland, Morten; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; F Eriksen, Erik

    2015-10-01

    Hip fracture rates in Norway rank among the highest in the world, more than double that of Spanish women. Previous studies were unable to demonstrate significant differences between the two populations with respect to bone mass or calcium metabolism. In order to test whether the difference in fracture propensity between both populations could be explained by differences in bone material quality we assessed bone material strength using microindentation in 42 Norwegian and 46 Spanish women with normal BMD values, without clinical or morphometric vertebral fractures, no clinical or laboratory signs of secondary osteoporosis, and without use of drugs with known influence on bone metabolism. Bone material properties were assessed by microindentation of the thick cortex of the mid tibia following local anesthesia of the area using the Osteoprobe device (Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). Indentation distance was standardized against a calibration phantom of methylmethacrylate and results, as percentage of this reference value, expressed as bone material strength index units (BMSi). We found that the bone material properties reflected in the BMSi value of Norwegian women was significantly inferior when compared to Spanish women (77 ± 7.1 versus 80.7 ± 7.8, p hip BMD was significantly higher in Norwegian women (1.218 g/cm(2) versus 0.938 g/cm(2) , p fracture after such falls. These ethnic differences in bone material properties may partly explain the higher propensity for fracture in Norwegian women. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Department, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  10. Loss of bone strength in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is characterized by a high bone turnover and is mainly osteoclast-driven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Thiele, Sylvia; Fert, Ingrid; Araujo, Luiza M; Layh-Schmitt, Gerlinde; Colbert, Robert A; Hofbauer, Christine; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Bürki, Alexander; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Pietschmann, Peter; Taurog, Joel D; Breban, Maxime; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2015-06-01

    Although osteopenia is frequent in spondyloarthritis (SpA), the underlying cellular mechanisms and association with other symptoms are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize bone loss during disease progression, determine cellular alterations, and assess the contribution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Bones of 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old non-transgenic, disease-free HLA-B7 and disease-associated HLA-B27 transgenic rats were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, μCT, and nanoindentation. Cellular characteristics were determined by histomorphometry and ex vivo cultures. The impact of IBD was determined using [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats, which develop arthritis and spondylitis, but not IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats continuously lost bone mass with increasing age and had impaired bone material properties, leading to a 3-fold decrease in bone strength at 12 months of age. Bone turnover was increased in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, as evidenced by a 3-fold increase in bone formation and a 6-fold increase in bone resorption parameters. Enhanced osteoclastic markers were associated with a larger number of precursors in the bone marrow and a stronger osteoclastogenic response to RANKL or TNFα. Further, IBD-free [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats also displayed decreased total and trabecular bone density. HLA-B27 transgenic rats lose an increasing amount of bone density and strength with progressing age, which is primarily mediated via increased bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption. Moreover, IBD and bone loss seem to be independent features of SpA in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Shengfei; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Xinmin

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena could cause persistent back pains in patients, even after receiving conservative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty in treating patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena.Twenty osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients with intraosseous vacuum phenomena, who received at least 2 months of conservative treatment, were further treated by injecting high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty due to failure of conservative treatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining the anterior vertebral compression rates, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores at 1 day before the operation, on the first day of postoperation, at 1-month postoperation, and at 1-year postoperation.Three of 20 patients had asymptomatic bone cement leakage when treated via percutaneous vertebroplasty; however, no serious complications related to these treatments were observed during the 1-year follow-up period. A statistically significant improvement on the anterior vertebral compression rates, VAS scores, and ODI scores were achieved after percutaneous vertebroplasty. However, differences in the anterior vertebral compression rate, VAS score, and ODI score in the different time points during the 1-year follow-up period was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Within the limitations of this study, the injection of high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty for patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena significantly relieved their back pains and improved their daily life activities shortly after the operation, thereby improving their life quality. In this study, the use of high-viscosity bone

  12. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jaime A; Thomsen, Felix; Damm, Timo; Campbell, Graeme M; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C

    2016-07-01

    Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1-1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm(3) corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive localization and densitometric assessment of

  13. Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2013-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  14. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus.

  15. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  16. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected in a database. The response rate was 80% and the user percentage 88. The majority of the patients used their BAHA seven days a week and most of the day. 88% reported that it was in their best interest that they had received a BAHA. 80% of the respondents were able to communicate better using their BAHA in one-on-one conversations. BAHA is helpful in one-on-one conversations in quiet surroundings. Sound quality in group situations seems to be the main problem associated with BAHA. However, this study showed that BAHA is an effective hearing aid that is associated with a high degree of satisfaction. not relevant. not relevant.

  17. Management of high-grade bone sarcomas over two decades: The Norwegian Radium Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hege Aksnes, Liv; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Folleraas, Gunnar; Stenwig, Anna Elisabeth; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Taksdal, Ingeborg; Winderen, Mette; Bruland, Oeyvind Sverre; Saeter, Gunnar [The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-02-15

    All cases of high-grade osteosarcoma (OS) (n=196) and Ewing's sarcoma of bone (ES) (n=56) treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital in the period 1980-1999 were analyzed retrospectively. They were allocated to consecutive ten-year periods by their time of diagnosis. Patient and tumour characteristics have been relatively stable. Eighty percent of all patients received surgical treatment and the amputation rate decreased from 64% to 23%. The percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy has remained around 80%. The use of radiotherapy in primary treatment decreased gradually from 33% to 18%. Sarcoma specific survival (SSS) at five years for all patients increased significantly from 39% to 53%. Similar trends for improvement were seen for both OS and ES. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors for improved SSS were non-metastatic disease at diagnosis, age under 40, extremity tumours, small tumours and treatment from 1995 onwards. No major new treatment options have emerged over these 20 years. The improved outcome appears partly to be due to refinements in the use of existing modalities and improved quality and integration of multidisciplinary approaches. Improved formalized organisation of the sarcoma group and annual audited reports of its patient and research activity may also have contributed to improved focus and performance.

  18. Microelement content of bone tissue in transosseous osteosynthesis by II-izarov technique in high-altitude destinations (experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Erokhin A.N.; Isakov B.D.; Nakoskin A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the redistribution of microelements in bone tissue in osteosynthesis in high-altitude destinations. Material and Methods. The study was performed on 72 mongrel dogs of both sexes aged 1-3 years, weighing 10—15 kg. 32 dogs have been experienced the extended leg in lowlands destinations, another group of 32 animals have been experienced elongation produced in high-altitude destinations. The control group consisted of 8 healthy dogs of low mountain areas. The standard technique of ...

  19. Two and three dimensional measurements of the skull base bone using high-resolution volumetric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Kenji [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Fifty-two normal human subjects (male 26, female 26) were examined with a HITACHI W-3000 volumetric CT scanner. CT was performed with a slice width of 2 mm, a sliding speed of 2 mm/sec and a scanning time of 30 sec. The subjects were scanned in an axial plane parallel to the OM (orbitomeatal) line from the foramen magnum to the rostrum [60 mm]. These date were reconstructed using 59 slices of the bone-window level 2D-CT image (WW3400, WL240) every 1 mm of pitch and measured distances of important landmarks and angles (foramen ovale, carotid canal, lateral semicircular canal, optic canal). 3D-CT displays were derived from the 2D-CT image information using a threshold of 180 H.U.. And measurements of the distances of important landmarks (anterior clinoid process, pterion, internal acoustic meatus, posterior zygomatic process). The 2D-CT measurements of distance were extremely close to the reported anatomical measurements. On the other hand, the 3D-CT measurements were a little larger over all than those measurements. Statistically, the left side diameter of the carotid canal was greater than the right (p<0.05). And the right side length of the foramen ovale was longer than the left (p<0.001). In addition, the length of the cranial bone was correlated with its height (r=0.56, p<0.0001). Similarly, the distance from the sigmoid sinus to the acoustic meatus was correlated with the distance from the sigmoid sinus to the posterior semicircular canal (r=0.75, p<0.0001). The present studies revealed that the skull base measurements obtained with high-resolution volumetric CT were accurate. In addition, this method was easy, rapid, unrestricted and capable of continuous and repeated examination of an object. Therefore measurements made by such this efficient CT technique can be aid to skull base surgery. (H.O.). 57 refs.

