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Sample records for abnormal white matter

  1. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  2. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

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    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  4. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  5. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  6. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p disease burden (p Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  7. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Robert Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington’s disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington’s disease processes. MethodsStructural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington’s disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject’s Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. ResultsThere was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001 in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington’s disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001. Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number and disease burden (p < 0.001.ConclusionsThis study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington’s disease. Since the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  8. Abnormal white matter integrity in young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Maya; Ben-Sira, Liat; Levy, Yonata; Zachor, Ditza A; Ben Itzhak, Esti; Artzi, Moran; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Eksteine, Perla M; Hendler, Talma; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated white matter integrity in young children with autism using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-two children with autism, mean age 3:2 years, and 32 controls, mean age 3:4 years, participated in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed white matter abnormalities in several distinct clusters within the genu and body of the corpus callosum (CC), left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and right and left cingulum (Cg). TBSS-VOIs analysis was performed in the clusters where differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) were detected to investigate the relationship between changes in FA and diffusivity indices. In all VOIs, increase in FA was caused by a decrease in radial diffusivity (Dr), while no changes in axial diffusivity (Da) or mean diffusivity (MD) were observed. Tractography analysis was applied to further study the CC, SLF, and Cg. Witelson parcellation scheme was used for the CC. Significant increase in FA was seen in children with autism in the mid-body of the CC as well as in the left Cg. It is suggested that such abnormal white matter integrity in young children with autism may adversely affect connectivity between different brain regions and may be linked to some of the behavioral impairments apparent in autism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

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    Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  10. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  11. Microstructural abnormalities in white and gray matter in obese adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes

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    Arie Nouwen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion/interpretation: Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities.

  12. Neonatal white matter abnormalities an important predictor of neurocognitive outcome for very preterm children.

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    Lianne J Woodward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation infants born from 1998-2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. RESULTS: At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white

  13. White matter abnormalities and Virchow Robin spaces in patients with psychotic disorders

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    Osman Ozdemir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to present white matter abnormalities and Virchow Robin spaces in patients with psychotic disorders and to discuss possible underlying mechanisms. The patient sample comprised 24 patients with psychotic disorders who had white matter abnormalities on MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI appeared periventricular white matter changes in twelve patients (%50,0, frontal lesions in six patients (%25,0, parietal lesions in six patients (%25,0, temporal lesions in one patients (%4,2, infratentorial lesions in two patients (%8,3, and Virchow Robin spaces in eight patients (%33,3 This study suggested that there is a relationship between white matter abnormalities and psychotic disorders. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(2.000: 21-27

  14. White matter abnormalities in major depression: a tract-based spatial statistics and rumination study.

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    Nianming Zuo

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD is usually accompanied by altered white matter in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobe and the limbic system. As a behavioral abnormity of MDD, rumination has been believed to be a substantial indicator of the mental state of the depressive state. So far, however, no report that we are aware of has evaluated the relationship between white matter alterations and the ruminative state. In this study, we first explored the altered white matter using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS method based on diffusion tensor imaging of 19 healthy and 16 depressive subjects. We then investigated correlations between the altered white matter microstructure in the identified altered regions and the severity of ruminations measured by the ruminative response scale. Our results demonstrated altered white matter microstructure in circuits connecting the prefrontal lobe, the parietal lobe and the limbic system (p<0.005, uncorrected, findings which support previous research. More importantly, the result also indicated that a greater alteration in the white matter is associated with a more ruminative state (p<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. The detected abnormalities in the white matter should be interpreted cautiously because of the small sample size in this study. This finding supports the psychometric significance of white matter deficits in MDD.

  15. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

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    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  16. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

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    Jasmeet P. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI. The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1 a region-specific analysis and 2 a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of

  17. White matter abnormalities in gene-positive myoclonus-dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Johan N.; Beukers, Richard J.; van der Salm, S. M. A.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2012-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia is an autosomal dominantly inherited movement disorder clinically characterized by myoclonic jerks and dystonic movements of the upper body. Functional imaging and structural gray matter imaging studies in M-D suggest defective sensorimotor integration and an association between

  18. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

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    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  19. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  20. Clinical prediction of fall risk and white matter abnormalities: a diffusion tensor imaging study

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    The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as deter...

  1. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radua, J.; Grau, M.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Thiebaut de Schotten, M.; Stein, D.J.; Canales-Rodriguez, E.J.; Catani, M.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or

  2. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

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    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  3. Anatomical abnormalities in gray and white matter of the cortical surface in persons with schizophrenia.

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    Tiziano Colibazzi

    Full Text Available Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM and white matter (WM disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia.We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness.We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities.Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness.

  4. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  5. Cerebral white matter changes are associated with abnormalities on neurological examination in non-disabled elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2013-01-01

    age 74.1 ± 5.0, M/F: 288/351). Severe WMC at baseline were associated with gait and stance abnormalities, upper motor signs, and fingertap slowing. This effect was independent of age, sex, lacunar and non-lacunar infarcts. The occurrence of stance abnormalities, upper motor signs, primitive reflexes......Cerebral white matter changes (WMC) are associated with motor, cognitive, mood, urinary disturbances, and disability, but little is known about the prevalence of neurological signs in patients with these brain lesions. We assessed the presence and occurrence of neurological abnormalities over a 3...... and fingertap slowing during the 3-year follow-up period was associated with both baseline WMC load and their progression. The occurrence of the same abnormalities plus extrapyramidal and primitive reflexes was associated with incident lacunar infarcts. In our cohort of non-disabled elders, severe WMC were...

  6. White Matter Abnormality Correlates with Developmental and Seizure Outcomes in West Syndrome of Unknown Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, J; Ogawa, C; Fukasawa, T; Yamamoto, H; Ishihara, N; Sakaguchi, Y; Ito, Y; Takeuchi, T; Azuma, Y; Ando, N; Kubota, T; Tsuji, T; Kawai, H; Naganawa, S; Kidokoro, H

    2016-04-01

    West syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by epileptic spasms, a specific pattern on electroencephalography of hypsarrhythmia, and developmental regression. Our aim was to assess white matter abnormalities in West syndrome of unknown etiology. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging reveals white matter abnormalities, especially in patients with poor seizure and developmental outcomes. We enrolled 23 patients with new-onset West syndrome of unknown etiology. DTI was performed at 12 and 24 months of age. Fractional anisotropy images were compared with those of controls by using tract-based spatial statistics. We compared axial, radial, and mean diffusivity between patients and controls in the fractional anisotropy skeleton. We determined correlations of these parameters with developmental quotient, electroencephalography, and seizure outcomes. We also compared DTI with hypometabolism on fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. At 12 months of age, patients showed widespread fractional anisotropy reductions and higher radial diffusivity in the fractional anisotropy skeleton with a significant difference on tract-based spatial statistics. The developmental quotient at 12 months of age correlated positively with fractional anisotropy and negatively with radial and mean diffusivity. Patients with seizure and abnormal findings on electroencephalography after initial treatments had lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity. At 24 months, although tract-based spatial statistics did not show significant differences between patients and controls, tract-based spatial statistics in the 10 patients with a developmental quotient of <70 had significant fractional anisotropy reduction. In patients with unilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism on PET, tract-based spatial statistics showed greater fractional anisotropy reduction in the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the side of PET hypometabolism. Diffuse abnormal findings on DTI at 12

  7. Magnetic resonance and cranial ultrasound characteristics of periventricular white matter abnormalities in newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Anne-Marie; Cornette, Luc; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Tanner, Steven F.; Arthur, Rosemary J.; Martinez, Delia; Levene, Malcolm I.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the range of abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (PVWM) in a cohort of newborns using magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging and to compare the focal MR abnormalities with the cranial ultrasound (CUS) findings. METHODS: Retrospective study of MR brain and CUS findings of infants born in the 18-month period 1998-1999. PVWM abnormalities were identified by MR and focal lesions were characterized by size, number and distribution using a grading scale. Correspondence with CUS findings was assessed. RESULTS: 175 MR examinations corresponding to n = 105 preterm infants, (median GA 28, range 23-36 weeks) and n = 25 term infants (median GA 39, range 37-42 weeks) were analysed for PVWM abnormalities. In the preterm group, MR demonstrated a normal PVWM in n = 76, focal areas of altered signal intensity (SI) in PVWM in n = 26 and venous infarction inn 3. In the term group, MR demonstrated a normal PVWM in n = 15, focal areas of altered SI in PVWM in n = 4, oedematous PVWM in n = 2 and a middle cerebral artery infarction in n = 4. All infants with normal MR had normal CUS findings. A focal PVWM SI abnormality detectable on MR corresponded with an abnormality on CUS in only n = 10/30. CONCLUSIONS: MR appears considerably more sensitive than CUS in demonstrating the existence and extent of focal PVWM lesions in newborn infants. Satisfactory correspondence between the two imaging investigations is obtained only for cystic PVWM lesions. Childs, A.-M. et al. (2001)

  8. Abnormalities of white matter microstructure in unmedicated obsessive-compulsive disorder and changes after medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD using multi-parameter maps of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, it was still unknown to what degree these abnormalities might be affected by pharmacological treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the abnormalities of white matter microstructure including myelin integrity exist in OCD and whether they are affected by medication. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parameter maps of DTI, including fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD, were acquired from 27 unmedicated OCD patients (including 13 drug-naïve individuals and 23 healthy controls. Voxel-based analysis was then performed to detect regions with significant group difference. We compared the DTI-derived parameters of 15 patients before and after 12-week Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI therapies. Significant differences of DTI-derived parameters were observed between OCD and healthy groups in multiple structures, mainly within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical loop. An increased RD in combination with no change in AD among OCD patients was found in the left medial superior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal lobe, occipital lobe, striatum, insula and right midbrain. There was no statistical difference in DTI-derived parameters between drug-naive and previously medicated OCD patients. After being medicated, OCD patients showed a reduction in RD of the left striatum and right midbrain, and in MD of the right midbrain. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that abnormalities of white matter microstructure, particularly in terms of myelin integrity, are primarily located within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of individuals with OCD. Some abnormalities may be partly reversed by SSRI treatment.

  9. Disrupted Gamma Synchrony after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with White Matter Abnormality

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    Chao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been firmly associated with disrupted white matter integrity due to induced white matter damage and degeneration. However, comparatively less is known about the changes of the intrinsic functional connectivity mediated via neural synchronization in the brain after mTBI. Moreover, despite the presumed link between structural and functional connectivity, no existing studies in mTBI have demonstrated clear association between the structural abnormality of white matter axons and the disruption of neural synchronization. To investigate these questions, we recorded resting state EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI from a cohort of military service members. A newly developed synchronization measure, the weighted phase lag index was applied on the EEG data for estimating neural synchronization. Fractional anisotropy was computed from the DTI data for estimating white matter integrity. Fifteen service members with a history of mTBI within the past 3 years were compared to 22 demographically similar controls who reported no history of head injury. We observed that synchronization at low-gamma frequency band (25–40 Hz across scalp regions was significantly decreased in mTBI cases compared with controls. The synchronization in theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–13 Hz, and beta (15–23 Hz frequency bands were not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, we found that across mTBI cases, the disrupted synchronization at low-gamma frequency was significantly correlated with the white matter integrity of the inferior cerebellar peduncle, which was also significantly reduced in the mTBI group. These findings demonstrate an initial correlation between the impairment of white matter integrity and alterations in EEG synchronization in the brain after mTBI. The results also suggest that disruption of intrinsic neural synchronization at low-gamma frequency may be a characteristic functional pathology

  10. White matter abnormalities in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Johanna; Lyall, Amanda E; Kanayama, Gen; Makris, Nikos; Hudson, James I; Kubicki, Marek; Pope, Harrison G; Kaufman, Marc J

    2017-02-28

    Recent studies of long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users reported amygdala structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. We assessed white matter microstructure in the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major associative bundle of the amygdala network. Diffusion weighted images acquired from 9 male long-term AAS users and 8 matched controls aged 36-51 years old were processed using a standardized pipeline (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). Group differences were examined using linear regression with adjustment for age and current testosterone level. Compared to nonusers, AAS users exhibited significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in the IFOF. Users showed markedly greater FA than nonusers on the left IFOF but only a modest, nonsignificant difference on the right IFOF. Moreover, FA was positively associated with lifetime cumulative AAS dose. Our results suggest that long-term AAS use alters IFOF white matter organization and integrity, which in turn might affect amygdala-related processes such as reward system function. Accordingly, further studies are needed to replicate findings in larger subject groups to determine the functional significance of the FA abnormality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soccer heading is associated with white matter microstructural and cognitive abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Michael L; Kim, Namhee; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Stewart, Walter F; Branch, Craig A; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association of soccer heading with subclinical evidence of traumatic brain injury. With institutional review board approval and compliance with HIPAA guidelines, 37 amateur soccer players (mean age, 30.9 years; 78% [29] men, 22% [eight] women) gave written informed consent and completed a questionnaire to quantify heading in the prior 12 months and lifetime concussions. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T was performed (32 directions; b value, 800 sec/mm(2); 2 × 2 × 2-mm voxels). Cognitive function was measured by using a computerized battery of tests. Voxelwise linear regression (heading vs fractional anisotropy [FA]) was applied to identify significant regional associations. FA at each location and cognition were tested for a nonlinear relationship to heading by using an inverse logit model that incorporated demographic covariates and history of concussion. Participants had headed 32-5400 times (median, 432 times) over the previous year. Heading was associated with lower FA at three locations in temporo-occipital white matter with a threshold that varied according to location (885-1550 headings per year) (P < .00001). Lower levels of FA were also associated with poorer memory scores (P < .00001), with a threshold of 1800 headings per year. Lifetime concussion history and demographic features were not significantly associated with either FA or cognitive performance. Heading is associated with abnormal white matter microstructure and with poorer neurocognitive performance. This relationship is not explained by a history of concussion.

  12. White matter abnormalities and their impact on attentional performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Dielentheis, Thomas F; El Masri, Dschamil; Dellani, Paulo R; Stoeter, Peter; Vucurevic, Goran; Winterer, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Inattention is the most important behavioral feature of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuroimaging studies in ADHD have demonstrated abnormalities primarily in the frontostriatal circuitry and were mostly conducted in children. We investigated white matter (WM) integrity in adult ADHD patients and the correlation of WM microstructure and neuropsychological parameters in 37 (21 men) never-medicated adult ADHD patients and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical interviews, rating scales, and neuropsychological tests of attentional performance. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired, and 12 WM regions-of-interest (ROIs) within the attentional network were chosen. Group differences of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated for each ROI, and patients' DTI measures were then correlated with measures of attentional performance. FA values in ADHD patients were significantly reduced in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), while MD values were significantly increased in ADHD patients in the frontal portion of the left frontooccipital fasciculus (IFO). In ADHD patients, MD values were negatively correlated with attentional performance in the left ILF. Our findings provide further support for disturbed frontostriatal structural connectivity and also point to an involvement of the left temporal white matter with an impact on attentional performance.

  13. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  14. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  15. White matter microstructural abnormalities in the frontal lobe of adults with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Deeley, Quinton; Sarkar, Sagari; Daly, Eileen; Latham, Richard; Craig, Michael; Raczek, Malgorzata; Fahy, Tom; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J; Murphy, Declan G M

    2012-02-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about their underlying neurobiology and in particular, abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure. A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) study of adult psychopaths employing tractography revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF) (Craig et al., 2009), indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity. However, it is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to this tract or are or more widespread, including other tracts which are involved in connectivity with the frontal lobe. We performed whole brain voxel-based analyses on WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps acquired with DT-MRI to compare 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects we related differences in FA and MD to measures of psychopathy. Significant WM FA reduction and MD increases were found respectively in ASPD subjects relative to controls. FA was bilaterally reduced in the genu of corpus callosum while in the right frontal lobe FA reduction was found in the UF, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), anterior corona radiata and anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. These differences negatively correlated with measures of psychopathy. Also in the right frontal lobe, increased MD was found in the IFOF and UF, and the corpus callosum and anterior corona radiata. There was a significant positive correlation between MD and psychopathy scores. The present study confirms a previous report of reduced FA in the UF. Additionally, we report for the first time, FA deficits in tracts involved in interhemispheric as well as frontal lobe connectivity in conjunction with MD increases in the frontal lobe. Hence, we provide evidence of significant WM microstructural abnormalities in frontal brain regions in ASPD and psychopathy

  16. White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Zhang, Y; Qin, W; Lu, S; Ni, C; Zhang, Q

    2017-03-01

    Increasing DTI studies have demonstrated that white matter microstructural abnormalities play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus-related cognitive impairment. In this study, the diffusional kurtosis imaging method was used to investigate WM microstructural alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to detect associations between diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics and clinical/cognitive measurements. Diffusional kurtosis imaging and cognitive assessments were performed on 58 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 58 controls. Voxel-based intergroup comparisons of diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics were conducted, and ROI-based intergroup comparisons were further performed. Correlations between the diffusional kurtosis imaging metrics and cognitive/clinical measurements were assessed after controlling for age, sex, and education in both patients and controls. Altered diffusion metrics were observed in the corpus callosum, the bilateral frontal WM, the right superior temporal WM, the left external capsule, and the pons in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with controls. The splenium of the corpus callosum and the pons had abnormal kurtosis metrics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, altered diffusion metrics in the right prefrontal WM were significantly correlated with disease duration and attention task performance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With both conventional diffusion and additional kurtosis metrics, diffusional kurtosis imaging can provide additional information on WM microstructural abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results indicate that WM microstructural abnormalities occur before cognitive decline and may be used as neuroimaging markers for predicting the early cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Brain White Matter Abnormalities in Female Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A MAPP Network Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Huang, Lejian; Martucci, Katherine; Yang, Claire C; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Mayer, Emeran A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Apkarian, A Vania

    2015-07-01

    Several chronic pain conditions may be distinguished by condition specific brain anatomical and functional abnormalities on imaging, which are suggestive of underlying disease processes. We present what is to our knowledge the first characterization of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome associated white matter (axonal) abnormalities based on multicenter neuroimaging from the MAPP Research Network. We assessed 34 women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and 32 healthy controls using questionnaires on pain, mood and daily function. White matter microstructure was evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging to model directional water flow along axons or fractional anisotropy. Regions correlating with clinical parameters were further examined for gender and syndrome dependence. Women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome showed numerous white matter abnormalities that correlated with pain severity, urinary symptoms and impaired quality of life. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome was characterized by decreased fractional anisotropy in aspects of the right anterior thalamic radiation, the left forceps major and the right longitudinal fasciculus. Increased fractional anisotropy was detected in the right superior and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi. To our knowledge we report the first characterization of brain white matter abnormalities in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Regional decreases and increases in white matter integrity across multiple axonal tracts were associated with symptom severity. Given that white matter abnormalities closely correlated with hallmark symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, including bladder pain and urinary symptoms, brain anatomical alterations suggest that there are neuropathological contributions to chronic urological pelvic pain. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-05-23

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia.

  19. Contribution of Gray and White Matter Abnormalities to Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS commonly exhibit cognitive impairments (CI. However, the neural mechanisms underlying CI remain unclear. The current study applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and voxel-based morphometric (VBM magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to evaluate differences in white matter (WM integrity and gray matter (GM volume between MS patients with CI and MS patients with cognitive preservation (CP. Neuropsychological assessment and MRI were obtained from 39 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs. Patients were classified as CI or CP according to cognitive ability, and demographic characteristics and MRI images were compared. Compared with HCs, MS patients exhibited widespread damage in WM integrity, and GM loss in several regions. Compared with CP patients, CI patients exhibited more extensive WM impairments, particularly in the corpus callosum, cerebellar peduncle, corona radiata, optic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior limb of the internal capsule, and cingulate, as well as decreased GM volume in the bilateral caudate, left insula and right temporal lobe. MS patients with CI exhibited more significant structural abnormalities than those with CP. Widespread impairments of WM integrity and selective GM atrophy both appear to be associated with impaired cognition in RRMS.

  20. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  1. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University

  2. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  3. Exploratory analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence of abnormal white matter structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Doering, Thomas; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer

    2016-06-01

    Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD.

  4. Association of microstructural white matter abnormalities with cognitive dysfunction in geriatric patients with major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, G.S.; Karakaya, T.; Fusser, F.; Kordulla, M.; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Christl, J.; Magerkurth, J.; Oertel-Knochel, V.; Knochel, C.; Prvulovic, D.; Jurcoane, A.; Laks, J.; Engelhardt, E.; Hampel, H.; Pantel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) is one of the most common causes of disability in people over 60years of age. Previous studies have linked affective and cognitive symptoms of MDD to white matter (WM) disruption in limbic-cortical circuits. However, the relationship between clinical cognitive

  5. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  6. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-02-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved.

  7. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA, as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD and radial diffusivity (RD, and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved.

  8. Abnormal white matter integrity in the corpus callosum among smokers: tract-based spatial statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference in white matter between smokers and nonsmokers. In addition, we examined relationships between white matter integrity and nicotine dependence parameters in smoking subjects. Nineteen male smokers were enrolled in this study. Eighteen age-matched non-smokers with no current or past psychiatric history were included as controls. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were performed, and the analysis was conducted using a tract-based special statistics approach. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers exhibited a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA throughout the whole corpus callosum. There were no significant differences in radial diffusivity or axial diffusivity between the two groups. There was a significant negative correlation between FA in the whole corpus callosum and the amount of tobacco use (cigarettes/day; R = - 0.580, p = 0.023. These results suggest that the corpus callosum may be one of the key areas influenced by chronic smoking.

  9. Abnormal white matter microstructure among early adulthood smokers: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangkun; Zuo, Long; Jiang, Tao; Peng, Peng; Chu, Shuilian; Xiao, Dan

    2017-12-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor of central nervous system diseases. However, the white matter (WM) integrity of early adulthood chronic smokers has not been attached enough importance to as it deserves, and the relationship between the chronic smoking effect and the WM is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whole - brain WM microstructure of early adulthood smokers and explore the structural correlates of behaviorally relevant features of the disorder. Methods We compared multiple DTI-derived indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), between early adulthood smokers (n = 19) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 23) using a whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics approach. We also explored the correlations of the mean DTI index values with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results The smokers showed increased FA in left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), left anterior corona radiate, left superior corona radiate, left posterior corona radiate, left external capsule (EC), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and sagittal stratum (SS), and decreased RD in left SLF. There were significant negative correlations among the average FA in the left external capsule and pack-years in smokers. In addition, significant positive correlation was found between RD values in the left SLF and pack-years. Discussion These findings indicate that smokers show microstructural changes in several white-matter regions. The correlation between the cumulative effect and microstructural WM alternations suggests that WM properties may become the new biomarkers in practice.

  10. White matter abnormalities at a regional and voxel level in focal and generalized epilepsy : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slinger, Geertruida; Sinke, Michel R T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413981355; Braun, Kees P J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207237239; Otte, Willem M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/168455706

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since the introduction of diffusion tensor imaging, white matter abnormalities in epilepsy have been studied extensively. However, the affected areas reported, the extent of abnormalities and the association with relevant clinical parameters are highly variable. We aimed to obtain a more

  11. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities After Cranial Radiation in Children and Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: brian.nieman@utoronto.ca [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Guzman, A. Elizabeth de [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gazdzinski, Lisa M. [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Department of Neurosciences & Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chakravarty, M. Mallar [Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Departments of Psychiatry and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pipitone, Jon [Kimel Family Translational Imaging Genetics Research Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Strother, Douglas [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Departments of Oncology and Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fryer, Chris [Division of Oncology/Hematology/BMT British Columbia Children' s Hospital and British Columbia Women' s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Pediatric patients treated with cranial radiation are at high risk of developing lasting cognitive impairments. We sought to identify anatomical changes in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in radiation-treated patients and in mice, in which the effect of radiation can be isolated from other factors, the time course of anatomical change can be established, and the effect of treatment age can be more fully characterized. Anatomical results were compared between species. Methods and Materials: Patients were imaged with T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after radiation treatment. Nineteen radiation-treated patients were divided into groups of 7 years of age and younger (7−) and 8 years and older (8+) and were compared to 41 controls. C57BL6 mice were treated with radiation (n=52) or sham treated (n=52) between postnatal days 16 and 36 and then assessed with in vivo and/or ex vivo MRI. In both cases, measurements of WM and GM volume, cortical thickness, area and volume, and hippocampal volume were compared between groups. Results: WM volume was significantly decreased following treatment in 7− and 8+ treatment groups. GM volume was unchanged overall, but cortical thickness was slightly increased in the 7− group. Results in mice mostly mirrored these changes and provided a time course of change, showing early volume loss and normal growth. Hippocampal volume showed a decreasing trend with age in patients, an effect not observed in the mouse hippocampus but present in the olfactory bulb. Conclusions: Changes in mice treated with cranial radiation are similar to those in humans, including significant WM and GM alterations. Because mice did not receive any other treatment, the similarity across species supports the expectation that radiation is causative and suggests mice provide a representative model for studying impaired brain development after cranial radiation and testing novel treatments.

  12. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities After Cranial Radiation in Children and Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, Brian J.; Guzman, A. Elizabeth de; Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Pipitone, Jon; Strother, Douglas; Fryer, Chris; Bouffet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pediatric patients treated with cranial radiation are at high risk of developing lasting cognitive impairments. We sought to identify anatomical changes in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in radiation-treated patients and in mice, in which the effect of radiation can be isolated from other factors, the time course of anatomical change can be established, and the effect of treatment age can be more fully characterized. Anatomical results were compared between species. Methods and Materials: Patients were imaged with T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after radiation treatment. Nineteen radiation-treated patients were divided into groups of 7 years of age and younger (7−) and 8 years and older (8+) and were compared to 41 controls. C57BL6 mice were treated with radiation (n=52) or sham treated (n=52) between postnatal days 16 and 36 and then assessed with in vivo and/or ex vivo MRI. In both cases, measurements of WM and GM volume, cortical thickness, area and volume, and hippocampal volume were compared between groups. Results: WM volume was significantly decreased following treatment in 7− and 8+ treatment groups. GM volume was unchanged overall, but cortical thickness was slightly increased in the 7− group. Results in mice mostly mirrored these changes and provided a time course of change, showing early volume loss and normal growth. Hippocampal volume showed a decreasing trend with age in patients, an effect not observed in the mouse hippocampus but present in the olfactory bulb. Conclusions: Changes in mice treated with cranial radiation are similar to those in humans, including significant WM and GM alterations. Because mice did not receive any other treatment, the similarity across species supports the expectation that radiation is causative and suggests mice provide a representative model for studying impaired brain development after cranial radiation and testing novel treatments.

  13. Abnormal organization of white matter network in patients with no dementia after ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    Full Text Available Structural changes after ischemic stroke could affect information communication extensively in the brain network. It is likely that the defects in the white matter (WM network play a key role in information interchange. In this study, we used graph theoretical analysis to examine potential organization alteration in the WM network architecture derived from diffusion tensor images from subjects with no dementia and experienced stroke in the past 5.4-14.8 months (N = 47, Mini-Mental Screening Examination, MMSE range 18-30, compared with a normal control group with 44 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (MMSE range 26-30. Region-wise connectivity was derived from fiber connection density of 90 different cortical and subcortical parcellations across the whole brain. Both normal controls and patients with chronic stroke exhibited efficient small-world properties in their WM structural networks. Compared with normal controls, topological efficiency was basically unaltered in the patients with chronic stroke, as reflected by unchanged local and global clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and regional efficiency. No significant difference in hub distribution was found between normal control and patient groups. Patients with chronic stroke, however, were found to have reduced betweenness centrality and predominantly located in the orbitofrontal cortex, whereas increased betweenness centrality and vulnerability were observed in parietal-occipital cortex. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score of patient is correlated with the betweenness centrality of right pallidum and local clustering coefficient of left superior occipital gyrus. Our findings suggest that patients with chronic stroke still exhibit efficient small-world organization and unaltered topological efficiency, with altered topology at orbitofrontal cortex and parietal-occipital cortex in the overall structural network. Findings from this study could

  14. Abnormal topological organization in white matter structural networks revealed by diffusion tensor tractography in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoxi; Zhao, Tengda; Luo, Jia; Guo, Zhihua; Guo, Meng; Li, Ping; Sun, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Zhanjiang

    2014-06-03

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder defined by recurrent thoughts, intrusive and distressing impulses, or images and ritualistic behaviors. Although focal diverse regional abnormalities white matter integrity in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, alterations in the structural connectivities among them remain poorly understood. The aim was to investigate the abnormalities in the topological efficiency of the white matter networks and the correlation between the network metrics and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores in unmedicated OCD patients, using diffusion tensor tractography and graph theoretical approaches. This study used diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography to map the white matter structural networks in 26 OCD patients and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls; and then applied graph theoretical methods to investigate abnormalities in the global and regional properties of the white matter network in these patients. The patients and control participants both showed small-world organization of the white matter networks. However, the OCD patients exhibited significant abnormal global topology, including decreases in global efficiency (t = -2.32, p = 0.02) and increases in shortest path length, Lp (t = 2.30, p = 0.02), the normalized weighted shortest path length, λ (t = 2.08, p=0.04), and the normalized clustering coefficient, γ (t = 2.26, p = 0.03), of their white matter structural networks compared with healthy controls. Further, the OCD patients showed a reduction in nodal efficiency predominately in the frontal regions, the parietal regions and caudate nucleus. The normalized weighted shortest path length of the network metrics was significantly negatively correlated with obsessive subscale of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (r = -0.57, p = 0.0058). These findings demonstrate the abnormal topological efficiency in the white matter networks

  15. Abnormalities in gray and white matter volumes associated with explicit memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background The neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with behavioral dysfunction on explicit memory in patients generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have not yet been clearly identified. Purpose To investigate the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations over the whole brain in patients with GAD, as well as the correlation between the brain structural abnormality and explicit memory dysfunction. Material and Methods Twenty patients with GAD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants performed the explicit memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Results Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced GM volumes in the midbrain (MB), thalamus, hippocampus (Hip), insula, and superior temporal gyrus (STG); and reduced WM volumes in the MB, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and precentral gyrus (PrG). It is important to note that the GM volume of the Hip and the WM volume of the DLPFC were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy (%) in the explicit memory tasks with neutral and anxiety-inducing words, respectively. On the other hand, the WM volume of the PrG was negatively correlated with the reaction time in the same memory tasks. Conclusion This study demonstrated the regional volume changes on whole-brain GM and WM and the correlation between the brain structural alteration and explicit memory dysfunction in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the association between the brain structure abnormality and the functional deficit in the explicit memory in GAD.

  16. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  17. Abnormal asymmetry of white matter tracts between ventral posterior cingulate cortex and middle temporal gyrus in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Woo; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha E; Kubicki, Marek; Lee, Jungsun

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We extracted left and right vPCC-MTG tract on each side from T1W and diffusion MRI (dMRI) at 3T. We then calculated the asymmetry index of diffusion measures of vPCC-MTG tracts as well as volume and thickness of vPCC and MTG using the formula: 2×(right-left)/(right+left). We compared asymmetry indices between patients and controls and evaluated their correlations with the severity of psychiatric symptoms and cognition in patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), video-based social cognition scale (VISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Asymmetry of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the vPCC-MTG tract, while present in healthy controls, was not evident in schizophrenia patients. Also, we observed that patients, not healthy controls, had a significant FA decrease and RD increase in the left vPCC-MTG tract. There was no significant association between the asymmetry indices of dMRI measures and IQ, VISC, or PANSS scores in schizophrenia. Disruption of asymmetry of the vPCC-MTG tract in schizophrenia may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  19. Are neuropsychological impairments in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) related to white matter abnormalities or elevated phenylalanine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J; Wood, Stephen J; Francis, Dorothy E; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Vicki; Boneh, Avihu

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance our understanding of neuropsychological functioning in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) and assess the relative impact of white matter abnormalities (WMA) and neurotransmitter deficiencies on cognitive functions in this population. The study consisted of 33 children with early-treated PKU and 34 healthy control children aged between 7 to 18 years. All children had a neuropsychological evaluation that included measures of general intelligence, attention, processing speed, memory and learning, executive function, and academic achievement. Children in the PKU group also had a magnetic resonance (MR) brain scan. When compared with the control group, the PKU group exhibited global cognitive impairment including lower IQ, attention problems, slow information processing, reduced learning capacity, mild executive impairments, and educational difficulties. Children in the PKU group with extensive WMA (n = 14) displayed significant impairments across all cognitive domains. Metabolic control correlated weakly to moderately with attention, executive, and memory/learning factors. Within the PKU group, regressions revealed that executive function and attention factors were independently related to severity of WM pathology and age, while the memory and learning factor was independently related to metabolic control and age. It is concluded that children with early-treated PKU exhibit a global pattern of impairment, with a particular deficit in processing speed. WM pathology extending into frontal and subcortical regions correlates with the greatest deficits and a profile of impairment consistent with diffuse WM damage. Our findings also offer some support for dopamine depletion in the prefrontal cortex, however adverse consequences as a result of norepinephrine and serotonin deficiencies should not be discounted.

  20. Gray and white matter volume abnormalities in monozygotic and same-gender dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilshoff, Hilleke E.; Brans, Rachel G. H.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been related to both genetic risk factors and disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors; however, whether genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia are differentially reflected...... matter volume are related to environmental risk factors. Study of genes involved in the (maintenance) of white matter structures may be particularly fruitful in schizophrenia...... in gray or white matter volume change is not known. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were acquired and compared with 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic healthy control twin pairs. RESULTS...

