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Sample records for abnormal sexual behaviors

  1. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  2. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  3. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  4. Sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović-Jovanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous studies have shown that sexual behavior increases among adolescents. Disharmony between biological and psychosocial maturity among young people may cause risky behavior, and endanger psychophysical and reproductive health of young persons. Material and methods A questionnaire on sexual behavior was completed by 169 adolescents, 1st and 4th year high school students. Results Every 6th first grade and every 2nd forth grade adolescent is sexually active. Male adolescents begin sexual activities significantly earlier (at the age of 15.6 than female adolescents (16.5. Also, young men have significantly more partners (3.6 than girls (1.3, and more parallel sexual relations than girls. Only 1/3 of sexually active adolescents always use some kind of contraception, more frequently boys (41.9% than girls (26.7%. Discussion Early commencement of sexual activity results with longer active period before realization of the reproductive function, which increases risk for reproductive health disorders. Unprotected sexual intercourse and large number of partners also present significant risk factors. Conclusion Sexual life of adolescents begins at the age of 16, on average, and only every third always uses contraceptive protection, which points to a need for better education on reproductive health by using contemporary methods. It is also necessary to increase availability of contraceptives (condoms at all places where adolescents spend time (in schools, bars, cinemas, disco clubs etc. in order to achieve responsible sexual behavior and protection of reproductive health among youth.

  5. In utero and Lactational Exposure to Acetamiprid Induces Abnormalities in Socio-Sexual and Anxiety-Related Behaviors of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yang, Jiaxin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kawashima, Takaharu; Suzuki, Go; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nohara, Keiko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, a widely used group of pesticides designed to selectively bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, were considered relatively safe for mammalian species. However, they have been found to activate vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and could be toxic to the mammalian brain. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of acetamiprid (ACE), one of the most widely used neonicotinoids, in C57BL/6J mice whose mothers were administered ACE via gavage at doses of either 0 mg/kg (control group), 1.0 mg/kg (low-dose group), or 10.0 mg/kg (high-dose group) from gestational day 6 to lactation day 21. The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. In addition, behavioral flexibility in mice was assessed in a group-housed environment using the IntelliCage, a fully automated mouse behavioral analysis system. In adult male mice exposed to ACE at both low and high doses, a significant reduction of anxiety level was found in the light-dark transition test. Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. No reductions in the testosterone level, the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells, or behavioral flexibility were detected in either sex. These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. PMID:27375407

  6. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  7. Possible use of psychological corrective measures for people with abnormal sexual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibility of psychological corrective measures aimed at persons with abnormal sexual preferences. We reviewed domestic and foreign scientific publications described the treatment of sexual disorders and the basic directions of the therapy, and indicated its positive and negative aspects. We have studied progress notes and etiology of "personality disorders and behavior in adulthood" disease class, "disorders of sexual preference" disease subsection and analyzed the efficiency of the psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy for each violation of sexual preference. The most productive methods of therapeutic intervention are identified. This analysis allows making the most appropriate scheme of psychological correction and treatment for persons with abnormalities of sexual preference.

  8. Normative sexual behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Grambsch, P; Broughton, D; Kuiper, J; Beilke, R L

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale, community-based survey was done to assess the frequency of a wide variety of sexual behaviors in normal preadolescent children and to measure the relationship of these behaviors to age, gender, and socioeconomic and family variables. A sample of 880 2- through 12-year-old children screened to exclude those with a history of sexual abuse were rated by their mothers using several questionnaire measures. The frequency of different behaviors varied widely, with more aggressive sexual behaviors and behaviors imitative of adults being rare. Older children (both boys and girls) were less sexual than younger children. Sexuality was found to be related to the level of general behavior problems, as measured by the Achenbach Internalizing and Externalizing T scores and to a measure of family nudity. It was not related to socioeconomic variables. PMID:1881723

  9. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and online sexual risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Baumgartner; P.M. Valkenburg; J. Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter inci

  10. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  11. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  12. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  13. Prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A

    2012-08-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups. PMID:23007210

  14. Prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A

    2012-08-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups.

  15. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  16. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...