  20. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  1. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  2. High FGF21 levels are associated with altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Lamarca, Maria Karuna; Villarroya, Joan; Domingo, Joan C; Mateo, Ma Gracia; Gutierrez, Ma Del Mar; Vidal, Francesc; Villarroya, Francesc; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss. To assess the relationship of serum FGF21 levels and altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. Cross-sectional study of 137 HIV-1-infected patients and 35 healthy controls conducted at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona. Among HIV-1-infected patients, 35 were untreated (naïve), 43 were treated with antiretrovirals (HIV-1/ART) with no lipodystrophy, and 59 patients were HIV-1/ART and experienced lipodystrophy. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of FGF21, receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-KB ligand (RANKL), and C-telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were determined using an antibody-linked, fluorescently labeled microsphere bead-based multiplex analysis system. Alterations in bone parameters and bone homeostasis marker levels were consistent with higher turnover and bone loss in HIV-1 infected patients. FGF21 correlated negatively with BMD and BMC. FGF21 correlated positively with serum levels of osteoprotegerin and CTX-1, as well as with the CTX-1/osteocalcin ratio. Elevated FGF21 levels are associated with poor bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. Increases in FGF21 serum level may be an indicator not only of metabolic derangement but it may also serve as a biomarker of altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1 infected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal pain processing in chronic tension-type headache: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L.; Egsgaard, L.L.; Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity...... in response to muscle pain in 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 19 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Intramuscular electrical stimuli (single and train of five pulses delivered at 2 Hz) were applied to the trapezius muscle and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded...... versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.001; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.002) and fifth (baseline versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04) stimulus in the train. In contrast, there were no differences between the conditions in patients. No consistent...

  4. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  5. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  6. Abnormal lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and high plasma testosterone levels in male but not female aromatase-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Machida, Shuichi; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Takaoka, Osamu; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-05-15

    Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression. Interestingly, we found that hepatic steatosis was accompanied by markedly elevated plasma testosterone levels in male ArKO mice but not in female ArKO mice. Plasma lipoprotein profiles exhibited concurrent decreases in LDL- and small dense LDL-triglyceride (TG) levels in male ArKO mice. Moreover, male mice, but not female mice, exhibited marked elevations in androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and CD36 expression. These results strongly suggest that Cyp19 gene disruption, which induces a sexually dimorphic response and high plasma testosterone levels in male mice, also induces hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated analysis of written narratives reveals abnormalities in referential cohesion in youth at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tina; Hespos, Susan J; Horton, William S; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-04-25

    Schizophrenia and at-risk populations are suggested to exhibit referential cohesion deficits in language production (e.g., producing fewer pronouns or nouns that clearly link to concepts from previous sentences). Much of this work has focused on transcribed speech samples, while no work to our knowledge has examined referential cohesion in written narratives among ultra high risk (UHR) youth using Coh-Metrix, an automated analysis tool. In the present study, written narratives from 84 individuals (UHR=41, control=43) were examined. Referential cohesion variables and relationships with symptoms and relevant cognitive variables were also investigated. Findings reveal less word "stem" overlap in narratives produced by UHR youth compared to controls, and correlations with symptom domains and verbal learning. The present study highlights the potential usefulness of automated analysis of written narratives in identifying at-risk youth and these data provide critical information in better understanding the etiology of psychosis. As writing production is commonly elicited in educational contexts, markers of aberrant cohesion in writing represent significant potential for identifying youth who could benefit from further screening, and utilizing software that is easily accessible and free may provide utility in academic and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and controls invasive cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, J; Kerber, M; Rahner, S; Mnich, L; Lassmann, S; Helbing, T; Werner, M; Patterson, C; Bode, C; Moser, M

    2012-06-14

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that exert important functions in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Till date, multiple human tumors have been reported to display a dysregulation of several members of the BMP pathway that is associated with enhanced malignant tumor growth and metastasis. BMPER (BMP endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator) is a direct BMP modulator that is necessary for BMPs to exert their full-range signaling activity. Moreover, BMPER is expressed by endothelial cells and their progenitors, and has pro-angiogenic features in these cells. Here, we describe the expression of BMPER in human specimens of lung, colon and cervix carcinomas and cell lines derived from such carcinomas. In contrast to healthy tissues, BMPER is highly expressed upon malignant deterioration. Functionally, loss of BMPER in the lung tumor cell line A549 impairs proliferation, migration, invasion as well as tumor cell-induced endothelial cell sprout formation. In contrast, stimulation of A549 cells with exogenous BMPER had no further effect. We found that the BMPER effect may be transduced by regulation of the BMP target transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 9 and 2. These facilitators of cell migration are downregulated when BMPER is absent. To prove the relevance of our in vitro results in vivo, we generated Lewis lung carcinoma cells with impaired BMPER expression and implanted them into the lungs of C57BL/6 mice. In this model, the absence of BMPER resulted in severely reduced tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Taken together, these data unequivocally demonstrate that the BMP modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and tumor growth is dependent on the presence of BMPER.

  12. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Persson

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+ among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s.A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+.In total, 89 women (28.3% developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5-53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3-45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001.HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+.

  13. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Olsson, Sven-Erik; Dillner, Joakim; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV) status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s). A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+. In total, 89 women (28.3%) developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR) HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5-53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3-45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001). HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+.

  14. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  15. The effects of 1-year gluten withdrawal on bone mass, bone metabolism and nutritional status in newly-diagnosed adult coeliac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sategna-Guidetti, C; Grosso, S B; Grosso, S; Mengozzi, G; Aimo, G; Zaccaria, T; Di Stefano, M; Isaia, G C

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a 1-year gluten-free diet on bone metabolism and nutritional status in coeliac disease. Bone mineral density, serum indices of bone remodelling, clinical and biochemical nutritional assessment were evaluated in 86 consecutive newly-diagnosed, biopsy proven, coeliac disease patients (untreated). A complete reevaluation, including intestinal biopsy, was repeated within 1 year of dietary treatment (treated). Untreated: according to WHO criteria, 34% of patients had a normal bone mineral density, 40% had osteopenia and 26% osteoporosis. Between males and females there were no statistical differences in bone metabolism or in most of the nutritional indices, while, between fertile and postmenopausal women, bone mineral density and several bone metabolism markers were significantly different. Compared to subjects with a normal bone mineral density, osteopenics had higher bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and Bone-Gla-protein (BGP) values. In patients with a concomitant BAP increase and 25OH vitamin D serum level reduction, bone mineral density and several bone turnover markers were statistically different compared to patients without such a serological pattern. Treated: notwithstanding intestinal biopsy which showed a mucosal recovery in only 57%, gluten-free diet led, even in postmenopausal women, to a significant improvement in bone mineral density, bone metabolism and nutrition, except for folic acid, albumin and pre-albumin serum levels which persisted as abnormal in patients with obdurate mucosal impairment. Coeliac disease patients are at high risk for developing a low bone mineral density and bone turnover impairment. A gluten-free diet can improve this situation even in postmenopausal women and in patients with incomplete mucosal recovery.

  16. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low complements and high titre of anti-Sm antibody as predictors of histopathologically proven silent lupus nephritis without abnormal urinalysis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Jun; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Nawata, Masao; Mizuno, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Mikiko; Sawamukai, Norifumi; Tamura, Masahito; Hirata, Shintaro; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and predictors of silent LN (SLN), a type of LN in SLE without abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment. Of 182 patients who underwent renal biopsy, 48 did not present with abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment at the time of biopsy. The patients with LN (SLN group, n = 36) and those without LN (non-LN group, n = 12) were compared with respect to their baseline characteristics. Bivariate analysis comprised Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test, whereas multivariate analysis employed binomial logistic regression analysis. LN was histopathologically identified in 36 of 48 patients. According to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, 72% of the SLN patients were classified as having class I/II, with a further 17% having class III/IV. Bivariate analyses indicated that platelet count, serum albumin, complement components (C3 and C4), complement haemolytic activity (CH50), anti-Sm antibody titre and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody titre were significantly different between groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that CH50 and C3 titres were significantly lower in the SLN group, whereas anti-Sm antibody titre was significantly higher. The cut-off titre, calculated based on the receiver operating characteristic curve for CH50, was 33 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 83%, respectively. The cut-off titre for anti-Sm antibodies was 9 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 83%, respectively. Low titres of CH50 and C3 and a high titre of anti-Sm antibody were identified as predictors of SLN. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High Insulin Levels in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice Cause Increased Cortical Bone Mass and Impaired Trabecular Micro-Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Fu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and complications, including obesity and osteoporosis. Rodents have been widely used to model human T2DM and investigate its effect on the skeleton. We aimed to investigate skeletal alterations in Yellow Kuo Kondo (KK-Ay diabetic mice displaying high insulin and glucose levels. Bone mineral density (BMD, micro-architecture and bone metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The total femoral areal BMD (aBMD, cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD and thickness were significantly increased in KK-Ay mice, while the trabecular vBMD and mineralized bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness and number were decreased compared to C57BL mice. The expression of both osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC, bone sialoprotein, Type I Collagen, osteonectin, RUNX2 and OSX, and osteoclast-related genes, such as TRAP and TCIRG, were up-regulated in KK-Ay mice. Correlation analyses showed that serum insulin levels were positively associated with aBMD, cortical vBMD and thickness and negatively associated with trabecular vBMD and micro-architecture. In addition, serum insulin levels were positively related to osteoblast-related and osteoclast-related gene expression. Our data suggest that high insulin levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice may increase cortical bone mass and impair trabecular micro-structure by up-regulating osteoblast-and osteoclast-related gene expression.