  1. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  2. Abnormal hubs of white matter networks in the frontal-parieto circuit contribute to depression discrimination via pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaolong; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Jianhuai; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Zhao, Ke; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies had explored the diagnostic and prognostic value of the structural neuroimaging data of MDD and treated the whole brain voxels, the fractional anisotropy and the structural connectivity as classification features. To our best knowledge, no study examined the potential diagnostic value of the hubs of anatomical brain networks in MDD. The purpose of the current study was to provide an exploratory examination of the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of hubs of white matter brain networks in MDD discrimination and the corresponding impaired hub pattern via a multi-pattern analysis. We constructed white matter brain networks from 29 depressions and 30 healthy controls based on diffusion tensor imaging data, calculated nodal measures and identified hubs. Using these measures as features, two types of feature architectures were established, one only included hubs (HUB) and the other contained both hubs and non hubs. The support vector machine classifiers with Gaussian radial basis kernel were used after the feature selection. Moreover, the relative contribution of the features was estimated by means of the consensus features. Our results presented that the hubs (including the bilateral dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus) played an important role in distinguishing the depressions from healthy controls with the best accuracy of 83.05%. Moreover, most of the HUB consensus features located in the frontal-parieto circuit. These findings provided evidence that the hubs could be served as valuable potential diagnostic measure for MDD, and the hub-concentrated lesion distribution of MDD was primarily anchored within the frontal-parieto circuit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities in Children With Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele and Hydrocephalus: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study of the Association Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M.; Eluvathingal, Thomas J.; Kramer, Larry A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To quantify microstructural abnormalities in the major association pathways of children affected by spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and shunted hydrocephalus using whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study and written informed consent/assent were obtained prior to the study. The 69 participants included 38 children with SBM and shunted hydrocephalus (age mean ± SD = 12.30 ± 2.10 years; 22 boys; 10 left-handed) and 31 age- and sex-matched normally-developing children (11.56 ± 2.72 years; 15 boys, four left-handed). Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) was performed to delineate and quantify bilaterally four major association pathways (arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior frontooccipital, and uncinate fasciculi). Results The group with SBM did not exhibit the pattern of age-related decreases in the diffusivities observed in the controls. The transverse and axial diffusivities were significantly elevated in most of the white matter pathways of the participants with SBM. The fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly lower in most of the association pathways. Many of the association pathways were not traceable in some participants with SBM compared to the controls at the selected FA thresholds. Conclusion DTT revealed diffusion tensor characteristics of abnormal development (nonvisualization/poor visualization of tracts, ↓ FA, ↑ diffusivities), impairment in myelination (↑ transverse diffusivity) as well as abnormalities in intrinsic axonal characteristics and extraaxonal/extracellular space (↑ axial diffusivity) in the association pathways of the SBM children. The differences in the diffusion metrics observed in the children with SBM are suggestive of abnormal white matter development and persistent degeneration with increased age. PMID:18302204

  4. White matter abnormalities in treatment-naive adolescents at the earliest stages of Anorexia Nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Santino; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Montecchi, Francesca Romana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo

    2017-08-30

    Few studies have examined white matter (WM) integrity in long-lasting Anorexia Nervosa (AN) patients using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In this paper, we investigated WM integrity at the earliest stages of AN (i.e. less than 6 months duration). Fourteen treatment-naive female adolescents with AN restrictive type (AN-r) in its earliest stages and 15 age-matched healthy females received brain MRI. Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial diffusivity (RD), and Mean Diffusivity (MD) maps were computed from DTI data using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis. AN-r patients showed FA decreases compared to controls (p FWE < 0.05) mainly in left anterior and superior corona radiata and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. AN-r patients also showed decreased AD in superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally and left superior and anterior corona radiata, (p FWE < 0.05). No significant differences were found in RD and MD values between the two groups. FA and AD integrity appears to be specifically affected at the earliest stages of AN. Alterations in the microstructural properties of the above mentioned tracts, also involved in cognitive control and visual perception and processing, may be early mechanisms of vulnerability/resilience of WM in AN and sustain the key symptoms of AN, such as impaired cognitive flexibility and body image distortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  6. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  7. White matter disease of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, G.E.; Fernandez, R.E.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The white matter disorders that are discussed in this chapter are subdivided into those disorders within which there is breakdown of normal myelin, termed myelinoclastic, and those diseases involving either formation or maintenance of abnormal myeline, termed dysmyelinating. CT is a well-established technique for studying white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique which has shown greater sensitivity to white matter abnormalities. However, because of the rarity of may white matter diseases coupled with limited availability of MR facilities, the MRI experience in evaluating these patients is not extensive yet. Some patients may not be suitable for MRI because of the longer period of patient immobility that is required to avoid motion artifacts

  8. Riboflavin-Responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Associated with Hepatoencephalomyopathy and White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Päivi; Myllynen, Päivi; Perhomaa, Marja; Tuominen, Hannu; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rytky, Seppo; Risteli, Leila; Uusimaa, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting both fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. It can manifest at any age, but riboflavin-responsiveness has mainly been described in less severely affected patients. We describe an infant with severe MADD presenting with profound hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Treatment with riboflavin improved his muscle strength, liver size, and biochemical markers. A homozygous mutation of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase ( ETFDH ) was found. His motor skills continued to progress until a fatal infection-triggered deterioration at the age of 34 months. We show changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging over the course of the disease, with profound white matter abnormalities during the deterioration phase. Aggregates of mitochondria with abnormal cristae in muscle electron microscopy were noticed already in infancy. An unusual lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern with LDH-1 predominance was additionally observed. This case demonstrates riboflavin-responsiveness in a severely affected infant with both muscular and extramuscular involvement and further underlines the variable nature of this disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  10. Abnormal white matter microstructure and increased extracellular free-water in the cingulum bundle associated with delusions in chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K.L. Oestreich, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that state and trait delusions in chronic schizophrenia are associated with microstructural processes, such as myelin abnormalities (as indicated by decreased FAT and increased RDT in the cingulum bundle and that state delusions are additionally associated with extracellular processes such as neuroinflammation or atrophy (as indicated by increased FW in the left cingulum bundle.

  11. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... and previous association studies. RESULTS: A total of 1085 subjects showed WML progression. The heritability estimate for WML progression was low at 6.5%, and no single-nucleotide polymorphisms achieved genome-wide significance (PFour loci were suggestive (P

  12. The correlation between biochemical abnormalities in frontal white matter, hippocampus and serum thyroid hormone levels in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanbin; Zhong, Shuming; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tao; Liao, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Li

    2015-07-15

    Previous neuroimaging studies found evidence of potential brain biochemical abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels were also found in MDD patients, which may correlated with the abnormal biochemical metabolism of brain. However, they rarely excluded the compounding effects of medication, and brain degeneration. This study sought to investigate the relationship between the biochemical metabolism and the serum thyroid hormone levels in first-episode, treatment-naive, non-late-life patients with MDD. 26 first-episode, treatment-naive, non-late-life patients with MDD and 13 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent two-dimensinal multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) [repetition time (TR)=1000ms; echo-time (TE)=144ms] at 1.5T to obtain bilateral metabolite levels from the white matter in prefrontal (WMP) lobe, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline containg compounds (Cho)/creatine (Cr) were calculated. Morning serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured before antidepressant treatment. On the comparison of brain biochemical changes, MDD patients had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio in the left WMP, and lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the right WMP when compared to the controls. There were no significant differences in the metabolite ratios in the bilateral ACC, and hippocampus. On the comparison of serum thyroid hormone levels, MDD patients had a significantly decreased T3 and TSH levels. On the comparison of correlation of brain biochemical changes and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with MDD, the NAA/Cr ratio in the right WMP was positively correlated with the level of TSH. These findings suggest that biochemical abnormalities and thyroid dysfunction may

  13. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  14. White matter changes in treatment refractory schizophrenia: Does cognitive control and myelination matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanes, Lucy D.; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Wood, Tobias C.; Shergill, Sukhi S.

    2018-01-01

    Widespread white matter abnormalities have been reported in schizophrenia, a disorder frequently characterised as a dysconnection syndrome. White matter connectivity in schizophrenia has been predominantly investigated using diffusion weighted imaging, with reductions in fractional anisotropy throughout the brain often interpreted as an indicator of abnormal myelination. However, diffusion weighted imaging lacks specificity and as such a number of microstructural factors besides myelin may be...

  15. Lower Orbital Frontal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafantaris, Vivian; Kingsley, Peter; Ardekani, Babak; Saito, Ema; Lencz, Todd; Lim, Kelvin; Szeszko, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Patients with bipolar I disorder demonstrated white matter abnormalities in white matter regions as seen through the use of diffusion tensor imaging. The findings suggest that white matter abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder may be useful in constructing neurobiological models of the disorder.

  16. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  17. White dots do matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Toffoli circuits. We also show how to use these rules to derive more complex formulas. The major difference compared to existing approaches is the use of negative controls (white dots), which significantly increases the algebraic strength. We show how existing optimisation approaches can be adapted...

  18. Tryptophan Metabolism and White Matter Integrity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Postolache, Teodor T; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Shukla, Dinesh K; Tagamets, Malle; Du, Xiaoming; Savransky, Anya; Lowry, Christopher A; Can, Adem; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in the structure and functioning of white matter, but the underlying neuropathology is unclear. We hypothesized that increased tryptophan degradation in the kynurenine pathway could be associated with white matter microstructure and biochemistry, potentially contributing to white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test this, fasting plasma samples were obtained from 37 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls and levels of total tryptophan and its metabolite kynurenine were assessed. The ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan was used as an index of tryptophan catabolic activity in this pathway. White matter structure and function were assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Tryptophan levels were significantly lower (ptryptophan ratios were correspondingly higher (p=0.018) in patients compared with controls. In patients, lower plasma tryptophan levels corresponded to lower structural integrity (DTI fractional anisotropy) (r=0.347, p=0.038). In both patients and controls, the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was inversely correlated with frontal white matter glutamate level (r=-0.391 and -0.350 respectively, p=0.024 and 0.036). These results provide initial evidence implicating abnormal tryptophan/kynurenine pathway activity in changes to white matter integrity and white matter glutamate in schizophrenia.

  19. Grey matter abnormalities in trichotillomania: morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Menzies, Lara A; Fineberg, Naomi A; Del Campo, Natalia; Suckling, John; Craig, Kevin; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2008-09-01

    Trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) is an Axis I psychiatric disorder whose neurobiological basis is incompletely understood. Whole-brain trichotillomania neuroimaging studies are lacking. To investigate grey and white matter abnormalities over the whole brain in patients with trichotillomania. Eighteen patients with DSM-IV trichotillomania and 19 healthy controls undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging after providing written informed consent. Differences in grey and white matter were investigated using computational morphometry. Patients with trichotillomania showed increased grey matter densities in the left striatum, left amygdalo-hippocampal formation, and multiple (including cingulate, supplementary motor, and frontal) cortical regions bilaterally. Trichotillomania was associated with structural grey matter changes in neural circuitry implicated in habit learning, cognition and affect regulation. These findings inform animal models of the disorder and highlight key regions of interest for future translational research.

  20. Distinct white matter microstructural abnormalities and extracellular water increases relate to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease with and without cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Pasternak, Ofer; Liu, Siwei; Loke, Yng Miin; Choo, Boon Linn; Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Zhou, Juan

    2017-08-17

    Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown. To cover these gaps, we aimed to characterize the WM free water and tissue microstructural changes in AD and mixed dementia as well as their associations with cognition using a novel free water imaging method. We compared WM free water and free water-corrected DTI measures as well as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in patients with AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, patients with vascular dementia, and age-matched healthy control subjects. The cerebrovascular disease groups had higher free water than the non-cerebrovascular disease groups. Importantly, besides the cerebrovascular disease groups, patients with AD without cerebrovascular disease also had increased free water in normal-appearing WM compared with healthy control subjects, reflecting mild vascular damage. Such free water increases in WM or normal-appearing WM (but not WMH) contributed to dementia severity. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis revealed a close association between widespread free water increases and poorer attention, executive functioning, visual construction, and motor performance, whereas only left hemispheric free water increases were related to language deficits. Moreover, compared with the original DTI metrics, the free water-corrected DTI metric revealed tissue damage-specific (frontal and occipital) microstructural differences between the cerebrovascular disease and non-cerebrovascular disease groups. In contrast to both lobar and

  1. White matter abnormalities in the fornix are linked to cognitive performance in SZ but not in BD disorder: An exploratory analysis with DTI deterministic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöchel, Christian; Schmied, Claudia; Linden, David E J; Stäblein, Michael; Prvulovic, David; de A de Carvalho, Luiza; Harrison, Octavia; Barros, Paulo O; Carvalho, André F; Reif, Andreas; Alves, Gilberto S; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2016-09-01

    In psychosis, white matter (WM) microstructural changes have been detected previously; however, direct comparisons of findings between bipolar (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) patients are scarce. In this study, we employed deterministic tractography to reconstruct WM tracts in BD and SZ patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was carried out with n=32 euthymic BD type I patients, n=26 SZ patients and 30 matched healthy controls. Deterministic tractography using multiple indices of diffusion (fractional anisotropy (FA), tract volume (Vol), tract length (Le) and number of tracts (NofT)) were obtained from the fornix, the cingulum, the anterior thalamic radiation, and the corpus callosum bilaterally. We showed widespread WM microstructural changes in SZ, and changes in the corpus callosum, the left cingulum and the fornix in BD. Fornix fiber tracking scores were associated with cognitive performance in SZ, and with age and age at disease onset in the BD patient group. Although the influence of psychopharmacological drugs as biasing variables on morphological alterations has been discussed for SZ and BD, we did not observe a clear influence of drug exposure on our findings. These results confirm the assumption that SZ patients have more severe WM changes than BD patients. The findings also suggest a major role of WM changes in the fornix as important fronto-limbic connections in the etiology of cognitive symptoms in SZ, but not in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.L.; Longo, F.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

  3. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  4. Anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) as an indicator of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison of double inversion recovery, FLAIR and T2W MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Emiko; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mori, Nobuyuki [Tenri Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tenri, Nara (Japan); Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kyoto (Japan); Mikuni, Nobuhiro [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kunieda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Susumu [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Paul, Dominik [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the diagnostic capability of anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) for determining seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by comparing different MR sequences. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Three 3D sequences (double inversion recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)) and two 2D sequences (FLAIR and T2WI) were acquired at 3 T. Signal changes in the anterior temporal white matter of 21 normal volunteers were evaluated. ATLAS laterality was evaluated in 21 TLE patients. Agreement of independent evaluations by two neuroradiologists was assessed using {kappa} statistics. Differences in concordance between ATLAS laterality and clinically defined seizure focus laterality were analysed using McNemar's test with multiple comparisons. Pre-amygdala high signals (PAHS) were detected in all volunteers only on 3D-DIR. Inter-evaluator agreement was moderate to almost perfect for each sequence. Correct diagnosis of seizure laterality was significantly more frequent on 3D-DIR than on any other sequences (P {<=} 0.031 for each evaluator). The most sensitive sequence for detecting ATLAS laterality was 3D-DIR. ATLAS laterality on 3D-DIR can be a good indicator for determining seizure focus localization in TLE. (orig.)

  5. Anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) as an indicator of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison of double inversion recovery, FLAIR and T2W MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Emiko; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Togashi, Kaori; Mori, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Susumu; Paul, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic capability of anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) for determining seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by comparing different MR sequences. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Three 3D sequences (double inversion recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)) and two 2D sequences (FLAIR and T2WI) were acquired at 3 T. Signal changes in the anterior temporal white matter of 21 normal volunteers were evaluated. ATLAS laterality was evaluated in 21 TLE patients. Agreement of independent evaluations by two neuroradiologists was assessed using κ statistics. Differences in concordance between ATLAS laterality and clinically defined seizure focus laterality were analysed using McNemar's test with multiple comparisons. Pre-amygdala high signals (PAHS) were detected in all volunteers only on 3D-DIR. Inter-evaluator agreement was moderate to almost perfect for each sequence. Correct diagnosis of seizure laterality was significantly more frequent on 3D-DIR than on any other sequences (P ≤ 0.031 for each evaluator). The most sensitive sequence for detecting ATLAS laterality was 3D-DIR. ATLAS laterality on 3D-DIR can be a good indicator for determining seizure focus localization in TLE. (orig.)

  6. VANISHING WHITE MATTER DISEASE : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindu P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanishing white matter disease (VWM is one of the most prevalent inherited childhood Leucoencephalopathies. We report MR imaging features of vanishing white matter disease in a 4 - year - old boy, who manifested with seizures, aphasia, spastic quadriparesis and myoclonic jerks. MRI of brain showed diffuse white matter signal changes of CSF intensity in all the sequences. MR spectroscopy of white matter showed severe decrease in NAA, choline and creatine and presence of lactate peak. Additional notable findings were diffuse extensive brain stem and thalamic atrophy. The clinico - radiological correlation was consistent with the diagnosis of vanishing white matter disease. Reporting of such cases may widen the spectra of these disorders.

  7. The Superficial White Matter in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L.; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Paola, Margherita Di

    2016-01-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer’s disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. In order to investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex, and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (Age: 71.02±5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23±4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (p superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information and during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26801955

  8. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Andreia V; Ratnanather, J Tilak; Tward, Daniel J; Lee, David Soobin; van den Noort, Frieda; Wu, Dan; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i) regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii) tractography-based analysis, and using (iii) whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores), and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be targeted to delay

  9. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii tractography-based analysis, and using (iii whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores, and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be

  10. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  11. Aging of Cerebral White Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Yuguo; Zhu, Wen; Leak, Rehana K.; Wei, Zhishuo; Wang, Jianyi; Hu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly. In addition, aged WM becomes more susceptible to neurological disorders, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional alterations of WM in natural aging and speculate on the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss how age-related WM changes influence the progression of various brain disorders, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, TBI, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Although the physiology of WM is still poorly understood relative to gray matter, WM is a rational therapeutic target for a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:27865980

  12. [White matter in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea-Hidalgo, Ana; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2011-09-16

    The white matter is the main connection between different regions of the brain and helps them to work in a unified, coordinated way. Diffusion tensor imaging is an ideal technique with which to study it in order to detect the degree of integrity of these fibres. Nowadays, they are considered to play a significant role in the development and pathophysiology of different developmental disorders, and the aim of this study was to examine this role. On reviewing disorders such as autism, dyslexia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, certain fibres were found to be clearly involved. This was especially the case of the (arcuate) superior longitudinal fasciculus and the temporal-parietal network (related with the regulation of motor and attentional behaviour), the corpus callosum (which ensures the efficient and swift exchange of information between the hemispheres of the brain) and cingulate regions (which would be related with social cognition and self-consciousness).

  13. Scalable Brain Network Construction on White Matter Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moo K; Adluru, Nagesh; Dalton, Kim M; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J

    2011-02-12

    DTI offers a unique opportunity to characterize the structural connectivity of the human brain non-invasively by tracing white matter fiber tracts. Whole brain tractography studies routinely generate up to half million tracts per brain, which serves as edges in an extremely large 3D graph with up to half million edges. Currently there is no agreed-upon method for constructing the brain structural network graphs out of large number of white matter tracts. In this paper, we present a scalable iterative framework called the ε-neighbor method for building a network graph and apply it to testing abnormal connectivity in autism.

  14. Scalable brain network construction on white matter fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moo K.; Adluru, Nagesh; Dalton, Kim M.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-03-01

    DTI offers a unique opportunity to characterize the structural connectivity of the human brain non-invasively by tracing white matter fiber tracts. Whole brain tractography studies routinely generate up to half million tracts per brain, which serves as edges in an extremely large 3D graph with up to half million edges. Currently there is no agreed-upon method for constructing the brain structural network graphs out of large number of white matter tracts. In this paper, we present a scalable iterative framework called the ɛ-neighbor method for building a network graph and apply it to testing abnormal connectivity in autism.

  15. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2013-03-30

    Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. White matter abnormalities in skin picking disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Hampshire, Adam

    2013-01-01

    of the bilateral anterior cingulate and right frontal (especially orbitofrontal and inferior frontal) cortices. 13-subjects meeting proposed SPD criteria for DSM-5 free from other current psychiatric comorbidities, and 12 healthy comparison subjects underwent MRI with a 3-T system. Between-group comparisons...

  18. Characteristics of early MRI in children and adolescents with vanishing white matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, Hannemieke D.; Steenweg, Marjan E.; Barkhof, Frederik; de Grauw, Ton; D'Hooghe, Marc; Morton, Richard; Shah, Siddharth; Wolf, Nicole; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2012-01-01

    MRI in vanishing white matter typically shows diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter, which becomes increasingly rarefied and cystic. We investigated the MRI characteristics preceding this stage. In a retrospective observational study, we evaluated all available MRIs in our database of

  19. Characteristics of Early MRI in Children and Adolescents with Vanishing White Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, H.D.W.; Steenweg, M.E.; Barkhof, F.; de Grauw, T.; D'Hooghe, M.; Morton, R.; Shah, S.; Wolf, N.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective MRI in vanishing white matter typically shows diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter, which becomes increasingly rarefied and cystic. We investigated the MRI characteristics preceding this stage. Design In a retrospective observational study, we evaluated all available MRIs in

  20. Treatment Outcome-Related White Matter Differences in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; Van Rooij, Sanne J H; Tromp, Do P M; Fox, Andrew S.; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Kahn, René S.; Kalin, Ned H.; Geuze, Elbert

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder that has been associated with brain abnormalities, including white matter alterations. However, little is known about the effect of treatment on these brain alterations. To investigate the course of white matter alterations in PTSD, we

  1. Treatment Outcome-Related White Matter Differences in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Tromp, Do P M; Fox, Andrew S; Rademaker, Arthur R; Kahn, René S; Kalin, Ned H; Geuze, Elbert

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder that has been associated with brain abnormalities, including white matter alterations. However, little is known about the effect of treatment on these brain alterations. To investigate the course of white matter alterations in PTSD, we

  2. White matter of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter is found in the deeper tissues of the brain (subcortical). It contains nerve fibers (axons), which are ... matter is tissue found on the surface of the brain (cortical). It contains the cell bodies of neurons, ...

  3. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  4. Spastic diplegia and periventricular white matter abnormalities in 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, a defect of isoleucine metabolism: differential diagnosis with hypoxic-ischemic brain diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; Ofman, Rob; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Barth, Peter G.; Duran, Marinus

    2004-01-01

    A 19-month-old boy with 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MHBD) deficiency, a defect of isoleucine degradation, had cognitive and motor development delay, spastic diplegia, dysmorphism, and occipital periventricular white matter lesions on MRI scan of the brain. The urinary accumulation

  5. White-matter integrity predicts stroop performance in patients with geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher F; Gunning-Dixon, Faith M; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lim, Kelvin O; Ardekani, Babak; Shields, Jessica K; Hrabe, Jan; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Shanmugham, Bindu R; Alexopoulos, George S

    2007-04-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that microstructural white matter abnormalities in frontostriatal-limbic tracts are associated with poor response inhibition on the Stroop task in depressed elders. Fifty-one elders with major depression participated in a 12-week escitalopram trial. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter regions. Executive function (response inhibition) was assessed with the Stroop task. Voxelwise correlational analysis was used to examine the relationship between Stroop performance and fractional anisotropy. Significant associations between FA and Stroop color word interference were evident in multiple frontostriatal-limbic regions, including white matter lateral to the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and white matter in prefrontal, insular, and parahippocampal regions. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter abnormalities of frontostriatal-limbic networks are associated with executive dysfunction of late-life depression. This observation provides the rationale for examination of specific frontostriatal-limbic pathways in the pathophysiology of geriatric depression.

  6. Right Frontal White Matter and Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An MRI volumetric analysis of frontal and nonfrontal gray and white matter was performed in 11 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS only, 14 with TS + ADHD, 12 with ADHD only, and 26 healthy boys, at the Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain white matter anisotropy in recent-onset schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, B. D.; Duran, M.; Vlieger, E. J.; Majoie, C. B.; den Heeten, G. J.; Linszen, D. H.; de Haan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Brain white matter myelin abnormalities and cell membrane fatty acid abnormalities have been implicated in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. We investigated in young adults with a psychotic disorder (n=12) whether (poly)unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes are

  8. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Anderson, Adam W.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Loring, Whitney A.; Cascio, Carissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

  9. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Pryweller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure.

  10. White matter hypoperfusion and damage in dementia: post-mortem assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has revealed a range of white matter abnormalities that are common in dementia, some that predict cognitive decline. The abnormalities may result from structural diseases of the cerebral vasculature, such as arteriolosclerosis and amyloid angiopathy, but can also be caused by nonstructural vascular abnormalities (eg, of vascular contractility or permeability), neurovascular instability or extracranial cardiac or vascular disease. Conventional histopathological assessment of the white matter has tended to conflate morphological vascular abnormalities with changes that reflect altered interstitial fluid dynamics or white matter ischemic damage, even though the latter may be of extracranial or nonstructural etiology. However, histopathology is being supplemented by biochemical approaches, including the measurement of proteins involved in the molecular responses to brain ischemia, myelin proteins differentially susceptible to ischemic damage, vessel-associated proteins that allow rapid measurement of microvessel density, markers of blood-brain barrier dysfunction and axonal injury, and mediators of white matter damage. By combining neuroimaging with histopathology and biochemical analysis, we can provide reproducible, quantitative data on the severity of white matter damage, and information on its etiology and pathogenesis. Together these have the potential to inform and improve treatment, particularly in forms of dementia to which white matter hypoperfusion makes a significant contribution. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  11. Reduced white matter integrity in amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweh, Christian; Hess, Klaus; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Bartsch, Andreas J; Stippich, Christoph; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Hähnel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Professional boxing can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a variant of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its occurrence in amateur boxers is a matter of debate since amateur boxing is considered to be less harmful due to more strict regulations. However, several studies using different methodological approaches have revealed subtle signs of TBI even in amateurs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to microscopic white matter changes and has been proven useful in TBI when routine MR imaging often is unrevealing. DTI, with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with neuropsychological examination of executive functions and memory, was used to investigate a collective of 31 male amateur boxers and 31 age-matched controls as well as a subgroup of 19 individuals, respectively, who were additionally matched for intellectual performance (IQ). All participants had normal findings in neurological examination and conventional MR. Amateur boxers did not show deficits in neuropsychological tests when their IQ was taken into account. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced, while diffusivity measures were increased along central white matter tracts in the boxers group. These changes were in part associated with the number of fights. TBSS revealed widespread white matter disturbance partially related to the individual fighting history in amateur boxers. These findings closely resemble those in patients with accidental TBI and indicate similar histological changes in amateur boxers.

  12. Longitudinal changes in microstructural white matter metrics in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D. Mayo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The current results indicate that sensitivity to white matter microstructure is a promising avenue for AD biomarker research. Additional longitudinal studies on both white and grey matter are warranted to further evaluate potential clinical utility.

  13. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  14. White matter magnetic resonance hyperintensities in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective MRI study the presence, appearance, volume, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) correlates of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were examined in 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in 10 age matched healthy co......CBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease could not be explained by deafferentation from underlying white matter hyperintensities and therefore may reflect variations in the topography of cortical abnormalities....

  15. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan, Yunyun, E-mail: xiaoyun81.love@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); He, Yong, E-mail: yong.h.he@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yu, Chunshui, E-mail: csyuster@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: jun_wang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Jing, E-mail: sainthj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Ye, Jing, E-mail: jingye.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Parizel, Paul M., E-mail: paul.parizel@ua.ac.be [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, 8 Belgium (Belgium); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni, E-mail: nshu55@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS.

  16. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Ye, Jing; Parizel, Paul M.; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS

  17. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  18. Stochastic process for white matter injury detection in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm births are rising in Canada and worldwide. As clinicians strive to identify preterm neonates at greatest risk of significant developmental or motor problems, accurate predictive tools are required. Infants at highest risk will be able to receive early developmental interventions, and will also enable clinicians to implement and evaluate new methods to improve outcomes. While severe white matter injury (WMI is associated with adverse developmental outcome, more subtle injuries are difficult to identify and the association with later impairments remains unknown. Thus, our goal was to develop an automated method for detection and visualization of brain abnormalities in MR images acquired in very preterm born neonates. We have developed a technique to detect WMI in T1-weighted images acquired in 177 very preterm born infants (24–32 weeks gestation. Our approach uses a stochastic process that estimates the likelihood of intensity variations in nearby pixels; with small variations being more likely than large variations. We first detect the boundaries between normal and injured regions of the white matter. Following this we use a measure of pixel similarity to identify WMI regions. Our algorithm is able to detect WMI in all of the images in the ground truth dataset with some false positives in situations where the white matter region is not segmented accurately.

  19. White Dwarf Constraints on Dark Matter Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, B.; Biesiada, M.

    2009-11-01

    Matter budget in the Universe together with primordial nucleosynthesis bounds on baryonic density suggests that dark matter in galaxies should have non-baryonic nature. On the other hand, considerable agreement of a variety of astrophysical observations with standard physics can serve as a source of constraints on non-standard ideas. In this context we consider G117-B15A pulsating white dwarf for which the rate of period change of its fundamental mode has been accurately measured. This star has been claimed the most stable oscillator ever recorded in the optical band. Here we use this object to derive a bound on theories with large extra dimensions as well as to constrain supersymmetric dark matter.

  20. White matter disease in midlife is heritable, related to hypertension, and shares some genetic influence with systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K; Notestine, Randy; Panizzon, Matthew S; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Eyler, Lisa T; Neale, Michael C; Xian, Hong; McKenzie, Ruth E; Kremen, William S

    2016-01-01

    White matter disease in the brain increases with age and cardiovascular disease, emerging in midlife, and these associations may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. We examined the frequency, distribution, and heritability of abnormal white matter and its association with hypertension in 395 middle-aged male twins (61.9 ± 2.6 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 67% of whom were hypertensive. A multi-channel segmentation approach estimated abnormal regions within the white matter. Using multivariable regression models, we characterized the frequency distribution of abnormal white matter in midlife and investigated associations with hypertension and Apolipoprotein E- ε4 status and the impact of duration and control of hypertension. Then, using the classical twin design, we estimated abnormal white matter heritability and the extent of shared genetic overlap with blood pressure. Abnormal white matter was predominantly located in periventricular and deep parietal and frontal regions; associated with age ( t  = 1.9, p  = 0.05) and hypertension ( t  = 2.9, p  = 0.004), but not Apolipoprotein ε4 status; and was greater in those with uncontrolled hypertension relative to controlled ( t  = 3.0, p  = 0.003) and normotensive ( t  = 4.0, p  = 0.0001) groups, suggesting that abnormal white matter may reflect currently active cerebrovascular effects. Abnormal white matter was highly heritable (a 2  = 0.81) and shared some genetic influences with systolic blood pressure (r A  = 0.26), although there was evidence for distinct genetic contributions and unique environmental influences. Future longitudinal research will shed light on factors impacting white matter disease presentation, progression, and potential recovery.

  1. White Matter Hyperintensities, Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, Cortical Atrophy, and Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Severely Depressed Elderly Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudega, Mardien L.; van Exel, Eric; Wattjes, Mike P.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Stek, Max L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a valuable treatment option in severely depressed elderly patients. Structural abnormalities in the brain, such as white matter hyperintensities, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), or global cortical atrophy, may influence therapeutic response. The

  2. White Matter Development in Early Puberty: A Longitudinal Volumetric and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Twin Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.M.; Mandl, R.C.W.; Schnack, H.G.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Peper, J.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    White matter microstructure and volume show synchronous developmental patterns in children. White matter volume increases considerably during development. Fractional anisotropy, a measure for white matter microstructural directionality, also increases with age. Development of white matter volume and

  3. White matter microstructure alterations: a study of alcoholics with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Durkee

    Full Text Available Many brain imaging studies have demonstrated reductions in gray and white matter volumes in alcoholism, with fewer investigators using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the integrity of white matter pathways. Among various medical conditions, alcoholism and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD are two comorbid diseases that have similar degenerative effects on the white matter integrity. Therefore, understanding and differentiating these effects would be very important in characterizing alcoholism and PTSD. Alcoholics are known to have neurocognitive deficits in decision-making, particularly in decisions related to emotionally-motivated behavior, while individuals with PTSD have deficits in emotional regulation and enhanced fear response. It is widely believed that these types of abnormalities in both alcoholism and PTSD are related to fronto-limbic dysfunction. In addition, previous studies have shown cortico-limbic fiber degradation through fiber tracking in alcoholism. DTI was used to measure white matter fractional anisotropy (FA, which provides information about tissue microstructure, possibly indicating white matter integrity. We quantitatively investigated the microstructure of white matter through whole brain DTI analysis in healthy volunteers (HV and alcohol dependent subjects without PTSD (ALC and with PTSD (ALC+PTSD. These data show significant differences in FA between alcoholics and non-alcoholic HVs, with no significant differences in FA between ALC and ALC+PTSD in any white matter structure. We performed a post-hoc region of interest analysis that allowed us to incorporate multiple covariates into the analysis and found similar results. HV had higher FA in several areas implicated in the reward circuit, emotion, and executive functioning, suggesting that there may be microstructural abnormalities in white matter pathways that contribute to neurocognitive and executive functioning deficits observed in alcoholics. Furthermore

  4. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  5. White Matter Pathways and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Metoki, Athanasia; Alm, Kylie H; Olson, Ingrid R

    2018-04-20

    There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition. We pay particular attention to three key social processes: face processing, embodied cognition, and theory of mind, and their respective underlying neural networks. To fully identify and characterize the anatomical architecture of these networks, we further implement probabilistic tractography on a large sample of diffusion-weighted imaging data. The combination of an in-depth literature review and the empirical investigation gives us an unprecedented, well-defined landscape of white matter pathways underlying major social brain networks. Finally, we discuss current problems in the field, outline suggestions for best practice in diffusion-imaging data collection and analysis, and offer new directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract: neuroimaging features of a novel inherited white matter disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Biancheri, R; Zara, F; Bruno, C; Uziel, G; van der Knaap, M S; Minetti, C; Tortori-Donati, P

    2008-02-01

    Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is an autosomal recessive white matter disease caused by deficiency of hyccin, a membrane protein implicated in both central and peripheral myelination. We aimed to describe the neuroimaging features of this novel entity. A systematic analysis of patients with unclassified leukoencephalopathies admitted to our institutions revealed 10 children with congenital cataract, slowly progressive neurologic impairment, and diffuse white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging. Psychomotor developmental delay was evident after the first year of life. Peripheral neuropathy was demonstrated by neurophysiologic studies in 9 children. The available neuroimaging studies were retrospectively reviewed. In all patients, neuroimaging revealed diffuse involvement of the supratentorial white matter associated with preservation of both cortical and deep gray matter structures. Supratentorial white matter hypomyelination was detected in all patients; 7 patients also had evidence of variably extensive areas of increased white matter water content. Deep cerebellar white matter hypomyelination was found in 6 patients. Older patients had evidence of white matter bulk loss and gliosis. Proton MR spectroscopy showed variable findings, depending on the stage of the disease. Sural nerve biopsy revealed hypomyelinated nerve fibers. Mutations in the DRCTNNB1A gene on chromosome 7p15.3, causing complete or severe deficiency of hyccin, were demonstrated in all patients. HCC is characterized by a combined pattern of primary myelin deficiency and secondary neurodegenerative changes. In the proper clinical setting, recognition of suggestive neuroimaging findings should prompt appropriate genetic investigations.