  17. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments' working definition of 'sexual behavior' and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments' compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  18. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  19. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  20. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  1. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  2. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  3. Sexual Motives: The Impact of Gender, Personality, and Social Context on Sexual Motives and Sexual Behavior - Especially Risky Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L. Rapson; Cheri Luckhurst; Elaine Hatfield

    2011-01-01

    Recently, scholars from a variety of disciplines have begun to investigate passionate love, sexual desire, and sexual behavior. Specifically, they have begun to investigate questions profound questions as: “Why do men and women engage in sexual liaisons?” “Why do they avoid such liaisons?” In this paper, we will review what theorists have learned about the motives that encourage people to engage in (or to avoid) sexual encounters, focusing specifically about what is know about the influence...

  4. Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

    2013-12-30

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients.

  5. Sexual Motives: The Impact of Gender, Personality, and Social Context on Sexual Motives and Sexual Behavior - Especially Risky Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Rapson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars from a variety of disciplines have begun to investigate passionate love, sexual desire, and sexual behavior. Specifically, they have begun to investigate questions profound questions as: “Why do men and women engage in sexual liaisons?” “Why do they avoid such liaisons?” In this paper, we will review what theorists have learned about the motives that encourage people to engage in (or to avoid sexual encounters, focusing specifically about what is know about the influence of gender, personality, and social context on sexual motives. We will close by speculating about the impact of such differing motives on sexual functioning and the prevalence of STIs and AIDs.

  6. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6% drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8% were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8% who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW, 146 (83.9% used a condom. 38 (12.8% visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  7. [Sexual behavior in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchione, C; Tamietti, E

    1993-10-01

    With the improvement of quality life in the elderly of technologically developed countries, sexuality has become an important aspect of aging. In the elderly there is a progressive decline of organic functions; the decrease of sexual and procreating activity is linked with the impaired male hormonal production. The four stages of sexual function are modified: 1. delayed erection; 2. plateau prolongation; 3. orgasm modifications; 4. fast penis detumescence. In addition to organic impairment, aesthetic, social, environmental and psychological factors can restrict sexual activity, as well as past sexual experiences and co-morbidity. There are specific aspects concerning sexuality in the elderly, such as the increased chances of public relations and emotional involvement, the more intense psychic activity and the stronger process of removal and sublimation of impulses. In conclusion the best way to deal with sexuality in the elderly is the multidimensional assessment. PMID:8252083

  8. Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Identity Development

    OpenAIRE

    King, Pamela Kay

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between adolescent sexual behavior, motivations, and identity status. A review of the literature indicated that deviant behaviors covary, and that drug use and abuse and the motivations for same are related to identity status . A questionnaire, including the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status(EOM-EIS) and a series of questions to gather information about sexual behaviors and motivations, was employed. The ...

  9. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural c...

  10. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  11. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health STDs Home Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).* Sexual risk behaviors place adolescents at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted ...

  12. Sexually coercive behavior following childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with adult sexually coercive behavior. The association may be causal or confounders that increase the risk of both childhood victimization and sexually coercive behavior might explain the observed links. We examined if childhood maltreatment was related to sexual coercion independently of familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors, thereby addressing potential causality. Participants were 6,255 18 to 33-year-old twins from the Finnish population-based study "Genetics of Sex and Aggression" who responded to self-report questionnaires of child maltreatment and sexually coercive behavior. We used generalized estimating equations to elucidate risk of sexual coercion in maltreated compared to unrelated, non-maltreated individuals. To adjust for unmeasured familial factors, we used the co-twin control method and compared sexual coercion risk within maltreatment-discordant twin pairs. Further, we examined possible differential effects of maltreatment subtypes and compared mean differences in maltreatment summary scores between sexually coercive individuals and controls. Sexual coercion was moderately more common among individuals maltreated as children versus unrelated controls (38.3 vs. 22.8 %; age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.75-3.05) and the risk increase remained similar within maltreatment-discordant twins (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI 1.42-5.61). Moreover, different maltreatment subtypes predicted sexual coercion equally well and effect sizes remained similar within discordant twin pairs. We conclude that associations between child maltreatment and sexual coercion are largely independent of shared familial confounds, consistent with a causal inference. Importantly, detection and targeted interventions for maltreated children should remain a priority to reduce societal sexually coercive behavior. PMID:24752790

  13. 32 CFR 147.6 - Guidance D-Sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance D-Sexual behavior. 147.6 Section 147.6... Guidance D—Sexual behavior. (a) The concern. Sexual behavior is a security concern if it involves a... security concerns raised by sexual behavior. (b) Conditions that could raise a security concern and may...