  19. Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Bone Microarchitecture in Men Relative to Women Assessed by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasee Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The trabecular and cortical compartments of bone each contributes to bone strength. Until recently, assessment of trabecular and cortical microstructure has required a bone biopsy. Now, trabecular and cortical microstructure of peripheral bone sites can be determined noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT. Studies that have used HR-pQCT to evaluate cohorts of both men and women have provided novel insights into the changes in bone microarchitecture that occur with age between the sexes, which may help to explain the lower fracture incidence in older men relative to women. This review will highlight observations from these studies on both the sex- and age-related differences in trabecular and cortical microstructure that may underlie the differences in bone strength, and thereby fracture risk, between men and women.

  20. Clinical trial and in-vitro study comparing the efficacy of treating bony lesions with allografts versus synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Bernstein, Anke; Wolf, Laura

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our study aim was to compare allogeneic cancellous bone (ACB) and synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone substitutes (SBS) in the treatment of skeletal defects in orthopedic surgery. METHODS: 232 patients treated for bony lesions with ACB (n = 116) or SBS (n = 116) within a 10....... Histological examination revealed similar bone structures, whereas cell remnants were apparent only in the allografts. Both materials were biocompatible in-vitro, and seeded with human osteoblasts. The cells remained vital over the 3-week culture period and produced microscopically typical bone matrix. We...

  1. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  2. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q, -7/del(7q, +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q, isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression, of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable, -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis, or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  3. Genome-wide identification of bone metastasis-related microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and metastasis. The aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to play an important role in many cancers. RESULTS: To understand the roles of miRNAs in the bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, we constructed two small RNA libraries from blood of lung adenocarcinoma patients with and without bone metastasis. High-throughput sequencing combined with differential expression analysis identified that 7 microRNAs were down-regulated and 21 microRNAs were up-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis. A total of 797 target genes of the differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Functional annotation analysis indicated that a number of pathways might be involved in bone metastasis, survival of the primary origin and metastatic angiogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These include the MAPK, Wnt, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, as well as pathways involving the matrix metalloproteinase, cytoskeletal protein and angiogenesis factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie lung adenocarcinoma development, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  4. [High bone consolidation rates after humeral head-preserving revision surgery in non-unions of the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, S D; Schnetzke, M; Hudel, I; Studier-Fischer, S; Grützner, P A; Gühring, T

    2014-12-01

    showed no bacterial pathogen after 14 days of incubation. DASH score and Constant score were used to evaluate the functional outcome after revision surgery. Bone healing was determined by standard X-rays and evaluated by a modified radiological score. 89% of the patients could be followed for an average of 28 months and the radiological follow-up was at 9 months. The radiological score showed very good (50%), or good results, and a sufficient bone healing was shown in 25 of 27 patients (93%). The pseudarthrosis revision surgery failed in two cases (n = 1 persisting non-union; n = 1 humeral head necrosis after re-operation with angle plate). DASH scores provided a mean of 40 ± 28.8 with a range from 0-97 points, and the results from the Constant score provided 45 ± 25.4. The analysis with variation of age showed a trend for better results in female patients fracture of the iliac bone occurred that healed with conservative treatment. The pseudarthrosis revision surgery with humeral head preserving re-osteosynthesis with bone transplantation is an effective treatment for non-unions of the proximal humerus and the proximal humeral shaft and the current results showed high bone consolidation rates. As the functional results remained limited after revision an individual treatment decision should be made concerning the most appropriate therapy. While a shoulder prosthesis may be considered in the aged patient, a revision strategy with reosteosynthesis should be considered particularly in younger patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hong; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-03-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a surrogate marker of disease progression; however, its predictive ability in the extreme ranges is unknown. We determined the predictors of survival in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer (BMPCa) and with extremely high PSA levels. Treatment-naïve patients (n = 248) diagnosed with BMPCa between December 2002 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological features at diagnosis, namely age, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and PSA levels, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir and its maintenance period, PSA declining velocity, Gleason grade, clinical T stage, pain score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS), and the number of bone metastases were assessed. The patients were stratified according to PSA ranges of bone lesions (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period (median, 39.9 months; interquartile range, 21.5-65.9 months), there were no differences between the groups in terms of the survival endpoints. High ALP levels, shorter time to PSA nadir, and pain were associated with an increased risk of progression to CRPC, and high ALP levels, ECOG PS ≥ 1, and higher PSA nadir independently predicted CSS. PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values.

  6. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone can be adversely affected by obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects found in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung...

  7. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  8. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  9. [Proliferation of bone marrow cells upon exposure to constant magnetic fields of ultra-high strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzhizhovskiĭ, A D; Galaktionova, G V

    1978-06-01

    A study was made of the 0.5--24 hour effects of the stable magnetic field (SMF), with 9.9--42.4 kOe strength and 0.2--3.5 kOe/cm strength gradient, on the mitotic activity and bone marrow cell number in mice. Short-term treatments were shown to stimulate, and prolonged ones to inhibit mitotic activity, the degree of inhibition correlating with the strength and strenght gradient of SMF. The rate of mitotic index recovery was the smaller the longer the treatment and the higher the strength of SMF. With the most pronounced inhibition of the mitotic activity, the number of bone marrow cells was seen reduced. No increased frequency of aberrant mitoses in bone marrow cells has been noticed following the effect of SMF.

  10. Overweight HIV patients with abdominal fat distribution treated with protease inhibitors are at high risk for abnormalities in glucose metabolism - a reason for glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, S C; Ellinger, S; Vogel, M; Ingiliz, P; Spengler, U; Stehle, P; von Ruecker, A; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2008-05-26

    In HIV patients, disorders in glucose metabolism seem to be side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which may be favoured by obesity, abdominal fat accumulation and familial disposition for diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of our study was to identify patients at high risk for abnormalities in glucose metabolism taking into account HAART, familial disposition for DM and anthropometric parameters. Plasma glucose, insulin, c-peptide and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA) were determined in 44 HIV patients [16 without HAART, 19 with protease inhibitors (PI), 9 without PI (non-PI)] and in 11 healthy subjects. Glucose tolerance was determined by standard procedures. Body mass index (BMI), triceps skin fold thickness and waist circumference were measured and the waist-to-hip-ratio was calculated. Familial disposition for DM was assessed by questionnaire. Impaired fasting glucose was observed in 28% of HAART-treated patients (21% with PI, 7% non-PI), in 13% of HAART-naive but none in healthy controls. 58% of PI, 44% of non-PI, 38% of HAART-naive and none of healthy controls had a HOMA-index > 2.5 which indicates insulin resistance. HAART-treated patients had significantly higher fasting glucose levels (PI: 97 +/- 11 mg/dL, p = 0.048; non-PI: 109 +/- 58 mg/dL, p = 0.009) compared to healthy controls (72 +/- 8 mg/dL). HOMA-Index was higher in PI treated patients (3.74 +/- 3.08) than in HIV negative controls (0.95 +/- 0.28, p = 0.018). The duration of HAART (p = 0.045), overweight and familial disposition for DM (p = 0.017) significantly affected fasting glucose among PI users. Waist circumference affected c-peptide (p = 0.046) concentration in these patients. HIV patients on long-term PI therapy with overweight and familial disposition for DM are at high risk to develop abnormalities of glucose metabolism. Thus, measurements of HOMA-Index, BMI and waist circumference should be routinely done especially in PI medicated patients.

  11. Towards high throughput tissue engineering: development of chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffolds for engineering bone tissue from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Junghyuk; Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Ahmed, Farid; Jun, Martin BG; Willerth, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have shown promise for the repair of damaged organs, including bone. One of the major challenges associated with tissue engineering is how to scale up such processes for high throughput manufacturing of biomaterial scaffolds used to support stem cell culture. Generation of certain types of 3D biomaterial scaffolds, including chitosan-calcium phosphate blends, involves a slow fabrication process followed by a lengthy required freeze drying step. This work investig...