  7. IMAGING WHITE MATTER IN HUMAN BRAINSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A Ford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The human brainstem is critical for the control of many life-sustaining functions, such as consciousness, respiration, sleep, and transfer of sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. Most of our knowledge about structure and organization of white and gray matter within the brainstem is derived from ex vivo dissection and histology studies. However, these methods cannot be applied to study structural architecture in live human participants. Tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI may provide valuable insights about white matter organization within the brainstem in vivo. However, this method presents technical challenges in vivo due to susceptibility artifacts, functionally dense anatomy, as well as pulsatile and respiratory motion. To investigate the limits of MR tractography, we present results from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI of an intact excised human brainstem performed at 11.1T using isotropic resolution of 0.333, 1, and 2 mm, with the latter reflecting resolution currently used clinically. At the highest resolution, the dense fiber architecture of the brainstem is evident, but the definition of structures degrades as resolution decreases. In particular, the inferred corticopontine/corticospinal tracts (CPT/CST, superior (SCP and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP, and medial lemniscus (ML pathways are clearly discernable and follow known anatomical trajectories at the highest spatial resolution. At lower resolutions, the CST/CPT, SCP, and MCP pathways are artificially enlarged due to inclusion of collinear and crossing fibers not inherent to these three pathways. The inferred ML pathways appear smaller at lower resolutions, indicating insufficient spatial information to successfully resolve smaller fiber pathways. Our results suggest that white matter tractography maps derived from the excised brainstem can be used to guide the study of the brainstem architecture using diffusion MRI in vivo.

  8. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... sizes for clinical trials with pure WML progression vs combined WML progression-cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Those 394 participants of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS) study with magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and 3-year follow-up were analyzed. WML progression rating...

  9. Automated detection of Lupus white matter lesions in MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Roura Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML. In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection (True Positive Rate (62% and Positive Prediction Value (80% respectively as well as segmentation accuracy (Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration.

  10. Fast quantitative diffusion-tensor imaging of cerebral white matter from the neonatal period to adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.L.; Martin, E. [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Children' s Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zuerich (Switzerland); Il' yasov, K.A.; Hennig, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Medical Physics, University Medical Centre, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the isotropic diffusion coefficient (D') and fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter (WM) during brain development, using an optimised diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) method with whole brain coverage in a clinically acceptable time. We images 52 children with no evident neurological abnormality (30 boys, 22 girls aged 1 day-16 years) using high-angle DTI with optimised temporal gradient performance. D' and FA were calculated in 10 regions of interest in white matter. We saw that the age-related reduction in D' and increase in FA follow a mono- or biexponential model in white matter, probably depending on the compactness and myelination rate of the fibre tracts. In contrast to other areas, in which adult values were reached during the third year, there is a trend to continuous increase in FA in all deep white-matter areas, suggesting continuing maturation and organisation of deep tracts not detected on conventional MRI. (orig.)

  11. White matter impairments in autism, evidence from voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoyan; Tang, Tianyu; Hong, Shanshan; Hang, Yueyue; Zou, Bing; Li, Huiguo; Zhou, Zhenyu; Ruan, Zongcai; Lu, Zuhong; Tao, Guotai; Liu, Yijun

    2009-04-10

    This study explored white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with high functioning autism (HFA). Twelve male children with HFA and ten matched typically developing children underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found a significant decrease of the white matter density in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and right anterior cingulate and a significant increase in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and left cingulate gyrus in the HFA group compared with the control group. The HFA group also had decreased FA in the frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. By combining DT-MRI FA and MRI volumetric analyses based on the VBM model, the results showed consistent white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with HFA.

  12. White matter volume changes in people who develop psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterfang, Mark; McGuire, Philip K; Yung, Alison R; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wood, Stephen J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Brewer, Warrick; Soulsby, Bridget; Desmond, Patricia; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2008-09-01

    Grey matter changes have been described in individuals who are pre- and peri-psychotic, but it is unclear if these changes are accompanied by changes in white matter structures. To determine whether changes in white matter occur prior to and with the transition to psychosis in individuals who are pre-psychotic who had previously demonstrated grey matter reductions in frontotemporal regions. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine regional white matter volume in 75 people with prodromal symptoms. A subset of the original group (n=21) were rescanned at 12-18 months to determine white matter volume changes. Participants were retrospectively categorised according to whether they had or had not developed psychosis at follow-up. Comparison of the baseline MRI data from these two subgroups revealed that individuals who later developed psychosis had larger volumes of white matter in the frontal lobe, particularly in the left hemisphere. Longitudinal comparison of data in individuals who developed psychosis revealed a reduction in white matter volume in the region of the left fronto-occipital fasciculus. Participants who had not developed psychosis showed no reductions in white matter volume but increases in a region subjacent to the right inferior parietal lobule. The reduction in volume of white matter near the left fronto-occipital fasciculus may reflect a change in this tract in association with the onset of frank psychosis.

  13. White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Histories of Marijuana Use and Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B. C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.

  14. Accelerated phase of Chediak-Higashi syndrome diffuse white-matter-enhancing lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, T.E.; Lee, B.C.P. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children`s Hospital, MO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    We present the CT and MRI findings of a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome in the accelerated phase with marked white-matter abnormalities. Pathologic and clinical features allow diagnosis of this condition, which in this case had dramatic neuroradiographic manifestations not well described in previous reports. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  15. Accelerated phase of Chediak-Higashi syndrome diffuse white-matter-enhancing lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, T.E.; Lee, B.C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We present the CT and MRI findings of a patient with Chediak-Higashi syndrome in the accelerated phase with marked white-matter abnormalities. Pathologic and clinical features allow diagnosis of this condition, which in this case had dramatic neuroradiographic manifestations not well described in previous reports. (orig.)

  16. Punctate White Matter Lesions Associated With Altered Brain Development And Adverse Motor Outcome In Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tusor, Nora; Benders, Manon J; Counsell, Serena J.; Nongena, Phumza; Ederies, Moegamad A; Falconer, Shona; Chew, Andrew T M; Gonzalez-Cinca, Nuria; Hajnal, Joseph V; Gangadharan, Sunay; Chatzi, Vasiliki; Kersbergen, Karina J; Kennea, Nigel; Azzopardi, Denis V; Edwards, A David

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants who develop neurodevelopmental impairment do not always have recognized abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound, a modality routinely used to assess prognosis. In a high proportion of infants, MRI detects punctate white matter lesions that are not seen on ultrasonography. To determine

  17. White matter changes in treatment refractory schizophrenia: Does cognitive control and myelination matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanes, Lucy D; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Wood, Tobias C; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2018-01-01

    Widespread white matter abnormalities have been reported in schizophrenia, a disorder frequently characterised as a dysconnection syndrome. White matter connectivity in schizophrenia has been predominantly investigated using diffusion weighted imaging, with reductions in fractional anisotropy throughout the brain often interpreted as an indicator of abnormal myelination. However, diffusion weighted imaging lacks specificity and as such a number of microstructural factors besides myelin may be contributing to these results. We utilised multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) in medicated patients with chronic schizophrenia, stratified by treatment response status, and healthy controls, in order to assess myelin water fraction (MWF) in these groups. In addition, we assessed cognitive control using the Stroop task to investigate how response inhibition relates to myelination in patients and controls. Both treatment resistant (n = 22) and treatment responsive (n = 21) patients showed reduced MWF compared to healthy controls (n = 24) in bilateral fronto-occipital fasciculi, particularly evident in the vicinity of the striatum und extending to the cerebellum, with no difference between patient groups. Patients showed greater reaction time interference on the Stroop task compared to healthy controls, with no difference between patient groups. Stroop interference was significantly negatively correlated with MWF in the corpus callosum across groups, and MWF differences in this region mediated the behavioural group effects on the Stroop task. These findings support the suitability of mcDESPOT as a myelin-specific measure of abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatment resistant schizophrenia is not characterised by more severe abnormalities in myelination or cognitive control compared to treatment responsive schizophrenia.

  18. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  19. Longitudinal changes in mathematical abilities and white matter following paediatric mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Leen; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Ghesquière, Pol; Lagae, Lieven; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with acute and long-term mathematical difficulties. Little is known about the recovery of these impairments in children with mild TBI (mTBI) and their underlying pathophysiology, such as white matter abnormalities. A prospective longitudinal study followed the recovery of mathematical abilities and white matter in children with mTBI from the sub-acute (1 month post-injury) to chronic stage (6-8 months post-injury) of recovery. Twenty children with mTBI and 20 matched controls completed mathematics tests. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) metrics of white matter pathways corpus callosum (CC), superior and longitudinal fasciculi were examined with DTI-tractography. Mathematical difficulties and white matter abnormalities in the CC observed shortly after the injury resolved after 6-8 months of recovery. Children with mTBI continued to show working memory deficits. Longitudinal DTI data suggest continued maturation of the CC in controls, but little maturation of the damaged CC in children with mTBI. Children with mTBI recovered in terms of mathematical abilities and white matter. These children continued to show working memory deficits, which might interfere with learning at school.

  20. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs were compared with 19 typically developing age-and gender-matched controls. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in individuals with FASDs relative to controls in the right lateral temporal lobe and bilaterally in the lateral aspects of the splenium of the corpus callosum. White matter density was also lower in some, but not all regions in which FA was lower. FA abnormalities were confirmed to be in areas of white matter in post hoc region of interest analyses, further supporting that less myelin or disorganized fiber tracts are associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Significant correlations between performance on a test of visuomotor integration and FA in bilateral splenium, but not temporal regions were observed within the FASD group. Correlations between the visuomotor task and FA within the splenium were not significant with in the control group, and were not significant for measures of reading ability. This suggests that this region of white matter is particularly susceptible to damage from prenatal alcohol exposure and that disruption of splenial fibers in this group is associated with poorer visuomotor integration. PMID:18256251

  1. White and gray matter damage in primary progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Declan; Altmann, Daniel R.; Tozer, Daniel; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The temporal relationship between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage in vivo in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) was investigated testing 2 hypotheses: (1) WM tract abnormalities predict subsequent changes in the connected cortex (“primary WM damage model”); and (2) cortical abnormalities predict later changes in connected WM tracts (“primary GM damage model”). Methods: Forty-seven patients with early PPMS and 18 healthy controls had conventional and magnetization transfer imaging at baseline; a subgroup of 35 patients repeated the protocol after 2 years. Masks of the corticospinal tracts, genu of the corpus callosum and optic radiations, and of connected cortical regions, were used for extracting the mean magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Multiple regressions within each of 5 tract-cortex pairs were performed, adjusting for the dependent variable's baseline MTR; tract lesion load and MTR, spinal cord area, age, and sex were examined for potential confounding. Results: The baseline MTR of most regions was lower in patients than in healthy controls. The tract-cortex pair relationships in the primary WM damage model were significant for the bilateral motor pair and right visual pair, while those in the primary GM damage model were only significant for the right motor pair. Lower lesion MTR at baseline was associated with lower MTR in the same tract normal-appearing WM at 2 years in 3 tracts. Conclusion: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in early PPMS, cortical damage is for the most part a sequela of normal-appearing WM pathology, which, in turn, is predicted by abnormalities within WM lesions. PMID:26674332

  2. White matter hyperintensities, cognitive impairment and dementia: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, N.D.; Scheltens, P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the brain are the consequence of cerebral small vessel disease, and can easily be detected on MRI. Over the past three decades, research has shown that the presence and extent of white matter hyperintense signals on MRI are important for clinical outcome, in

  3. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, Carola van; Buijs, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm 2 ) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  4. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  5. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  6. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  7. MR imaging of central nervous system white matter tract degeneration (Wallerian degeneration)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Davis, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is readily demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-one patients with MR signal abnormalities in various central nervous system (CNS) white matter tracts were evaluated with regard to (1) nature of signal abnormality, (2) MR anatomy of the involved tract, and (3) primary pathology (e.g., infarct, tumor, hemorrhage). Most examples of wallerian degeneration result in a thin, continuous band of long T1, long T2 signal abnormality conforming to the known anatomic pathway of a CNS axonal tract. Old, large cortical infarcts have the greatest propensity to show subsequent white-matter tract degeneration. Corticospinal tract degeneration is the type most readily visualized, often seen extending completely from the cerebral cortex through the medulla

  8. Socioeconomic status, white matter, and executive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.

  9. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  10. Information processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter and general intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Clara; Cox, Simon R; Duff, Barbara; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2016-08-30

    Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. We hypothesised that the relationship between white matter and general intelligence would be mediated by processing speed. White matter water diffusion parameters were studied using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and computed within 46 regions-of-interest (ROI). Principal component analysis was conducted on these white matter ROI for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, and on neurocognitive subtests to extract general factors of white mater structure (gFA, gMD), general intelligence (g) and processing speed (gspeed). There was a positive correlation between g and gFA (r= 0.67, p =0.001) that was partially and significantly mediated by gspeed (56.22% CI: 0.10-0.62). These findings suggest a plausible model of structure-function relations in schizophrenia, whereby white matter structure may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for general intelligence, which is partly supported by speed of information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Mendez

    Full Text Available Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and other frontally-predominant disorders.To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs, an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer's disease (AD, where it is not.This study analyzed bvFTD (n = 14 patients and a comparison group with early-onset AD (n = 19. We compared their resting SCLs with gray matter and white matter regions of interest and white matter measures of fiber integrity on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.As expected, bvFTD patients, compared to AD patients, had lower SCLs, which correlated with an apathy measure, and more gray matter loss and abnormalities of fiber integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in frontal-anterior temporal regions. After controlling for group membership, the SCLs were significantly correlated with white matter volumes in the cingulum and inferior parietal region in the right hemisphere.Among dementia patients, SCLs, and resting sympathetic tone, may correlate with quantity of white matter, rather than with gray matter or with white matter fiber integrity. Loss of white matter volumes, especially involving a right frontoparietal network, may reflect chronic loss of cortical axons that mediate frontal control of resting sympathetic tone, changes that could contribute to the apathy and inertia of bvFTD and related disorders.

  12. Brain Regions Showing White Matter Loss in Huntington's Disease Are Enriched for Synaptic and Metabolic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Gregory, Sarah; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Papoutsi, Marina; Johnson, Eileanoir; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Leavitt, Blair R; Holmans, Peter; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2018-03-01

    The earliest white matter changes in Huntington's disease are seen before disease onset in the premanifest stage around the striatum, within the corpus callosum, and in posterior white matter tracts. While experimental evidence suggests that these changes may be related to abnormal gene transcription, we lack an understanding of the biological processes driving this regional vulnerability. Here, we investigate the relationship between regional transcription in the healthy brain, using the Allen Institute for Brain Science transcriptome atlas, and regional white matter connectivity loss at three time points over 24 months in subjects with premanifest Huntington's disease relative to control participants. The baseline cohort included 72 premanifest Huntington's disease participants and 85 healthy control participants. We show that loss of corticostriatal, interhemispheric, and intrahemispheric white matter connections at baseline and over 24 months in premanifest Huntington's disease is associated with gene expression profiles enriched for synaptic genes and metabolic genes. Corticostriatal gene expression profiles are predominately associated with motor, parietal, and occipital regions, while interhemispheric expression profiles are associated with frontotemporal regions. We also show that genes with known abnormal transcription in human Huntington's disease and animal models are overrepresented in synaptic gene expression profiles, but not in metabolic gene expression profiles. These findings suggest a dual mechanism of white matter vulnerability in Huntington's disease, in which abnormal transcription of synaptic genes and metabolic disturbance not related to transcription may drive white matter loss. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Semantic representation in the white matter pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxing; Wang, Xiaosha; Zhong, Suyu; Song, Luping; Han, Zaizhu; Gong, Gaolang; Bi, Yanchao

    2018-04-06

    Object conceptual processing has been localized to distributed cortical regions that represent specific attributes. A challenging question is how object semantic space is formed. We tested a novel framework of representing semantic space in the pattern of white matter (WM) connections by extending the representational similarity analysis (RSA) to structural lesion pattern and behavioral data in 80 brain-damaged patients. For each WM connection, a neural representational dissimilarity matrix (RDM) was computed by first building machine-learning models with the voxel-wise WM lesion patterns as features to predict naming performance of a particular item and then computing the correlation between the predicted naming score and the actual naming score of another item in the testing patients. This correlation was used to build the neural RDM based on the assumption that if the connection pattern contains certain aspects of information shared by the naming processes of these two items, models trained with one item should also predict naming accuracy of the other. Correlating the neural RDM with various cognitive RDMs revealed that neural patterns in several WM connections that connect left occipital/middle temporal regions and anterior temporal regions associated with the object semantic space. Such associations were not attributable to modality-specific attributes (shape, manipulation, color, and motion), to peripheral picture-naming processes (picture visual similarity, phonological similarity), to broad semantic categories, or to the properties of the cortical regions that they connected, which tended to represent multiple modality-specific attributes. That is, the semantic space could be represented through WM connection patterns across cortical regions representing modality-specific attributes.

  14. Vanishing white matter disease in French-Canadian patients from Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marie-Ève; Rossignol, Elsa; Brais, Bernard; Rouleau, Guy; Arbour, Jean-François; Bernard, Geneviève

    2014-08-01

    Vanishing white matter disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy caused by mutations in any of the five genes encoding the subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. Most of the reported patients are of North American and European ancestry. The objective of the study was to review the clinical, radiological, and molecular characteristics of vanishing white matter disease in a cohort of French-Canadian patients. Between 2004 and March 2012, five French-Canadian (non-Cree) patients from Quebec were clinically and genetically diagnosed with vanishing white matter disease within three Montreal Neurogenetics and Leukodystrophy clinics. Their clinical presentation and evolution, demographic characteristics, genetic mutations, and imaging were reviewed and compared with what is known in the literature. Sequencing of the exons and intronic boundaries of the EIF2B1-5 genes revealed a rare 260C>T (A87V) missense mutation in EIF2B3 in two homozygous patients and one compound heterozygous patient. This mutation was previously reported in only one patient in the literature. The carrier frequency is unknown. Also, three of five Quebec patients had an extremely rare vanishing white matter disease presentation of migraines with transient neurological abnormalities. The 260C>T (A87V) mutation in exon 3 of the EIF2B3 gene is likely a founder mutation for vanishing white matter disease in Quebec. Transient hemiparesthesia and hemiparesis episodes accompanied by headaches as presenting abnormalities of vanishing white matter disease are usually rare but seemed to be more frequent among the French-Canadian Quebec patients. They seemed to be preceded by periods of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. White matter and visuospatial processing in autism: a constrained spherical deconvolution tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jane; Johnson, Katherine; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Gallagher, Louise; Leemans, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with a marked disturbance of neural functional connectivity, which may arise from disrupted organization of white matter. The aim of this study was to use constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography to isolate and characterize major intrahemispheric white matter tracts that are important in visuospatial processing. CSD-based tractography avoids a number of critical confounds that are associated with diffusion tensor tractography, and to our knowledge, this is the first time that this advanced diffusion tractography method has been used in autism research. Twenty-five participants with ASD and aged 25, intelligence quotient-matched controls completed a high angular resolution diffusion imaging scan. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and arcuate fasciculus were isolated using CSD-based tractography. Quantitative diffusion measures of white matter microstructural organization were compared between groups and associated with visuospatial processing performance. Significant alteration of white matter organization was present in the right IFOF in individuals with ASD. In addition, poorer visuospatial processing was associated in individuals with ASD with disrupted white matter in the right IFOF. Using a novel, advanced tractography method to isolate major intrahemispheric white matter tracts in autism, this research has demonstrated that there are significant alterations in the microstructural organization of white matter in the right IFOF in ASD. This alteration was associated with poorer visuospatial processing performance in the ASD group. This study provides an insight into structural brain abnormalities that may influence atypical visuospatial processing in autism. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. White matter tract integrity in treatment-resistant gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Derbyshire, Katherine; Daws, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder recently re-classified within the DSM-5 under the category of ‘substance-related and addictive disorders’. Aims: To compare white matter integrity in patients with gambling disorder with healthy controls; to explore...... relationships between white matter integrity and disease severity in gambling disorder. Method: In total, 16 participants with treatment-resistant gambling disorder and 15 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). White matter integrity was analysed using tract-based spatial statistics....... Results: Gambling disorder was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy in distributed white matter tracts elsewhere correlated positively with disease severity. Conclusions: Reduced corpus callosum fractional...

  17. Patchy cerebral white matter edema in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlar, B.; Erzen, C.; Saatci, U.; Hacettepe Univ., Ankara

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral patchy cerebral white matter edema was observed in two children with chronic renal failure. Uremia in one case and hypertension or hyponatremia in the other appeared to be the cause of the neurological and radiological findings. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  19. Genetics Home Reference: leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Torres C, Pröschel C. EIF2B5 mutations compromise GFAP+ astrocyte generation in vanishing white matter leukodystrophy. Nat Med. ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  20. Preliminary study of normal changes in brain white matter during childhood with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiangxi; Guo Xuemei; Xie Sheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the normal changes in brain white matter during childhood by analyzing the anisotropy of different regions and different age groups with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI was performed in 89 children (age range from 2 days to 18 years) without brain abnormalities, and the data measured in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed statistically. Children less than 6 months were ranged to group 1, 6-12 months to group 2, 1-3 years to group 3, 3-5 years to group 4, 5-8 years to group 5, 8-12 years to group 6, 12-18 years to group 7. Results: (1) There were significant differences in anisotropy (FA values) among different regions of white matter in brain. In group 7, the FA value of corpus callosum was 0.826 ± 0.039, middle cerebellar peduncle 0.678 ± 0.043, frontal white matter 0.489 ± 0.033. (2) The anisotropy among different age group was statistically different, P<0.05. (3) The anisotropy of white matter increased with the increasing of age, and FA values showed positively exponentially correlations with age. Conclusion: DTI shows the structure of white matters in vivo, with which normal changes in brain during childhood can be evaluated. (authors)

  1. White matter microstructure damage in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, ChunYan; Song, Wei; Chen, Qin; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang [Sichuan University, Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Gong, QiYong [Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Resting tremor is one of the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several lines of evidence suggest resting tremor may have different underlying pathophysiological processes from those of bradykinesia and rigidity. The current study aims to identify white matter microstructural abnormalities associated with resting tremor in PD. We recruited 60 patients with PD (30 with tremor-dominant PD and 30 with nontremor-dominant PD) and 26 normal controls. All participants underwent clinical assessment and diffusion tensor MRI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate white matter integrity across the entire white matter tract skeleton. Compared with both healthy controls and the nontremor-dominant PD patients, the tremor-dominant PD patients were characterized by increased mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) along multiple white matter tracts, mainly involving the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) pathway. The mean AD value in clusters with significant difference was correlated with resting tremor score in the tremor-dominant PD patients. There was no significant difference between the nontremor-dominant PD patients and controls. Our results support the notion that resting tremor in PD is a distinct condition in which significant microstructural white matter changes exist and provide evidence for the involvement of the CTC in tremor genesis of PD. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  4. Microstructural white matter changes, not hippocampal atrophy, detect early amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhuang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is generally considered to be characterized by pathology in gray matter of the brain, but convergent evidence suggests that white matter degradation also plays a vital role in its pathogenesis. The evolution of white matter deterioration and its relationship with gray matter atrophy remains elusive in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a prodromal stage of AD.We studied 155 cognitively normal (CN and 27 'late' aMCI individuals with stable diagnosis over 2 years, and 39 'early' aMCI individuals who had converted from CN to aMCI at 2-year follow up. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography was used to reconstruct six white matter tracts three limbic tracts critical for episodic memory function - the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus; two cortico-cortical association fiber tracts - superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus; and one projection fiber tract - corticospinal tract. Microstructural integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, radial diffusivity (RD and axial diffusivity (AxD was assessed for these tracts.Compared with CN, late aMCI had lower white matter integrity in the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus, while early aMCI showed white matter damage in the fornix. In addition, fornical measures were correlated with hippocampal atrophy in late aMCI, whereas abnormality of the fornix in early aMCI occurred in the absence of hippocampal atrophy and did not correlate with hippocampal volumes.Limbic white matter tracts are preferentially affected in the early stages of cognitive dysfunction. Microstructural degradation of the fornix preceding hippocampal atrophy may serve as a novel imaging marker for aMCI at an early stage.

  5. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA th...

  6. Diminished white matter integrity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that changes in regional white matter integrity, in terms of a decrease in FA, are present not only in NPSLE patients, but also in non-NPSLE patients, though to a lesser degree. We also demonstrate that the way statistical maps are corrected for multiple comparisons has a profound influence on whether alterations in white matter integrity in non-NPSLE patients are deemed significant.

  7. Mechanisms of white matter change induced by meditation training

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Michael I.; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Lynch, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Training can induce changes in specific brain networks and changes in brain state. In both cases it has been found that the efficiency of white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging is increased, often after only a few hours of training. In this paper we consider a plausible molecular mechanism for how state change produced by meditation might lead to white matter change. According to this hypothesis frontal theta induced by meditation produces a molecular cascade that increases myel...

  8. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  9. Patterns of white matter microstructure in individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, K; Ebdrup, B H; Glenthøj, B Y

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis present with emerging symptoms and decline in functioning. Previous univariate analyses have indicated widespread white matter (WM) aberrations in multiple brain regions in UHR individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Using multiv......, MO, and higher RD. CONCLUSIONS: UHR individuals demonstrate complex brain patterns of WM abnormalities. Despite the subtle psychopathology of UHR individuals, aberrations in WM appear associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as level of functioning....

  10. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  11. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  12. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  14. White matter microstructure is associated with cognitive control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Powers, John P; Knecht, Anya M; Pontifex, Matthew B; Drollette, Eric S; Moore, R Davis; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive control, which involves the ability to pay attention and suppress interference, is important for learning and achievement during childhood. The white matter tracts related to control during childhood are not well known. We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and cognitive control in 61 children aged 7-9 years using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This technique enables an in vivo characterization of microstructural properties of white matter based on properties of diffusion. Such properties include fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, measures thought to reflect specific biological properties of white matter integrity. Our results suggest that children with higher estimates of white matter integrity in the corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiation, and cerebral peduncle were more accurate during incongruent (> > >, -, --matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiation and cerebral peduncle. Fiber tracts in a frontal-parietal-striatal-motor circuit seem to play a role in cognitive control in children. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. White matter changes and word finding failures with increasing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Stamatakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing life expectancy necessitates the better understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of age-related cognitive changes. The majority of research examining structural-cognitive relationships in aging focuses on the role of age-related changes to grey matter integrity. In the current study, we examined the relationship between age-related changes in white matter and language production. More specifically, we concentrated on word-finding failures, which increase with age.We used Diffusion tensor MRI (a technique used to image, in vivo, the diffusion of water molecules in brain tissue to relate white matter integrity to measures of successful and unsuccessful picture naming. Diffusion tensor images were used to calculate Fractional Anisotropy (FA images. FA is considered to be a measure of white matter organization/integrity. FA images were related to measures of successful picture naming and to word finding failures using voxel-based linear regression analyses. Successful naming rates correlated positively with white matter integrity across a broad range of regions implicated in language production. However, word finding failure rates correlated negatively with a more restricted region in the posterior aspect of superior longitudinal fasciculus.The use of DTI-MRI provides evidence for the relationship between age-related white matter changes in specific language regions and word finding failures in old age.

  16. Framework for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, Tanya; Bruckert, Lisa; Pestilli, Franco; Yecies, Derek W; Guibas, Leonidas J; Yeom, Kristen W

    2018-02-15

    Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation. Our framework is useful for analysis of shape variability in white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate our framework by applying our methods on two datasets: one consisting of data for 6 normal adults and another consisting of data for 38 normal children of age 11 days to 8.5 years. We suggest a robust and reproducible method to measure changes in the shape of white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate how this method can be used to create a model to assess age-dependent changes in the shape of specific fiber bundles. We derive such models for an ensemble of white matter fiber bundles on our pediatric dataset and show that our results agree with normative human head and brain growth data. Creating these models for a large pediatric longitudinal dataset may improve understanding of both normal development and pathologic states and propose novel parameters for the examination of the pediatric brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical and white matter alterations in patients with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Shin, Hyung Ik; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-12-02

    Neuropathic pain is one of the major problems of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), which remains refractory to treatment despite a variety of therapeutic approach. Multimodal neuroimaging could provide complementary information for brain mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, which could be based on development of more effective treatment strategies. Ten patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain after SCI and 10 healthy controls underwent FDG-PET, T1-anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. We found decreases of both metabolism and the gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients compared to healthy controls, as well as hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex and gray matter volume loss in bilateral anterior insulae and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. These brain regions are generally known to participate in pain modulation by affective and cognitive processes. Decreases of mean diffusivity (MD) in the right internal capsule including, cerebral peduncle, pre-and post-central white matter, and prefrontal white matter as components of the corticospinal and thalamocortical tracts were demonstrated in patients. Further, lower MD value of prefrontal white matter was correlated with decreased metabolism of medial prefrontal cortex in patients. These results indicated that white matter changes imply abnormal pain modulation in patients as well as motor impairment. Our study showed the functional and structural multimodal imaging modality commonly identified the possible abnormalities in the brain regions participating pain modulation in neuropathic pain. Multifaceted imaging studies in neuropathic pain could be useful elucidating precise mechanisms of persistent pain, and providing future directions for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alterations in diffusion properties of white matter in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Lori R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Dykens, Elisabeth M; Anderson, Adam W

    2011-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the involvement of brain white matter in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. Whole-brain DTIs were obtained from 16 young adults with WS and 16 normal controls. A voxel-based analysis was performed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between the two groups. A tract-based analysis was also performed to compare FA values between the two groups along two major white matter tracts that pass through the external capsule: the uncinate and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Several regions of both increased and decreased FA were found within major white matter tracts that connect functional regions that have previously been implicated in the cognitive and neurological symptoms of the syndrome. The tract-based analysis provided additional insight into the involvement of specific white matter tracts implicated in the voxel-based analysis within the external capsule. The results from this study support previously reported changes in white matter diffusion properties in WS and demonstrate the potential usefulness for tract-based analysis in future studies of the disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc Protoporphyrin Attenuates White Matter Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuxiang; Gong, Ye; Liu, Wen-Quan; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced white matter injury has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on white matter injury induced by ICH. This study was divided into two parts. In the first part, rats received either a needle insertion (sham) or 100 μl autologous blood into the right basal ganglia. The rats were euthanized at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 days later for myelin basic protein (MBP) measurement. In the second part, rats had intracerebral infusion of 100 μl autologous blood, and an intraperitoneal osmotic mini-pump was implanted immediately after ICH to deliver vehicle or ZnPP (1 nmol/h), a heme oxygenase inhibitor, for up to 14 days. Rats were euthanized at day 28 for MBP staining. The number of MBP-labeled fiber bundles and their area were determined. The time-course showed that the white matter was lost in the ipsilateral basal ganglia from day 1 to day 28 after ICH. The number of MBP-labeled bundles and their area were significantly lower 2 weeks after ICH compared with sham-operated rats (p ZnPP attenuated the loss of MBP-labeled bundles (p ZnPP reduces white matter injury, suggesting a role of heme degradation products in ICH-induced white matter damage.

  20. White matter microstructure in boys with persistent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Veronika; Vance, Alasdair; Cunnington, Ross; Silk, Timothy J

    2017-10-15

    Persistent depressive symptoms in children and adolescents are considered a risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) later in life. Previous research has shown alterations in white matter microstructure in pediatric MDD but discrepancies exist as to the specific tracts affected. The current study aimed to improve upon previous methodology and address the question whether previous findings of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) replicate in a sample of children with persistent depressive disorder characterized by mild but more chronic symptoms of depression. White matter microstructure was examined in 25 boys with persistent depressive disorder and 25 typically developing children. Tract specific analysis implemented with the Diffusion Tensor Imaging - ToolKit (DTI-TK) was used to probe fractional anisotropy (FA) in eleven major white matter tracts. Clusters within the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital and cerebrospinal tracts showed lower FA in the clinical group. FA in the left uncinate showed a negative association with self-reported symptoms of depression. The results demonstrate lower FA in several white matter tracts in children with persistent depressive disorder. These findings support the contention that early onset depression is associated with altered white matter microstructure, which may contribute to the maintenance and recurrence of symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. ABCD1 dysfunction alters white matter microvascular perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Arne; Da, Xiao; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Boulouis, Gregoire; Ou, Yangming; Cai, Xuezhu; Liberato Celso Pedrotti, Afonso; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Caruso, Paul; Hayden, Douglas L; Rost, Natalia; Mouridsen, Kim; Eichler, Florian S; Rosen, Bruce; Musolino, Patricia L

    2017-12-01

    Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptomatic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease. In subjects with ongoing inflammatory demyelination we observed a sequence of increased capillary flow heterogeneity followed by blood-brain barrier permeability changes in the perilesional white matter, which predicts lesion progression. These white matter microvascular alterations normalize within 1 year after treatment with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the first time in vivo, our studies unveil a model to assess how ABCD1 alters white matter microvascular function and explores its potential as an earlier biomarker for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  2. White matter microstructure integrity in relation to reading proficiency☆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikki Arrington, C; Kulesz, Paulina A; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M

    2017-11-01

    Components of reading proficiency such asaccuracy, fluency, and comprehension require the successful coordination of numerous, yet distinct, cortical regions. Underlying white matter tracts allow for communication among these regions. This study utilized unique residualized tract - based spatial statistics methodology to identify the relations of white matter microstructure integrity to three components of reading proficiency in 49 school - aged children with typically developing phonological decoding skills and 27 readers with poor decoders. Results indicated that measures of white matter integrity were differentially associated with components of reading proficiency. In both typical and poor decoders, reading comprehension correlated with measures of integrity of the right uncinate fasciculus; reading comprehension was also related to the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus in poor decoders. Also in poor decoders, word reading fluency was related to the right uncinate and left inferior fronto - occipital fasciculi. Word reading was unrelated to white matter integrity in either group. These findings expand our knowledge of the association between white matter integrity and different elements of reading proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kearns-Sayre syndrome with facial and white matter extensive involvement: a (mitochondrial and nuclear gene related? neurocristopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report on a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome, large mtDNA deletion (7/kb, facial abnormalities and severe central nervous system (CNS white matter radiological features, commonly attributed to spongy alterations. The common origin from neural crest cell (NCC of facial structures (cartilagineous, osseous, vascular and of the peripheral nervous system and of peripheral glia and partially of the CNS white matter are underlined and the facial and glial abnormalities are attributed to the abnormal reproduction/migration of NCC. In this view, the CNS spongy alterations in KSS may be not only a dystrophic process (leukodystrophy but also a dysplastic condition (leukodysplasia. The Authors hypothesize that the symptoms may be related to mtDNA mutations associated to NCC nuclear gene abnormality. SOX 10 gene may be a nuclear candidate gene, as reported in some case of Waardenburg IV syndrome.