  14. Modern day influences on sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Sevgi O; Ward, Helen

    2005-06-01

    To better understand temporal trends in sexual behavior and their determinants, it is important to look at the demographic and technologic context in which we live; both affect sexual behaviors. Mental disorders and CSA emerge as important correlates of high-risk sexual behaviors. The changing role and expectations of women-the result of major economic and social transformation-transform society further through changes to family and community structures. These changes occur alongside increasing inequality and upheavals in the world, all of which are more visible through increased mobility and communication in the "global village." Changes in sexual norms, relationships, abuse, and mental health are better understood in the context of this broad political background. PMID:15963873

  15. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  16. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  17. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  18. Detection and Recognition of Abnormal Running Behavior in Surveillance Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal running behavior frequently happen in robbery cases and other criminal cases. In order to identity these abnormal behaviors a method to detect and recognize abnormal running behavior, is presented based on spatiotemporal parameters. Meanwhile, to obtain more accurate spatiotemporal parameters and improve the real-time performance of the algorithm, a multitarget tracking algorithm, based on the intersection area among the minimum enclosing rectangle of the moving objects, is presented. The algorithm can judge and exclude effectively the intersection of multitarget and the interference, which makes the tracking algorithm more accurate and of better robustness. Experimental results show that the combination of these two algorithms can detect and recognize effectively the abnormal running behavior in surveillance videos.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse and abnormal personality:A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, P.; Coffey, C.; Chanen, A.; Mann, A.; Carlin, J B; Patton, G C

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to be a risk factor for personality disorder (PD). However, no previous studies have examined whether associations exist between sexual abuse and abnormal personality as measured both categorically and dimensionally. Such enquiry would more fully illuminate the impact of CSA on adult personality.Method Using a large nationally representative sample, we set out to examine associations between CSA and categorically defined PD. We also exami...

  20. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed.

  1. Emotion Dysregulation and Risky Sexual Behavior in Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate L.; DiLillo, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism underlying risky sexual behavior and sexual revictimization among adult victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: Participants were 752 college women. Victimization history, emotion dysregulation, and risky sexual behavior were assessed…

  2. Effects of prepartal stress on postpartal nursing behavior, litter development and adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, L R; Whitney, J B

    1976-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the stress of restraint, heat and bright lights three times daily from Days 14 to 22 of gestation. Because prepartal stress did not markedly disturb the mother's retrieving and crouching behavior, disturbances in postpartal nursing behavior do not seem to account for the abnormal sexual behavior of male offspring as adults. The most significant finding was that litter weights were reduced, not only at birth, but for 3 weeks thereafter, suggesting that prepartal stress not only altered the pups in utero but also affected postpartal milk synthesis. The possibility emerges that prepartal stress may alter adult sexual behavior in males by modifications in fetal and/or maternal pituitary glands.

  3. Unsupervised Behavior-Specific Dictionary Learning for Abnormal Event Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2015-01-01

    of normal behavior in the training video. Moreover, ‘missed atoms’ that are potentially from infrequent normal features are used to refine these behavior dictionaries. To further reduce false alarms, the detection of abnormal features is not only dependent on reconstruction error from the learned...

  4. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O’Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these traje...

  5. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  6. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of...

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partner...