  12. Immature mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of high fat diet on cancellous bone in the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Kung, Ming; Shu, Lei; Hamada, Daisuke; Xing, Lian Ping; Zuscik, Michael J; Awad, Hani A; Mooney, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents, it is imperative to understand the implications of early diet-induced obesity on bone health. We hypothesized that cancellous bone of skeletally immature mice is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of a high fat diet (HFD) than mature mice, and that removing excess dietary fat will reverse these adverse effects. Skeletally immature (5weeks old) and mature (20weeks old) male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a HFD (60% kcal fat) or low fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal fat) for 12weeks, at which point, the trabecular bone structure in the distal femoral metaphysis and third lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The compressive strength of the vertebrae was also measured. In general, the HFD led to deteriorations in cancellous bone structure and compressive biomechanical properties in both age groups. The HFD-fed immature mice had a greater decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) in the femoral metaphysis, compared to mature mice (p=0.017 by 2-way ANOVA). In the vertebrae, however, the HFD led to similar reductions in BVF and compressive strength in the two age groups. When mice on the HFD were switched to a LFD (HFD:LFD) for an additional 12weeks, the femoral metaphyseal BVF in immature mice showed no improvements, whereas the mature mice recovered their femoral metaphyseal BVF to that of age-matched lean controls. The vertebral BVF and compressive strength of HFD:LFD mouse bones, following diet correction, were equivalent to those of LFD:LFD mice in both age groups. These data suggest that femoral cancellous metaphyseal bone is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD before skeletal maturity and is less able to recover after correcting the diet. Negative effects of HFD on vertebrae are less severe and can renormalize with LFD:LFD mice after diet correction, in both skeletally immature and mature animals. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  15. Micro-finite element analysis applied to high-resolution MRI reveals improved bone mechanical competence in the distal femur of female pre-professional dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G; Rajapakse, C S; Diamond, M; Honig, S; Recht, M P; Weiss, D S; Regatte, R R

    2013-04-01

    Micro-finite element analysis applied to high-resolution (0.234-mm length scale) MRI reveals greater whole and cancellous bone stiffness, but not greater cortical bone stiffness, in the distal femur of female dancers compared to controls. Greater whole bone stiffness appears to be mediated by cancellous, rather than cortical bone adaptation. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mechanical competence (stiffness) in the distal femur of female dancers compared to healthy, relatively inactive female controls. This study had institutional review board approval. We recruited nine female modern dancers (25.7±5.8 years, 1.63±0.06 m, 57.1±4.6 kg) and ten relatively inactive, healthy female controls matched for age, height, and weight (32.1±4.8 years, 1.6±0.04 m, 55.8±5.9 kg). We scanned the distal femur using a 7-T MRI scanner and a three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence (TR/TE=31 ms/5.1 ms, 0.234 mm×0.234 mm×1 mm, 80 slices). We applied micro-finite element analysis to 10-mm-thick volumes of interest at the distal femoral diaphysis, metaphysis, and epiphysis to compute stiffness and cross-sectional area of whole, cortical, and cancellous bone, as well as cortical thickness. We applied two-tailed t-tests and ANCOVA to compare groups. Dancers demonstrated greater whole and cancellous bone stiffness and cross-sectional area at all locations (p0.08). At all locations, the percent of intact whole bone stiffness for cortical bone alone was lower in dancers (p0.07), but adjustment for cortical bone cross-sectional area did not (pfemur compared to controls. Elevated whole bone stiffness in dancers may be mediated via cancellous, rather than cortical bone adaptation.

  16. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... premorbid organic insult. Both would likely have increased the probability of an abnormal EEG. The high prevalence of abnormal EEGs, particularly of EEGs supporting a diagnosis of epilepsy may reflect a high prevalence in the study popula- tion, but more likely reflects the careful selection of patients.

  17. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and its interaction with vitamin D receptor genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a high-Na, high-protein (calciuric) diet on Ca and bone metabolism was investigated in postmenopausal women (aged 5067 years) who were stratified by vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype. In a crossover trial, twenty-four women were randomly assigned to a diet high in protein (90 g...... no differences in serum markers or urinary minerals between the basal and calciuric diet in either VDR genotype groups. While the calciuric diet significantly increased urinary NTx (by 25.6%, PVDR group (n 10; carrying one or more (f) Fok I alleles), it had no effect in the f - VDR group (n 14......; not carrying any Fok I alleles). It is concluded that the Na- and protein-induced urinary Ca loss is compensated for by increased bone resorption and that this response may be influenced by VDR genotype....

  18. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  19. Neonatal High Bone Mass With First Mutation Of The NF-κB Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    from in utero increased OB function rather than failed OC action. These findings demonstrate the importance of the Rela/p65 subunit within the NF-κB pathway for human skeletal homeostasis and represent a new genetic cause of HBM. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  20. High bone density in adolescents with obesity is related to fat mass and serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Belli, Dominique C; Puigdefabregas, Julie Wacker Bou; Rizzoli, René; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Beghetti, Maurice; McLin, Valérie A

    2014-06-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased bone mass, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relation between bone mineral density and factors known to influence bone formation in obese and lean adolescents. We recruited 24 obese and 25 lean adolescents in a case-control study. Total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) z scores and body composition were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Physical activity (PA) level was quantified using accelerometer. TB-BMD z score was higher, whereas 25-OH-D and PA levels were lower in obese compared with lean subjects (TB-BMD z score 1.06 ± 0.96 vs 0.26 ± 0.91, P = 0.004; 25-OH-D 9.9 ± 6.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.4 ng mL, P BMD z score was not related to 25-OH-D or PA levels, but was positively correlated with leptin concentration and fat mass (P BMD was higher in adolescents with obesity and associated with higher serum leptin concentrations. Furthermore, adolescents with obesity have lower vitamin D serum concentrations than lean controls, probably owing to its distribution in adipose tissue.

  1. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-03-01

    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  2. Dixon Sequence with Superimposed Model-Based Bone Compartment Provides Highly Accurate PET/MR Attenuation Correction of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesters, Thomas; Friedman, Kent P; Fenchel, Matthias; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Babb, James; Jelescu, Ileana O; Faul, David; Boada, Fernando E; Shepherd, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Simultaneous PET/MR of the brain is a promising technology for characterizing patients with suspected cognitive impairment or epilepsy. Unlike CT, however, MR signal intensities do not correlate directly with PET photon attenuation correction (AC), and inaccurate radiotracer SUV estimation can limit future PET/MR clinical applications. We tested a novel AC method that supplements standard Dixon-based tissue segmentation with a superimposed model-based bone compartment. We directly compared SUV estimation between MR-based AC and reference CT AC in 16 patients undergoing same-day PET/CT and PET/MR with a single (18)F-FDG dose for suspected neurodegeneration. Three Dixon-based MR AC methods were compared with CT: standard Dixon 4-compartment segmentation alone, Dixon with a superimposed model-based bone compartment, and Dixon with a superimposed bone compartment and linear AC optimized specifically for brain tissue. The brain was segmented using a 3-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric MR sequence, and SUV estimations were compared with CT AC for whole-image, whole-brain, and 91 FreeSurfer-based regions of interest. Modifying the linear AC value specifically for brain and superimposing a model-based bone compartment reduced the whole-brain SUV estimation bias of Dixon-based PET/MR AC by 95% compared with reference CT AC (P < 0.05), resulting in a residual -0.3% whole-brain SUVmean bias. Further, brain regional analysis demonstrated only 3 frontal lobe regions with an SUV estimation bias of 5% or greater (P < 0.05). These biases appeared to correlate with high individual variability in frontal bone thickness and pneumatization. Bone compartment and linear AC modifications result in a highly accurate MR AC method in subjects with suspected neurodegeneration. This prototype MR AC solution appears equivalent to other recently proposed solutions and does not require additional MR sequences and scanning time. These data also suggest that exclusively model-based MR AC

  3. Bone Regeneration Potential of Biphasic Nanocalcium Phosphate with High Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium Phosphate Ratios in Rabbit Calvarial Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripatnanont, Prisana; Praserttham, Pongsakorn; Suttapreyasri, Srisurang; Leepong, Narit; Monmaturapoj, Naruporn