  4. Disrupted Thalamus White Matter Anatomy and Posterior Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry. Thus, this article uses a multimodal approach to assess white matter integrity between thalamus and DMN components and associated effective connectivity in healthy controls (HCs relative to aMCI patients. Twenty-six HC and 20 older adults with aMCI underwent structural, functional and diffusion MRI scanning using the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol. The DMN of each subject was identified using independent component analysis (ICA and resting state effective connectivity was calculated between thalamus and DMN nodes. White matter integrity changes between thalamus and DMN were investigated with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD tractography. Significant structural deficits in thalamic white matter projection fibers to posterior DMN components posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and lateral inferior parietal lobe (IPL were identified together with significantly reduced effective connectivity from left thalamus to left IPL. Crucially, impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry correlated with memory performance. Disrupted thalamo-cortical structure was accompanied by significant reductions in IPL and PCC cortico-cortical effective connectivity. No structural deficits were found between DMN nodes. Abnormal posterior DMN activity may be driven by changes in thalamic white matter connectivity; a view supported by the close anatomical and functional association of thalamic nuclei effected by AD pathology and

  5. Disrupted Thalamus White Matter Anatomy and Posterior Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Thomas; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Maguire, Liam; Farrell, Dervla; Lawlor, Brian; Kenny, Rose A; Lyons, Declan; Bokde, Arun L W; Coyle, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN) resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry. Thus, this article uses a multimodal approach to assess white matter integrity between thalamus and DMN components and associated effective connectivity in healthy controls (HCs) relative to aMCI patients. Twenty-six HC and 20 older adults with aMCI underwent structural, functional and diffusion MRI scanning using the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol. The DMN of each subject was identified using independent component analysis (ICA) and resting state effective connectivity was calculated between thalamus and DMN nodes. White matter integrity changes between thalamus and DMN were investigated with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography. Significant structural deficits in thalamic white matter projection fibers to posterior DMN components posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lateral inferior parietal lobe (IPL) were identified together with significantly reduced effective connectivity from left thalamus to left IPL. Crucially, impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry correlated with memory performance. Disrupted thalamo-cortical structure was accompanied by significant reductions in IPL and PCC cortico-cortical effective connectivity. No structural deficits were found between DMN nodes. Abnormal posterior DMN activity may be driven by changes in thalamic white matter connectivity; a view supported by the close anatomical and functional association of thalamic nuclei effected by AD pathology and the posterior

  6. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2007-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA than control subjects. Group differences remained significant when right and left frontal Trace and FA were analyzed. Groups did not differ significantly in posterior Trace or FA. Kleptomania may be associated with decreased white matter microstructural integrity in inferior frontal brain regions. PMID:16956753

  7. Is sequential cranial ultrasound reliable for detection of white matter injury in very preterm infants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijser, Lara M.; Steggerda, Sylke J.; Walther, Frans J.; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van; Bruine, Francisca T. de; Grond, Jeroen van der

    2010-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound (cUS) may not be reliable for detection of diffuse white matter (WM) injury. Our aim was to assess in very preterm infants the reliability of a classification system for WM injury on sequential cUS throughout the neonatal period, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference standard. In 110 very preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks), serial cUS during admission (median 8, range 4-22) and again around term equivalent age (TEA) and a single MRI around TEA were performed. cUS during admission were assessed for presence of WM changes, and contemporaneous cUS and MRI around TEA additionally for abnormality of lateral ventricles. Sequential cUS (from birth up to TEA) and MRI were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, or severely abnormal, based on a combination of findings of the WM and lateral ventricles. Predictive values of the cUS classification were calculated. Sequential cUS were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, and severely abnormal in, respectively, 22%, 65%, and 13% of infants and MRI in, respectively, 30%, 52%, and 18%. The positive predictive value of the cUS classification for the MRI classification was high for severely abnormal WM (0.79) but lower for normal/mildly abnormal (0.67) and moderately abnormal (0.64) WM. Sequential cUS during the neonatal period detects severely abnormal WM in very preterm infants but is less reliable for mildly and moderately abnormal WM. MRI around TEA seems needed to reliably detect WM injury in very preterm infants. (orig.)

  8. Is sequential cranial ultrasound reliable for detection of white matter injury in very preterm infants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijser, Lara M.; Steggerda, Sylke J.; Walther, Frans J.; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, Francisca T. de; Grond, Jeroen van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Cranial ultrasound (cUS) may not be reliable for detection of diffuse white matter (WM) injury. Our aim was to assess in very preterm infants the reliability of a classification system for WM injury on sequential cUS throughout the neonatal period, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference standard. In 110 very preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks), serial cUS during admission (median 8, range 4-22) and again around term equivalent age (TEA) and a single MRI around TEA were performed. cUS during admission were assessed for presence of WM changes, and contemporaneous cUS and MRI around TEA additionally for abnormality of lateral ventricles. Sequential cUS (from birth up to TEA) and MRI were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, or severely abnormal, based on a combination of findings of the WM and lateral ventricles. Predictive values of the cUS classification were calculated. Sequential cUS were classified as normal/mildly abnormal, moderately abnormal, and severely abnormal in, respectively, 22%, 65%, and 13% of infants and MRI in, respectively, 30%, 52%, and 18%. The positive predictive value of the cUS classification for the MRI classification was high for severely abnormal WM (0.79) but lower for normal/mildly abnormal (0.67) and moderately abnormal (0.64) WM. Sequential cUS during the neonatal period detects severely abnormal WM in very preterm infants but is less reliable for mildly and moderately abnormal WM. MRI around TEA seems needed to reliably detect WM injury in very preterm infants. (orig.)

  9. Chronic post-concussion neurocognitive deficits. I. Relationship with white matter integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMaruta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously identified visual tracking deficits and associated degradation of integrity in specific white matter tracts as characteristics of concussion. We re-explored these characteristics in adult patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms using independent new data acquired during 2009-2012. Thirty-two patients and 126 normal controls underwent cognitive assessments and MR-DTI. After data collection, a subset of control subjects was selected to be individually paired with patients based on gender and age. We identified patients’ cognitive deficits through pairwise comparisons between patients and matched control subjects. Within the remaining 94 normal subjects, we identified white matter tracts whose integrity correlated with metrics that indicated performance degradation in patients. We then tested for reduced integrity in these white matter tracts in patients relative to matched controls. Most patients showed no abnormality in MR images unlike the previous study. Patients’ visual tracking was generally normal. Patients’ response times in an attention task were slowed, but could not be explained as reduced integrity of white matter tracts relating to normal response timing. In the present patient cohort, we did not observe behavioral or anatomical deficits that we previously identified as characteristic of concussion. The recent cohort likely represented those with milder injury compared to the earlier cohort. The discrepancy may be explained by a change in the patient recruitment pool circa 2007 associated with an increase in public awareness of concussion.

  10. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Intranasal Insulin Prevents Cognitive Decline, Cerebral Atrophy and White Matter Changes in Murine Type I Diabetic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George J.; Martinez, Jose A.; Liu, Wei Q.; Xu, Kevin; Ayer, Amit; Fine, Jared; Tuor, Ursula I.; Glazner, Gordon; Hanson, Leah R.; Frey, William H., II; Toth, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Insulin deficiency in type I diabetes may lead to cognitive impairment, cerebral atrophy and white matter abnormalities. We studied the impact of a novel delivery system using intranasal insulin (I-I) in a mouse model of type I diabetes (streptozotocin-induced) for direct targeting of pathological and cognitive deficits while avoiding potential…

  12. Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M; Palmer, Jennifer C; Kehoe, Patrick G; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2014-05-01

    of reduced ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 are likely to be protective physiological responses to reduced white matter perfusion. Further analysis of the Bristol cohort showed that endothelin 1 was reduced in the white matter in Alzheimer's disease (P < 0.05) compared with control subjects, but not in vascular dementia, in which endothelin 1 tended to be elevated, perhaps reflecting abnormal regulation of white matter perfusion in vascular dementia. Our findings demonstrate the potential of post-mortem measurement of myelin proteins and mediators of vascular function, to assess physiological and pathological processes involved in the regulation of cerebral perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

  13. Specific white matter tissue microstructure changes associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Callaghan, Martina F; Heni, Martin; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Scheffler, Klaus; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Veit, Ralf; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-15

    Obesity-related structural brain alterations point to a consistent reduction in gray matter with increasing body mass index (BMI) but changes in white matter have proven to be more complex and less conclusive. Hence, more recently diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been employed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter structure. Altogether, these studies have mostly shown a loss of white matter integrity with obesity-related factors in several brain regions. However, the variety of these obesity-related factors, including inflammation and dyslipidemia, resulted in competing influences on the DTI indices. To increase the specificity of DTI results, we explored specific brain tissue properties by combining DTI with quantitative multi-parameter mapping in lean, overweight and obese young adults. By means of multi-parameter mapping, white matter structures showed differences in MRI parameters consistent with reduced myelin, increased water and altered iron content with increasing BMI in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, internal capsule and corpus callosum. BMI-related changes in DTI parameters revealed mainly alterations in mean and axial diffusivity with increasing BMI in the corticospinal tract, anterior thalamic radiation and superior longitudinal fasciculus. These alterations, including mainly fiber tracts linking limbic structures with prefrontal regions, could potentially promote accelerated aging in obese individuals leading to an increased risk for cognitive decline. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Astrocytic hypertrophy in anterior cingulate white matter of depressed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Platas, Susana G; Hercher, Christa; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Maussion, Gilles; Labonté, Benoit; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2011-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cortical astrocytic function is disrupted in mood disorders and suicide. The fine neuroanatomy of astrocytes, however, remains to be investigated in these psychiatric conditions. In this study, we performed a detailed morphometric analysis of 3D-reconstructed gray and white matter astrocytes in Golgi-impregnated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) samples from depressed suicides and matched controls. Postmortem ACC samples (BA24) from 10 well-characterized depressed suicides and 10 matched sudden-death controls were obtained from the Quebec Suicide Brain Bank. Golgi-impregnated protoplasmic astrocytes (gray matter, layer VI) and fibrous astrocytes (adjacent white matter) were reconstructed, and their morphometric features were analyzed using the Neurolucida software. For each cell, the soma size as well as the number, length, and branching of processes were determined. The densities of thorny protrusions found along the processes of both astrocytic subtypes were also determined. Protoplasmic astrocytes showed no significant difference between groups for any of the quantified parameters. However, fibrous astrocytes had significantly larger cell bodies, as well as longer, more ramified processes in depressed suicides, with values for these parameters being about twice as high as those measured in controls. These results provide the first evidence of altered cortical astrocytic morphology in mood disorders. The presence of hypertrophic astrocytes in BA24 white matter is consistent with reports suggesting white matter alterations in depression, and provides further support to the neuroinflammatory theory of depression.

  15. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  16. Right fronto-insular white matter tracts link cognitive reserve and pain in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Beldarrain, Marian; Oroz, Isabel; Zapirain, Begoña Garcia; Ruanova, Begoña Fernandez; Fernandez, Yolanda Garcia; Cabrera, Alberto; Anton-Ladislao, Ane; Aguirre-Larracoechea, Urko; Garcıa-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Structural white matter abnormalities in pain-modulating, regions are present in migraine. Whether they are associated with pain chronification and with cognitive reserve is unclear. Prospective, cohort, six-month study of adult patients with episodic or chronic migraine, and controls. Cognitive reserve, quality of life, impact of pain on daily living, depression and anxiety were assessed. Participants underwent a diffusion-tensor MRI to establish the integrity of white matter tracts of three regions of interest (ROIs) implicated in pain modulation, emotion, cognition and resilience (anterior insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and uncinate fasciculus). Fifty-two individuals were enrolled: 19 episodic migraine patients, 18 chronic migraine patients, and 15 controls. The analysis of the fractional anisotropy in the ROIs showed that those patients with the poorest prognosis (i.e., those with chronic migraine despite therapy at six months--long-term chronic migraneurs) had a significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the right ROIs. Participants with higher cognitive reserve also had greater fractional anisotropy in the right anterior insula and both cingulate gyri. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between cognitive reserve, migraine frequency, and fractional anisotropy in the right-sided regions of interest. Long-term chronic migraine patients show abnormalities in anterior white matter tracts, particularly of the right hemisphere, involved in pain modulation emotion, cognition and resilience. Robustness in these areas is associated with a higher cognitive reserve, which in turn might result in a lower tendency to migraine chronification.

  17. Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL): Assessment of the involved white matter tracts by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Benha University (Egypt); Wafaie, Ahmed, E-mail: a_wafaie@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Abdelfattah, Sherif [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Farid, Tarek [Pediatric Department, Egyptian National Research Center (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Background and purpose: Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a recently identified autosomal recessive disorder with early onset of symptoms and slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction. LBSL is characterized by distinct white matter abnormalities and selective involvement of brainstem and spinal cord tracts. The purpose of this study is to assess the imaging features of the involved white matter tracts in cases of LBSL by MRI. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging features of the selectively involved white matter tracts in sixteen genetically proven cases of leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and elevated brain lactate (LBSL). All patients presented with slowly progressive cerebellar sensory ataxia with spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. MRI of the brain and spine using 1.5 T machine and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) on the abnormal white matter were done to all patients. The MRI and MRS data sets were analyzed according to lesion location, extent, distribution and signal pattern as well as metabolite values and ratios in MRS. Laboratory examinations ruled out classic leukodystrophies. Results: In all cases, MRI showed high signal intensity in T2-weighted and FLAIR images within the cerebral subcortical, periventricular and deep white matter, posterior limbs of internal capsules, centrum semiovale, medulla oblongata, intraparenchymal trajectory of trigeminal nerves and deep cerebellar white matter. In the spine, the signal intensity of the dorsal column and lateral cortico-spinal tracts were altered in all patients. The subcortical U fibers, globi pallidi, thalami, midbrain and transverse pontine fibers were spared in all cases. In 11 cases (68.8%), the signal changes were inhomogeneous and confluent whereas in 5 patients (31.2%), the signal abnormalities were spotty. MRI also showed variable

  18. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Periventricular cerebral white matter lesions predict rate of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JC; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; van Gijn, J; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    The prospect of declining cognitive functions is a major fear for many elderly persons. Cerebral white matter lesions, as commonly found with magnetic resonance imaging, have been associated with cognitive dysfunction in cross-sectional studies. Only a few longitudinal studies using small cohorts

  20. Evaluation of white matter myelin water fraction in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, M R; Mackay, A L; Vavasour, I M; Rauscher, A; Boyd, L A

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component T2 relaxation imaging (MCRI) provides specific in vivo measurement of myelin water content and tissue water environments through myelin water fraction (MWF), intra/extra-cellular water fraction (I/EWF) and intra/extracellular and global geometric mean T2 (GMT2) times. Quantitative MCRI assessment of tissue water environments has provided new insights into the progression and underlying white matter pathology in neural disorders such as multiple sclerosis. It has not previously been applied to investigate changes in white matter in the stroke-affected brain. Thus, the purposes of this study were to 1) use MCRI to index myelin water content and tissue water environments in the brain after stroke 2) evaluate relationships between MWF and diffusion behavior indexed by diffusion tensor imaging-based metrics and 3) examine the relationship between white matter status (MWF and fractional anisotropy) and motor behavior in the chronic phase of stroke recovery. Twenty individuals with ischemic stroke and 12 matched healthy controls participated. Excellent to good test/re-test and inter-rater reliability was observed for region of interest-based voxelwise MWF data. Reduced MWF was observed in whole-cerebrum white matter (p applications for the understanding of the neuropathology of stroke.

  1. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolijn Vanderauwera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n = 61 of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n = 15. We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF, with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter.

  3. Visualizing White Matter Structure of the Brain using Dijkstra's Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Zinterhof, P; Loncaric, S; Uhl, A; Carini, A

    2009-01-01

    An undirected weighted graph may be constructed from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data. Every node represents a voxel and the edge weights between nodes represent the white matter connectivity between neighboring voxels. In this paper we propose and test a new method for calculating

  4. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  5. White matter hyperintensities and working memory : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Barbera; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterman, J

    2008-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly observed in elderly people and may have the most profound effect on executive functions, including working memory. Surprisingly, the Digit Span backward, a frequently employed working memory task, reveals no association with WMH. In the present study,

  6. Anomalous White Matter Morphology in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Matthew; Ingham, Rojer J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Developmental stuttering is now generally considered to arise from genetic determinants interacting with neurologic function. Changes within speech-motor white matter (WM) connections may also be implicated. These connections can now be studied in great detail by high-angular-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore,…

  7. White matter microstructure correlates of mathematical giftedness and intelligence quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Javier; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain activation between mathematically gifted adolescents and controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mathematical giftedness, intelligent quotient (IQ), and the microstructure of white matter tracts in a sample composed of math-gifted adolescents and aged-matched controls. Math-gifted subjects were selected through a national program based on detecting enhanced visuospatial abilities and creative thinking. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure in neuroanatomical connectivity. The processing included voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses of the fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter which is purportedly related to white matter microstructure. In a whole-sample analysis, IQ showed a significant positive correlation with FA, mainly in the corpus callosum, supporting the idea that efficient information transfer between hemispheres is crucial for higher intellectual capabilities. In addition, math-gifted adolescents showed increased FA (adjusted for IQ) in white matter tracts connecting frontal lobes with basal ganglia and parietal regions. The enhanced anatomical connectivity observed in the forceps minor and splenium may underlie the greater fluid reasoning, visuospatial working memory, and creative capabilities of these children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MRI white Matter Lesions in a Stroke Clinic Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) on MRI have been related not only to age but also to cerebrovascular disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of WML in a population of patients attending a stroke clinic and relate it to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis as determined by increased carotid ...

  9. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD: A...

  10. Late onset vanishing white matter disease presenting with learning difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damásio, Joana; van der Lei, Hannemieke D. W.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Santos, Ernestina

    2012-01-01

    Vanishing white matter is an inherited leukoencephalopathy with typical childhood onset. Late onset forms are rare and may present with an extended range of phenotypes. Case report We present a patient born to consanguineous parents who developed learning disabilities by the age of 16 years. At the

  11. White matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering: Lessons from tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Civier, Oren; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter. We compare the diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways. We complement the analysis with an overview of the methodology and a roadmap of the pathways implicated in PDS according to the existing literature. We report differences in the microstructural properties of the anterior callosum, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right cingulum in people who stutter compared with fluent controls. Persistent developmental stuttering is consistently associated with differences in bilateral distributed networks. We review evidence showing that PDS involves differences in bilateral dorsal fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal pathways, in callosal pathways, in several motor pathways and in basal ganglia connections. This entails an important role for long range white matter pathways in this disorder. Using a wide-lens analysis, we demonstrate differences in additional, right hemispheric pathways, which go beyond the replicable findings in the literature. This suggests that the affected circuits may extend beyond the known language and motor pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi T. Ngo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children’s performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Keywords: White matter, Memory development, Episodic memory, Diffusion weighted imaging

  13. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.M.; Impe, A. Van; Duysens, J.E.J.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults

  14. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.M.; Van Impe, A.; Duysens, J.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults

  15. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Avants, Brian B.; Gee, James C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white ...

  16. Default-mode network connectivity and white matter burden in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minjie; Andreescu, Carmen; Butters, Meryl A; Tamburo, Robert; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard

    2011-10-31

    The brain's default-mode network has been the focus of intense research. This study characterizes the default-mode network activity in late-life depression and the correlation of the default-mode network activity changes with the white-matter hyperintensities burden. We hypothesized that elderly depressed subjects would have altered default-mode network activity, which would correlate with the increased white-matter hyperintensities burden. Twelve depressed subjects (mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 19.8±4.1, mean age 70.5±4.9) and 12 non-depressed, comparison subjects (mean age 69±6.5) were included. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while subjects performed a low cognitive load, event-related task. We compared the default-mode network activity in these groups (including depressed subjects pre- and post-antidepressant treatment). We analyzed the resting connectivity patterns of the posterior cingulate cortex. Deconvolution was used to evaluate the correlation of resting-state connectivity scores with the white-matter hyperintensities burden. Compared with non-depressed elderly, depressed subjects pretreatment had decreased connectivity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and increased connectivity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the orbito-frontal cortex. The abnormal connectivity was significantly correlated with the white-matter hyperintensities burden. Remitted elderly depressed subjects had improved functional connectivity compared to pretreatment, although alterations persisted in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortex when remitted elderly depressed subjects were compared with non-depressed elderly. Our study provides evidence for altered default-mode network connectivity in late-life depression. The correlation between white-matter hyperintensities burden and default-mode network connectivity emphasizes the role of vascular changes in late-life depression etiopathogenesis. Copyright © 2011

  17. Segmentation of gray matter, white matter, and CSF with fluid and white matter suppression using MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishi; Wang, Yajie; Zhang, Zhe; Xiong, Yuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-22

    MP2RAGE can generate uniform T 1 -weighted images, which have been used for brain segmentation. However, there remain concerns about carrying out fast brain segmentation. To propose an acquisition-based method for fast segmentation of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy human brains with fluid and white matter suppression (FLAWS) using MP2RAGE. Prospective. 12 volunteers (23-28 years, seven subjects; 51-62 years, five subjects). 3T/3D MPRAGE and FLAWS. The proposed method was evaluated by calculating tissue volumes and the spatial overlap with the segmentation results from FSL and SPM12. The processing time was recorded. A paired t-test was used to compare the tissue volumes of the proposed method with those from other segmentation methods RESULTS: For the 12 subjects, the tissue volume difference between the proposed and SPM12 were 3.2 ± 2.8%, 4.2 ± 2.5%, 18.2 ± 13.1% for GM, WM, and CSF, respectively. The relative difference between the proposed and FSL was over 14% for all tissue classes. The spatial overlap between the proposed and other methods were 87-94% for GM and WM and less than 80% for CSF. The GM and WM volumes of the proposed method were not significantly different from those of SPM12 using MPRAGE as the input (P = 0.5540 and P = 0.3115, respectively). The rest of the comparisons all showed significant differences between the proposed and other methods. Statistical analysis of the two subgroups yielded similar results. The mean processing time of one subject was 6.5, 185, and 165 seconds for the proposed method, FSL, and SPM12, respectively. Our method may be accurate for the segmentation of most brain structures using FLAWS. In addition, the proposed method is fast and applicable to the two distinct age ranges. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Atypical functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder is associated with disrupted white matter microstructural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane eMcGrath

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of structural and functional neural connectivity has been widely reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD but there is a striking lack of research attempting to integrate analysis of functional and structural connectivity in the same study population, an approach that may provide key insights into the specific neurobiological underpinnings of altered functional connectivity in autism. The aims of this study were 1. to determine whether functional connectivity abnormalities were associated with structural abnormalities of white matter (WM in ASD and 2. to examine the relationships between aberrant neural connectivity and behaviour in ASD. 22 individuals with ASD and 22 age, IQ-matched controls completed a high-angular-resolution diffusion MRI scan. Structural connectivity was analysed using constrained spherical deconvolution based tractography. Regions for tractography were generated from the results of a previous study, in which 10 pairs of brain regions showed abnormal functional connectivity during visuospatial processing in ASD. WM tracts directly connected 5 of the 10 region pairs that showed abnormal functional connectivity; linking a region in the left occipital lobe (left BA19 and five paired regions: left caudate head, left caudate body, left uncus, left thalamus and left cuneus. Measures of WM microstructural organisation were extracted from these tracts. Fractional anisotropy reductions in the ASD group relative to controls were significant for WM connecting left BA19 to left caudate head and left BA19 to left thalamus. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study has revealed aberrant white matter microstructure in tracts that directly connect brain regions that are abnormally functionally connected in ASD. These results provide novel evidence to suggest that structural brain pathology may contribute 1. to abnormal functional connectivity and 2. to atypical visuospatial processing in ASD.

  19. Plasticity of white matter connectivity in phonetics experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Price, Cathy J; Golestani, Narly

    2016-09-01

    Phonetics experts are highly trained to analyze and transcribe speech, both with respect to faster changing, phonetic features, and to more slowly changing, prosodic features. Previously we reported that, compared to non-phoneticians, phoneticians had greater local brain volume in bilateral auditory cortices and the left pars opercularis of Broca's area, with training-related differences in the grey-matter volume of the left pars opercularis in the phoneticians group (Golestani et al. 2011). In the present study, we used diffusion MRI to examine white matter microstructure, indexed by fractional anisotropy, in (1) the long segment of arcuate fasciculus (AF_long), which is a well-known language tract that connects Broca's area, including left pars opercularis, to the temporal cortex, and in (2) the fibers arising from the auditory cortices. Most of these auditory fibers belong to three validated language tracts, namely to the AF_long, the posterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus and the middle longitudinal fasciculus. We found training-related differences in phoneticians in left AF_long, as well as group differences relative to non-experts in the auditory fibers (including the auditory fibers belonging to the left AF_long). Taken together, the results of both studies suggest that grey matter structural plasticity arising from phonetic transcription training in Broca's area is accompanied by changes to the white matter fibers connecting this very region to the temporal cortex. Our findings suggest expertise-related changes in white matter fibers connecting fronto-temporal functional hubs that are important for phonetic processing. Further studies can pursue this hypothesis by examining the dynamics of these expertise related grey and white matter changes as they arise during phonetic training.

  20. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  1. Strength of Temporal White Matter Pathways Predicts Semantic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Biel, Davina; Peñaloza, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jörn; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Noesselt, Toemme; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber tracking. Critically, the automatic method allowed assessing the white matter microstructure along the tract. Results demonstrate that the microstructural properties of the left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus predict contextual learning, whereas the left uncinate was associated with cross-situational learning. In addition, we identified regions of special importance within these pathways: the posterior middle temporal gyrus, thought to serve as a lexical interface and specifically related to contextual learning; the anterior temporal lobe, known to be an amodal hub for semantic processing and related to cross-situational learning; and the white matter near the hippocampus, a structure fundamental for the initial stages of new-word learning and, remarkably, related to both types of word learning. No significant associations were found for the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus or the arcuate. While previous results suggest that learning new phonological word forms is mediated by the arcuate fasciculus, these findings show that the temporal pathways are the crucial neural substrate supporting one of the most striking human abilities: our capacity to identify correct associations between words and meanings under referential indeterminacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The language-processing network is cortically (i.e., gray matter) well defined. However, the role of the

  2. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  3. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  4. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R.; Gurling, Hugh M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  5. Relationship between progression of brain white matter changes and late-life depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firbank, Michael J; Teodorczuk, Andrew; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2012-01-01

    Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear.......Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear....

  6. White matter neuroanatomical differences in young children who stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, David C.; Choo, Ai Leen; Angstadt, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The ability to express thoughts through fluent speech production is a most human faculty, one that is often taken for granted. Stuttering, which disrupts the smooth flow of speech, affects 5% of preschool-age children and 1% of the general population, and can lead to significant communication difficulties and negative psychosocial consequences throughout one’s lifetime. Despite the fact that symptom onset typically occurs during early childhood, few studies have yet examined the possible neural bases of developmental stuttering during childhood. Here we present a diffusion tensor imaging study that examined white matter measures reflecting neuroanatomical connectivity (fractional anisotropy) in 77 children [40 controls (20 females), 37 who stutter (16 females)] between 3 and 10 years of age. We asked whether previously reported anomalous white matter measures in adults and older children who stutter that were found primarily in major left hemisphere tracts (e.g. superior longitudinal fasciculus) are also present in younger children who stutter. All children exhibited normal speech, language, and cognitive development as assessed through a battery of assessments. The two groups were matched in chronological age and socioeconomic status. Voxel-wise whole brain comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics and region of interest analyses of fractional anisotropy were conducted to examine white matter changes associated with stuttering status, age, sex, and stuttering severity. Children who stutter exhibited significantly reduced fractional anisotropy relative to controls in white matter tracts that interconnect auditory and motor structures, corpus callosum, and in tracts interconnecting cortical and subcortical areas. In contrast to control subjects, fractional anisotropy changes with age were either stagnant or showed dissociated development among major perisylvian brain areas in children who stutter. These results provide first glimpses into the

  7. Marchiafava-Bignami disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings in corpus callosum and subcortical white matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarabuki, Kentaro E-mail: bukky@h2.dion.ne.jp; Sakakibara, Takehiko; Hirai, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2003-11-01

    A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is presented using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A patient with a long history of alcoholism developed a gait disturbance with involuntary movements at the lower extremities. MRI scans taken at the onset showed no particular abnormalities. He progressed to a coma 10 days later. MRI scans taken 20 days after the onset showed a focal lesion at the genu of the corpus callosum and he was diagnosed as having MBD. In addition, multiple lesions were observed in bilateral frontoparietal subcortical white matter. These lesions demonstrated similar intense MRI signals as the corpus callosum.

  8. Exploring the multiple-hit hypothesis of preterm white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Barnett

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests multiple perinatal risk factors have an independent association with diffuse white matter injury at term equivalent age and exposure to multiple perinatal risk factors exacerbates dMRI defined, clinically significant white matter injury. Our findings support the multiple hit hypothesis for preterm white matter injury.

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. ABCD1 dysfunction alters white matter microvascular perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauer, Arne; Da, Xiao; Hansen, Mikkel Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability...... of the blood–brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic reson- ance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased...... capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptom- atic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease. In subjects with ongoing inflammatory demyelination we observed a sequence of increased capillary flow hetero...

  18. Role of CTGF in White Matter Development in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    as periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy, and as well in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis . 6. PUBLICATIONS, ABSTRACTS...S.K. (2013). Impaired language pathways in tuberous sclerosis complex patients with autism spectrum disorders. Cerebral cortex 23, 1526-1532...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0040 TITLE: Role of CTGF in White Matter Development in Tuberous Sclerosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mustafa Sahin

  19. Insight and white matter fractional anisotropy in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmal, Laila; du Plessis, Stefan; Vink, Matthijs; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Impaired insight is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia. Structural studies implicate predominantly prefrontal, cingulate, cuneus/precuneus, and inferior temporal brain regions. The cortical midline structures (CMS) are also implicated in functional studies primarily through self-reflective processing tasks. However, few studies have explored the relationship between white matter tracts and insight in schizophrenia, and none in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Here, we examined for fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in 89 minimally treated FES patients and 98 matched controls, and identified those FA differences associated with impaired clinical insight in patients. We found widespread FA reduction in FES patients compared to controls. Poorer insight in patients was predicted by lower FA values in a number of white matter tracts with a predilection for tracts associated with cortical midline structures (fronto-occipital, cingulate, cingulate hippocampus, uncinate, anterior corona radiata), and more severe depressive symptoms. The association between FA abnormalities and insight was most robust for the awareness of symptoms and illness awareness domains. Our study implicates a network of tracts involved in impaired insight in schizophrenia with a predilection for the CMS. This study is a first step in delineating the white matter tracts involved in insight impairment in schizophrenia prior to chronicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. ROLE OF MRI IN WHITE MATTER DISEASES- CLINICO-RADIOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranath Reddy Kamireddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The diagnostic process is difficult as there are many different white matter disorders (inherited and acquired. MRI has high diagnostic specificity to study the pattern of brain structures. MRI is more useful in demonstrating abnormalities of myelination. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study developed a practical algorithm that relies mainly on the characteristics of brain MRI. Our study included clinicallysuspected patients with demyelination during a period of one year. RESULTS Our study included 25 clinically-suspected patients (out of total of 400 patients with demyelination during a period of one year (February 2016 to January 2017.  Multiple sclerosis accounted for the majority of cases (36.0% followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (20%.  In multiple sclerosis, majority of the patients presented in the third decade of life with a definite female preponderance (M:F-1:2.  The most common symptom and site of involvement were visual impairment (73.3% and periventricular area (80%, respectively.  Other causes like PML, PVL, CPM, reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy, leukodystrophies and motor neuron disease comprised the remainder of the cases. CONCLUSION MRI due to its excellent grey white matter resolution is very sensitive in detecting subtle demyelination, the sensitivity being still further enhanced by FLAIR sequences. MRI in correlation with the clinical signs and symptoms is an ideal modality in early diagnosis of white matter diseases.

  1. White matter alterations in the internal capsule and psychomotor impairment in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew P; Perry, Alistair; Breakspear, Michael; Wen, Wei; Parker, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants. Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were derived for anterior, posterior, and retrolenticular limbs of the internal capsule and compared between groups. Neuropsychological (reaction time) and psychomotor functioning were assessed and correlated against FA. Fractional anisotropy was distinctly increased, whilst RD was decreased, in the right anterior internal capsule in those with melancholia, compared to controls. The right anterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with clinical ratings of psychomotor disturbance, and reduced psychomotor speed was associated with increased FA values in the right retrolenticular limb in those with melancholia. Our findings highlight a distinct disturbance in the local white matter arrangement in specific regions of the internal capsule in melancholia, which in turn is associated with psychomotor dysfunction. This study clarifies the contribution of structural brain integrity to the phenomenology of melancholia, and may assist future efforts seeking to integrate neurobiological markers into depression subtyping.

  2. Higher diffusion in striatum and lower fractional anisotropy in white matter of methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicata, Daniel; Chang, Linda; Cloak, Christine; Abe, Kylie; Ernst, Thomas

    2009-10-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) users showed structural and chemical abnormalities on magnetic resonance (MRI) studies, particularly in the frontal and basal ganglia brain regions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may provide further insights regarding the microstructural changes in METH users. We investigated diffusion tensor measures in frontal white matter and basal ganglia of 30 adult METH users and 30 control subjects using a 3 T MR scanner. Compared with healthy control subjects, METH users showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in right frontal white matter, and higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in left caudate and bilateral putamen. Higher left putamen ADC was associated with earlier initiation of METH use, greater daily amounts, and a higher cumulative lifetime dose. Similarly, higher right putamen ADC was associated with greater daily amounts and a higher cumulative lifetime dose. The lower FA in the right frontal white matter suggests axonal injury in these METH users. The higher ADC in the basal ganglia suggests greater inflammation or less myelination in these brain regions of those with younger age of first METH use and greater METH usage.

  3. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2006-01-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data

  4. White matter and cognition in adults who were born preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P G Allin

    Full Text Available Individuals born very preterm (before 33 weeks of gestation, VPT are at risk of damage to developing white matter, which may affect later cognition and behaviour.We used diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI to assess white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy; FA in 80 VPT and 41 term-born individuals (mean age 19.1 years, range 17-22, and 18.5 years, range 17-22 years, respectively. VPT individuals were part of a 1982-1984 birth cohort which had been followed up since birth; term individuals were recruited by local press advertisement. General intellectual function, executive function and memory were assessed.The VPT group had reduced FA in four clusters, and increased FA in four clusters relative to the Term group, involving several association tracts of both hemispheres. Clusters of increased FA were associated with more severe neonatal brain injury in the VPT group. Clusters of reduced FA were associated with lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia, and with reduced adult cognitive performance in the VPT group only.Alterations of white matter microstructure persist into adulthood in VPT individuals and are associated with cognitive function.