  8. Teenagers' Sexual Behavior in Sweden, Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars I Holmberg; Dan Hellberg

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the development of sexuality from early to late adolescence,and to compare girls and boys of different agesMethods A cross sectional survey in all schools was performed covering all pupilsbetween 13 and 18years of age that were in school when the survey was conducted. Avalidated instrument, Q90, created for use in teenagers was distributed in the class-rooms to 3 216 teenagers. Q90 covers 30 questions about body development andsexual behavior. Non-response was insignificant (n=19; 0. 6%).Results Pubertal development was considered "early" or "late" by about 50% ofboth boys and girls. Eighty percent of the 13 to 15 years old boys and girls had had aromance and 30% had experience of sexual cuddling (petting), while significantlymore girls than boys had sexual intercourse (18% vs 13%; odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI1.1-1.9). The difference between girls and boys remained in those being 16-18 yearsold, where 63% of the girls and 53% of the boys (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9)admitted having intercourse. Mean age at first intercourse was 14.9 and 15 years,respectively. At 16-18years of age, 23% of the sexually active girls, as compared with25% of the boys estimated that they had had 6 or more sexual partners. About 30% ofthe adolescents, irrespective of age and gender, did not use contraceptives at theirfirst and latest intercourse. Eight percent of the older girls had been pregnant, andthey had an increased history of sexually transmitted infections, as compared withthe boys (6.2% vs 2.7%; odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.0).Conclusion Exploring sexuality and experimentation is a normal behavior inadolescence. The results of this study, however, indicate that there are substantialgroups of teenagers who practice sexual risk-taking. In addition to general sexualeducation, programs should also be directed to define sexual risks and its consequences.

  9. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushant Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.

  10. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infections: Examining the Intersection Between Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Bethany G.

    2012-01-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between ...

  11. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  12. Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Male Substance Misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between self-reported sexual dysfunction, sexual behavior, and severity of addiction of drug users. A cross-sectional design study was conducted at an inpatient addiction treatment unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 508 male drug users. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and severity of dependence were evaluated.The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 37.2% and premature ejaculation was 63.8%. Men with sexual dysfunction presented from moderate to severe level of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs of dependence. The findings from this study are particularly relevant identifying those sociodemographic factors, severity of drug use, and sexual behavior are related to men who experience sexual dysfunction. Health promotion and motivational interventions on sexual health targeted to male drug users can contribute in reducing these at-risk behaviors. More interdisciplinary research is desirable in future in considering men's sexual health. PMID:25643586

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  14. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up participated in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. Design :The study design is a cross-sectional survey done independently by four observers. Materials and Methods :A semi-structured proforma for demographic profile has been used. The behavioral abnormalities are assessed by using DASH II (Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped second modified version scale. Statistical Analysis :Demographic comparison has been done by analysis of variance. Correlation matrix has been run to identify correlation between individual items. Principal component analysis has been used for grouping the behavioral pattern. Results :Behavioral abnormalities as expected are more common in people having intellectual disability than the normal population. The Down syndrome group unlike other causes of intellectual disability shows higher scores in Stereotypy. Impulse control and Mania subscales. Factor analysis yields five characteristic factor structures, namely, hyperactive-impulsive, biological functions, affective, neurotic and organic-pervasive developmental disorder clusters. Conclusions :Contrary to the conventional belief of docile-fun and music loving prototype, individuals diagnosed with Down syndrome show clusters of behavioral abnormalities and management can vary depending on these target symptoms.

  15. Factors Influencing the Relationship between Sexual Trauma and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…

  16. Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it conceptions of both cuckoldry and male ownership of female partners. These conceptions have often led researchers to overlook female behavior and adaptations, such as female initiation of mating. Such social norms and ideologies influence both theories and research in biology. Social norms of gender and sexuality also influence school cultures. Although awareness of gender issues has had a major impact in Sweden during recent years, the interventions conducted have been based on a heteronormative understanding of sex; this has rendered sexual norms a non-prioritized issue and thereby rendered non-heterosexuals invisible in teaching and textbooks. Since this research was published in 2007 and 2009, norm critical pedagogics have been included in the Swedish National Agency for Education's guidelines for teaching. This inclusion represents one way to tackle the recurring problem of heterosexuality being described as a naturalized "normal" behavior and homosexuals, bisexuals and transsexuals being described from a heteronormative perspective. In this paper, I employ gender and queer perspectives to scrutinize how animal sexual behavior is described and explained in Swedish biology textbooks. The analysis is based in gender and queer theory, feminist science studies, and evolutionary biology. The article begins with an outline a discussion of my theoretical framework, relating gender and queer perspectives on evolutionary biology to a discussion of queer