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with high hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) ratios on bone formation in rabbit calvarial defects. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and an experimental group. In each animal, bilateral circular defects (10-mm diameter) were created on the calvarium. In the control group (three rabbits per time frame), defects were grafted with autogenous bone chips in one side and left empty in the other side. In the experimental group (five rabbits per time frame), defects were grafted with BCP1 (HA:TCP, 8:2) in one side and BCP2 (HA:TCP, 9:1) in the contralateral side. The animals were sacrificed at 2 and 8 weeks as designated. Bone formation and residual grafting material were assessed by radiographic densitometry, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and histomorphometric analysis. Histologic observation revealed that BCP1, BCP2, and the autogenous bone group preserved good contours of the defect, while the unfilled defect group showed connective tissue healing. Micro-CT analysis at 8 weeks showed the comparable percentages of bone volume fraction (% BV/TV) of BCP1 (20.70% ± 2.76%) and BCP2 (20.72% ± 3.97%) and two times higher than that of 2 weeks (9.90% ± 0.75%, 10.57% ± 0.85%). The autogenous group had a significantly (P TV (34.58% ± 8.85%) than other groups. The percentage of the material volume fraction of BCP1 and BCP2 was not different. The histomorphometry demonstrated a higher increase in newly formed bone from 2 to 8 weeks in all groups, and all were comparable (autogenous: 4.30% ± 0.76%, 12.83% ± 7.74%; unfilled: 2.82% ± 1.19%, 8.14% ± 6.35%; BCP1: 3.01% ± 2.57%, 8.81% ± 3.86%; BCP2: 3.24% ± 1.09%, 10.27% ± 3.98%). BCP with a high ratio of HA presented good osteoconductive properties and space-maintaining capacity and would be beneficial for long-term preservation or when stable graft volume is essential.

  4. Bone and gallium scans in mastocytosis: correlation with count rates, radiography, and microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslen, R.D. (Cross Cancer Inst., Edmonton, Alberta); Jackson, F.I.; Reid, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) was proven in a patient suffering from severe back pain. A bone scan showed diffusely increased bone activity. Count rates were also abnormally elevated over several areas of the skeleton. Radiographs were consistent with mastocytosis in bone.

  5. Hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation for Ph{sup 1}-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Akira; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Mitsui, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science] [and others

    1998-12-01

    In two cases of Philadelphia-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph{sup 1} ALL), we performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (AlloBMT) with preconditioning regimen, including hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) (13.5 Gy, in 9 fractions). Their disease statuses at BMT were hematological relapse in case 1 and molecular relapse in case 2. Bone marrow donors were unrelated in case 1, and HLA was a partially mismatched mother in case 2. Regimen-related toxicity was tolerable in both cases. Hematological recovery was rapid, and engraftment was obtained on day 14 in case 1 and on day 12 in case 2. BCR/ABL message in bone marrow disappeared on day 89 in case 1 and on day 19 in case 2 and throughout their subsequent clinical courses. Although short-term MTX and Cy-A continuous infusion were used for GVHD prophylaxis, grade IV GVHD was observed in case 1 and grade III in case 2. Both cases experienced hemorrhagic cystitis because of adenovirus type 11 infection. Although case 1 died of interstitial pneumonitis on day 442, case 2 has been free of disease through day 231. AlloBMT for Ph{sup 1} ALL with preconditioning regimen including hyperfractionated high-dose TBI is considered to be worth further investigation. (author)

  6. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  7. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  9. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  10. Lithogenic transformation of clay in zones of abnormally high stratal pressure. Litogeneticheskie preobrazovaniya glin v zonakh anomal'no vysokikh plastovykh davlenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zkhus, I.D.; Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    An examination is made of problems associated with the properties of clays as an mantles over petroleum and gas beds with abnormally high stratal pressures (AHSP), with changes in the clays that are characteristic of AHSP zones, with catagenetic transformations of clay minerals, and with their superimposed catagenesis under the influence of fluids in the interstitial coronas. The study of the lithogenetic transformations of clay was shown to be of practical use for forecasting AHSP zones and estimating stratal pressures as well as for the operative development of an optimal system for drilling deep wells. The gradient distribution of AHSP for the layer of clay mantles was demonstrated for the first time as was the coincidence of the maximum values of those gradients with the hydrodynamic threshold. The over-all effect of dispersing rock in the AHSP zones was shown to have a universal significance and importance to forecasting beds with AHSP and the safe drilling of boreholes by means of the timely identification of AHSP zones. Calculations were made for the first time on the effect that the thickness of mantles has on fracture time of the fluids. 150 references, 27 figures, 21 tables.

  11. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand significantly attenuates metabolic abnormalities in high-fat-fed mice reducing adiposity and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zauli, Giorgio; Tikellis, Christos; Candido, Riccardo; Fabris, Bruno; Secchiero, Paola; Cooper, Mark E; Thomas, Merlin C

    2012-11-01

    TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] has recently been shown to ameliorate the natural history of DM (diabetes mellitus). It has not been determined yet whether systemic TRAIL delivery would prevent the metabolic abnormalities due to an HFD [HF (high-fat) diet]. For this purpose, 27 male C57bl6 mice aged 8 weeks were randomly fed on a standard diet, HFD or HFD+TRAIL for 12 weeks. TRAIL was delivered weekly by intraperitoneal injection. Body composition was evaluated; indirect calorimetry studies, GTT (glucose tolerance test) and ITT (insulin tolerance test) were performed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis, were measured. TRAIL treatment reduced significantly the increased adiposity associated with an HFD. Moreover, it reduced significantly hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia during a GTT and it improved significantly the peripheral response to insulin. TRAIL reversed the changes in substrate utilization induced by the HFD and ameliorated skeletal muscle non-esterified fatty acids oxidation rate. This was associated with a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines together with a modulation of adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis. These findings shed light on the possible anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of TRAIL and open new therapeutic possibilities against obesity, systemic inflammation and T2DM (Type 2 DM).

  12. High strength, biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar, E B; Casas-Luna, M; Horynová, M; Tkachenko, S; Fohlerová, Z; Diaz-de-la-Torre, S; Dvorak, K; Celko, L; Kaiser, J

    2018-02-09

    young patients. In this work, α-TCP/Fe composites are studied for the first time in a wide range of compositions, showing not only higher degradation rate in vitro than pure components, but also good cytocompatibility and mechanical properties controllable with the Fe content. Ceramic matrix composites show high specific strength and low elastic modulus, thus better fulfilling the requirements for bone fractures fixation. A significant advance over previous works on the topic is the use of pulsed electric current assisted sintering together with α-TCP, convenient to improve the mechanical performance and degradation rate, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bone scintigraphy in detection of bone invasion by oral carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Kotaro [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan); Wakao, Hiromi; Ikuta, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Everhart, F.R. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Detecting osseous involvement is clinically important in the management of oral carcinoma. Thirty-one patients with osseous involvement due to oral carcinoma who underwent panoramic radiography and bone scintigraphy were evaluated retrospectively. Bone scintigraphy confirmed osseous involvement in all 31 (100%) of these patients. In 27 (87%) of 31 patients with osseous involvement, both the panoramic radiogram and bone scintigram were positive. In the remaining four patients (13%), bone scintigram was positive for mandibular or maxillary invasion, while panoramic radiogram was negative. There were no instances of an abnormal radiogram with a normal bone scintigram. These findings strongly suggest that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than panoramic radiography in detecting osseous involvement of the mandible and maxilla due to oral carcinoma. Furthermore, bone scintigraphy was a critical pre-surgical tool in determining the extent of the osseous involvement. (author).

  14. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  16. Site-specific Quantification of Bone Quality using Highly Nonlinear Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinkyu; Borkowski, Sean; Silvestro, Claudio; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Consequently, the need to effectively, efficiently, and affordably diagnose and identify those at risk is essential; moreover, site-specific assessment of bone quality is necessary, not only in the process of risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications. The present study evaluated a new one-dimensional granular crystal sensor, composed of a tightly packed chain of beads under Hertzian contact interaction, representing the most suitable fundamental component for solitary wave generation and propagation. First, the sensitivity of the novel sensor was tested using densities of rigid polyurethane foam, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy, to severely osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known densities was established, the sensor was used to measure several sites located in the proximal femur of ten human cadaveric specimens. The accuracy of the model was ...