  5. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Becker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18–20 years old at baseline regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment.

  6. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Menzies

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA in 61 males aged 12.7–16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n = 22 and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n = 39. Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty × age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone.

  7. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T; Alm, Kylie H; Metoki, Athanasia; Hampton, William; Riggins, Tracy; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years.Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait.

  9. Alterations in white matter pathways in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarika U; Kaufmann, Walter E; Bacino, Carlos A; Anderson, Adam W; Adapa, Pavani; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Traipe, Elfrides; Hunter, Jill V; Wilde, Elisabeth A

    2011-04-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, absent speech, seizures, and outbursts of laughter. The aim of this study was to utilize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine alterations in white matter pathways in Angelman syndrome, with an emphasis on correlations with clinical severity. DTI was used to examine the arcuate fasciculus (AF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and the corpus callosum (CC). We enrolled 14 children aged 8 to 17 years (mean age 10y 8mo; SD 2y 7mo) with Angelman syndrome (seven male; seven female) and 13 typically developing children, aged 8 to 17 years, for comparison (five male; eight female; mean age 12y; SD 2y 9mo). Individuals with Angelman syndrome were assessed using standardized measures of development, language, and behaviour. The children with Angelman syndrome exhibited lower fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity values than the comparison group for the AF, UF, ILF, and CC (p Angelman syndrome had significantly higher apparent diffusion coefficient values in the AF, CC, ILF, and the left IFOF (p Angelman syndrome suggest decreased/delayed myelination, decreased axonal density or diameter, or aberrant axonal organization. Our findings suggest a generalized white matter alteration throughout the brain in those with Angelman syndrome; however, only the alterations in temporal white matter pathways were associated with language and cognitive and social functioning. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  10. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white matter connectivity in a clinical population is determined.

  11. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  12. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A.; Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  13. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Heather C; Nickson, Thomas; Pope, Merrick; Nicol, Katie; Romaniuk, Liana; Bastin, Mark E; Semple, Scott I; McIntosh, Andrew M; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder involving a range of symptoms including marked affective instability and disturbances in interpersonal interactions. Neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide evidence of altered processing in fronto-limbic network deficits in the disorder, however, few studies directly examine structural connections within this circuitry together with their relation to proposed causative processes and clinical features. In the current study, we investigated whether individuals with BPD (n = 20) have deficits in white matter integrity compared to a matched group of healthy controls (n = 18) using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). We hypothesized that the BPD group would have decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, compared to the controls in white matter tracts connecting frontal and limbic regions, primarily the cingulum, fornix and uncinate fasciculus. We also investigated the extent to which any such deficits related to childhood adversity, as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire, and symptom severity as measured by the Zanarini rating scale for BPD. We report decreased white matter integrity in BPD versus controls in the cingulum and fornix. There were no significant relationships between FA and measures of childhood trauma. There were, however, significant associations between FA in the cingulum and clinical symptoms of anger, and in the fornix with affective instability, and measures of avoidance of abandonment from the Zanarini rating scale. We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging tensor shape analysis for assessment of regional white matter differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Dana M; Li, Jonathan Y; Lee, Hui J; Chen, Steven; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew; White, Leonard E; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel tensor shape plot analysis technique of diffusion tensor imaging data as a means to assess microstructural differences in brain tissue. We hypothesized that this technique could distinguish white matter regions with different microstructural compositions. Methods Three normal canines were euthanized at seven weeks old. Their brains were imaged using identical diffusion tensor imaging protocols on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. We examined two white matter regions, the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, each subdivided into an anterior and posterior region. We placed 100 regions of interest in each of the four brain regions. Eigenvalues for each region of interest triangulated onto tensor shape plots as the weighted average of three shape metrics at the plot's vertices: CS, CL, and CP. Results The distribution of data on the plots for the internal capsule differed markedly from the centrum semiovale data, thus confirming our hypothesis. Furthermore, data for the internal capsule were distributed in a relatively tight cluster, possibly reflecting the compact and parallel nature of its fibers, while data for the centrum semiovale were more widely distributed, consistent with the less compact and often crossing pattern of its fibers. This indicates that the tensor shape plot technique can depict data in similar regions as being alike. Conclusion Tensor shape plots successfully depicted differences in tissue microstructure and reflected the microstructure of individual brain regions. This proof of principle study suggests that if our findings are reproduced in larger samples, including abnormal white matter states, the technique may be useful in assessment of white matter diseases.

  15. Disorder-specific white matter alterations in adolescent borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Hein, Klaus H; Brunner, Romuald; Lutz, Kira; Henze, Romy; Parzer, Peter; Feigl, Nina; Kramer, Jasmin; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Resch, Franz; Stieltjes, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is complex and not fully understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging, recent studies suggest that white matter abnormalities may occur in adult patients with BPD. However, deeper insight into the disorder-specific developmental psychobiology (e.g., analysis of adolescents with BPD; inclusion of clinical control groups) is missing. Twenty adolescent patients with BPD (aged 14-18 years), 20 healthy, and 20 clinical control subjects were assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. All subjects were right-handed girls, matched for age and IQ. Microstructural parameters were analyzed via tractography of the main bundles in the limbic system and using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, an explorative, global approach. BPD was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in the fornix when compared with clinical (p < .001) or healthy (nonsignificant trend) control subjects. Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, significant disorder-specific white matter alterations were found in the long association bundles interconnecting the heteromodal association cortex and in connections between the thalamus and hippocampus. The study strongly supports the hypothesis that white matter alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of BPD. These disorder-specific alterations include white matter pathways involved in emotion regulation but also affect parts of the heteromodal association cortex that are related to emotion recognition. Our findings unify previously documented deficits in emotion recognition and regulation and suggest that a large-scale network of emotion processing is disrupted in BPD. Continued research is essential to evaluate the predictive value of these early disruptions in a clinical context. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes of migraine-related white matter hyperintensities after 3 years: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi-Bótor, Szilvia; Aradi, Mihály; Kamson, David Olayinka; Kovács, Norbert; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Schwarcz, Attila; Dóczi, Tamás; Komoly, Sámuel; Deli, Gabriella; Trauninger, Anita; Pfund, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate changes of migraine-related brain white matter hyperintensities 3 years after an initial study. Baseline quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of migraine patients with hemispheric white matter hyperintensities performed in 2009 demonstrated signs of tissue damage within the hyperintensities. The hyperintensities appeared most frequently in the deep white matter of the frontal lobe with a similar average hyperintensity size in all hemispheric lobes. Since in this patient group the repeated migraine attacks were the only known risk factors for the development of white matter hyperintensities, the remeasurements of migraineurs after a 3-year long follow-up may show changes in the status of these structural abnormalities as the effects of the repeated headaches. The same patient group was reinvestigated in 2012 using the same MRI scanner and acquisition protocol. MR measurements were performed on a 3.0-Tesla clinical MRI scanner. Beyond the routine T1-, T2-weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, diffusion and perfusion-weighted imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and T1 and T2 relaxation time measurements were also performed. Findings of the baseline and follow-up studies were compared with each other. The follow-up proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of white matter hyperintensities showed significantly decreased N-acetyl-aspartate (median values 8.133 vs 7.153 mmol/L, P=.009) and creatine/phosphocreatine (median values 4.970 vs 4.641 mmol/L, P=.015) concentrations compared to the baseline, indicating a more severe axonal loss and glial hypocellularity with decreased intracellular energy production. The diffusion values, the T1 and T2 relaxation times, and the cerebral blood flow and volume measurements presented only mild changes between the studies. The number (median values 21 vs 25, P<.001) and volume (median values 0.896 vs 1.140 mL, P<.001) of

  17. Cognitive impairment in MS Impact of white matter integrity, gray matter volume, and lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, H.E.; Steenwijk, M.D.; Versteeg, A.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Vrenken, H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Polman, C.H.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Barkhof, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether extent and severity of white matter (WM) damage, as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can distinguish cognitively preserved (CP) from cognitively impaired (CI) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI data were acquired from 55

  18. Unique white matter microstructural patterns in ADHD presentations - a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Nestrasil, Igor; Rudser, Kyle; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations are likely distinct disorders that differ neuroanatomically, neurochemically, and neuropsychologically. However, to date, little is known about specific white matter (WM) regions differentiating ADHD presentations. This study examined differences in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 20 ADHD-PI, 18 ADHD-C, and 27 typically developed children. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI measurements in major fiber bundles was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Clusters showing diffusivity abnormalities were used as regions of interest for regression analysis between fractional anisotropy (FA) and neuropsychological outcomes. Compared to neurotypicals, ADHD-PI children showed higher FA in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and in the left corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, the ADHD-C group exhibited higher FA in the bilateral cingulum bundle (CB). In the ADHD-PI group, differences in FA in the left ILF and ATR were accompanied by axial diffusivity (AD) abnormalities. In addition, the ADHD-PI group exhibited atypical mean diffusivity in the forceps minor (FMi) and left ATR and AD differences in right CB compared to healthy subjects. Direct comparison between ADHD presentations demonstrated radial diffusivity differences in FMi. WM clusters with FA irregularities in ADHD were associated with neurobehavioral performance across groups. In conclusion, differences in white matter microstructure in ADHD presentations strengthen the theory that ADHD-PI and ADHD-C are two distinct disorders. Regions with white matter irregularity seen in both ADHD presentations might serve as predictors of executive and behavioral functioning across groups. PMID:27159198

  19. White-matter changes correlate with cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Theilmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI findings from emerging studies of cortical white-matter integrity in Parkinson’s disease (PD without dementia are inconclusive. When white-matter changes have been found, their relationship to cognitive functioning in PD has not been carefully investigated. To better characterize changes in tissue diffusivity and to understand their functional significance, the present study conducted DTI in 25 PD patients without dementia and 26 controls of similar ages. An automated tract-based DTI method was used. Fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD, and radial diffusivity (RD were analyzed. Neuropsychological measures of executive functioning (working memory, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and visuospatial ability were then correlated with regions of interest that showed abnormal diffusivity in the PD group. We found widespread reductions in FA and increases in MD in the PD group relative to controls. These changes were predominantly related to an increase in RD. Increased AD in the PD group was limited to specific frontal tracks of the right hemisphere, possibly signifying more significant tissue changes. Motor-symptom severity did not correlate with FA. However, different measures of executive functioning and visuospatial ability correlated with FA in different segments of tracts, which contain fiber pathways to cortical regions that are thought to support specific cognitive processes. The findings suggest that abnormal tissue diffusivity may be sensitive to subtle cognitive changes in PD, some of which may be prognostic of future cognitive decline.

  20. QCD matter in white dwarfs and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, M.; Lan, N.Q.; Suh, I.-S.

    2010-01-01

    The search for astrophysical evidence for a transition to QCD matter is an important goal. Although much effort has gone into searching for neutron star candidates, here we describe the exploration of two other possible signatures. One is the search for strange dwarfs. Masses and radii for a large number of white dwarfs have been deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. Some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equation of state. We argue that there is marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs that are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis. We also review the current status of core-collapse supernova research, and in particular, the effects on the explosion of a QCD phase transition in the proto-neutron-star core. We describe how a first order transition could enhance the explosion and lead to observable effects in the emergent neutrino light curve. (author)

  1. Hemoglobin and mean platelet volume predicts diffuse T1-MRI white matter volume decrease in sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Our findings suggest that there are diffuse white matter abnormalities in SCD patients, especially in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, that are associated with low hemoglobin levels and mean platelet volume. The pattern of brain loss suggests chronic microvascular insufficiency and tissue hypoxia as the causal mechanism. However, longitudinal studies of global and regional brain morphometry can help us give further insights on the pathophysiology of SCD in the brain.

  2. Frontoparietal white matter integrity predicts haptic performance in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Borstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontoparietal white matter supports information transfer between brain areas involved in complex haptic tasks such as somatosensory discrimination. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between microstructural integrity of frontoparietal network white matter and haptic performance in persons with chronic stroke and to compare frontoparietal network integrity in participants with stroke and age matched control participants. Nineteen individuals with stroke and 16 controls participated. Haptic performance was quantified using the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe, an 18-item match-to-sample test of weight and texture discrimination. Three tesla MRI was used to obtain diffusion-weighted and high-resolution anatomical images of the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to define 10 frontoparietal tracts total; Four intrahemispheric tracts measured bilaterally 1 thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex (T–S1, 2 thalamus to primary motor cortex (T–M1, 3 primary to secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 to SII and 4 primary somatosensory cortex to middle frontal gyrus (S1 to MFG and, 2 interhemispheric tracts; S1–S1 and precuneus interhemispheric. A control tract outside the network, the cuneus interhemispheric tract, was also examined. The diffusion metrics fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD were quantified for each tract. Diminished FA and elevated MD values are associated with poorer white matter integrity in chronic stroke. Nine of 10 tracts quantified in the frontoparietal network had diminished structural integrity poststroke compared to the controls. The precuneus interhemispheric tract was not significantly different between groups. Principle component analysis across all frontoparietal white matter tract MD values indicated a single factor explained 47% and 57% of the variance in tract mean diffusivity in stroke and control groups respectively

  3. Enhanced white matter tracts integrity in children with abacus training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Geng, Fengji; Tao, Lixia; Hu, Nantu; Du, Fenglei; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-01-01

    Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement of visuospatial-related neural resources in AMC. This study aims to explore the possible changes in brain white matter induced by long-term training of AMC. Two matched groups participated: the abacus group consisting of 25 children with over 3-year training in abacus calculation and AMC, the controls including 25 children without any abacus experience. We found that the abacus group showed higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) in whole-brain fiber tracts, and the regions with increased FA were found in corpus callosum, left occipitotemporal junction and right premotor projection. No regions, however, showed decreased FA in the abacus group. Further analysis revealed that the differences in FA values were mainly driven by the alternation of radial rather than axial diffusivities. Furthermore, in forward digit and letter memory span tests, AMC group showed larger digit/letter memory spans. Interestingly, individual differences in white matter tracts were found positively correlated with the memory spans, indicating that the widespread increase of FA in the abacus group result possibly from the AMC training. In conclusion, our findings suggested that long-term AMC training from an early age may improve the memory capacity and enhance the integrity in white matter tracts related to motor and visuospatial processes. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. White matter lesions in psychiatric patients: a retrospective MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Teichmann, E.; Hofmann, E.; Schmidtke, A.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Nadjmi, M.

    1992-01-01

    T2-weighted MRI scans of psychiatric patients with at least one white matter lesion (WML) were compared to 83 non-psychiatric controls with respect to WML number and distribution. MANOVA resulted in significant effects for sex, age and patient group with respect to WML number. In the psychiatric patients, infratentorial WML prevailed in organic psychoses. WML number was positively correlated with age with the exception of right temporal lobe WML. Based on WML spatial distribution, four patient clusters were found. Clusters with widely distributed WML comprised older patients with late onset of illness; right frontal and temporal WML were associated with mania, euphoria and unstable mood. (orig.)

  5. Response inhibition is associated with white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William; Vestergaard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    the relationship between response inhibition, as measured with the stop-signal task, and indices of regional white matter microstructure in typically-developing children. We hypothesized that better response inhibition performance would be associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in fibre tracts within...... to the prediction of performance variability. Observed associations may be related to variation in phase of maturation, to activity-dependent alterations in the network subserving response inhibition, or to stable individual differences in underlying neural system connectivity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... reserved....

  6. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole brain vertex- wise cortical thickness analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. AP possessors (APs) displayed increased cortical thickness in a number of areas including the left superior temporal gyrus...... studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior superior temporal gyrus in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a correlation between the white matter cluster and the right parahippocampal gyrus. This is a novel finding......, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found increased fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous...

  7. Exploring the role of white matter connectivity in cortex maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia L Friedrichs-Maeder

    Full Text Available The maturation of the cortical gray matter (GM and white matter (WM are described as sequential processes following multiple, but distinct rules. However, neither the mechanisms driving brain maturation processes, nor the relationship between GM and WM maturation are well understood. Here we use connectomics and two MRI measures reflecting maturation related changes in cerebral microstructure, namely the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC and the T1 relaxation time (T1, to study brain development. We report that the advancement of GM and WM maturation are inter-related and depend on the underlying brain connectivity architecture. Particularly, GM regions and their incident WM connections show corresponding maturation levels, which is also observed for GM regions connected through a WM tract. Based on these observations, we propose a simple computational model supporting a key role for the connectome in propagating maturation signals sequentially from external stimuli, through primary sensory structures to higher order functional cortices.

  8. Functional connectivity and microstructural white matter changes in phenocopy frontotemporal dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijboom, R.; Steketee, R.M.E.; Lugt, A. van der; Smits, M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, I. de [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Neuropsychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Osse, R.J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Psychiatry, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jiskoot, L.C. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Neuropsychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, F.J. de; Swieten, J.C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) is a rare and poorly understood clinical syndrome. PhFTD shows core behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD) symptoms without associated cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities on conventional MRI and without progression. In contrast to phFTD, functional connectivity and white matter (WM) microstructural abnormalities have been observed in bvFTD. We hypothesise that phFTD belongs to the same disease spectrum as bvFTD and investigated whether functional connectivity and microstructural WM changes similar to bvFTD are present in phFTD. Seven phFTD patients without progression or alternative psychiatric diagnosis, 12 bvFTD patients and 17 controls underwent resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Default mode network (DMN) connectivity and WM measures were compared between groups. PhFTD showed subtly increased DMN connectivity and subtle microstructural changes in frontal WM tracts. BvFTD showed abnormalities in similar regions as phFTD, but had lower increased DMN connectivity and more extensive microstructural WM changes. Our findings can be interpreted as neuropathological changes in phFTD and are in support of the hypothesis that phFTD and bvFTD may belong to the same disease spectrum. Advanced MRI techniques, objectively identifying brain abnormalities, would therefore be potentially suited to improve the diagnosis of phFTD. (orig.)

  9. Functional connectivity and microstructural white matter changes in phenocopy frontotemporal dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijboom, R.; Steketee, R.M.E.; Lugt, A. van der; Smits, M.; Koning, I. de; Osse, R.J.; Jiskoot, L.C.; Jong, F.J. de; Swieten, J.C. van

    2017-01-01

    Phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) is a rare and poorly understood clinical syndrome. PhFTD shows core behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD) symptoms without associated cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities on conventional MRI and without progression. In contrast to phFTD, functional connectivity and white matter (WM) microstructural abnormalities have been observed in bvFTD. We hypothesise that phFTD belongs to the same disease spectrum as bvFTD and investigated whether functional connectivity and microstructural WM changes similar to bvFTD are present in phFTD. Seven phFTD patients without progression or alternative psychiatric diagnosis, 12 bvFTD patients and 17 controls underwent resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Default mode network (DMN) connectivity and WM measures were compared between groups. PhFTD showed subtly increased DMN connectivity and subtle microstructural changes in frontal WM tracts. BvFTD showed abnormalities in similar regions as phFTD, but had lower increased DMN connectivity and more extensive microstructural WM changes. Our findings can be interpreted as neuropathological changes in phFTD and are in support of the hypothesis that phFTD and bvFTD may belong to the same disease spectrum. Advanced MRI techniques, objectively identifying brain abnormalities, would therefore be potentially suited to improve the diagnosis of phFTD. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral white matter structure is associated with DSM-5 schizophrenia symptom dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra V. Viher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies have provided evidence of widespread white matter (WM abnormalities in schizophrenia. Although these abnormalities appear clinically significant, the relationship to specific clinical symptoms is limited and heterogeneous. This study examined the association between WM microstructure and the severity of the five main DSM-5 schizophrenia symptom dimensions. DTI was measured in forty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics controlling for age, gender and antipsychotic dosage, our analyses revealed significant negative relationships between WM microstructure and two DSM-5 symptom dimensions: Whereas abnormal psychomotor behavior was particularly related to WM of motor tracts, negative symptoms were associated with WM microstructure of the prefrontal and right temporal lobes. However, we found no associations between WM microstructure and delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech. These data highlight the relevance of characteristic WM disconnectivity patterns as markers for negative symptoms and abnormal psychomotor behavior in schizophrenia and provide evidence for relevant associations between brain structure and aberrant behavior.

  11. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  12. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Rasser, Paul E; Thompson, Paul M; Cavedo, Enrica; Cotelli, Maria; Rosini, Sandra; Beneduce, Rossella; Bignotti, Stefano; Magni, Laura R; Rillosi, Luciana; Magnaldi, Silvia; Cobelli, Milena; Rossi, Giuseppe; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients‘ affective,cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38±11; females: 16, 61%). Results BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (p<0.005). Our BPD subjects displayed a symmetric distribution of anomalies in the dorsal aspect of the cortical mantle, but a wider involvement of the left hemisphere in the mesial aspect in terms of lower density. A few restricted regions of higher density were detected in the right hemisphere. All regions remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons via permutation testing. Conclusions BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. PMID:25561291

  13. Reduced parietooccipital white matter glutamine measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in treated graves' disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Else Rubæk; Elberling, T.V.; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    and a battery of biochemical, affective, and cognitive tests were used. RESULTS: Previously reported findings of reduced choline and myo-inositol in acute Graves' disease were confirmed and reversibility was demonstrated. Parieto-occipital white matter glutamine was and remained significantly reduced (P ....01). Acute phase parieto-occipital white matter total choline correlated significantly (r = -0.57; P glutamine (r = -0.52; P ....01) and parietooccipital white matter glutamate (r = -0.54; P glutamine in white matter, the decreasing glutamate in occipital gray matter...

  14. Lower digit symbol substitution score in the oldest old is related to magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eVenkatraman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slowing information processing is common among community-dwelling elderly and it predicts greater mortality and disability risk. Slowing information processing is related to brain macro-structural abnormalities. Specifically, greater global atrophy and greater small vessel disease of the white matter have been associated to slower processing speed. However, community-dwelling elderly with such macro-structural abnormalities can maintain processing speed. The roles of brain micro-structure for slow processing in very old adults living in the community is uncertain, as epidemiological studies relating these brain markers to cognition and in the context of other health characteristics are sparse. Hypothesis: Information processing is cross-sectionally associated with white matter micro-structure independent of overt macro-structural abnormalities and also independent of health related characteristics. Methods: Imaging indices of micro-structure (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI, and magnetization transfer imaging, MTI, macro-structure (white matter hyperintensities, gray matter volume, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and health characteristics were measured in 272 elderly (mean age 83 years old, 43% men, 40% Black living in the community. Results: The DTI- and MTI-indices of micro-structure from the normal appearing white matter and not from the normal appearing gray matter were associated with DSST score independent of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volumes. Associations were also independent of age, race, gender, mini-mental score, systolic blood pressure, prevalent myocardial infarction. Interpretation: DTI and MTI indices of normal appearing white matter are indicators of information processing speed in this cohort of very old adults living in the community. Since processing slowing is a potent index of mortality and disability, these indices may serve as biomarkers in prevention or treatment trials of disability.

  15. Different scaling of white matter volume, cortical connectivity, and gyrification across rodent and primate brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Mota, Bruno; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the cortical gray matter in evolution has been accompanied by an even faster expansion of the subcortical white matter volume and by folding of the gray matter surface, events traditionally considered to occur homogeneously across mammalian species. Here we investigate how white matter expansion and cortical folding scale across species of rodents and primates as the gray matter gains neurons. We find very different scaling rules of white matter expansion across the two orders, favoring volume conservation and smaller propagation times in primates. For a similar number of cortical neurons, primates have a smaller connectivity fraction and less white matter volume than rodents; moreover, as the cortex gains neurons, there is a much faster increase in white matter volume and in its ratio to gray matter volume in rodents than in primates. Order-specific scaling of the white matter can be attributed to different scaling of average fiber caliber and neuronal connectivity in rodents and primates. Finally, cortical folding increases as different functions of the number of cortical neurons in rodents and primates, scaling faster in the latter than in the former. While the neuronal rules that govern gray and white matter scaling are different across rodents and primates, we find that they can be explained by the same unifying model, with order-specific exponents. The different scaling of the white matter has implications for the scaling of propagation time and computational capacity in evolution, and calls for a reappraisal of developmental models of cortical expansion in evolution. PMID:23576961

  16. Comparing brain white matter on sequential cranial ultrasound and MRI in very preterm infants

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    Leijser, Lara M.; Veen, Sylvia; Boer, Inge P. de; Walther, Frans J.; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Liauw, Lishya [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Periventricular white matter (WM) echodensities, frequently seen in preterm infants, can be associated with suboptimal neurodevelopment. Major WM injury is well detected on cranial ultrasound (cUS). cUS seems less sensitive for diffuse or more subtle WM injury. Our aim was to assess the value of cUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating WM changes and the predictive value of cUS and/or MRI findings for neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants with normal to severely abnormal WM on sequential high-quality cUS. Very preterm infants (<32 weeks) who had sequential cUS and one MRI within the first three postnatal months were included. Periventricular WM on cUS and MRI was compared and correlated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age. Forty preterm infants were studied; outcome data were available in 32. WM changes on sequential cUS were predictive of WM changes on MRI. Severely abnormal WM on cUS/MRI was predictive of adverse outcome, and normal-mildly abnormal WM of favorable outcome. Moderately abnormal WM on cUS/MRI was associated with variable outcome. Additional MRI slightly increased the predictive value of cUS in severe WM changes. Sequential cUS in preterm infants is reliable for detecting WM changes and predicting favorable and severely abnormal outcome. Conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI sequences before term equivalent age in very preterm infants, suggested on cUS to have mild to moderately abnormal WM, do not seem to be warranted. (orig.)

  17. Differential development of human brain white matter tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Imperati

    Full Text Available Neuroscience is increasingly focusing on developmental factors related to human structural and functional connectivity. Unfortunately, to date, diffusion-based imaging approaches have only contributed modestly to these broad objectives, despite the promise of diffusion-based tractography. Here, we report a novel data-driven approach to detect similarities and differences among white matter tracts with respect to their developmental trajectories, using 64-direction diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, using a cross-sectional sample comprising 144 healthy individuals (7 to 48 years old, we applied k-means cluster analysis to separate white matter voxels based on their age-related trajectories of fractional anisotropy. Optimal solutions included 5-, 9- and 14-clusters. Our results recapitulate well-established tracts (e.g., internal and external capsule, optic radiations, corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, cerebral peduncles and subdivisions within tracts (e.g., corpus callosum, internal capsule. For all but one tract identified, age-related trajectories were curvilinear (i.e., inverted 'U-shape', with age-related increases during childhood and adolescence followed by decreases in middle adulthood. Identification of peaks in the trajectories suggests that age-related losses in fractional anisotropy occur as early as 23 years of age, with mean onset at 30 years of age. Our findings demonstrate that data-driven analytic techniques may be fruitfully applied to extant diffusion tensor imaging datasets in normative and neuropsychiatric samples.

  18. Disrupted white matter structure underlies cognitive deficit in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Yaojing; Zhang, Zhanjun; Sun, Xuan; Chen, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered a risk factor of cognitive impairments and could result in white matter changes. Current studies on hypertension-related white matter (WM) changes focus only on regional changes, and the information about global changes in WM structure network is limited. We assessed the cognitive function in 39 hypertensive patients and 37 healthy controls with a battery of neuropsychological tests. The WM structural networks were constructed by utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. The direct and indirect correlations among cognitive impairments, brain WM network disruptions and hypertension were analyzed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Hypertensive patients showed deficits in executive function, memory and attention compared with controls. An aberrant connectivity of WM networks was found in the hypertensive patients (P Eglob = 0.005, P Lp = 0.005), especially in the frontal and parietal regions. Importantly, SEM analysis showed that the decline of executive function resulted from aberrant WM networks in hypertensive patients (p = 0.3788, CFI = 0.99). These results suggest that the cognitive decline in hypertensive patients was due to frontal and parietal WM disconnections. Our findings highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension patients. (orig.)

  19. Atypical white matter microstructure in left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Nicole S; Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Häberling, Isabelle S; Corballis, Michael C; Kirk, Ian J

    2017-05-01

    Information regarding anatomical connectivity in the human brain can be gathered using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly derived value, and reflects how strongly directional are the underlying tracts. Differences in FA are thus associated with differences in the underlying microstructure of the brain. The relationships between these differences in microstructure and functional differences in corresponding regions have also been examined. Previous studies have found an effect of handedness on functional lateralization in the brain and corresponding microstructural differences. Here, using tract-based spatial statistics to analyse DTI-derived FA values, we further investigated the structural white matter architecture in the brains of right- and left-handed males. We found significantly higher FA values for left-handed, relatively to right-handed, individuals, in all major lobes, and in the corpus callosum. In support of previous suggestions, we find that there is a difference in the microstructure of white matter in left- and right-handed males that could underpin reduced lateralization of function in left-handed individuals.

  20. Reduced anterior internal capsule white matter integrity in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Prem, Martin; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Schnell, Susanne; Kiselev, Valerij G; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system diseases, however, its neurobiology is poorly understood. Up to now, nothing is known about the integrity of white matter tracts in insomnia patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used in a well-characterized sample of primary insomnia (PI) patients and good sleeper controls to fill this void. Voxelwise between-group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed in 24 PI patients (10 males; 14 females; 42.7 ± 14.5 years) and 35 healthy good sleepers (15 males; 20 females; 40.1 ± 9.1 years) with age and sex as covariates. PI patients showed reduced FA values within the right anterior internal capsule and a trend for reduced FA values in the left anterior internal capsule. The results suggest that insomnia is associated with a reduced integrity of white matter tracts in the anterior internal capsule indicating that disturbed fronto-subcortical connectivity may be a cause or consequence of the disorder.

  1. Malnutrition and cerebral white matter lesions in dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masanori; Mukai, Kazumitsu; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Sanada, Daisuke; Shibata, Takanori; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Akizawa, Tadao; Wakasa, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the severity of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in dialysis patients. Subjects consisted of 28 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis in the affiliated hospitals of Showa University Hospital. All subjects underwent brain MRI and various clinical and laboratory tests. All subjects were divided into three groups based on the following criteria. Group I was defined as having 0 or 1 of the 4 findings of malnutrition (body mass index 2 , total lymphocyte counts 3 , serum albumin concentrations <3.5 g/dL, normalized protein catabolic rate <0.9 g/kg/day). Group II was defined as having 2 of these 4 findings, and group III was defined as having 3 or all of these 4 findings. WMLs detected on T2-weightd MRI were rated using the semiquantitative method yielding two continuous variables (perivascular hyperintensity (PVH) scores, deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH) scores). PVH and DSWMH scores were significantly higher in patients in groups III and II compared to that of those in group I. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the four findings of malnourishment described above had significant impact on PVH and DSWMH scores. These findings suggest that nutritional status (especially malnutrition) in dialysis patients may be involved in the severity of WMLs. (author)

  2. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR. Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  3. Statistical estimation of white matter microstructure from conventional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah H Suttner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has become the predominant modality for studying white matter integrity in multiple sclerosis (MS and other neurological disorders. Unfortunately, the use of DTI-based biomarkers in large multi-center studies is hindered by systematic biases that confound the study of disease-related changes. Furthermore, the site-to-site variability in multi-center studies is significantly higher for DTI than that for conventional MRI-based markers. In our study, we apply the Quantitative MR Estimation Employing Normalization (QuEEN model to estimate the four DTI measures: MD, FA, RD, and AD. QuEEN uses a voxel-wise generalized additive regression model to relate the normalized intensities of one or more conventional MRI modalities to a quantitative modality, such as DTI. We assess the accuracy of the models by comparing the prediction error of estimated DTI images to the scan-rescan error in subjects with two sets of scans. Across the four DTI measures, the performance of the models is not consistent: Both MD and RD estimations appear to be quite accurate, while AD estimation is less accurate than MD and RD; the accuracy of FA estimation is poor. Thus, in some cases when assessing white matter integrity, it may be sufficient to acquire conventional MRI sequences alone.

  4. White matter pathways mediate parental effects on children's reading precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Cuynen, Lieselore; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the link between parental and offspring's reading is mediated by the cognitive system of the offspring, yet information about the mediating role of the neurobiological system is missing. This family study includes cognitive and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data collected in 71 pre-readers as well as parental reading and environmental data. Using sequential path analyses, which take into account the interrelationships between the different components, we observed mediating effects of the neurobiological system. More specifically, fathers' reading skills predicted reading of the child by operating through a child's left ventral white matter pathway. For mothers no clear mediating role of the neural system was observed. Given that our study involves children who have not yet learned to read and that environmental measures were taken into account, the paternal effect on a child's white matter pathway is unlikely to be only driven by environmental factors. Future intergenerational studies focusing on the genetic, neurobiological and cognitive level of parents and offspring will provide more insight in the relative contribution of parental environment and genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  6. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

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    Farzad eMortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In humans and non-human primates (NHP, white matter neurons (WMNs persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR, temporal (TE, and parietal (Par association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30μm thickness, and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of

  7. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  8. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Guo Xiaojuan; Qi Zhigang; Yao Li; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  9. Evaluation of deep gray matter volume, cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with typical absence epilepsy: a study using voxelwise-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.G.; Ventura, N.; Tukamoto, G.; Gasparetto, E.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zimmermann, N. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Doring, T.M. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leme, J.; Pereira, M. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Andrea, I. d' ; Rego, C.; Alves-Leon, S.V. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cortical thickness and the volume of deep gray matter structures, measured from 3D T1-weighted gradient echo imaging, and white matter integrity, by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with typical absence epilepsy (AE). Patients (n = 19) with typical childhood AE and juvenile AE, currently taking antiepileptic medication, were compared with control subjects (n = 19), matched for gender and age. 3D T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo-weighted imaging and DTI along 30 noncolinear directions were performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner. FreeSurfer was used to perform cortical volumetric reconstruction and segmentation of deep gray matter structures. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI, a white matter skeleton was created, along with a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations. A threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Patients with AE presented decreased FA and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the genu and the body of the corpus callosum and right anterior corona radiata, as well as decreased axial diffusivity in the left posterior thalamic radiation, inferior cerebellar peduncle, right cerebral peduncle, and right corticospinal tract. However, there were no significant differences in cortical thickness or deep gray matter structure volumes between patients with AE and controls. Abnormalities found in white matter integrity may help to better understand the pathophysiology of AE and optimize diagnosis and treatment strategies. (orig.)