  17. Contributions of divergent peer and parent sexual messages to Asian American college students' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique; Day, Kyla; Thomas, Khia; Levin, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Receiving more parent sexual communication is generally linked to a later age of first sexual intercourse and less sexual risk taking. However, Asian American youth report minimal parent sexual communication, later sexual initiation, and fewer sexual risks than their counterparts. What contributes to this unexpected pattern of sexual communication and sexual behaviors? To answer this question, we surveyed 312 Asian American college students ages 17 to 22 on their sexual behaviors, parent sexual communication, and peer sexual communication. Assessment of parent and peer sexual communication was completed via a measure in which participants rated the frequency with which they had received each of 22 sexual messages from each source. Young women generally received more messages promoting abstinence, traditional sex roles, and sex within a relational context than their male counterparts. Young men, however, reported greater parent and peer communications that were accepting of casual sex. Exposure to peer messages that were accepting of casual sex was associated with more sexual partners, casual sex encounters, and sexual experience. Being older, being raised outside the United States, being less religious, and being homosexual was each predictive of more sexual experience. Implications regarding the role of culture and gender on sexual socialization are discussed. PMID:23305521

  18. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  19. Self-Reported Sexual Behavior in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Annette; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual behaviors or problems which college students are experiencing, as opposed to their general attitudes concerning sexuality. The study surveys sexual behavior in college students, including usage of sexual enhancements (such as pornography, provocative dress, and sadomasochism), "safe sex"…

  20. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Bokaie; Masoumeh Simbar; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. M...

  1. Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behavior among Heavy Drinking College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline followback interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those repor...

  2. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  3. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  4. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  5. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability ...

  6. Normal and Abnormal Country Growth Behavior: Country Classification and Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    William R. DiPietro

    2001-01-01

    It is common to classify human behavior as normal or abnormal, but, what about economic behavior? What is a normal growth path for an economy over time? What is an erratic or eccentric growth path? In order to address these basic or primordial questions, eight possible growth states are defined. The countries in the world are classified into these growth states in each of six five-year periods beginning in 1967 and ending in 1996. Provided all the data is available, the results yield a growth...

  7. Paraphilic Sexual Interests and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Elena; Forsman, Mats; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2016-07-01

    Prior research with selected clinical and forensic samples suggests associations between paraphilic sexual interests (e.g., exhibitionism and sexual sadism) and sexually coercive behavior. However, no study to date used a large, representative and genetically informative population sample to address the potential causal nature of this association. We used self-report data on paraphilic and sexually coercive behavior from 5990 18- to 32-year-old male and female twins from a contemporary Finnish population cohort. Logistic regression and co-twin control models were employed to examine if paraphilic behaviors were causally related to coercive behavior or if suggested links were confounded by familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors. Results indicated that associations between four out of five tested paraphilic behaviors (exhibitionism, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism, respectively) and sexually coercive behavior were moderate to strong. Transvestic fetishism was not independently associated with sexual coercion. Comparisons of twins reporting paraphilic behavior with their paraphilic behavior-discordant twin further suggested that associations were largely independent of shared genetic and environmental confounds, consistent with a causal association. In conclusion, similar to previously reported predictive effects of paraphilias on sexual crime recidivism, paraphilic behavior among young adults in the general population increases sexual offending risk. Further, early identification of paraphilic interest and preventive interventions with at-risk individuals might also reduce perpetration of first-time sexual violence. PMID:26754158

  8. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  9. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood.

  10. Sexual coercion in men and women: similar behaviors, different predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzel-Murphy, Elizabeth A; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A; Milburn, Michael A

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the contention that both women and men employ various seductive, manipulative, intoxication, and even forceful tactics of sexual coercion to obtain sexual contact from unwilling partners. Although the self-reported coercive behavior of men and women may appear similar in many respects, predictors of such behavior seem to vary in important ways across gender. In addition to examining the prevalence of coercive behaviors reported across gender, the present study examined the extent to which four variables found in models of male sexual coercion predicted self-reported use of sexual coercion in a sample (n = 186) of college men and women: prior sexual abuse, sexual dominance, sociosexuality, and sexual compulsivity. Although prior sexual abuse seemed to be part of a cycle of sexual coercion among both men and women, key predictors of sexual coercion among men were sexual dominance and sociosexuality, whereas the key predictor of sexual coercion among women was sexual compulsivity. These findings support the notion that whereas men may behave coercively to obtain or maintain an impersonal sense of power and control, women may behave coercively to achieve some level of interpersonal connection when feeling out of control. PMID:19330440