  17. Efficiency of high molecular weight backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 conjugate in promotion of bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-09-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by postpolymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficiency of High Molecular Weight Backbone Degradable HPMA Copolymer – Prostaglandin E1 Conjugate in Promotion of Bone Formation in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C.; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by post-polymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone-targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. PMID:23731780

  19. Rapamycin is highly effective in murine models of immune-mediated bone marrow failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingmin; Lin, Zenghua; Sun, Wanling; Hollinger, Maile K; Desierto, Marie J; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Muranski, Pawel; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S

    2017-10-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia, the prototypical bone marrow failure disease, is characterized by pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. Most aplastic anemia patients respond to immunosuppressive therapy, usually with anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine, but some relapse on cyclosporine withdrawal or require long-term administration of cyclosporine to maintain blood counts. In this study, we tested efficacy of rapamycin as a new or alternative treatment in mouse models of immune-mediated bone marrow failure. Rapamycin ameliorated pancytopenia, improved bone marrow cellularity, and extended animal survival in a manner comparable to the standard dose of cyclosporine. Rapamycin effectively reduced Th1 inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, increased the Th2 cytokine interleukin-10, stimulated expansion of functional regulatory T cells, eliminated effector CD8+ T cells (notably T cells specific to target cells bearing minor histocompatibility antigen H60), and preserved hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Rapamycin, but not cyclosporine, reduced the proportion of memory and effector T cells and maintained a pool of naïve T cells. Cyclosporine increased cytoplasmic nuclear factor of activated T-cells-1 following T-cell receptor stimulation, whereas rapamycin suppressed phosphorylation of two key signaling molecules in the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, S6 kinase and protein kinase B. In summary, rapamycin was an effective therapy in mouse models of immune-mediated bone marrow failure, acting through different mechanisms to cyclosporine. Its specific expansion of regulatory T cells and elimination of clonogenic CD8+ effectors support its potential clinical utility in the treatment of aplastic anemia. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ˜2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media.

  1. Plasma Treated High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE Medpor Implant Immobilized with rhBMP-2 for Improving the Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Su Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the bone generation capacity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor surface through acrylic acid plasma-polymerization. Plasma-polymerization was carried out at a 20 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The plasma-polymerized Medpor surface showed hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. The rhBMP-2 was immobilized with covalently attached carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 immobilization on the Medpor surface were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activity of Medpor with rhBMP-2 immobilized was examined using an alkaline phosphatase assay on MC3T3-E1 cultured Medpor. These results showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor increased the level of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. These results demonstrated that plasma surface modification has the potential to immobilize rhBMP-2 on polymer implant such as Medpor and can be used for the binding of bioactive nanomolecules in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Low hepcidin levels in severely anemic malawian children with high incidence of infectious diseases and bone marrow iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femkje A M Jonker

    Full Text Available A reliable diagnostic biomarker of iron status is required for severely anemic children living in malarious areas because presumptive treatment with iron may increase their infection risk if they are not iron deficient. Current biomarkers are limited because they are altered by host inflammation. In this study hepcidin concentrations were assessed in severely anemic children living in a highly malarious area of Malawi and evaluated against bone marrow iron in order to determine the usefulness of hepcidin as a point of care test.207 severely anemic children were assessed for levels of hepcidin, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, erythropoietin, hematological indices, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, malaria parasites and HIV infection. Deficiency of bone marrow iron stores was graded and erythroblast iron incorporation estimated. Interaction of covariates was assessed by structural-equation-modeling.Hepcidin was a poor predictor of bone marrow iron deficiency (sensitivity 66.7%; specificity 48.5%, and of iron incorporation (sensitivity 54.2%; specificity 61.8%, and therefore would have limitations as a point of care test in this category of children. As upregulation of hepcidin by inflammation and iron status was blunted by erythropoietin in this population, enhanced iron absorption through the low hepcidin values may increase infection risk. Current recommendations to treat all severely anemic children living in malarious areas with iron should therefore be reconsidered.

  3. Relationship between Exercise Style and Bone Mineral Density in Male High School Students : From a viewpoint of Exercise History and Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ping

    2007-01-01

    The bone quality values (OSI) of 119 male high school students were evaluated by acoustic osteo screener. The questionnaire survey on the exercise experience and competence was made from the term of elementary to high school. The relationship between exercise experience and bone mineral density was researched.Result showed that the students who made regular exercise had higher OSI values than that who had not exercise customs. The values of OSI produced higher value within the participants wh...

  4. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Obel, N; Nielsen, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).......The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)....

  5. Low magnitude high frequency vibration promotes adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells via P38 MAPK signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    Full Text Available Low magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV has been mainly reported for its influence on the musculoskeletal system, particularly the bone tissue. In the bone structure, osteogenic activity is the main focus of study with regards to LMHFV. However, adipogenesis, another important mode of differentiation in the bone marrow cavity that might be affected by LMHFV, is much less researched. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of how LMHFV influences adipogenesis still needs to be understood. Here, we tested the effect of LMHFV (0.3g, 40 Hz, amplitude: 50μm, 15min/d, on multipotent stem cells (MSCs, which are the common progenitors of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic cells. It is previously shown that LMHFV promotes osteogenesis of MSCs. In this study, we further revealed its effect on adipo-differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs and studied the underlying signaling pathway. We found that when treated with LMHFV, the cells showed a higher expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin and showed more oil droplets. After vibration, the protein expression of PPARγ increased, and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced. After treating cells with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, both the protein level of PPARγ illustrated by immunofluorescent staining and the oil droplets number, were decreased. Altogether, this indicates that p38 MAPK is activated during adipogenesis of BMSCs, and this is promoted by LMHFV. Our results demonstrating that specific parameters of LMHFV promotes adipogenesis of MSCs and enhances osteogenesis, highlights an unbeneficial side effect of vibration therapy used for preventing obesity and osteoporosis.

  6. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  7. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P......The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  8. An isoflavone cladrin prevents high-fat diet-induced bone loss and inhibits the expression of adipogenic gene regulators in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jyoti; Khedgikar, Vikram; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Dixit, Preeti; Singh, Divya; Maurya, Rakesh; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of isoflavone cladrin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced bone loss and adipogenesis. Thirty-two 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: a standard diet group, a HFD group and HFD group with cladrin (5 and 10 mg/kg per day orally) for 12 weeks. The effect of cladrin on bone micro-architecture, bone marrow cell lineages and hyperlipidaemia were assessed. For assessing anti-adipogenic activity of cladrin, 3T3-L1 cells were used. Cladrin attenuated HFD-induced hyperlipidaemia and bone loss by preserving bone micro-architecture and strength. Effect of cladrin was found at the level of bone marrow progenitor cells. Gene expression profile of cladrin-treated mice bone showed upregulation of osteoblast and downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and increased OPG/RANKL ratio. Cladrin inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through downregulation of transcription factors such as PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α and modulated the expression of major adipokines involved behind obesity stimulation without eliciting cell cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We conclude that cladrin may improve obesity-induced bone loss and hyperlipidaemia in mice fed HFD and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by modifying adipokines and could offer clinical benefits as a supplement to treat obesity-induced disorders. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Autoinflammatory bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Henner; Hedrich, Christian M; Beer, Meinrad; Girschick, Hermann J

    2013-06-01

    Autoinflammatory bone disorders are characterized by chronic non-infectious osteomyelitis and inflammation-induced bone resorption and result from aberrant activation of the innate immune system. Sporadic chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is the most common disease subtype. The clinical picture is highly variable and the exact underlying pathophysiology remains to be determined. Recently, novel insights in the pathophysiology of sterile bone inflammation have been gathered by analyzing patients with rare, monogenic inflammatory diseases. In this overview CNO and Majeed syndrome, cherubism, hypophosphatasia and primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy will be discussed. For the latter four disorders, a genetic cause affecting bone metabolism and leading to chronic bone inflammation has been described. The exact pathophysiology of CNO remains to be determined. Insights from monogenic autoinflammatory bone diseases and the identification of distinct inflammatory pathways may help to understand the pathogenesis of bone inflammation and inflammation-induced bone resorption in more common diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F/sub 1/ mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR..-->..F/sub 1/ were high responders and EO-LR..-->..F/sub 1/ were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. Post-translationally abnormal collagens of prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 null mice offer a pathobiological mechanism for the high myopia linked to human LEPREL1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H; Eyre, David R

    2015-03-27

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2(n/n)) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2(n/n) mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Post-translationally Abnormal Collagens of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase-2 Null Mice Offer a Pathobiological Mechanism for the High Myopia Linked to Human LEPREL1 Mutations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M.; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H.; Eyre, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2n/n) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2n/n mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. PMID:25645914