  10. White matter change with apathy and impulsivity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall, Claire J; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian T S; Jones, P Simon; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Wilcox, Alicia; Wehmann, Eileen; Dick, Katrina M; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2018-03-20

    To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity. We used tract-based spatial statistics of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, correlating with 8 orthogonal dimensions of apathy and impulsivity derived from a principal component analysis of neuropsychological, behavioral, and questionnaire measures. Three components were associated with significant white matter tract abnormalities. Carer-rated change in everyday skills, self-care, and motivation correlated with widespread changes in dorsal frontoparietal and corticospinal tracts, while carer observations of impulsive-apathetic and challenging behaviors revealed disruption in ventral frontotemporal tracts. Objective neuropsychological tests of cognitive control, reflection impulsivity, and reward responsiveness were associated with focal changes in the right frontal lobe and presupplementary motor area. These changes were observed across clinical diagnostic groups, and were not restricted to the disorders for which diagnostic criteria include apathy and impulsivity. The current study provides evidence of distinct structural network changes in white matter associated with different neurobehavioral components of apathy and impulsivity across the diverse spectrum of syndromes and pathologies associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Reduced binding of Pittsburgh Compound-B in areas of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Goodheart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound-B, binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ in the brain, and it is well established that PiB also shows non-specific retention in white matter (WM. However, little is known about retention of PiB in areas of white matter hyperintensities (WMH, abnormalities commonly seen in older adults. Further, it is hypothesized that WMH are related to both cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition. The goal of the present study was to explore PiB retention in both normal-appearing WM (NAWM and WMH in a group of elderly, cognitively normal individuals. In a group of cognitively normal elderly (n = 64; 86.5 ± 2.6 years two analyses were applied: (1 ROIs were placed over periventricular areas in which WMH caps are commonly seen on all subjects, regardless of WMH burden or size. (2 Subject-specific maps of NAWM and WMH were co-registered with the PiB-PET images and mean SUVR values were calculated in these NAWM and WMH maps. PiB retention was significantly reduced in the ROIs of subjects with high WMH compared to subjects with low WMH. Additionally, in subjects with high WMH, there was significantly lower PiB retention in subject-specific maps of WMH compared to NAWM, which was not observed in subjects with low WMH, likely because of the small size of WMH maps in this group. These data suggest that WM in areas of WMH binds PiB less effectively than does normal WM. Further exploration of this phenomenon may lead to insights about the molecular basis of the non-specific retention of amyloid tracers in white matter.

  12. A multivariate pattern analysis study of the HIV-related white matter anatomical structural connections alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Ruili; Cui, Xinwei; Li, Hongjun; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    It's widely known that HIV infection would cause white matter integrity impairments. Nevertheless, it is still unclear that how the white matter anatomical structural connections are affected by HIV infection. In the current study, we employed a multivariate pattern analysis to explore the HIV-related white matter connections alterations. Forty antiretroviraltherapy- naïve HIV patients and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. Firstly, an Automatic Anatomical Label (AAL) atlas based white matter structural network, a 90 × 90 FA-weighted matrix, was constructed for each subject. Then, the white matter connections deprived from the structural network were entered into a lasso-logistic regression model to perform HIV-control group classification. Using leave one out cross validation, a classification accuracy (ACC) of 90% (P=0.002) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 was obtained by the classification model. This result indicated that the white matter anatomical structural connections contributed greatly to HIV-control group classification, providing solid evidence that the white matter connections were affected by HIV infection. Specially, 11 white matter connections were selected in the classification model, mainly crossing the regions of frontal lobe, Cingulum, Hippocampus, and Thalamus, which were reported to be damaged in previous HIV studies. This might suggest that the white matter connections adjacent to the HIV-related impaired regions were prone to be damaged.

  13. Cryptococcal meningitis accompanying lymphocytic inflammation predominantly in cerebral deep white matter: a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiroya; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Zen; Inaba, Akira; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2014-02-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is rarely complicated by immune-mediated leukoencephalopathy, but the precise pathomechanism is uncertain. A 72-year-old Japanese man treated with prednisolone for Sweet disease developed a subacute progression of meningitis, which was considered as neuro-Sweet disease. A treatment by methylprednisolone rapidly improved CSF findings with a remarkable decrease in lymphocyte numbers in the blood, but the patient's consciousness still worsened after the cessation of the treatment. The patient developed cryptococcal meningitis and MRI showed abnormal intensities predominantly in the cerebral deep white matter along with the recovery of lymphocyte numbers in the blood, which resulted in death. A postmortem examination of the brain revealed degenerative lesions, especially at the cerebral white matter and cortex adjacent to the leptomeninges abundantly infiltrated by Cryptococcus neoformans. In the affected cerebral deep white matter, perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes was prominent in coexistence with reactive astrocytes and vascular proliferation, but these findings were not observed in the subcortical and cortical lesions. Cryptococcus neoformans was not present within the brain parenchyma. This is the first report of a case suggesting that cryptococcal meningitis can accompany lymphocytic inflammation predominantly in cerebral deep white matter as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  14. The value of T1-weighted images in the differentiation between MS, white matter lesions, and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE)

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    Uhlenbrock, D.; Sehlen, S.

    1989-07-01

    The aim of the study was to define reliable criteria for the differentiation of MR imaging between patients with MS and with 'vascular' white matter lesions/SAE. We examined 35 patients with proven MS according to the Poser criteria and 35 patients with other white matter lesions and/or SAE. The result is that with MR a differentiation can be achieved provided that T1-weighted spin-echo sequences are included and the different pattern of distribution is considered. MS plaques are predominantly located in the subependymal region, vascular white matter lesions are mainly located in the water-shed of the superficial middle cerebral branches and the deep perforating long medullary vessels in the centrum semiovale. Infratentorial lesions are more often seen in MS. Confluence at the lateral ventricles is frequently accompanied by confluent abnormalities around the third ventricle, Sylvian aqueduct, and fourth ventricle, which is uncommon in SAE. In MS many lesions visible on T2-weighted images have a cellular or intracellular composition that renders them visible also on T1-weighted ones as regions with low signal intensity and more or less distinct boundary. 'Vascular' white matter lesions and SAE mainly represent demyelination and can therefore be seen on T2-weighted images, but corresponding low signal intensity lesions on T1-weighted images are uncommon. In some exceptions there are such lesions with low signal representing lacunar infarcts or widened Virchow-Robin-spaces. (orig.).

  15. The axon-glia unit in white matter stroke: mechanisms of damage and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Shira; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-10-14

    Approximately one quarter of all strokes in humans occur in white matter, and the progressive nature of white matter lesions often results in severe physical and mental disability. Unlike cortical grey matter stroke, the pathology of white matter stroke revolves around disrupted connectivity and injured axons and glial cells, rather than neuronal cell bodies. Consequently, the mechanisms behind ischemic damage to white matter elements, the regenerative responses of glial cells and their signaling pathways, all differ significantly from those in grey matter. Development of effective therapies for white matter stroke would require an enhanced understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions within the white matter, leading to the identification of new therapeutic targets. This review will address the unique properties of the axon-glia unit during white matter stroke, describe the challenging process of promoting effective white matter repair, and discuss recently-identified signaling pathways which may hold potential targets for repair in this disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired functional but preserved structural connectivity in limbic white matter tracts in youth with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth Carrie; Marsh, Abigail; Blair, Karina Simone; Majestic, Catherine; Evangelou, Iordanis; Gupta, Karan; Schneider, Marguerite Reid; Sims, Courtney; Pope, Kayla; Fowler, Katherine; Sinclair, Stephen; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Pine, Daniel; Blair, Robert James

    2012-06-30

    Youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and psychopathic traits (CD/ODD+PT) are at high risk of adult antisocial behavior and psychopathy. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate functional abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala in both youths and adults with psychopathic traits. Diffusion tensor imaging in psychopathic adults demonstrates disrupted structural connectivity between these regions (uncinate fasiculus). The current study examined whether functional neural abnormalities present in youths with CD/ODD+PT are associated with similar white matter abnormalities. Youths with CD/ODD+PT and comparison participants completed 3.0 T diffusion tensor scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Diffusion tensor imaging did not reveal disruption in structural connections within the uncinate fasiculus or other white matter tracts in youths with CD/ODD+PT, despite the demonstration of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity in these youths. These results suggest that disrupted amygdala-frontal white matter connectivity as measured by fractional anisotropy is less sensitive than imaging measurements of functional perturbations in youths with psychopathic traits. If white matter tracts are intact in youths with this disorder, childhood may provide a critical window for intervention and treatment, before significant structural brain abnormalities solidify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a deep learning approach for the segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, Pim; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Mendrik, AM; Biessels, Geert Jan; Pluim, Josien P.W.; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) in MRI of older patients is widely described in the literature. Although brain abnormalities and motion artefacts are common in this age group, most segmentation methods are not evaluated in a

  18. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler G. Shollenbarger

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  19. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; Pmeat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (Pmeat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white

  20. Altered topological organization of white matter structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaou Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO. METHODS: The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. RESULTS: The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. CONCLUSION: Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO.

  1. Supervised learning technique for the automated identification of white matter hyperintensities in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Taylor, Brian A; Tate, David F; Levin, Harvey; Bigler, Erin D; Scheibel, Randall S; Newsome, Mary R; Mayer, Andrew R; Abildskov, Tracy; Black, Garrett M; Lennon, Michael J; York, Gerald E; Agarwal, Rajan; DeVillasante, Jorge; Ritter, John L; Walker, Peter B; Ahlers, Stephen T; Tustison, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are foci of abnormal signal intensity in white matter regions seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). WMHs are associated with normal ageing and have shown prognostic value in neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The impracticality of manually quantifying these lesions limits their clinical utility and motivates the utilization of machine learning techniques for automated segmentation workflows. This study develops a concatenated random forest framework with image features for segmenting WMHs in a TBI cohort. The framework is built upon the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) and ANTsR toolkits. MR (3D FLAIR, T2- and T1-weighted) images from 24 service members and veterans scanned in the Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium's (CENC) observational study were acquired. Manual annotations were employed for both training and evaluation using a leave-one-out strategy. Performance measures include sensitivity, positive predictive value, [Formula: see text] score and relative volume difference. Final average results were: sensitivity = 0.68 ± 0.38, positive predictive value = 0.51 ± 0.40, [Formula: see text] = 0.52 ± 0.36, relative volume difference = 43 ± 26%. In addition, three lesion size ranges are selected to illustrate the variation in performance with lesion size. Paired with correlative outcome data, supervised learning methods may allow for identification of imaging features predictive of diagnosis and prognosis in individual TBI patients.

  2. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Riddle

    Full Text Available Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate.We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter.A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI.Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.

  3. Multilevel Thresholding Method Based on Electromagnetism for Accurate Brain MRI Segmentation to Detect White Matter, Gray Matter, and CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explains an advanced and accurate brain MRI segmentation method. MR brain image segmentation is to know the anatomical structure, to identify the abnormalities, and to detect various tissues which help in treatment planning prior to radiation therapy. This proposed technique is a Multilevel Thresholding (MT method based on the phenomenon of Electromagnetism and it segments the image into three tissues such as White Matter (WM, Gray Matter (GM, and CSF. The approach incorporates skull stripping and filtering using anisotropic diffusion filter in the preprocessing stage. This thresholding method uses the force of attraction-repulsion between the charged particles to increase the population. It is the combination of Electromagnetism-Like optimization algorithm with the Otsu and Kapur objective functions. The results obtained by using the proposed method are compared with the ground-truth images and have given best values for the measures sensitivity, specificity, and segmentation accuracy. The results using 10 MR brain images proved that the proposed method has accurately segmented the three brain tissues compared to the existing segmentation methods such as K-means, fuzzy C-means, OTSU MT, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA, Genetic Algorithm (GA, and Fuzzy Local Gaussian Mixture Model (FLGMM.

  4. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  5. Considerations for the optimization of induced white matter injury preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shafique Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The white matter injury in relation to acute neurologic conditions, especially stroke, has remained obscure until recently. Current advances in the imaging technologies in the field of stroke have confirmed that white matter injury plays an important role in the prognosis of stroke and suggest that white matter protection is essential for functional recovery and post-stroke rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of a reproducible animal model of white matter injury, the pathophysiology and mechanisms of this injury are not well studied. Moreover, producing selective white matter injury in animals, especially in rodents, has proven to be challenging. Problems associated with inducing selective white matter ischemic injury in the rodent derive from differences in the architecture of the brain, most particularly the ratio of white matter to gray matter in rodents compared to humans, the agents used to induce the injury, and the location of the injury. Aging, gender differences, and comorbidities further add to this complexity. This review provides a brief account of the techniques commonly used to induce general white matter injury in animal models (stroke and non-stroke related and highlights relevance, optimization issues, and translational potentials associated with this particular form of injury.

  6. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  7. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  8. Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF, studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM and white matter (WM, and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values.

  9. White matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunctions in neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Blanc

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system characterized by optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive acute transverse myelitis. NMO patients have cognitive dysfunctions but other clinical symptoms of brain origin are rare. In the present study, we aimed to investigate cognitive functions and brain volume in NMO. The study population consisted of 28 patients with NMO and 28 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and educational level. We applied a French translation of the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB-N to the NMO patients. Using SIENAx for global brain volume (Grey Matter, GM; White Matter, WM; and whole brain and VBM for focal brain volume (GM and WM, NMO patients and controls were compared. Voxel-level correlations between diminished brain concentration and cognitive performance for each tests were performed. Focal and global brain volume of NMO patients with and without cognitive impairment were also compared. Fifteen NMO patients (54% had cognitive impairment with memory, executive function, attention and speed of information processing deficits. Global and focal brain atrophy of WM but not Grey Matter (GM was found in the NMO patients group. The focal WM atrophy included the optic chiasm, pons, cerebellum, the corpus callosum and parts of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, including superior longitudinal fascicle. Visual memory, verbal memory, speed of information processing, short-term memory and executive functions were correlated to focal WM volumes. The comparison of patients with, to patients without cognitive impairment showed a clear decrease of global and focal WM, including brainstem, corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum but also superior and inferior longitudinal fascicles. Cognitive impairment in NMO patients is correlated to the decreased of global and focal WM volume of the brain. Further studies are needed to better understand the precise origin of cognitive impairment in

  10. Gray/White Matter Contrast in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Uribe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gray/white matter contrast (GWC decreases with aging and has been found to be a useful MRI biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but its utility in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients has not been investigated. The aims of the study were to test whether GWC is sensitive to aging changes in PD patients, if PD patients differ from healthy controls (HCs in GWC, and whether the use of GWC data would improve the sensitivity of cortical thickness analyses to differentiate PD patients from controls. Using T1-weighted structural images, we obtained individual cortical thickness and GWC values from a sample of 90 PD patients and 27 controls. Images were processed with the automated FreeSurfer stream. GWC was computed by dividing the white matter (WM by the gray matter (GM values and projecting the ratios onto a common surface. The sample characteristics were: 52 patients and 14 controls were males; mean age of 64.4 ± 10.6 years in PD and 64.7 ± 8.6 years in controls; 8.0 ± 5.6 years of disease evolution; 15.6 ± 9.8 UPDRS; and a range of 1.5–3 in Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y stage. In both PD and controls we observed significant correlations between GWC and age involving almost the entire cortex. When applying a stringent cluster-forming threshold of p < 0.0001, the correlation between GWC and age also involved the entire cortex in the PD group; in the control group, the correlation was found in the parahippocampal gyrus and widespread frontal and parietal areas. The GWC of PD patients did not differ from controls’, whereas cortical thickness analyses showed thinning in temporal and parietal cortices in the PD group. Cortical thinning remained unchanged after adjusting for GWC. GWC is a very sensitive measure for detecting aging effects, but did not provide additional information over other parameters of atrophy in PD.

  11. White Matter Hyperintensity Volume and Cerebral Perfusion in Older Individuals with Hypertension Using Arterial Spin-Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, J. W.; Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; Vrenken, H.; Steenwijk, M. D.; Caan, M. W. A.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; van Gool, W. A.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in elderly patients with hypertension may be part of a general cerebral perfusion deficit, involving not only the white matter hyperintensities but also the surrounding normal-appearing white matter and gray matter. We

  12. White Matter Hyperintensities, Exercise and Improvement in Gait Speed: Does the Type of Gait Rehabilitation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Perera, Subashan; Rosano, Caterina; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Brach, Jennifer S.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain MRI are associated with cognitive and mobility impairment in older adults. We examined whether WMH in tracts in older adults with mobility impairment are linked to outcomes of gait rehabilitation interventions. Design A 12-week randomized controlled single-blind trial. Setting University-based mobility research laboratory. Participants Ambulatory adults aged 65 and older with mobility impairment. Intervention A conventional gait intervention focusing on walking, endurance, balance, and strength (WEBS, n=21) compared to a task-oriented intervention focused on timing and coordination of gait (TC, n=23). Measurements We measured self-paced gait speed over an instrumented walkway, pre and post intervention, and quantified WMH and brain volumes on pre-intervention brain MRI using an automated segmentation process. We overlaid a white matter tract atlas on the segmented images to measure tract WMH volumes and normalized WMH volumes to total brain volume. Aggregate WMH volumes in all white matter tracts and individual WMH volumes in specific longitudinal tracts (the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the fronto-occipital fasciculus) and cingulum were obtained. Results Gait speed gains in the TC group were of the same magnitude, independent of the WMH volume measures in all except the cingulum. However, in the WEBS group, gain in gait speed was smaller with greater overall tract WMH volumes (P<0.001) and with greater WMH volume in the three longitudinal tracts (P< 0.001 to 0.025). Conclusion Gains in gait speed with two types of gait rehabilitation are associated with individual differences in WMH. Task-oriented therapy that targets timing and coordination of gait may particularly benefit older adults with WMH in brain tracts that influence gait and cognition. PMID:23590257

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of temporal lobe white matter in patients with histologically proven hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, LC; van der Grond, J; van Rijen, PC; Springorum, R; de Kort, GAP; Jansen, GH

    The purpose of this study was to assess temporal lobe white matter changes accompanying hippocampal sclerosis on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using single-voxel H-1 MR spectroscopy and to strengthen the hypothesis that these white matter changes are caused by myelin alterations. In 11 patients

  14. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  15. Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Howell, Peter; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by evaluating the relationship between white matter differences in people who stutter and factors such as age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. We replicated previous findings that showed reduced integrity in white matter underlying ventral premotor cortex, cerebral peduncles and posterior corpus callosum in people who stutter relative to controls. Tractography analysis additionally revealed significantly reduced white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculus bilaterally and the left corticospinal tract and significantly reduced connectivity within the left corticobulbar tract in people who stutter. Region-of-interest analyses revealed reduced white matter integrity in people who stutter in the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles that carry the afferent and efferent fibers of the cerebellum. Within the group of people who stutter, the higher the stuttering severity index, the lower the white matter integrity in the left angular gyrus, but the greater the white matter connectivity in the left corticobulbar tract. Also, in people who stutter, handedness and age predicted the integrity of the corticospinal tract and peduncles, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine which of these white matter differences relate to the neural basis of stuttering and which reflect experience-dependent plasticity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging, white matter lesions, the corpus callosum, and gait in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially affected by stroke and white matter hyper intensities found in conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measure...

  17. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Associations with White Matter Volume and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…

  18. White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, A; Madureira, S; Moleiro, C

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently.......We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently....

  19. Hypertension and cerebral white matter lesions in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Oudkerk, M; Witteman, JCM; Hofman, A; van Gijn, J; Breteler, MMB

    White matter lesions are frequently found on cerebral MRI scans of elderly people and are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of dementia. Hypertension has been associated with the presence of white matter lesions but this has been investigated almost exclusively in cross-sectional studies.

  20. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  1. White matter microstructure correlates of narrative production in typically developing children and children with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brian D; Lai, Janie; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Halgren, Eric; Reilly, Judy; Dale, Anders; Appelbaum, Mark; Moses, Pamela

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and more on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  3. White Matter Microstructure Correlates of Narrative Production in Typically Developing Children and Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brian; Lai, Janie; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Halgren, Eric; Reilly, Judy; Dale, Anders; Appelbaum, Mark; Moses, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and instead rely on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language. PMID:23810972

  4. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Nay, Richard; de Rooij, Rijk; Steinmann, Paul; Wyrobek, Thomas; Ovaert, Timothy C; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian brain is composed of an outer layer of gray matter, consisting of cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons, and an inner core of white matter, consisting primarily of myelinated axons. Recent evidence suggests that microstructural differences between gray and white matter play an important role during neurodevelopment. While brain tissue as a whole is rheologically well characterized, the individual features of gray and white matter remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the mechanical properties of gray and white matter using a robust, reliable, and repeatable method, flat-punch indentation. To systematically characterize gray and white matter moduli for varying indenter diameters, loading rates, holding times, post-mortem times, and locations we performed a series of n=192 indentation tests. We found that indenting thick, intact coronal slices eliminates the common challenges associated with small specimens: it naturally minimizes boundary effects, dehydration, swelling, and structural degradation. When kept intact and hydrated, brain slices maintained their mechanical characteristics with standard deviations as low as 5% throughout the entire testing period of five days post mortem. White matter, with an average modulus of 1.89 5kPa ± 0.592 kPa, was on average 39% stiffer than gray matter, pmatter and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading. Understanding the rheological differences between gray and white matter may have direct implications on diagnosing and understanding the mechanical environment in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE STRUCTURE AND FINE STRUCTURE OF TELENCEPHALIC WHITE MATTER IN GALLUS DOMESTICUS SPECIES

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    LAURA DANIELA URDEŞ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In Gallus domesticus species, the cerebral emispheres are constituted by the grey and white matter. The white matter is located into emispheres’ center, integrating in its mass a number of nervous nuclei, while the grey matter, placed to the periphery and into the center of telencephalon, composes the cerebral cortex and telencephalic nervous nuclei. Histologically, the white matter is constituted by nervous mielinic prolongations (projection, association and commisural fibres, glial cells and blood vessels (including muscular arteriols originated from the leptomeningeal space. This data, based on our experiment, are illustrated by the most suggestive aspects, chosen to be presented in this paper work.

  6. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

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    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.

  7. Drinking History Associations with Regional White Matter Volumes in Alcoholic Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Valmas, Mary; Urban, Trinity; Harris, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcoholism has been repeatedly associated with gray and white matter pathology. Although neuroimaging has shown alcoholism-related brain volume reductions and axonal compromise, the integrity of white matter volumes in chronic alcoholism has been challenging to measure on a regional level. Methods We first examined effects of alcoholism on cerebral white matter volumes by lobar and gyral subdivisions in 42 abstinent alcoholics and 42 control participants (split evenly by gender). We also examined cerebellar white matter and regions of the corpus callosum, as well as ventricular volumes. Next, relationships between white matter and ventricular volumes with measures of drinking patterns were assessed. Finally, an examination of early versus late abstinence was conducted. Within each examination, gender effects were explored. Results Differences in regional white matter volumes between alcoholics and controls were observed primarily in the corpus callosum, with a stronger group difference among men than among women. Years of heavy drinking had a strong negative impact on frontal and temporal white matter among alcoholic women, and on the corpus callosum among alcoholic men. Quantity of alcohol consumption was associated with smaller corpus callosum and larger ventricular volumes among alcoholic women, while abstinence duration was associated with larger corpus callosum volume among alcoholic men. Preliminary data indicated that alcoholic women showed stronger positive associations between sobriety duration and white matter volume than men within the first year of abstinence, while men showed this association more so than women after one year of abstinence. Conclusions Effects of drinking history on white matter and ventricular volumes vary by gender, with alcoholic women showing greatest sensitivity in frontal, temporal, ventricular, and corpus callosum regions, and alcoholic men showing effects mainly in the corpus callosum. Preliminary results indicate

  8. Sleep Duration and White Matter Quality in Middle-Aged Adults.

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    Yaffe, Kristine; Nasrallah, Ilya; Hoang, Tina D; Lauderdale, Diane S; Knutson, Kristen L; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Launer, Lenore J; Lewis, Cora E; Sidney, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has been associated with risk of dementia and stroke, but few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and brain MRI measures, particularly in middle age. In a prospective cohort of 613 black and white adults (mean age = 45.4 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, participants reported typical sleep duration, dichotomized into moderate sleep duration (> 6 to ≤ 8 h) and short sleep duration (≤ 6 h) at baseline (2005-2006). Five years later, we obtained brain MRI markers of white matter including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and white matter hyperintensities. Compared to moderate sleepers, short sleepers had an elevated ratio of white matter hyperintensities to normal tissue in the parietal region (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.61) adjusted for age, race/sex, education, hypertension, stroke/TIA, depression, smoking status, and physical activity. White matter diffusivity was also higher, approximately a 0.2 standard deviation difference, in frontal, parietal, and temporal white matter regions, among those reporting shorter sleep duration in (P sleep duration was associated with worse markers of white matter integrity in midlife. These mid-life differences in white matter may underlie the link between poor sleep and risk of dementia and stroke. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Pathological changes in the white matter after spinal contusion injury in the rat.

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    C Joakim Ek

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that after spinal cord injury, the loss of grey matter is relatively faster than loss of white matter suggesting interventions to save white matter tracts offer better therapeutic possibilities. Loss of white matter in and around the injury site is believed to be the main underlying cause for the subsequent loss of neurological functions. In this study we used a series of techniques, including estimations of the number of axons with pathology, immunohistochemistry and mapping of distribution of pathological axons, to better understand the temporal and spatial pathological events in white matter following contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. There was an initial rapid loss of axons with no detectable further loss beyond 1 week after injury. Immunoreactivity for CNPase indicated that changes to oligodendrocytes are rapid, extending to several millimetres away from injury site and preceding much of the axonal loss, giving early prediction of the final volume of white matter that survived. It seems that in juvenile rats the myelination of axons in white matter tracts continues for some time, which has an important bearing on interpretation of our, and previous, studies. The amount of myelin debris and axon pathology progressively decreased with time but could still be observed at 10 weeks after injury, especially at more distant rostral and caudal levels from the injury site. This study provides new methods to assess injuries to spinal cord and indicates that early interventions are needed for the successful sparing of white matter tracts following injury.

  10. Episodic Migraine and White Matter Hyperintensities: Association of Pain Lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ahmet; Ceylan, Mustafa; Bayraktutan, Omer Faruk; Akkurt, Adem

    2017-12-08

    Migraine pathophysiology involves a neuronal mechanism that is closely associated with the neuronal activation of peripheral trigeminal nociceptive pathways. It also involves a vascular mechanism that is supported by studies concerning the presence of migraine with aura in various vascular diseases. Migraine is associated with silent infarct-like lesions and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) that can be encountered during magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the migraine-WMH link based on pain lateralization. We recruited 628 episodic migraine patients and examined their cranial magnetic resonance images regarding the presence of deep, subcortical, and periventricular WMHs. We sought to identify an association between lesion occurrence and pain side. We found that the patients had more deep/subcortical hyperintensities in the cerebral hemisphere that was ipsilateral to the pain side (ƙ = 0.421). Periventricular hyperintensities were not associated with the pain side (P = 0.768). Based on our study results, we concluded that pain in episodic migraine is associated with the occurrence of WMHs in the cerebral hemispheres. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

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    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  12. Reduced gray to white matter tissue intensity contrast in schizophrenia.

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    Li Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies revealed changes of brain volume or density, cortical thickness and fibre integrity in schizophrenia, the effect of tissue alterations on the contrast properties of neural structures has so far remained mostly unexplored. METHODS: Whole brain high-resolution MRI at 3 Tesla was used to investigate tissue contrast and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly decreased gray to white matter contrast in large portions throughout the cortical mantle with preponderance in inferior, middle, superior and medial temporal areas as well as in lateral and medial frontal regions. The extent of these intensity contrast changes exceeded the extent of cortical thinning. Further, contrast changes remained significant after controlling for cortical thickness measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly emphasize the presence of schizophrenia related brain tissue changes that alter the imaging properties of brain structures. Intensity contrast measurements might not only serve as a highly sensitive metric but also as a potential indicator of a distinct pathological process that might be independent from volume or thickness alterations.

  13. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18–27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy. PMID:26585372

  14. Cognitive Intraindividual Variability and White Matter Integrity in Aging

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    Nathalie Mella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraindividual variability (IIV of cognitive performance has been shown to increase with aging. While brain research has generally focused on mean performance, little is known about neural correlates of cognitive IIV. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that IIV relates more strongly than mean level of performance to the quality of white matter (WM. Our study aims to explore the relation between WM integrity and cognitive IIV by combining functional (fMRI and structural (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI imaging. Twelve young adults (aged 18–30 years and thirteen older adults (61–82 years underwent a battery of neuropsychological tasks, along with fMRI and DTI imaging. Their behavioral data were analyzed and correlated with the imaging data at WM regions of interest defined on the basis of (1 the fMRI-activated areas and (2 the Johns Hopkins University (JHU WM tractography atlas. For both methods, fractional anisotropy, along with the mean, radial, and axial diffusivity parameters, was computed. In accord with previous studies, our results showed that the DTI parameters were more related to IIV than to mean performance. Results also indicated that age differences in the DTI parameters were more pronounced in the regions activated primarily by young adults during a choice reaction-time task than in those also activated in older adults.

  15. White matter hyperintensities segmentation: a new semi-automated method

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    Mariangela eIorio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter hyperintensities (WMH are brain areas of increased signal on T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inverse recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans. In this study we present a new semi-automated method to measure WMH load that is based on the segmentation of the intensity histogram of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Thirty patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment with variable WMH load were enrolled. The semi-automated WMH segmentation included: removal of non-brain tissue, spatial normalization, removal of cerebellum and brain stem, spatial filtering, thresholding to segment probable WMH, manual editing for correction of false positives and negatives, generation of WMH map and volumetric estimation of the WMH load. Accuracy was quantitatively evaluated by comparing semi-automated and manual WMH segmentations performed by two independent raters. Differences between the two procedures were assessed using Student’s t tests and similarity was evaluated using linear regression model and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC. The volumes of the manual and semi-automated segmentations did not statistically differ (t-value= -1.79, DF=29, p= 0.839 for rater 1; t-value= 1.113, DF=29, p= 0.2749 for rater 2, were highly correlated (R²= 0.921, F (1,29 =155,54, p

  16. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  17. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sagari; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Blackwood, Nigel; Scott, Stephen; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-01-01

    The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM) tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe) compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear. We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history. The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1) the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2) right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3) left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone. Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM 'connectivity'.

  18. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

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    Sagari Sarkar

    Full Text Available The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear.We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history.The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1 the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2 right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3 left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone.Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM 'connectivity'.

  19. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of white matter changes in children with anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhai, Liying; Jiang, Qinying; Qin, Wen; Li, Qingji; Yin, Xiaohui; Guo, Mingxia

    2015-06-15

    Amblyopia is a neurological disorder of vision that follows abnormal binocular interaction or visual deprivation during early life. Previous studies have reported multiple functional or structural cortical alterations. Although white matter was also studied, it still cannot be clarified clearly which fasciculus was affected by amblyopia. In the present study, tract-based spatial statistics analysis was applied to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate potential diffusion changes of neural tracts in anisometropic amblyopia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) value was calculated and compared between 20 amblyopic children and 18 healthy age-matched controls. In contrast to the controls, significant decreases in FA values were found in right optic radiation (OR), left inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (ILF/IFO) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in the amblyopia. Furthermore, FA values of these identified tracts showed positive correlation with visual acuity. It can be inferred that abnormal visual input not only hinders OR from well developed, but also impairs fasciculi associated with dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which may be responsible for the amblyopic deficiency in object discrimination and stereopsis. Increased FA was detected in right posterior part of corpus callosum (CC) with a medium effect size, which may be due to compensation effect. DTI with subsequent measurement of FA is a useful tool for investigating neuronal tract involvement in amblyopia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Callous-unemotional traits drive reduced white-matter integrity in youths with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, A L; Cardinale, E M; Lozier, L M; VanMeter, J W; Marsh, A A

    2015-10-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent a significant risk factor for severe and persistent conduct problems in children and adolescents. Extensive neuroimaging research links CU traits to structural and functional abnormalities in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, adults with psychopathy (a disorder for which CU traits are a developmental precursor) exhibit reduced integrity in uncinate fasciculus, a white-matter (WM) tract that connects prefrontal and temporal regions. However, research in adolescents has not yet yielded similarly consistent findings. We simultaneously modeled CU traits and externalizing behaviors as continuous traits, while controlling for age and IQ, in order to identify the unique relationship of each variable with WM microstructural integrity, assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to evaluate fractional anisotropy, an index of WM integrity, in uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis in 47 youths aged 10-17 years, of whom 26 exhibited conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits. Whereas both CU traits and externalizing behaviors were negatively correlated with WM integrity in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis/fornix, simultaneously modeling both variables revealed that these effects were driven by CU traits; the severity of externalizing behavior was not related to WM integrity after controlling for CU traits. These results indicate that WM abnormalities similar to those observed in adult populations with psychopathy may emerge in late childhood or early adolescence, and may be critical to understanding the social and affective deficits observed in this population.

  1. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  2. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  3. Microstructure of Strategic White Matter Tracts and Cognition in Memory Clinic Patients with Vascular Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroek, J Matthijs; Leemans, Alexander; den Bakker, Hanna; Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno; Koek, Huiberdina L; van den Berg, Esther; Postma, Albert; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2018-01-19

    White matter injury is an important factor for cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients. We determined the added value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of strategic white matter tracts in explaining variance in cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. We included 159 patients. Conventional MRI markers (white matter hyperintensity volume, lacunes, nonlacunar infarcts, brain atrophy, and microbleeds), and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) of the whole brain white matter and of 18 white matter tracts were related to cognition using linear regression and Bayesian network analysis. On top of all conventional MRI markers combined, MD of the whole brain white matter explained an additional 3.4% (p = 0.014), 7.8% (p strategic tracts for executive functioning (right superior longitudinal fasciculus), speed (left corticospinal tract), and memory (left uncinate fasciculus). MD within these tracts explained an additional 3.4% (p = 0.012), 3.8% (p = 0.007), and 2.1% (p = 0.041) variance in executive functioning, speed, and memory, respectively, on top of all conventional MRI and global DTI markers combined. In memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury, DTI of strategic white matter tracts has a significant added value in explaining variance in cognitive functioning. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Quantitative analysis of [18F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Small, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [ 18 F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [ 18 F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k ' 2 ) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k ' 2 in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k ' 2 determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p 18 F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  5. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  6. Raymond de Vieussens and his contribution to the study of white matter anatomy: historical vignette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Francesco; Morris, Christopher M; Mitchell, Patrick; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the study of white matter anatomy, both with the use of postmortem dissections and diffusion tensor imaging tractography. One of the precursors in the study of white matter anatomy was Raymond de Vieussens (1641-1716), a French anatomist born in Le Vigan. He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France, one of the most ancient and lively schools of medicine in Europe. In 1684 Vieussens published his masterpiece, the Neurographia Universalis, which is still considered one of the most complete and accurate descriptions of the nervous system provided in the 17th century. He described the white matter of the centrum ovale and was the first to demonstrate the continuity of the white matter fibers from the centrum ovale to the brainstem. He also described the dentate nuclei, the pyramids, and the olivary nuclei. According to the theory of Galen, Vieussens considered that the function of the white matter was to convey the "animal spirit" from the centrum ovale to the spinal cord. Although neglected, Vieussens' contribution to the study of white matter is relevant. His pioneering work showed that the white matter is not a homogeneous substance, but rather a complex structure rich in fibers that are interconnected with different parts of the brain. These initial results paved the way to advancements observed in later centuries that eventually led to modern hodology.