  11. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  12. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Keith W. Beard; Sandra S. Stroebel; Stephen L. O’Keefe; Karen V. Harper-Dorton; Karen Griffee; Debra H. Young; Sam Swindell; Kerri Steele; Thomas D. Linz; Karla Beth Moore; Megan Lawhon; Natalie M. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs) provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early ...

  13. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables. PMID:25559323

  14. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Macbeth, David

    1996-01-01

    adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are ii an increasing dilemma facing American society . There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine ...

  16. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamang Jyotsna; Adhikari Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on preval...

  17. Sexuality education and young people's sexual behavior: a review of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, A; Kippax, S; Aggleton, P; Baldo, M; Slutkin, G

    1997-10-01

    Sexuality education for children and young adults is one of the most heavily debated issues facing policy-makers, national AIDS program planners, and educators, provoking arguments over how explicit education materials should be, how much of it there should be, how often it should be given, and at what age instruction should commence. In this context, the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS' Office of Intervention Development and Support commissioned a comprehensive literature review to assess the effects of HIV/AIDS and sexuality education upon young people's sexual behavior. 52 reports culled from a search of 12 literature databases were reviewed. The main purpose of the review is to inform policy-makers, program planners, and educators about the impact of HIV and/or sexuality education upon the sexual behavior of youth as described in the published literature. Of 47 studies which evaluated interventions, 25 reported that HIV/AIDS and sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity and attendant rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 17 reported that HIV and/or sexuality education delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sex partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates Only 3 studies found increases in sexual behavior associated with sexuality education. Inadequacies in study design, analytic techniques, outcome indicators, and the reporting of statistics are discussed. PMID:12348560

  18. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  19. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and

  20. Human ecology and behavior and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, K K

    1994-01-01

    The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more remote (in time or mechanism) from the direct determinants. Most remote and least modifiable are the histo...

  1. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  2. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2005-01-01

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-) combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to

  3. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  4. Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Midwestern United States: Implications for Sexual Health Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Kelle, Guadalupe; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The Midwestern United States (U.S.) has a high number of recent Latino migrants, but little information is available regarding their sexual behaviors. A total of 75 behaviorally bisexual men (25 Latino, 25 Black, and 25 White) participated in an exploratory study on sexual health. The data presented in this paper are restricted to the 25 self-identified Latino men. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted and optional self-administered sexual transmitted infection (STI) screening was pr...

  5. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  6. The Relationship Between Use of Sexually Explicit Media and Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.;

    2014-01-01

    -related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....

  7. Cortical thickness and behavior abnormalities in children born preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL on cortical thickness (CTh. To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. METHODS: We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. RESULTS: We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. INTERPRETATION: The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems.

  8. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  9. Cytogenetic studies of 1232 patients with different sexual development abnormalities from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Intisar; Goud, Tadakal Mallana; Al-Harasi, Salma; Rajab, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic findings in Omani patients who had been referred for suspicion of sex chromosome abnormalities that resulted in different clinical disorders. Furthermore, it sought to examine the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in these patients and to compare the obtained results with those reported elsewhere. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1232 cases with variant characteristics of sexual development disorders who had been referred to the cytogenetic department, National Genetic Centre, Ministry of Health, from different hospitals in the Sultanate of Oman between 1999 and 2014. The karyotype results demonstrated chromosomal anomalies in 24.2% of the cases, where 67.5% of abnormalities were identified in referral females, whereas only 32.6% were in referral males. Of all sex chromosome anomalies detected, Turner syndrome was the most frequent (38.2%) followed by Klinefelter syndrome (24.9%) and XY phenotypic females (16%). XXX syndrome and XX phenotypic males represented 6.8% and 3.8% of all sex chromosome anomalies, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of patients referred with various clinical suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities revealed a high rate of chromosomal anomalies. This is the first broad cytogenetic study reporting combined frequencies of sex chromosome anomalies in sex development disorders in Oman. PMID:26706459

  10. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  11. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  12. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Driemeyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most

  13. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  14. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. PMID:27108242

  15. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  16. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  17. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbatova T.N.; Valova I.A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The re...