  15. Cerebral signal intensity abnormalities on T2-weighted MR images in HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy: relationship with clinical parameters and interval changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Husstedt, Ingo W; Niederstadt, Thomas-Ulrich; Evers, Stefan; Heindel, Walter; Kloska, Stephan P

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between immune state and cerebral signal intensity abnormalities (SIAs) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-two subjects underwent a total of 109 magnetic resonance studies. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorder, categorized CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, and plasma viral load were assessed for relationship with the severity and interval change of SIAs for different anatomic locations of the brain. Subjects with multifocal patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 66.0%, whereas subjects with diffuse patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in only 31.4% (P < .001). Subjects without SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 37.0%, whereas subjects with minor and moderate SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 78.3% and 80.0%, respectively (P < .005). The percentage of subjects with CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL was 85.7% when there were progressive periventricular SIA changes and 45.5% when periventricular SIA changes were stable in follow-up (P < .05). The presence and progression of cerebral SIAs on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images reflecting cerebral infection with human immunodeficiency virus are significantly related to impaired immune state as measured by CD4(+) cell count. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time to clinical investigation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Queensland women after a high grade abnormal Pap smear, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter D; Brotherton, Julia Ml; Canfell, Karen; Cunningham, Joan; Gertig, Dorota; Lokuge, Kamalini; Garvey, Gail; Moore, Suzanne P; Diaz, Abbey; O'Connell, Dianne L; Valery, Patricia; Roder, David M; Condon, John R

    2017-02-06

    To investigate time to follow-up (clinical investigation) for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women in Queensland after a high grade abnormality (HGA) being detected by Pap smear. Population-based retrospective cohort analysis of linked data from the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, and the Queensland Cancer Registry. 34 980 women aged 20-68 years (including 1592 Indigenous women) with their first HGA Pap smear result recorded on the PSR (index smear) during 2000-2009 were included and followed to the end of 2010. Time from the index smear to clinical investigation (histology test or cancer diagnosis date), censored at 12 months. The proportion of women who had a clinical investigation within 2 months of a HGA finding was lower for Indigenous (34.1%; 95% CI, 31.8-36.4%) than for non-Indigenous women (46.5%; 95% CI, 46.0-47.0%; unadjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.60-0.71). This difference remained after adjusting for place of residence, area-level disadvantage, and age group (adjusted IRR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.81). However, Indigenous women who had not been followed up within 2 months were subsequently more likely to have a clinical investigation than non-Indigenous women (adjusted IRR for 2-4 month interval, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36); by 6 months, a similar proportion of Indigenous (62.2%; 95% CI, 59.8-64.6%) and non-Indigenous women (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.2-63.3%) had been followed up. Prompt follow-up after a HGA Pap smear finding needs to improve for Indigenous women. Nevertheless, slow follow-up is a smaller contributor to their higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality than their lower participation in cervical screening.

  17. Missense Mutations in LRP5 Associated with High Bone Mass Protect the Mouse Skeleton from Disuse- and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Niziolek

    Full Text Available The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5, a co-receptor in the Wnt signaling pathway, modulates bone mass in humans and in mice. Lrp5 knock-out mice have severely impaired responsiveness to mechanical stimulation whereas Lrp5 gain-of-function knock-in and transgenic mice have enhanced responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Those observations highlight the importance of Lrp5 protein in bone cell mechanotransduction. It is unclear if and how high bone mass-causing (HBM point mutations in Lrp5 alter the bone-wasting effects of mechanical disuse. To address this issue we explored the skeletal effects of mechanical disuse using two models, tail suspension and Botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis, in two different Lrp5 HBM knock-in mouse models. A separate experiment employing estrogen withdrawal-induced bone loss by ovariectomy was also conducted as a control. Both disuse stimuli induced significant bone loss in WT mice, but Lrp5 A214V and G171V were partially or fully protected from the bone loss that normally results from disuse. Trabecular bone parameters among HBM mice were significantly affected by disuse in both models, but these data are consistent with DEXA data showing a failure to continue growing in HBM mice, rather than a loss of pre-existing bone. Ovariectomy in Lrp5 HBM mice resulted in similar protection from catabolism as was observed for the disuse experiments. In conclusion, the Lrp5 HBM alleles offer significant protection from the resorptive effects of disuse and from estrogen withdrawal, and consequently, present a potential mechanism to mimic with pharmaceutical intervention to protect against various bone-wasting stimuli.

  18. CD34+ cells represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells in murine bone marrow.

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    Junjie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs were shown to have angiogenic potential contributing to neovascularization. However, a clear definition of mouse EPCs by cell surface markers still remains elusive. We hypothesized that CD34 could be used for identification and isolation of functional EPCs from mouse bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD34(+ cells, c-Kit(+/Sca-1(+/Lin(- (KSL cells, c-Kit(+/Lin(- (KL cells and Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs using fluorescent activated cell sorting. EPC colony forming capacity and differentiation capacity into endothelial lineage were examined in the cells. Although CD34(+ cells showed the lowest EPC colony forming activity, CD34(+ cells exhibited under endothelial culture conditions a more adherent phenotype compared with the others, demonstrating the highest mRNA expression levels of endothelial markers vWF, VE-cadherin, and Flk-1. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in immediate recruitment of cells to the myocardium following myocardial infarction and systemic cell injection was observed for CD34(+ cells comparing with others, which could be explained by the highest mRNA expression levels of key homing-related molecules Integrin β2 and CXCR4 in CD34(+ cells. Cell retention and incorporation into the vasculature of the ischemic myocardium was also markedly increased in the CD34(+ cell-injected group, giving a possible explanation for significant reduction in fibrosis area, significant increase in neovascularization and the best cardiac functional recovery in this group in comparison with the others. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mouse CD34(+ cells may represent a functional EPC population in bone marrow, which could benefit the investigation of therapeutic EPC biology.

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. THE ROLE OF HIGH - IMPACTS EXERCISES IN IMPROVE BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPENIA OR OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca Ilona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high - impacts exercises program based on weightbearing and strengthening exercises in improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis.Material and Methods – This study included 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia whose diagnoses were made by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA showing T-scores of less than -2.5 and in a range of -1 to -2.5, respectively, aged between 43 and 65 years. Subjects were divided into two groups, the experimental group (N=23 and the control group (N=23.The experimental group followed a multiple therapy based on medication, a diet and exercises program (high - impacts exercises, while the control group was submitted only to diet and medication. Areal bone mineral density (BMD and T-score was measured on the lumbar spine (L1–L4 with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry– DEXA ( Osteocore Medilink at baseline and after 12 months of exercise.Results - After 12 months of high-impact exercise intervention, both groups exhibited significant improvements in T-score (-0,79 vs -0,42 mean variation, and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (0,091g/cm2 vs 0,042g/cm2 ; p<0.001. But, the exercise group demonstrated a significant gain compared with the control group in T- score(30,3% vs 21,83%; and Spine BMD (12,56% vs 6,25%.In terms of changes after the treatment, a significant difference between the two groups was observed (p<0.001. The two groups differ significantly with respect to the differences between the mean (-1,84 vs -2,19; p<0.001 for T score and 0,816 vs 0,748; p<0.001 improvements obtained after the exercise program.Conclusion - This study indicates that high-impact exercise is safe and effective in improving bone mineral density in the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. If done on a regular basis, this type of training may be an efficient, safe, and inexpensive way

  1. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  2. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give surgeons who perform kinematically aligned TKA confidence that the alignment method and surgical technique limit high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between

  3. A Memory of Early Life Physical Activity Is Retained in Bone Marrow of Male Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Dharani M. Sontam; Vickers, Mark H; Firth, Elwyn C; O'Sullivan, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have reported opposing effects of high-fat (HF) diet and mechanical stimulation on lineage commitment of the bone marrow stem cells. Yet, how bone marrow modulates its gene expression in response to the combined effects of mechanical loading and a HF diet has not been addressed. We investigated whether early-life (before onset of sexual maturity at 6 weeks of age) voluntary physical activity can modulate the effects of a HF diet on male Sprague Dawley rats. In the bone marrow, early-l...