  7. Altered glutamatergic metabolism associated with punctate white matter lesions in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Wisnowski

    Full Text Available Preterm infants (∼10% of all births are at high-risk for long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities, most often resulting from white matter injury sustained during the neonatal period. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to be a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of white matter injury; however, there has been no in vivo demonstration of glutamate excitotoxicity in preterm infants. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we tested the hypothesis that glutamate and glutamine, i.e., markers of glutamatergic metabolism, are altered in association with punctate white matter lesions and "diffuse excessive high signal intensity" (DEHSI, the predominant patterns of preterm white matter injury. We reviewed all clinically-indicated MRS studies conducted on preterm infants at a single institution during a six-year period and determined the absolute concentration of glutamate, glutamine, and four other key metabolites in the parietal white matter in 108 of those infants after two investigators independently evaluated the studies for punctate white matter lesions and DEHSI. Punctate white matter lesions were associated with a 29% increase in glutamine concentration (p = 0.002. In contrast, there were no differences in glutamatergic metabolism in association with DEHSI. Severe DEHSI, however, was associated with increased lactate concentration (p = 0.001, a marker of tissue acidosis. Findings from this study support glutamate excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of punctate white matter lesions, but not necessarily in DEHSI, and suggest that MRS provides a useful biomarker for determining the pathogenesis of white matter injury in preterm infants during a period when neuroprotective agents may be especially effective.

  8. Experimental focal neocortical epilepsy is associated with reduced white matter volume growth : results from multiparametric MRI analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Wim; van Meer, Maurits P A; van der Marel, Kajo; Zwartbol, René; Viergever, Max A.; Braun, Kees P J; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Focal epilepsy has recently been associated with remote white matter damage, including reduced white matter volume. Longitudinal assessment of these white matter changes, in relation to functional mechanisms and consequences, may be ideally done by in vivo neuroimaging in well-controlled

  9. Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gons, Rob A R; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Oudheusden, Lucas J B; van Uden, Inge W M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Various pathophysiological pathways have been proposed to cause such a cognitive decline, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Smoking may affect the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is known to be sensitive for microstructural changes in cerebral white matter. We therefore cross-sectionally studied the relation between smoking behaviour (never, former, current) and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions as well as the relation between smoking behaviour and cognitive performance. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain the amount and duration of smoking in 503 subjects with small-vessel disease, aged between 50 and 85 years. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. All subjects underwent 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Using diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions. A history of smoking was associated with significant higher values of mean diffusivity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions (P-trend for smoking status = 0.02) and with poorer cognitive functioning compared with those who never smoked. Associations with smoking and loss of structural integrity appeared to be strongest in normal-appearing white matter. Furthermore, the duration of smoking cessation was positively related to lower values of mean diffusivity and higher values of fractional anisotropy in normal-appearing white matter [β = -0.004 (95% confidence interval -0.007 to 0.000; P = 0.03) and β = 0.019 (95% confidence interval 0.001-0.038; P = 0.04)]. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values in normal-appearing white matter of subjects who had quit smoking for >20 years were comparable with subjects who had never smoked. These data suggest

  10. Regionally specific white matter disruptions of fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Qiu, Anqi; Sim, Kang

    2011-04-14

    Limbic circuitry disruptions have been implicated in the psychopathology and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, which may involve white matter disruptions of the major tracts of the limbic system, including the fornix and the cingulum. Our study aimed to investigate regionally specific abnormalities of the fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We determined the fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) profiles along the fornix and cingulum tracts using a fibertracking technique and a brain mapping algorithm, the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM), in the DTI scans of 33 patients with schizophrenia and 31 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia showed reduction in FA and increase in RD in bilateral fornix, and increase in RD in left anterior cingulum when compared to healthy controls. In addition, tract-based analysis revealed specific loci of these white matter differences in schizophrenia, that is, FA reductions and AD and RD increases occur in the region of the left fornix further from the hippocampus, FA reductions and RD increases occur in the rostral portion of the left anterior cingulum, and RD and AD increases occur in the anterior segment of the left middle cingulum. In patients with schizophrenia, decreased FA in the specific loci of the left fornix and increased AD in the right cingulum adjoining the hippocampus correlated with greater severity of psychotic symptoms. These findings support precise disruptions of limbic-cortical integrity in schizophrenia and disruption of these structural networks may contribute towards the neural basis underlying the syndrome of schizophrenia and clinical symptomatology.

  11. Regionally specific white matter disruptions of fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farid Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Limbic circuitry disruptions have been implicated in the psychopathology and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, which may involve white matter disruptions of the major tracts of the limbic system, including the fornix and the cingulum. Our study aimed to investigate regionally specific abnormalities of the fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We determined the fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, and axial diffusivity (AD profiles along the fornix and cingulum tracts using a fibertracking technique and a brain mapping algorithm, the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM, in the DTI scans of 33 patients with schizophrenia and 31 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia showed reduction in FA and increase in RD in bilateral fornix, and increase in RD in left anterior cingulum when compared to healthy controls. In addition, tract-based analysis revealed specific loci of these white matter differences in schizophrenia, that is, FA reductions and AD and RD increases occur in the region of the left fornix further from the hippocampus, FA reductions and RD increases occur in the rostral portion of the left anterior cingulum, and RD and AD increases occur in the anterior segment of the left middle cingulum. In patients with schizophrenia, decreased FA in the specific loci of the left fornix and increased AD in the right cingulum adjoining the hippocampus correlated with greater severity of psychotic symptoms. These findings support precise disruptions of limbic-cortical integrity in schizophrenia and disruption of these structural networks may contribute towards the neural basis underlying the syndrome of schizophrenia and clinical symptomatology.

  12. White matter damage impairs access to consciousness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Françoise; Del Cul, Antoine; Malikova, Irina; Naccache, Lionel; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cohen, Laurent; Cherif, André Ali; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Audoin, Bertrand

    2009-01-15

    Global neuronal workspace theory predicts that damage to long-distance white matter (WM) tracts should impair access to consciousness during the perception of brief stimuli. To address this issue, we studied visual backward masking in 18 patients at the very first clinical stage of multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurological disease characterized by extensive WM damage, and in 18 matched healthy subjects. In our masking paradigm, the visibility of a digit stimulus increases non-linearly as a function of the interval duration between this target and a subsequent mask. In order to characterize quantitatively, for each subject, the transition between non-conscious and conscious perception of the stimulus, we used non-linear regression to fit a sigmoid curve to objective performance and subjective visibility reports as a function of target-mask delay. The delay corresponding to the inflexion point of the sigmoid, where visibility suddenly increases, was termed the "non-linear transition threshold" and used as a summary measure of masking efficiency. Objective and subjective non-linear transition thresholds were highly correlated across subjects in both groups, and were higher in patients compared to controls. In patients, variations in the non-linear transition threshold were inversely correlated to the Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values inside the right dorsolateral prefrontal WM, the right occipito-frontal fasciculus and the left cerebellum. This study provides clinical evidence of a relationship between impairments of conscious access and integrity of large WM bundles, particularly involving prefrontal cortex, as predicted by global neuronal workspace theory.

  13. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Joy T; Vaidya, Jatin G; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3717-3732, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. White matter mapping by DTI-based tractography for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the corticospinal tract (CST) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) illustrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we used CST- and AF-tractography integrated neuronavigation and monopolar and bipolar direct fiber stimulation. Forty seven patients with brain lesions adjacent to the CST and AF were studied. During lesion resection, direct fiber stimulation was applied to the CST and AF to elicit motor responses (fiber-MEP) and the impairment of language-related functions to identify the CST and AF. The minimum distance between the resection border and illustrated CST was measured on postoperative images. Direct fiber stimulation demonstrated that CST- and AF-tractography accurately reflected anatomical CST functioning. The cortical stimulation to the gyrus, including the language-fMRI activation, evoked speech arrest, while the subcortical stimulation close to the AF reproducibly caused 'paranomia' without speech arrest. There were strong correlations between stimulus intensity for the fiber-MEP and the distance between eloquent fibers and the stimulus points. The convergent calculation formulated 1.8 mA as the electrical threshold of CST for the fiber-MEP, which was much smaller than that of the hand motor area. Validated tractography demonstrated the mean distance and intersection angle between CST and AF were 5 mm and 107 deg, respectively. In addition, the anisotropic diffusion-weighted image (ADWI) and CST-tractography clearly indicated the locations of the primary motor area (PMA) and the central sulcus and well reflected the anatomical characteristics of the corticospinal tract in the human brain. DTI-based tractography is a reliable way to map the white matter connections in the entire brain in clinical and basic neuroscience. By combining these techniques, investigating the cortico-subcortical connections in the human central nervous system could contribute to elucidating the neural networks of the human brain and shed light

  15. White matter mapping by DTI-based tractography for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2009-01-01

    To validate the corticospinal tract (CST) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) illustrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we used CST- and AF-tractography integrated neuronavigation and monopolar and bipolar direct fiber stimulation. Forty seven patients with brain lesions adjacent to the CST and AF were studied. During lesion resection, direct fiber stimulation was applied to the CST and AF to elicit motor responses (fiber-motor evoked potential (MEP)) and the impairment of language-related functions to identify the CST and AF. The minimum distance between the resection border and illustrated CST was measured on postoperative images. Direct fiber stimulation demonstrated that CST- and AF-tractography accurately reflected anatomical CST functioning. The cortical stimulation to the gyrus, including the language-functional MRI (fMRI) activation, evoked speech arrest, while the subcortical stimulation close to the AF reproducibly caused 'paranomia' without speech arrest. There were strong correlations between stimulus intensity for the fiber-MEP and the distance between eloquent fibers and the stimulus points. The convergent calculation formulated 1.8 mA as the electrical threshold of CST for the fiber-MEP, which was much smaller than that of the hand motor area. Validated tractography demonstrated the mean distance and intersection angle between CST and AF were 5 mm and 107 deg, respectively. In addition, the anisotropic diffusion-weighted image (ADWI) and CST-tractography clearly indicated the locations of the primary motor area (PMA) and the central sulcus and well reflected the anatomical characteristics of the corticospinal tract in the human brain. DTI-based tractography is a reliable way to map the white matter connections in the entire brain in clinical and basic neuroscience. By combining these techniques, investigating the cortico-subcortical connections in the human central nervous system could contribute to elucidating the neural networks of the human brain and

  16. Towards a functional atlas of human white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbo, Silvio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Merler, Stefano; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-08-01

    Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and postmortem dissections improved the knowledge of white matter (WM) anatomy, functional information is lacking. Our aims are: to provide a subcortical atlas of human brain functions; to elucidate the functional roles of different bundles; to provide a probabilistic resection map of WM. We studied 130 patients who underwent awake surgery for gliomas (82 left; 48 right) with electrostimulation mapping at cortical and subcortical levels. Different aspects of language, sensori-motor, spatial cognition, and visual functions were monitored. 339 regions of interest (ROIs) including the functional response errors collected during stimulation were co-registered in the MNI space, as well as the resections' areas and residual tumors. Functional response errors and resection areas were matched with DTI and cortical atlases. Subcortical maps for each function and a probability map of resection were computed. The medial part of dorsal stream (arcuate fasciculus) subserves phonological processing; its lateral part [indirect anterior portion of the superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF)] subserves speech planning. The ventral stream subserves language semantics and matches with the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. Reading deficits match with the inferior longitudinal fascicle. Anomias match with the indirect posterior portion of the SLF. Frontal WM underpins motor planning and execution. Right parietal WM subserves spatial cognition. Sensori-motor and visual fibers were the most preserved bundles. We report the first anatomo-functional atlas of WM connectivity in humans by correlating cognitive data, electrostimulation, and DTI. We provide a valuable tool for cognitive neurosciences and clinical applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Short-term learning induces white matter plasticity in the fornix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Shir; Tavor, Ido; Tzur Moryosef, Shimrit; Assaf, Yaniv

    2013-07-31

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly extended the exploration of neuroplasticity in behaving animals and humans. Imaging studies recently uncovered structural changes that occur in gray and white matter, mainly after long-term training. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study showed that training in a car racing game for 2 h induces changes in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyri. However, the effect of short-term training on the white matter microstructure is unknown. Here we investigated the influence of short learning tasks on structural plasticity in the white matter, and specifically in the fornix, in humans and rats. Human subjects performed a 2 h spatial learning task, and rats underwent training for 1 d in a Morris water maze. Between tasks, subjects were scanned with DTI, a diffusion MRI framework sensitive to tissue microstructure. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we found changes in diffusivity indices in both humans and rats. In both species, changes in diffusion in the fornix were correlated with diffusion changes in the hippocampus, as well as with behavioral measures of improvement in the learning tasks. These results, which provide the first indication of short-term white matter plasticity in the human brain, suggest that the adult brain white matter preserves dynamic characteristics and can be modified by short-term learning experiences. The extent of change in white matter was correlated with their extent in gray matter, suggesting that all components of the neural network are capable of rapid remodeling in response to cognitive experiences.

  18. Discrimination and psychological distress: does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne

    2012-12-01

    The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward a unified description of dark energy and dark matter from the abnormally weighting energy hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuezfa, A.; Alimi, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The abnormally weighting energy hypothesis consists of assuming that the dark sector of cosmology violates the weak equivalence principle (WEP) on cosmological scales, which implies a violation of the strong equivalence principle for ordinary matter. In this paper, dark energy is shown to result from the violation of WEP by pressureless (dark) matter. This allows us to build a new cosmological framework in which general relativity is satisfied at low scales, as WEP violation depends on the ratio of the ordinary matter over dark matter densities, but at large scales, we obtain a general relativity-like theory with a different value of the gravitational coupling. This explanation is formulated in terms of a tensor-scalar theory of gravitation without WEP for which there exists a revisited convergence mechanism toward general relativity. The consequent dark energy mechanism build upon the anomalous gravity of dark matter (i) does not require any violation of the strong energy condition p 2 /3, (ii) offers a natural way out of the coincidence problem thanks to the nonminimal couplings to gravitation, (iii) accounts fairly for supernovae data from various simple couplings and with density parameters very close to the ones of the concordance model ΛCDM, and therefore suggests an explanation to its remarkable adequacy. Finally, (iv) this mechanism ends up in the future with an Einstein-de Sitter expansion regime once the attractor is reached

  20. Abnormal gray matter volume and impulsivity in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjong; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Junghan; Jung, Young-Chul

    2017-09-08

    Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Thirty-one young male adults whose excessive Internet gaming began in early adolescence, and 30 age-matched male healthy controls were examined. IGD subjects showed smaller gray matter volume (GMV) in brain regions implicated in executive control, such as the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area. The GMVs in the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area were negatively correlated with self-reporting scales of impulsiveness. IGD subjects also exhibited smaller GMV in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices comprising the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule when compared with healthy controls. The GMVs in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were negatively correlated with lifetime usage of Internet gaming. These findings suggest that gray matter abnormalities in areas related to executive control may contribute to high impulsivity of young adults with IGD. Furthermore, alterations in the prefrontal cortex were related with long-term excessive Internet gaming during adolescence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on Human Brain Gray Matter and White Matter--Evidence from MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available There is limited and inconclusive evidence that space environment, especially microgravity condition, may affect microstructure of human brain. This experiment hypothesized that there would be modifications in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM of the brain due to microgravity.Eighteen male volunteers were recruited and fourteen volunteers underwent -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR for 30 days simulated microgravity. High-resolution brain anatomical imaging data and diffusion tensor imaging images were collected on a 3T MR system before and after HDBR. We applied voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics analysis to investigate the structural changes in GM and WM of brain.We observed significant decreases of GM volume in the bilateral frontal lobes, temporal poles, parahippocampal gyrus, insula and right hippocampus, and increases of GM volume in the vermis, bilateral paracentral lobule, right precuneus gyrus, left precentral gyrus and left postcentral gyrus after HDBR. Fractional anisotropy (FA changes were also observed in multiple WM tracts.These regions showing GM changes are closely associated with the functional domains of performance, locomotion, learning, memory and coordination. Regional WM alterations may be related to brain function decline and adaption. Our findings provide the neuroanatomical evidence of brain dysfunction or plasticity in microgravity condition and a deeper insight into the cerebral mechanisms in microgravity condition.

  3. Gray Matter-White Matter De-Differentiation on Brain Computed Tomography Predicts Brain Death Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, C; Labeye, V; Cour, M; Hannoun, S; Grember, A; Rampon, F; Cotton, F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a loss of distinction between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on unenhanced CT scans was predictive of poor outcome after cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to identify a marker/predictor of imminent brain death. In this retrospective study, 15 brain-dead patients after anoxia and cardiac arrest were included. Patients were paired (1:1) with normal control subjects. Only patients' unenhanced CT scans performed before brain death and during the 24 hours after initial signs were analyzed. WM and GM densities were measured in predefined regions of interest (basal ganglia level, centrum semi-ovale level, high convexity level, brainstem level). At each level, GM and WM density and GM/WM ratio for brain-dead patients and normal control subjects were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. At each level, a lower GM/WM ratio and decreased GM and WM densities were observed in brain-dead patients' CT scans when compared with normal control subject CT scans. A cut-off value of 1.21 at the basal ganglia level was identified, below which brain death systematically occurred. GM/WM dedifferentiation on unenhanced CT scan is measurable before the occurrence of brain death, highlighting its importance in brain death prediction. The mechanism of GM/WM differentiation loss could be explained by the lack of oxygen caused by ischemia initially affecting the mitochondrial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.Z. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Oba, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Aihara, M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Hayashibe, H. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Nakazawa, S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Uchiyama, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  5. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  6. Improvement of White Matter Changes on Neuroimaging Modalities After Stem Cell Transplant in Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, M.E.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Boelens, J.J.; Lindemans, C.A.; Barkhof, F.; Steenwijk, M.D.; van Hasselt, P.M.; van der Knaap, M.S.; Wolf, N.I.

    2013-01-01

    Importance: We sought to illustrate improvement of cerebral white matter changes in metachromatic leukodystrophy after treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Observations : We conducted serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) as

  7. Changes in functional organization and white matter integrity in the connectome in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tinaz

    2017-01-01

    Our results suggest that despite subtle white matter connectivity changes, the overall structural organization of the PD connectome remains robust at relatively early disease stages. However, there is a breakdown in the functional modular organization of the PD connectome.

  8. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene polymorphism and white matter integrity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eunsoo; Han, Kyu-Man; Kang, June; Kim, Aram; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Chang, Hun Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Min-Soo; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-07-03

    The genetic variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1) has been suggested to be associated with monoaminergic signaling and neural circuit activity related to emotion processing. We aimed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and examined the interaction effect between VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) polymorphism and MDD on white matter integrity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) genotyping were performed on 103 patients diagnosed with MDD and 83 healthy control participants. DTI was used to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts in patients compared to healthy controls. The possible interaction effect between rs1390938 and MDD on white matter integrity was also assessed. Patients with MDD exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the forceps major (pdepression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversible white matter lesions during ketogenic diet therapy in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakamura, Fumito; Kohno, Yoichi

    2013-12-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is caused by brain energy failure resulting from a disturbance in glucose transport. We describe a 4-year-old boy with classical type glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome with a heterozygous splice acceptor site mutation (c.517-2A>G) in the SLCA2A1 gene. We initiated a ketogenic diet at 4 months of age. However, even though his condition was good during ketogenic diet therapy, multiple cerebral white matter and right cerebellum lesions appeared at 9 months of age. The lesions in the cerebral white matter subsequently disappeared, indicating that white matter lesions during diet therapy may be reversible and independent of the ketogenic diet. This is the first report of reversible white matter lesions during ketogenic diet therapy in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. White Matter Hyperintensities and Cognitive Impairment During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Severely Depressed Elderly Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Wattjes, M.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Eikelenboom, P.; Craen, A.J.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Transient cognitive impairment during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a reason to discontinue ECT in depressed elderly patients. We hypothesized that both white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy contribute to transient cognitive impairment during ECT.

  11. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  12. Broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric phenotypes associated with white matter disease in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Tugce B; Davila, Jorge; Lewis, Denice; Boafo, Addo; Sell, Erick; Richer, Julie; Nikkel, Sarah M; Armour, Christine M; Tomiak, Eva; Lines, Matthew A; Sawyer, Sarah L

    2018-01-01

    White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first detailed description of PTEN-related white matter changes in adult patients and in children with normal development and intelligence. We present a detailed assessment of the neuropsychological phenotype of our patients and discuss the relationship between the wide array of neuropsychiatric features and observed white matter findings in the context of these individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.Z.; Oba, H.; Ohtomo, K.; Aihara, M.; Hayashibe, H.; Nakazawa, S.; Uchiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  14. Understanding Neuronal Architecture in Obesity through Analysis of White Matter Connection Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Justin W; Shott, Megan E; Deguzman, Marisa; Pryor, Tamara L; Frank, Guido K W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity, our understanding of its neurobiological underpinnings is insufficient. Diffusion weighted imaging and calculation of white matter connection strength are methods to describe the architecture of anatomical white matter tracts. This study is aimed to characterize white matter architecture within taste-reward circuitry in a population of obese individuals. Obese (n = 18, age = 28.7 ± 8.3 years) and healthy control (n = 24, age = 27.4 ± 6.3 years) women underwent diffusion weighted imaging. Using probabilistic fiber tractography (FSL PROBTRACKX2 toolbox) we calculated connection strength within 138 anatomical white matter tracts. Obese women (OB) displayed lower and greater connectivity within taste-reward circuitry compared to controls (Wilks' λ sensory integration and reward processing are key associations that are altered in and might contribute to obesity.

  15. Age-related decline in the microstructural integrity of white matter in children with early- and continuously-treated PKU: a DTI study of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Desiree A; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Nardos, Binyam; Shimony, Joshua S; Archer, Rebecca; Snyder, Abraham Z; Moinuddin, Asif; Grange, Dorothy K; Steiner, Robert D; McKinstry, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Structural, volumetric, and microstructural abnormalities have been reported in the white matter of the brain in individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU). Very little research, however, has been conducted to investigate the development of white matter in children with PKU, and the developmental trajectory of their white matter microstructure is unknown. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine the development of the microstructural integrity of white matter across six regions of the corpus callosum in 34 children (7-18 years of age) with early- and continuously-treated PKU. Comparison was made with 61 demographically-matched healthy control children. Two DTI variables were examined: mean diffusivity (MD) and relative anisotropy (RA). RA was comparable to that of controls across all six regions of the corpus callosum. In contrast, MD was restricted for children with PKU in anterior (i.e., genu, rostral body, anterior midbody) but not posterior (posterior midbody, isthmus, splenium) regions of the corpus callosum. In addition, MD restriction became more pronounced with increasing age in children with PKU in the two most anterior regions of the corpus callosum (i.e., genu, rostral body). These findings point to an age-related decrement in the microstructural integrity of the anterior white matter of the corpus callosum in children with PKU. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of white matter lesions by diffusion tensor MR imaging. Preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Ohtomo, Kuni [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Aoki, Shigeki; Ishigame, Keiichi; Araki, Tsutomu; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2000-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) represents diffusion anisotropy or directional difference of water diffusion. We preliminarily studied normal volunteers and patients with DTI using single-shot echo planar imaging. DTI was performed easily within a few minutes in all examinations. Fractional anisotropy of white matter lesions was decreased in pathological conditions. DTI is considered to be useful to estimate white matter of the brain, especially in diagnosis of myelination, secondary degeneration, and demyelinating and degenerative disease. (author)

  17. Quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Small, Gary W. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Center on Aging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer' s Disease Research, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [{sup 18}F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k{sup '}{sub 2}) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region. Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain white matter in Huntington gene mutation individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Roberta Arb; Yared, James H.; Doring, Thomas M.; Phys, Med; Borges, Vanderci; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the role of the involvement of white matter tracts in huntingtin gene mutation patients as a potential biomarker of the progression of the disease. Methods We evaluated 34 participants (11 symptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, 12 presymptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, and 11 controls). We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging, with measurement of fractional anisotropy. Results We observ...

  19. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the stro...

  20. White matter structure alterations in HIV-1-infected men with sustained suppression of viraemia on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tanja; Caan, Matthan W A; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Schouten, Judith; Geurtsen, Gert J; Cole, James H; Sharp, David J; Vos, Frans M; Prins, Maria; Portegies, Peter; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in HIV-1-infected (HIV+) patients, despite adequate suppression of viral replication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Cerebral white matter structure alterations are often associated with cognitive impairment and have commonly been reported in the natural course of HIV infection. However, the existence of these alterations in adequately treated HIV+ patients remains unknown, as well as its possible association with cognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate whether white matter structure alterations exist in HIV+ patients with sustained suppressed viral replication on cART, and if such alterations are related to HIV-associated cognitive deficits. We compared 100 aviraemic HIV+ men on cART with 70 HIV-uninfected, otherwise comparable men. Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were performed. From DTI data, white matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusion were calculated. Subsequently, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was performed, with and without masking out white matter lesions. HIV+ patients showed diffuse white matter structure alterations as compared with HIV-uninfected controls, observed as widespread decreased fractional anisotropy and an increased mean diffusion. These white matter structure alterations were associated with the number of years spent with a CD4 cell count below 500 cells/μl, but not with HIV-associated cognitive deficits. Cerebral white matter structure alterations are found in middle-aged HIV+ men with sustained suppression of viraemia on cART, and may result from periods with immune deficiency when viral toxicity and host-inflammatory responses were at their peak. These white matter structure alterations were not associated with the observed subtle HIV-associated cognitive deficits. .

  1. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    Full Text Available Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1 the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2 atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  2. Josef Klingler's models of white matter tracts: influences on neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Kapfhammer, Josef P; Kress, Annetrudi; Wichers, Hermann; Deep, Aman; Feindel, William; Sonntag, Volker K H; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    During the 1930s, white matter tracts began to assume relevance for neurosurgery, especially after Cajal's work. In many reviews of white matter neurobiology, the seminal contributions of Josef Klingler (1888-1963) and their neurological applications have been overlooked. In 1934 at the University of Basel under Eugen Ludwig, Klingler developed a new method of dissection based on a freezing technique for brain tissue that eloquently revealed the white matter tracts. Klingler worked with anatomists, surgeons, and other scientists, and his models and dissections of white matter tracts remain arguably the most elegant ever created. He stressed 3-dimensional anatomic relationships and laid the foundation for defining mesial temporal, limbic, insular, and thalamic fiber and functional relationships and contributed to the potential of stereotactic neurosurgery. Around 1947, Klingler was part of a Swiss-German group that independently performed the first stereotactic thalamotomies, basing their targeting and logic on Klingler's white matter studies, describing various applications of stereotaxy and showing Klingler's work integrated into a craniocerebral topographic system for targeting with external localization of eloquent brain structures and stimulation of deep thalamic nuclei. Klingler's work has received renewed interest because it is applicable for correlating the results of the fiber-mapping paradigms from diffusion tensor imaging to actual anatomic evidence. Although others have described white matter tracts, none have had as much practical impact on neuroscience as Klinger's work. More importantly, Josef Klingler was an encouraging mentor, influencing neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, and brain imaging for more than three quarters of a century.

  3. Altered White Matter Integrity in the Congenital and Late Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The blind subjects have experienced a series of brain structural and functional alterations due to the visual deprivation. It remains unclear as to whether white matter changes differ between blind subjects with visual deprivation before and after a critical developmental period. The present study offered a direct comparison in changes of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA between congenital blind (CB and late blind (LB individuals. Twenty CB, 21 LB (blindness onset after 18 years old, and 40 sight control (SC subjects were recruited. Both the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and voxel-based analysis (VBA showed lower FA in the bilateral optic radiations in both blind groups, suggesting that the loss of white matter integrity was the prominent hallmark in the blind people. The LB group showed more extensive white matter impairment than the CB group, indicating the mechanisms of white matter FA changes are different between the CB and LB groups. Using a loose threshold, a trend of an increased FA was found in the bilateral corticospinal tracts in the LB but with a smaller spatial extent relative to the CB. These results suggest that white matter FA changes in the blind subjects are the reflection of multiple mechanisms, including the axonal degeneration, deafferentation, and plasticity.

  4. A tract-specific framework for white matter morphometry combining macroscopic and microscopic tract features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Awate, Suyash P; Das, Sandhitsu R; Woo, John H; Melhem, Elias R; Gee, James C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging plays a key role in our understanding of white matter both in normal populations and in populations with brain disorders. Existing techniques focus primarily on using diffusivity-based quantities derived from diffusion tensor as surrogate measures of microstructural tissue properties of white matter. In this paper, we describe a novel tract-specific framework that enables the examination of white matter morphometry at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The framework leverages the skeleton-based modeling of sheet-like white matter fasciculi using the continuous medial representation, which gives a natural definition of thickness and supports its comparison across subjects. The thickness measure provides a macroscopic characterization of white matter fasciculi that complements existing analysis of microstructural features. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in quantifying white matter atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. We show that, compared to using microscopic features alone, combining the macroscopic and microscopic features gives a more complete characterization of the disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepomaeki, V. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Hurme, S. [University of Turku, Department of Biostatistics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, R. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  6. White matter deficits in psychopathic offenders and correlation with factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers

    Full Text Available Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis in 11 psychopathic offenders matched to 11 healthy controls was completed. Fractional anisotropy was calculated within each voxel and comparisons were made between groups using a permutation test. Any clusters of white matter voxels different between groups were submitted to probabilistic tractography. Significant differences in fractional anisotropy were found between psychopathic offenders and healthy controls in three main white matter clusters. These three clusters represented two major networks: an amygdalo-prefrontal network, and a striato-thalamo-frontal network. The interpersonal/affective component of the PCL-R correlated with white matter deficits in the orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole whereas the antisocial component correlated with deficits in the striato-thalamo-frontal network. In addition to replicating earlier work concerning disruption of an amygdala-prefrontal network, we show for the first time that white matter integrity in a striato-thalamo-frontal network is disrupted in psychopathic offenders. The novelty of our findings lies in the two dissociable white matter networks that map directly onto the two major factors of psychopathy.

  7. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414455-08$15.00/0.

  8. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA, have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23 who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT, a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22. DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination.

  9. Probing white-matter microstructure with higher-order diffusion tensors and susceptibility tensor MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Murphy, Nicole E.; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has become an invaluable tool for studying white matter microstructure and brain connectivity. The emergence of quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) has provided another unique tool for assessing the structure of white matter. In the highly ordered white matter structure, diffusion MRI measures hindered water mobility induced by various tissue and cell membranes, while susceptibility sensitizes to the molecular composition and axonal arrangement. Integrating these two methods may produce new insights into the complex physiology of white matter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between diffusion and magnetic susceptibility in the white matter. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and human brains in vivo. Diffusion properties were quantified with the diffusion tensor model and also with the higher order tensor model based on the cumulant expansion. Frequency shift and susceptibility tensor were measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging. These diffusion and susceptibility quantities were compared and correlated in regions of single fiber bundles and regions of multiple fiber orientations. Relationships were established with similarities and differences identified. It is believed that diffusion MRI and susceptibility MRI provide complementary information of the microstructure of white matter. Together, they allow a more complete assessment of healthy and diseased brains. PMID:23507987

  10. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hummel

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction. Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  11. Structural Integrity of Normal Appearing White Matter and Sex-Specific Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Mark R; Wu, Ona; Cougo, Pedro; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Cloonan, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin M; Kanakis, Allison S; Boulouis, Gregoire; Karadeli, Hasan H; Lauer, Arne; Rosand, Jonathan; Furie, Karen L; Rost, Natalia S

    2017-12-01

    Women have worse poststroke outcomes than men. We evaluated sex-specific clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of white matter in association with functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. We performed a retrospective analysis of acute ischemic stroke patients with admission brain MRI and 3- to 6-month modified Rankin Scale score. White matter hyperintensity and acute infarct volume were quantified on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion tensor imaging MRI, respectively. Diffusivity anisotropy metrics were calculated in normal appearing white matter contralateral to the acute ischemia. Among 319 patients with acute ischemic stroke, women were older (68.0 versus 62.7 years; P =0.004), had increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (21.4% versus 12.2%; P =0.04), and lower rate of tobacco use (21.1% versus 35.9%; P =0.03). There was no sex-specific difference in white matter hyperintensity volume, acute infarct volume, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, or normal appearing white matter diffusivity anisotropy metrics. However, women were less likely to have an excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score stroke. The correlation between markers of white matter integrity and functional outcomes in women, but not men, suggests a potential sex-specific mechanism. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Nadine; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  13. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepomaeki, V.; Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M.; Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L.; Hurme, S.; Haataja, L.; Parkkola, R.

    2012-01-01

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  14. White matter correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Borah; Kiu Choi, Tai; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a fear of anxiety-related sensations and is a dispositional variable especially elevated in patients with panic disorder (PD). Although several functional imaging studies of AS in patients with PD have suggested the presence of altered neural activity in paralimbic areas such as the insula, no study has investigated white matter (WM) alterations in patients with PD in relation to AS. The objective of this study was to investigate the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD. One-hundred and twelve right-handed patients with PD and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled in this study. The Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Among the patients with PD, the ASI-R total scores were significantly correlated with the fractional anisotropy values of the WM regions near the insula, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the tapetum, the fornix/stria terminalis, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal striatum, and the posterior corona radiata located in temporo-parieto-limbic regions and are involved in interoceptive processing (p<0.01; threshold-free cluster enhancement [TFCE]-corrected). These WM regions were also significantly correlated with the APPQ interoceptive avoidance subscale and BDI scores in patients with PD (p<0.01, TFCE-corrected). Correlation analysis among the HC subjects revealed no significant findings. There has been no comparative study on the structural neural correlates of AS in PD. The current study suggests that the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD may be associated with the insula and the adjacent temporo

  15. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... with frequent side-locked MA, i.e. visual aura consistently occurring in the same hemifield. METHODS: We applied a highly sensitive within-patient design to assess anatomical differences with both voxel-based morphometry and surface-based morphometry on a whole-hemisphere level and for specific anatomical...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...