  18. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  19. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  20. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Jyotsna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39% reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57% had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5 more

  1. Associations between young adults' use of sexually explicit materials and their sexual preferences, behaviors, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how levels of sexually explicit material (SEM) use during adolescence and young adulthood were associated with sexual preferences, sexual behaviors, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Participants included 782 heterosexual college students (326 men and 456 women; M(age) = 19.9) who completed a questionnaire online. Results revealed high frequencies and multiple types and contexts of SEM use, with men's usage rates systematically higher than women's. Regression analyses revealed that both the frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were uniquely associated with more sexual experience (a higher number of overall and casual sexual intercourse partners, as well as a lower age at first intercourse). Higher frequencies of SEM use were associated with less sexual and relationship satisfaction. The frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were both associated with higher sexual preferences for the types of sexual practices typically presented in SEM. These findings suggest that SEM use can play a significant role in a variety of aspects of young adults' sexual development processes. PMID:21259151

  2. Attachment, Identity Development, and Sexual Behavior Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Coyl, Diana D.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of nonmarital sexual behavior among adolescents continues to rise, as does the number of sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and unwanted pregnancies. College-age adolescents appear to be even more susceptible to these problems. Sound theoretical knowledge would seem useful in designing more effective prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to identity theoretical factors that contribute to or decrease such behaviors. Two hundred fifty-two single college students...

  3. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  4. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners

  5. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab-Stone Mary

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  6. Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Ah-King

    2013-01-01

    Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it...

  7. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

  8. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, A.; Waylen, A; Sayal, K.; Heron, J; Henderson, M.; Wight, D.; MacLeod, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16–18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-chi...

  9. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  10. Scaling sexual behavior or “sexual risk propensity” among men at risk for HIV in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    CL, Mattson; D, Campbell; G, Karabatsos; K, Agot; JO, Ndinya-Achola; S, Moses; RC, Bailey

    2008-01-01

    We present a scale to measure sexual risk behavior or “sexual risk propensity” to evaluate risk compensation among men engaged in a randomized clinical trial of male circumcision. This statistical approach can be used to represent each respondent's level of sexual risk behavior as the sum of his responses on multiple dichotomous and rating scale (i.e. ordinal) items. This summary “score” can be used to summarize information on many sexual behaviors or to evaluate changes in sexual behavior wi...

  11. Sexual motivation--an inquiry into events determining the occurrence of sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1999-11-01

    For the individual engaged in it, sexual behavior has no finality or purpose other than its own execution. Data are presented showing that the execution of sexual reflexes can promote learning, i.e. it functions as reinforcement. Furthermore, positive affect is generated. Based on these principles, a model of sexual motivation has been elaborated. The conceptual framework is the incentive motivation theory previously proposed by Bindra D, A motivational view of learning, performance, and behavior modification, Psychol Rev 1974: 81:199-213; A Theory of Intelligent Behavior, New York: Wiley, 1976; How adaptive behavior is produced: a perceptual-motivational alternative to response reinforcement, Behav Brain Sci 1978; 1:41-52. Although the model is intended for application to most mammals, the rat is used as example. Essentially, sexual approach behaviors are activated by appropriate incentives (conditioned in the male, unconditioned in the female). Approach is, in the inexperienced male, followed by the execution of copulatory reflexes as a consequence of accidentally obtained tactile stimulation of the perineal region. In the female, copulatory acts are activated by tactile stimulation of the flanks and hinds provided by the mounting male. The role of conditioning for the execution of copulatory reflexes and for the acquisition of incentive value of neutral stimuli is analyzed. It is also shown that the incentive properties of sexual acts are not substantially different from those of other incentives. Sexual exhaustion is suggested to be either a case of negative alliesthesia or of stimulus habituation and the Coolidge effect is, in consequence, an example of dishabituation. Studies in women and men support this proposal. It is emphasized that sexual behavior is best understood as being entirely mechanistic albeit not deterministic.