  4. Reliability of high- and low-field magnetic resonance imaging systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions in the equine cadaver fetlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Dyson, S J; Murray, R C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the reliability of 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions of the equine fetlock. To test the hypotheses that lesions in cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone of the equine fetlock verified using histopathology can be detected on high- and low-field MR images with a low incidence of false positive or negative results; that low-field images are less reliable than high-field images for detection of cartilage lesions; and that combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences increases detection of cartilage lesions. High- and low-field MRI was performed on 19 limbs from horses identified with fetlock lameness prior to euthanasia. Grading systems were used to score cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone on MR images and histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for images. High-field T2*-weighted gradient echo (T2*W-GRE) and low-field T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2W-FSE) images had high sensitivity but low specificity for detection of cartilage lesions. All pulse sequences had high sensitivity and low-moderate specificity for detection of subchondral bone lesions and moderate sensitivity and moderate-high specificity for detection of trabecular bone lesions (histopathology as gold standard). For detection of lesions of trabecular bone low-field T2*W-GRE images had higher sensitivity and specificity than T2W-FSE images. There is high likelihood of false positive results using high- or low-field MRI for detection of cartilage lesions and moderate-high likelihood of false positive results for detection of subchondral bone lesions compared with histopathology. Combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences did not increase detection of cartilage lesions. MRI interpretation of trabecular bone was more reliable than cartilage or subchondral bone in both MR systems. Independent interpretation of a variety of pulse sequences may maximise detection of

  5. EFFECT ON LIFESPAN OF HIGH YIELD NONMYELOABLATING TRANSPLANTATION OF BONE MARROW FROM YOUNG TO OLD MICE

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    Marina eKovina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue renewal is a well-known phenomenon by which old and dying-off cells of various tissues of the body are replaced by progeny of local or circulating stem cells (SC. An interesting question is whether donor stem cells are capable to prolong the lifespan of an ageing organism by tissue renewal.. In this work we investigated the possible use of bone marrow SC for lifespan extension. To this purpose, chimeric C57BL/6 mice were created by transplanting bone marrow from young 1.5-month donors to 21.5-month-old recipients. Transplantation was carried out by means of a recently developed method which allowed to transplant without myeloablation up to 1.5×108 cells, that is, about 25 % of the total BM cells of the mouse. As a result, the mean survival time, counting from the age of 21.5 months, the start of the experiment, was +3.6 and +5.0 (± 0.1 months for the control and experimental groups, respectively, corresponding to a 39% ± 4% increase in the experimental group over the control. In earlier studies on BM transplantation a considerably smaller quantity of donor cells (5×106 was used, about 1 % of the total own BM cells. The recipients before transplantation were exposed to a lethal (for control animals X-ray dose which eliminated the possibility of studying the lifespan extension by this method.

  6. Application of the Minkowski functionals in 3D to high-resolution MR images of trabecular bone: prediction of the biomechanical strength by nonlinear topological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Newitt, David; Majumdar, Sharmila; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2004-05-01

    Multi-dimensional convex objects can be characterized with respect to shape, structure, and the connectivity of their components using a set of morphological descriptors known as the Minkowski functionals. In a 3D Euclidian space, these correspond to volume, surface area, mean integral curvature, and the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. We introduce the Minkowski functionals to medical image processing for the morphological analysis of trabecular bone tissue. In the context of osteoporosis-a metabolic disorder leading to a weakening of bone due to deterioration of micro-architecture-the structure of bone increasingly gains attention in the quantification of bone quality. The trabecular architecture of healthy cancellous bone consists of a complex 3D system of inter-connected mineralised elements whereas in osteoporosis the micro-structure is dominated by gaps and disconnections. At present, the standard parameter for diagnosis and assessment of fracture risk in osteoporosis is the bone mineral density (BMD) - a bulk measure of mineralisation irrespective of structural texture characteristics. With the development of modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) with spatial resolutions allowing to depict individual trabeculae bone micro-architecture has successfully been analysed using linear, 2- dimensional structural measures adopted from standard histo-morphometry. The preliminary results of our study demonstrate that due to the complex - i.e. the non-linear - network of trabecular bone structures non-linear measures in 3D are superior to linear ones in predicting mechanical properties of trabecular bone from structural information extracted from high resolution MR image data.

  7. Utility of combined high-resolution bone SPECT and MRI for the identification of rheumatoid arthritis patients with high-risk for erosive progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian, E-mail: christian.buchbender@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Sewerin, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.sewerin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Mattes-György, Katalin, E-mail: katalin.mattes@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk, E-mail: falk.miese@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg, E-mail: hans-joerg.wittsack@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Specker, Christof, E-mail: c.specker@kliniken-essen-sued.de [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Kliniken Essen-Sud, Propsteistrasse 2, D-45239 Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Müller, Hans-Wilhelm, E-mail: HansW.Mueller@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schneider@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Scherer, Axel, E-mail: scherer@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ostendorf, Benedikt, E-mail: ostendorf@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Rheumatology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the utility of sequentially acquired, post hoc fused, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (MPH-SPECT) with technetium-99m-labeled disphosphonates (Tc99m-DPD) for the identification of finger joints with later erosive progression in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients. Methods: Ten consecutive ERA patients prospectively underwent MPH-SPECT and MRI of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints prior to and after 6 months methotrexate therapy. Tc99m-DPD uptake was measured at proximal and distal MCP sites using regional analysis. The course of joint pathologies was scored according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Score (RAMRIS) criteria. Results: The frequency of increased Tc99m-DPD uptake, synovitis and bone marrow edemadecreased under MTX therapy; but the number of bone erosions increased. Joints with progressive and new erosions on follow-up had a higher baseline Tc99m-DPD uptake (2.64 ± 1.23 vs. 1.43 ± 0.91) (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Joints with erosive progression are characterized by an early increased Tc99m-DPD uptake, even in absence of MRI bone pathologies. Tc99m-DPD MPH-SPECT might thus be of additional value to morphological MRI for the identification of RA patients with a high risk for erosive progression.

  8. Temporal Bone CT: Improved Image Quality and Potential for Decreased Radiation Dose Using an Ultra-High-Resolution Scan Mode with an Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, S; Diehn, F E; Lane, J I; Koeller, K K; Witte, R J; Carter, R E; McCollough, C H

    2015-09-01

    Radiation dose in temporal bone CT imaging can be high due to the requirement of high spatial resolution. In this study, we assessed whether CT imaging of the temporal bone by using an ultra-high-resolution scan mode combined with iterative reconstruction provides higher spatial resolution and lower image noise than a z-axis ultra-high-resolution mode. Patients with baseline temporal bone CT scans acquired by using a z-axis ultra-high-resolution protocol and a follow-up scan by using the ultra-high-resolution-iterative reconstruction technique were identified. Images of left and right temporal bones were reconstructed in the axial, coronal, and Poschl planes. Three neuroradiologists assessed the spatial resolution of the following structures: round and oval windows, incudomallear and incudostapedial joints, basal turn spiral lamina, and scutum. The paired z-axis ultra-high-resolution and ultra-high-resolution-iterative reconstruction images were displayed side by side in random order, with readers blinded to the imaging protocol. Image noise was compared in ROIs over the posterior fossa. We identified 8 patients, yielding 16 sets of temporal bone images (left and right). Three sets were excluded because the patient underwent surgery between the 2 examinations. Spatial resolution was comparable (Poschl) or slightly better (axial and coronal planes) with ultra-high-resolution-iterative reconstruction than with z-axis ultra-high-resolution. A paired t test indicated that noise was significantly lower with ultra-high-resolution-iterative reconstruction than with z-axis ultra-high-resolution (P iterative reconstruction scan mode has similar or slightly better resolution relative to the z-axis ultra-high-resolution mode for CT of the temporal bone but significantly (P < .01) lower image noise, which may enable the dose to be reduced by approximately 50%. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. High prevalence of spine–femur bone mineral density discordance and comparison of vertebral fracture risk assessment using femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hannah; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Cha, Bong Soo; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of spine–femur discordance, and to compare the effectiveness of femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) for estimation of the risk of vertebral fractures. Women who were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry between January 2001 and December 2005 were enrolled in this study. Vertebral fracture risk was calculated using initial FN and LS BMD. The follow-up vertebral X-rays from all subjects were reviewed, and the calculated estimated risk using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) was compared with the actual prevalence of vertebral fractures during the follow-up period. Among a total of 443 women with a mean age of 58.5 years, 130 women (29.3 %) demonstrated femur–spine discordance (i.e., a difference between FN and LS BMD of [1 SD). Most subjects having discordance showed lower LS BMD (73.1 %) compared to FN BMD. During the mean 7-year follow-up period, 12 (2.7 %) vertebral fractures occurred. In cases with high estimated fracture risk ([20 % for estimated fracture risk), using LSBMD significantly reflected the actual vertebral fracture in total subjects [odds ratio (OR) 19.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.21–88.46], in subjects with spine–femur discordance (OR 16.00, 95 % CI 1.91–134.16), and in subjects with spine–fe