  16. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas- Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ 42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow–Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20–48 nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ 2 <0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection. - Highlights: • The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. • Tight junctions, key neurovascular unit elements, are abnormal in young urbanites. • Identifying neurovascular dysfunction

  17. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  18. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  19. Fusion of white and gray matter geometry: a framework for investigating brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadjiev, Peter; Rathi, Yogesh; Bouix, Sylvain; Smith, Alex R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Verma, Ragini; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Current neuroimaging investigation of the white matter typically focuses on measurements derived from diffusion tensor imaging, such as fractional anisotropy (FA). In contrast, imaging studies of the gray matter oftentimes focus on morphological features such as cortical thickness, folding and surface curvature. As a result, it is not clear how to combine findings from these two types of approaches in order to obtain a consistent picture of morphological changes in both gray and white matter. In this paper, we propose a joint investigation of gray and white matter morphology by combining geometrical information from white and the gray matter. To achieve this, we first introduce a novel method for computing multi-scale white matter tract geometry. Its formulation is based on the differential geometry of curve sets and is easily incorporated into a continuous scale-space framework. We then incorporate this method into a novel framework for “fusing” white and gray matter geometrical information. Given a set of fiber tracts originating in a particular cortical region, the key idea is to compute two scalar fields that represent geometrical characteristics of the white matter and of the surface of the cortical region. A quantitative marker is created by combining the distributions of these scalar values using Mutual Information. This marker can be then used in the study of normal and pathological brain structure and development. We apply this framework to a study on autism spectrum disorder in children. Our preliminary results support the view that autism may be characterized by early brain overgrowth, followed by reduced or arrested growth [7]. PMID:25066750

  20. Cerebral white matter in early puberty is associated with luteinizing hormone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Brouwer, R.M.; Schnack, H.G.; van Baal, G.C.; van Leeuwen, M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Delemarre-Van de Waal, H.A.; Janke, A.L.; Collins, D.L.; Evans, A.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke

    2008-01-01

    Puberty is a period in which cerebral white matter grows considerably, whereas gray matter decreases. The first endocrinological marker of puberty in both boys and girls is an increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Here we investigated the phenotypic association between LH, global and

  1. Determinants of cerebral white matter lesions: A longitudinal population based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. de Leeuw (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractW hite matter lesions are frequently found on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of elderly non-demented and demented people. l-4 The pathogenesis of white matter lesions is largely unknown. However age and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure levels and indicators of

  2. Tissue Transglutaminase in Marmoset Experimental Multiple Sclerosis: Discrepancy between White and Grey Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espitia Pinzón, N.; Stroo, E.; 't Hart, B.A.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; Drukarch, B.; Bauer, J.; van Dam, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Infiltration of leukocytes is a major pathological event in white matter lesion formation in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In grey matter lesions, less infiltration of these cells occur, but microglial activation is present. Thus far, the interaction of β-integrins with

  3. Regional grey matter volume abnormalities in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  5. White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Rektor

    Full Text Available While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM and white matter (WM changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment.Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language domains. High-resolution T1-weighted and 60 directional diffusion-weighted 3T MRI images were acquired. The cortical, deep GM and WM volumes and density, as well as the diffusion properties of WM, were calculated. Analyses were repeated on data flipped to the side of the disease origin.PD patients did not show any significant differences from HC in cognitive functioning or in brain volumes. Decreased GM intensity was found in the left superior parietal lobe in the right (p<0.02 and left (p<0.01 flipped data. The analysis of original, un-flipped data demonstrated elevated axial diffusivity (p<0.01 in the superior and anterior corona radiata, internal capsule, and external capsule in the left hemisphere of PD relative to HC, while higher mean and radial diffusivity were discovered in the right (p<0.02 and p<0.03, respectively and left (p<0.02 and p<0.02, respectively in the fronto-temporal WM utilizing flipped data.PD patients without cognitive impairment and GM atrophy demonstrated widespread alterations of WM microstructure. Thus, WM impairment in PD might be a sensitive sign preceding the neuronal loss in associated GM regions.

  6. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  7. The topological organization of white matter network in internet gaming disorder individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinquan; Luo, Lin; Qiu, Lijun; Kang, Yongqiang; Liu, Bo; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2017-12-01

    White matter (WM) integrity abnormalities had been reported in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography allows identification of WM tracts, potentially providing information about the integrity and organization of relevant underlying WM fiber tracts' architectures, which has been used to investigate the connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures in several brain disorders. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the thoroughly circuit-level characterization of topological property changes of WM network with IGD. Sixteen right-hand adolescents with IGD participated in our study, according to the diagnostic criteria of IGD in DSM-5. Meanwhile, 16 age and gender-matched healthy controls were also enrolled. DTI tractography was employed to generate brain WM networks in IGD individuals and healthy controls. The 90 cortical and subcortical regions derived from AAL template were chosen as the nodes. The network parameters (i.e., Network strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, global efficiency, local efficiency, regional efficiency) were calculated and then correlated with the Internet addiction test (IAT) scores in IGD. IGD group showed decreased global efficiency, local efficiency and increased shortest path length. Further analysis revealed the reduced nodal efficiency in frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and pallidium in IGD. In addition, the global efficiency of WM network was correlated with the IAT scores in IGD (r = -0.5927; p = 0.0155). We reported the abnormal topological organization of WM network in IGD and the association with the severity of IGD, which may provide new insights into the neural mechanism of IGD from WM network level.

  8. Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and white matter (WM) microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired from 127 individuals (age range 41–86 years). IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: “high HOMA-IR” (≥2.5, n = 27) and “low HOMA-IR” (HOMA-IR group demonstrated decreased axial diffusivity broadly throughout the cerebral WM in areas such as the corpus callosum, corona radiata, cerebral peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and WM underlying the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of corpus callosum and parts of the superior and anterior corona radiata, compared with the low HOMA-IR group, independent of age, WM signal abnormality volume, and antihypertensive medication status. These regions additionally demonstrated linear associations between diffusion measures and HOMA-IR across all subjects, with higher HOMA-IR values being correlated with lower axial diffusivity. Conclusions: In generally healthy adults, greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24771537

  9. Cognitive reserve lessens the burden of white matter lesions on executive functions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad, S; Abé, C; Olsson, E; Eckerström, C; Landén, M

    2016-11-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesizes that intellectually stimulating activities provide resilience against brain pathology/disease. Whereas brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment are frequently reported in bipolar disorder (BD), it is unknown whether the impact of brain alterations can be lessened by higher CR in BD. We tested if higher CR would reduce the influence of total volumes of deep white matter hypointensities (WMH), ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and prefrontal cortex on memory, executive, and attention/speed functions in patients with BD (n = 75). Linear regression models with interaction terms for CR and brain volumes were applied to directly test if CR reduces the influence of brain pathology on cognitive domains. CR reduced the influence of total volumes of deep WMH (β = -0.38, Q = 0.003) and ventricular CSF (β = -41, Q = 006) on executive functions. The interactions between CR and total volumes of deep WMH/ventricular CSF appear to account for executive functioning in BD. The results suggest that the concept of CR is applicable in BD. Higher reserve capacity in BD alters the relationship between brain pathology and clinical presentation.

  10. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia; Marklagerveraenderungen bei neurodegenerativen und vaskulaeren Demenzerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 66421, Homburg (Germany); Kessler, H.; Falkai, P. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Retz, W.; Roesler, M. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Institut fuer gerichtliche Psychologie und Psychiatrie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [German] Die Zuordnung einer Demenzerkrankung zu einem neurodegenerativen Pathomechanismus, wie der Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) oder einem vaskulaeren Pathomechanismus, kann trotz der Verfuegbarkeit bildgebender Verfahren Probleme bereiten. Ueberlappungen neurodegenerativer und vaskulaerer Mechanismen sind haeufig. Mikroangiopathische Veraenderungen des Marklagers finden sich bei einem hohen Anteil von Patienten mit der klinischen Verlaufsform einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ. Es ist unklar, ob es sich um eine Koinzidenz zweier Pathomechanismen handelt oder ob eine wechselseitige Beeinflussung stattfindet. Die hohe Sensitivitaet der Magnetresonanztomographie bei der Erfassung mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers koennte dazu fuehren, dass zu vaskulaere Demenzerkrankungen haeufig diagnostiziert werden. Der Einfluss mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers auf den Demenzverlauf wird kontrovers diskutiert. Die vorgelegte Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die aktuellen Konzepte zum Stellenwert von Marklagerveraenderungen bei Demenzerkrankungen. (orig.)

  11. Voxel-based MRI intensitometry reveals extent of cerebral white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hartung

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging have shown great potential in capturing a common white matter pathology. However the sensitivity is variable and diffusion tensor imaging is not yet applicable to the routine clinical environment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM has revealed grey matter changes in ALS, but the bias-reducing algorithms inherent to traditional VBM are not optimized for the assessment of the white matter changes. We have developed a novel approach to white matter analysis, namely voxel-based intensitometry (VBI. High resolution T1-weighted MRI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla in 30 ALS patients and 37 age-matched healthy controls. VBI analysis at the group level revealed widespread white matter intensity increases in the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, sub-central, frontal and occipital white matter tracts and cerebellum. VBI results correlated with disease severity (ALSFRS-R and patterns of cerebral involvement differed between bulbar- and limb-onset. VBI would be easily translatable to the routine clinical environment, and once optimized for individual analysis offers significant biomarker potential in ALS.

  12. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  13. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described...... morphological changes in gray and white matter during childhood and adolescence, which are consistent with cellular genesis and maturation, but corresponding events in infants are poorly documented. In the present study, we estimated the total number of cells (neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  14. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  15. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior parietal, prefrontal and temporal regions following an intense 2-month math tutoring program. DTI data were acquired from 18 third grade children, both before and after tutoring. A novel fiber tracking algorithm based on a White Matter Query Language (WMQL) was used to identify three sections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) linking frontal and parietal (SLF-FP), parietal and temporal (SLF-PT) and frontal and temporal (SLF-FT) cortices, from which we created child-specific probabilistic maps. The SLF-FP, SLF-FT, and SLF-PT tracts identified with the WMQL method were highly reliable across the two time points and showed close correspondence to tracts previously described in adults. Notably, individual differences in behavioral gains after 2 months of tutoring were specifically correlated with plasticity in the left SLF-FT tract. Our results extend previous findings of individual differences in white matter integrity, and provide important new insights into white matter plasticity related to math learning in childhood. More generally, our quantitative approach will be useful for future studies examining longitudinal changes in white matter integrity associated with cognitive skill development.

  17. The use of a cerebral perfusion and immersion-fixation process for subsequent white matter dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-09-30

    The Klingler's method for white matter dissection revolutionized the study of deep cerebral anatomy. Although this technique made white matter dissection more feasible and widely used, it still presents some intrinsic limitations. We evaluated the quality of different methods for specimen preparation based on an intra-carotidal formalin perfusion fixation process. Ten post-mortem human hemispheres were prepared with this method and dissected in a stepwise manner. The homogeneous and rapid fixation of the brain allowed documentation of several fine additional anatomical details. Intra-cortical white matter terminations were described during the first stage of dissection on each specimen. No limitations were encountered during dissection of the major associative bundles. On the contrary, the quality of the fixation of the specimens made it possible to isolate them en bloc. One of the most complex and deep bundles (accumbo-frontal fasciculus) was dissected without technical limitations. Deep vascular structures were very well preserved and dissected within the white matter until their sub-millimetric terminations. Short time for preparation, a more homogeneous fixation, no technical limitation for a detailed description of superficial and deep white matter anatomy, the possibility to dissect with a single technique the fibre organization and the white matter vascular architecture are the advantages reported with the perfusion fixation. These results provide encouraging data about the possibility to use a perfusion fixation process, which may help in improving the quality of white matter dissection for research, didactic purposes and surgical training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive White Matter Alterations and Its Correlations with Ataxia Severity in SCA 2 Patients.

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    Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo

    Full Text Available Previous studies of SCA2 have revealed significant degeneration of white matter tracts in cerebellar and cerebral regions. The motor deficit in these patients may be attributable to the degradation of projection fibers associated with the underlying neurodegenerative process. However, this relationship remains unclear. Statistical analysis of diffusion tensor imaging enables an unbiased whole-brain quantitative comparison of the diffusion proprieties of white matter tracts in vivo.Fourteen genetically confirmed SCA2 patients and aged-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics were performed to analyze structural white matter damage using two different measurements: fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD. Significant diffusion differences were correlated with the patient's ataxia impairment.Our analysis revealed decreased FA mainly in the inferior/middle/superior cerebellar peduncles, the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule and the bilateral superior corona radiata. Increases in MD were found mainly in cerebellar white matter, medial lemniscus, and middle cerebellar peduncle, among other regions. Clinical impairment measured with the SARA score correlated with FA in superior parietal white matter and bilateral anterior corona radiata. Correlations with MD were found in cerebellar white matter and the middle cerebellar peduncle.Our findings show significant correlations between diffusion measurements in key areas affected in SCA2 and measures of motor impairment, suggesting a disruption of information flow between motor and sensory-integration areas. These findings result in a more comprehensive view of the clinical impact of the white matter degeneration in SCA2.

  19. Chronic kidney disease is associated with white matter hyperintensity volume: the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Minesh; Wright, Clinton B; Nickolas, Thomas L; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Paik, Myunghee C; Kranwinkel, Grace; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles

    2007-12-01

    White matter hyperintensities have been associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for vascular disease and has been associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities. Few studies have explored the relationship between chronic kidney disease and white matter hyperintensities. The Northern Manhattan Study is a prospective, community-based cohort of which a subset of stroke-free participants underwent MRIs. MRIs were analyzed quantitatively for white matter hyperintensities volume, which was log-transformed to yield a normal distribution (log-white matter hyperintensity volume). Kidney function was modeled using serum creatinine, the Cockcroft-Gault formula for creatinine clearance, and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine clearance and estimated glomerular filtration rate were trichotomized to 15 to 60 mL/min, 60 to 90 mL/min, and >90 mL/min (reference). Linear regression was used to measure the association between kidney function and log-white matter hyperintensity volume adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, cardiac disease, diabetes, homocysteine, and hypertension. Baseline data were available on 615 subjects (mean age 70 years, 60% women, 18% whites, 21% blacks, 62% Hispanics). In multivariate analysis, creatinine clearance 15 to 60 mL/min was associated with increased log-white matter hyperintensity volume (beta 0.322; 95% CI, 0.095 to 0.550) as was estimated glomerular filtration rate 15 to 60 mL/min (beta 0.322; 95% CI, 0.080 to 0.564). Serum creatinine, per 1-mg/dL increase, was also positively associated with log-white matter hyperintensity volume (beta 1.479; 95% CI, 1.067 to 2.050). The association between moderate-severe chronic kidney disease and white matter hyperintensity volume highlights the growing importance

  20. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation

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    Guangyao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA of white matter (WM were investigated. In amputees, a thinning trend was seen in the left premotor cortex (PMC. Smaller clusters were also noted in the visual-to-motor regions. In addition, the amputees also exhibited a decreased FA in the right superior corona radiata and WM regions underlying the right temporal lobe and left PMC. Fiber tractography from these WM regions showed microstructural changes in the commissural fibers connecting the bilateral premotor cortices, compatible with the hypothesis that amputation can lead to a change in interhemispheric interactions. Finally, the lower limb amputees also displayed significant FA reduction in the right inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which is negatively correlated with the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of lower limb could induce changes in the cortical representation of the missing limb and the underlying WM connections.

  1. Grey and white matter changes across the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

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    Patricia Lillo

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD lie on a clinical, pathological and genetic continuum with patients of one disease exhibiting features of the other. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying grey matter and white matter changes across the ALS-FTD disease continuum have not been explored. In this study fifty-three participants with ALS (n = 10, ALS-FTD (n = 10 and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 15 as well as controls (n = 18, underwent detailed clinical assessment plus structural imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging to examine grey and white matter differences and commonalities across the continuum. Importantly, patient groups were matched for age, education, gender and disease duration. VBM and DTI results showed that changes in the ALS group were confined mainly to the motor cortex and anterior cingulate as well as their underlying white matter tracts. ALS-FTD and bvFTD showed widespread grey matter and white matter changes involving frontal and temporal lobes. Extensive prefrontal cortex changes emerged as a marker for bvFTD compared to other subtypes, while ALS-FTD could be distinguished from ALS by additional temporal lobe grey and white matter changes. Finally, ALS could be mainly distinguished from the other two groups by corticospinal tract degeneration. The present study shows for the first time that FTD and ALS overlap in anterior cingulate, motor cortex and related white matter tract changes across the whole continuum. Nevertheless, frontal and temporal atrophy as well as corticospinal tract degeneration emerged as marker for subtype classification, which will inform future diagnosis and target disease management across the continuum.

  2. Distinct white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's versus semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, Alexandre; Desgranges, Béatrice; La Joie, Renaud; Landeau, Brigitte; Perrotin, Audrey; Mézenge, Florence; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at further understanding the distinct vulnerability of brain networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus semantic dementia (SD) investigating the white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in both conditions. Twenty-six AD patients, twenty-one SD patients, and thirty-nine controls underwent a high-resolution T1-MRI scan allowing to obtain maps of grey matter volume and white matter density. A statistical conjunction approach was used to identify MTL regions showing grey matter atrophy in both patient groups. The relationship between this common grey matter atrophy and white matter density maps was then assessed within each patient group. Patterns of grey matter atrophy were distinct in AD and SD but included a common region in the MTL, encompassing the hippocampus and amygdala. This common atrophy was associated with alterations in different white matter areas in AD versus SD, mainly including the cingulum and corpus callosum in AD, while restricted to the temporal lobe - essentially the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi - in SD. Complementary analyses revealed that these relationships remained significant when controlling for global atrophy or disease severity. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that atrophy of the same MTL region is related to damage in distinct white matter fibers in AD and SD. These different patterns emphasize the vulnerability of distinct brain networks related to the MTL in these two disorders, which might underlie the discrepancy in their symptoms. These results further suggest differences between AD and SD in the neuropathological processes occurring in the MTL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1791-1800, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Why diffusion tensor MRI does well only some of the time: variance and covariance of white matter tissue microstructure attributes in the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Silvia; Drakesmith, Mark; Bells, Sonya; Assaf, Yaniv; Jones, Derek K

    2014-04-01

    Fundamental to increasing our understanding of the role of white matter microstructure in normal/abnormal function in the living human is the development of MR-based metrics that provide increased specificity to distinct attributes of the white matter (e.g., local fibre architecture, axon morphology, and myelin content). In recent years, different approaches have been developed to enhance this specificity, and the Tractometry framework was introduced to combine the resulting multi-parametric data for a comprehensive assessment of white matter properties. The present work exploits that framework to characterise the statistical properties, specifically the variance and covariance, of these advanced microstructural indices across the major white matter pathways, with the aim of giving clear indications on the preferred metric(s) given the specific research question. A cohort of healthy subjects was scanned with a protocol that combined multi-component relaxometry with conventional and advanced diffusion MRI acquisitions to build the first comprehensive MRI atlas of white matter microstructure. The mean and standard deviation of the different metrics were analysed in order to understand how they vary across different brain regions/individuals and the correlation between them. Characterising the fibre architectural complexity (in terms of number of fibre populations in a voxel) provides clear insights into correlation/lack of correlation between the different metrics and explains why DT-MRI is a good model for white matter only some of the time. The study also identifies the metrics that account for the largest inter-subject variability and reports the minimal sample size required to detect differences in means, showing that, on the other hand, conventional DT-MRI indices might still be the safest choice in many contexts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of behavioral changes and compromised white matter in C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone: Effects of antipsychotic drugs

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    Haiyun eXu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent animal and human studies have suggested that the cuprizone (CPZ, a copper chelator-feeding C57BL/6 mouse may be used as an animal model of schizophrenia. The goals of this study were to see the recovery processes of CPZ-induced behavioral changes and damaged white matter and to examine possible effects of antipsychotic drugs on the recovery processes. Mice were fed a CPZ-containing diet for five weeks then returned to normal food for three weeks, during which period mice were treated with different antipsychotic drugs. Various behaviors were measured at the end of CPZ-feeding phase as well as on the 14th and 21st days after CPZ-withdrawal. The damage to and recovery status of white matter in the brains of mice were examined. Dietary CPZ resulted in white matter damage and behavioral abnormalities in the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and Y-maze test. Elevated plus-maze performance recovered to normal range within two weeks after CPZ withdrawal. But, alterations in social interaction showed no recovery. Antipsychotics did not alter animals’ behavior in either of these tests during the recovery period. Altered performance in the Y-maze showed some recovery in the vehicle group; atypical antipsychotics, but not haloperidol, significantly promoted this recovery process. The recovery of damaged white matter was incomplete during the recovery period. None of the drugs significantly promoted the recovery of damaged white matter. These results suggest that CPZ-induced white matter damage and social interaction deficit may be resistant to the antipsychotic treatment employed in this study. They are in good accordance with the clinical observations that positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients respond well to antipsychotic drugs while social dysfunction is usually intractable.

  5. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired t-test). Cortical thickness did not differ significantly between multiple sclerosis subjects and controls. Higher orientation dispersion in the left primary motor

  6. Neuroblast Distribution After Cortical Impact is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain.

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    Sabrina Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6 or after injury (PND 7 and 8, and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU+ neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of

  7. Magnetization transfer changes of grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambasco, N.; Mancini, M.L.; Paciaroni, M.; Gallai, V.; Pelliccioli, G.P.; Chiarini, P.; Leone, F.; Montanari, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the attempt to evidence structural brain damage in Parkinson's disease (PD) by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually disappointing, we have investigated whether the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) can reflect changes in grey and white matter of PD patients. MTR was quantified in 44 regions of interest (ROIs) in both grey and white matter of 11 non-demented PD patients, ranging from 2 to 4 on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale, and eight age-matched healthy subjects. MTR differences between patients and controls were found in the supratentorial white matter and in the brainstem. In particular, lower MTR values were found in the paraventricular white matter of PD patients (p < 0.05) while no differences were observed in corpus callosum, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes or centrum semiovalis. Lower MTR values were found in substantia nigra (p < 0.001), red nucleus (p < 0.05) and pons (p < 0.05) of the patient group. No differences were discovered in basal ganglia and thalamus. These findings suggest that MTR measurements in the paraventricular white matter and brainstem may help to recognize a marker for probable PD. (orig.)

  8. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  9. White matter integrity in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Oswald J N; Deeley, Quinton; Sundram, Fred; Daly, Eileen M; Barker, Gareth J; Jones, Derek K; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J; Schmitz, Nicole; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-10-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a consensus that ASD has a biological basis, and it has been proposed that it is a "connectivity" disorder. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) allows measurement of the microstructural integrity of white matter (a proxy measure of "connectivity"). However, nobody has investigated the microstructural integrity of whole brain white matter in people with Asperger syndrome. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of white matter, using DT-MRI, in 13 adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 controls. The groups did not differ significantly in overall intelligence and age. FA, MD and RD were assessed using whole brain voxel-based techniques. Adults with Asperger syndrome had a significantly lower FA than controls in 13 clusters. These were largely bilateral and included white matter in the internal capsule, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, cingulum and corpus callosum. Adults with Asperger syndrome have widespread significant differences from controls in white matter microstructural integrity.

  10. White matter integrity alterations in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-12-01

    To date, insufficient studies have focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and white matter integrity changes in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential effects of childhood trauma on white matter microstructural changes by using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) values in a group of young healthy adults. A total of 21 healthy adults with a history of childhood trauma exposures and 21 age- and sex-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited in the present study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess five aspects of childhood trauma exposures. DTI data were obtained on a Philips 3.0-Tesla scanner. Voxel-based analysis was conducted to compare white matter FA values between groups. Adults with self-reported childhood trauma experiences showed decreased white matter FA values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum and the left occipital fusiform gyrus (p 100). There was no significant difference in FA values between individuals with single and multiple childhood trauma exposures at the defined threshold. Our findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the white matter in adulthood. These effects are still evident even in the absence of current psychiatric or medical symptoms, which may represent the vulnerability for developing mental disorders after childhood trauma experiences.

  11. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Unusual White Matter Lesion in a Patient with Menkes Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Shin; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Hee Suk

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the diffusion-weighted imaging of unusual white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. On the initial MR imaging, the white matter lesions were localized in the deep periventricular white matter in the absence of diffuse cortical atrophy. The lesion showed diffuse high signal on the diffusion weighted images and diffuse progression and persistent hyperintensity on the follow up imaging. Our case suggests that the white matter lesion may precede diffuse cortical atrophy in a patient with Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked disorder that's caused by impaired intracellular transport of copper. We describe here the DWI findings of unusual and progressive white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder, and it is due to an inborn error of copper metabolism. The cause of Menkes disease has been isolated to a genetic defect in copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase, and this results in low levels of intracellular copper. It is characterized clinically by failure to thrive, retarded mental and motor development, clonic seizure and peculiarly coarse, sparse and colorless scalp hair. These clinical findings can be explained by a dysfunction of the copper-dependent enzymes

  12. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

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    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  13. Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter in Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, S.; Kinoshita, T.; Matsusue, E.; Fujii, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in detecting the water diffusivity caused by neuro pathological change in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, 20 with vascular dementia, and 10 control subjects were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging applied diffusion gradient encoding in six non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy values were compared in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and anterior and posterior white matter among the three groups. Results: In the patients with Alzheimer disease, fractional anisotropy values of the posterior white matter were significantly lower than those of controls. In patients with vascular dementia, fractional anisotropy values of the anterior white matter tended to be lower than those of the posterior white matter (P=0.07). Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging reflects the neuro pathological changes in the white matter, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Keywords: Alzheimer disease, .; diffusion tensor imaging, .; vascular dementia

  14. Preclinical cerebral network connectivity evidence of deficits in mild white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WMLs are notable for their high prevalence and have been demonstrated to be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to identify the brain functional and structural mechanisms underlying cognitive decline observed in mild WMLs. Multi-domain cognitive tests, as well as resting-state, diffusion tensor and structural images were obtained on 42 mild WMLs and 42 age/sex-matched healthy controls. For each participant, we examined the functional connectivity of three resting-state networks related to the changed cognitive domains: the default mode network (DMN and the bilateral fronto-parietal network (FPN. We also performed voxel-based morphometry analysis to compare whole-brain gray matter volume, atlas-based quantification of the white matter tracts interconnecting the RSNs, and the relationship between functional connectivity and structural connectivity. We observed functional connectivity alterations in the DMN and the right FPN combined with related white matter integrity disruption in mild WMLs. However, no significant gray matter atrophy difference was found. Furthermore, the right precuneus functional connectivity in the DMN exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the memory test scores. Our study suggests that in mild WMLs, dysfunction of RSNs might be a consequence of decreased white matter structural connectivity, which further affects cognitive performance.

  15. Functionally Defined White Matter Reveals Segregated Pathways in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex Associated with Category-Specific Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Jesse; Pestilli, Franco; Witthoft, Nathan; Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Poltoratski, Sonia; Yoon, Jennifer; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if the white matter properties associated with specific visual networks selectively affect category-specific processing. In a novel protocol we combined measurements of white matter structure, functional selectivity, and behavior in the same subjects. We find two parallel white matter pathways along the ventral temporal lobe connecting to either face-selective or place-selective regions. Diffusion properties of portions of these tracts adjacent to face- and place-selective regio...

  16. GENETICS OF WHITE MATTER DEVELOPMENT: A DTI STUDY OF 705 TWINS AND THEIR SIBLINGS AGED 12 TO 29

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian; Toga, Arthur W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    White matter microstructure is under strong genetic control, yet it is largely unknown how genetic influences change from childhood into adulthood. In one of the largest brain mapping studies ever performed, we determined whether the genetic control over white matter architecture depends on age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4-Tesla), in 705 twins and their si...

  17. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, JianGuo; Pan, PingLei; Dai, ZhenYu; Shi, HaiCun

    2014-10-01

    Increasing neuroimaging studies have revealed brain gray matter (GM) atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) relative to healthy controls. However, the spatial localization of GM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Here, we aimed to investigate concurrence across VBM studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. A systematic search for VBM studies of DLB patients and healthy controls published in PubMed database from January 2000 to March 2014 was conducted. A quantitative meta-analysis of whole-brain VBM studies in DLB patients and healthy controls was performed by means of Anisotropic Effect Size version of Signed Differential Mapping (AES-SDM) software package. Seven studies comprising 218 DLB patients and 219 healthy controls were included in the present study. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients group showed consistent decreased GM in right lateral temporal/insular cortex and left lenticular nucleus/insular cortex. The results remained largely unchanged in the following jackknife sensitivity analyses. Meta-regression analysis indicated an increased probability of finding brain atrophy in left superior temporal gyrus in patients with lower MMSE scores. The present meta-analysis quantitatively demonstrates a characteristic pattern of GM alternations that contributed to the understanding of pathophysiology underlying DLB. Future studies will benefit from employing meta-analytical comparisons to other dementia subtypes with solid evidence to extend these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered white matter in early visual pathways of humans with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Spiegel, Daniel P; Thompson, Benjamin; Pestilli, Franco; Rokers, Bas

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a visual disorder caused by poorly coordinated binocular input during development. Little is known about the impact of amblyopia on the white matter within the visual system. We studied the properties of six major visual white-matter pathways in a group of adults with amblyopia (n=10) and matched controls (n=10) using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fiber tractography. While we did not find significant differences in diffusion properties in cortico-cortical pathways, patients with amblyopia exhibited increased mean diffusivity in thalamo-cortical visual pathways. These findings suggest that amblyopia may systematically alter the white matter properties of early visual pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between chronic kidney disease and white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Wakoh; Tsukamoto, Yuuko; Takizawa, Shunya; Kawada, Shiaki; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Renal dysfunction may be related to cerebral small-vessel disease. This study aimed to assess the relationship between mild renal dysfunction and various white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 2106 subjects (1368 men and 738 women; mean age, 56 ± 10 years) without a history of stroke were enrolled in the study. Kidney function was evaluated in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the relationship 194Cr(-1.094) × age(-0.287) × 0.739 (if female), where Cr is serum creatinine concentration. White matter hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI was classified as deep and/or subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH), periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), or asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI). The prevalence of ACI, DSWMH, and PVH was significantly correlated with degree of eGFR reduction; in the subgroups with eGFR ≥ 90, 60∼89, and Stroke Association.

  20. White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights from DTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Xekardaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have reported significant changes in white matter in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, a recently developed technique, enables the detection of microstructural changes in white matter. It is a noninvasive in vivo technique that assesses water molecules' diffusion in brain tissues. The most commonly used parameters are axial and radial diffusivity reflecting diffusion along and perpendicular to the axons, as well as mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy representing global diffusion. Although the combination of these parameters provides valuable information about the integrity of brain circuits, their physiological meaning still remains controversial. After reviewing the basic principles of DTI, we report on recent contributions that used this technique to explore subtle structural changes in white matter occurring in elderly patients with bipolar disorder and Alzheimer disease.

  1. Acquired Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy with Disrupted White Matter Tracts Assessed by Multishell Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N. Tchopev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE (previously frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare seizure disorder commonly misdiagnosed or unrecognized, causing negative patient sequelae. While usually reported in familial studies, it is more commonly acquired. Diagnosis is a challenge due to its low incidence in comparison with the more common sleep disorders or psychogenic etiologies in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is scaled on degree of certainty based on described or clinically documented semiology, with video EEG as a helpful, but not necessary, adjunct. Current treatment is similar to other focal epilepsies. We studied a 36-year-old active duty male soldier who presented with 2 years of predominantly sleep related, abrupt, short, and anamnestic hyperkinetic movements with unstructured vocalizations. Prior workup included non-contributory video electroencephalograph (EEG and polysomnography as well as normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Treatments for presumed psychiatric and parasomnia disturbances were not effective in establishing diagnosis or relief. Evaluation at our tertiary, multidisciplinary care institution recorded events consistent with the diagnosis of clinical SHE. He was enrolled in an advanced multishell diffusion-weighted imaging MRI research study to evaluate white matter tracts, given his history of mild, repetitive, non-penetrating traumatic brain injury, not otherwise requiring hospitalization. Multishell diffusion MRI tractography found changes not previously described in the right frontal lobe white matter tracts. These changes were consistent with neurological localization and serve as a potential nidus for this patient’s seizure disorder. Misdiagnosis of SHE can result in detrimental biopsychosocial sequelae of untreated epilepsy, unnecessary or harmful intervention, or the stigmata of a behavioral disorder. Further investigation into diagnosis and etiology of acquired SHE is needed. Assessment for white

  2. Development of Tract-Specific White Matter Pathways During Early Reading Development in At-Risk Children and Typical Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Mauer, Meaghan V; Raney, Talia; Peysakhovich, Barbara; Becker, Bryce L C; Sliva, Danielle D; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Previous studies observed white matter alterations in the left posterior brain regions in adults and school-age children with dyslexia. However, no study yet has examined the development of tract-specific white matter pathways from the pre-reading to the fluent reading stage in children at familial risk for dyslexia (FHD+) versus controls (FHD-). This study examined white matter integrity at pre-reading, beginning, and fluent reading stages cross-sectionally ( n = 78) and longitudinally (n = 45) using an automated fiber-tract quantification method. Our findings depict white matter alterations and atypical lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus at the pre-reading stage in FHD+ versus FHD- children. Moreover, we demonstrate faster white matter development in subsequent good versus poor readers and a positive association between white matter maturation and reading development using a longitudinal design. Additionally, the combination of white matter maturation, familial risk, and psychometric measures best predicted later reading abilities. Furthermore, within FHD+ children, subsequent good readers exhibited faster white matter development in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus compared with subsequent poor readers, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of white matter pathway maturation in the development of typical and atypical reading skills. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaist, David; Garde, Ellen; Blaabjerg, Morten; Nielsen, Helle H; Krøigård, Thomas; Østergaard, Kamilla; Møller, Harald S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Madsen, Camilla G; Iversen, Pernille; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-07-01

    A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were established according to the International Headache Society criteria. Cases with migraine with aura, their co-twins, and unrelated migraine-free twins (controls) were invited to a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan performed at a single centre. Brain scans were assessed for the presence of infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (visual rating scales and volumetric analyses) blinded to headache diagnoses. Comparisons were based on 172 cases, 34 co-twins, and 139 control subjects. Compared with control subjects, cases did not differ with regard to frequency of silent brain infarcts (four cases versus one control), periventricular white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): -0.1 (-0.5 to 0.2)] or deep white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.1 (-0.8 to 1.1)] assessed by Scheltens' scale. Cases had a slightly higher total white matter hyperintensity volume compared with controls [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.41) cm(3)] and a similar difference was present in analyses restricted to twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura [adjusted mean difference 0.21 (-0.20 to 0.63)], but these differences did not reach statistical significance. We found no evidence of an association between silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and migraine with aura. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the