  12. Sex Role Socialization Via Teachers' Behavior and Sexually Stereotyped Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others

    Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…

  13. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  14. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are now gradually affecting the general population groups increasingly. Our earlier observations from qualitative research called for an effort to understand the sexual exposure, activity and behavior of the workers in these software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Aim: The current study is explored to understand the association of the sexual behaviors with Job. Materials and Methods: The study design employed was a cross-sectional study using a mixed sampling method. A total of 1071 subjects from software sector in Bengaluru, the capital city of Karnataka completed the self-administered questionnaire. The source population comprised all information technology/information technology enabled services (IT/ITES professionals aged 20-59 years working in "technical functions" in 21 selected worksites (units of the software industry. The exposure of interest was job stressors and the outcome measures were sexual behaviors in the form of having multiple sexual partners, paid sex in last 3 months and frequency of intercourse with irregular sexual partners and condom use with regular partners during last sexual act. Results: Among the study population, 74.3% reported not using a condom during their last vaginal intercourse with their regular partner. Regression estimates indicated that workers with high physical stressors had 6 times odds of having paid for sex in last 3 months and those with a moderate level of income related stress had 2.4 times likelihood of not using a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their regular partner. Conclusion: There is scope for starting prevention programs among young professionals in the IT/ITES sector to mitigate their possible risk behaviors.

  15. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  16. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  17. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  18. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  19. Heterosexual daters' sexual initiation behaviors: use of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior. PMID:22875717

  20. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

    2014-05-01

    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.

  1. Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim

    2005-04-01

    Sexually dimorphic behavior in nonhuman primates results from behavioral predispositions organized by prenatal androgens. The rhesus monkey has been the primary primate model for understanding the hormonal organization of sexually dimorphic behavior. Historically, female fetuses have received high prenatal androgen doses to investigate the masculinizing and defeminizing effects of androgens. Such treatments masculinized juvenile and adult copulatory behavior and defeminized female-typical sexual initiation to adult estrogen treatment. Testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, produced similar effects suggesting that estrogenic metabolites of androgens are not critical for masculinization and defeminization in rhesus monkeys. Long duration androgen treatments masculinized both behavior and genitalia suggesting that socializing responses to the females' male-like appearance may have produced the behavioral changes. Treatments limited to 35 days early or late in gestation differentially affected behavioral and genital masculinization demonstrating direct organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Recent studies exposed fetal females to smaller doses of androgens and interfered with endogenous androgens using the anti-androgen flutamide. Low dose androgen treatment only significantly masculinized infant vocalizations and produced no behavioral defeminization. Females receiving late gestation flutamide showed masculinized infant vocalizations and defeminized interest in infants. Both late androgen and flutamide treatment hypermasculinized some male juvenile behaviors. Early flutamide treatment blocked full male genital masculinization, but did not alter their juvenile or adult behavior. The role of neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms in the flutamide effects is discussed. Sexually differentiated behavior ultimately reflects both hormonally organized behavioral predispositions and the social experience that converts these predispositions

  2. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified

  3. Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modific...

  4. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement. PMID:26168010

  5. But I'm Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students' Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  6. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  7. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  8. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  9. Abnormal austenite-ferrite transformation behavior in pure iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongchang; F.Sommer; E.J. Mittemeijer

    2004-01-01

    The austenite → ferrite transformation is the most important reaction route in the manufacture of Fe-based materials. Here the austenite (γ) → ferrite (α)transformation of pure iron was systematically explored by high-resolution dilatometry. Abnormal transformation kinetics, multi-peak discontinuous reaction, was recognized in pure iron according to the variation of the ferrite-formation rate. The occurrence the one or the other type of γ→α trans formation strongly depends on the grain size: the transformation type changes from abnormal to normal (single-peak continuous reaction) with decreasing grain size. The inherent reason for the occurrence of abnormal transformation could be attributed to the repeated nucleation in front of the moving γ/α interface induced by the accumulation of elastic and plastic accommodation energy.

  10. An Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies on Youth Risky Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Robert Kaestner; Michael Grossman

    2005-01-01

    The problems of teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and the high rates of other sexually transmitted diseases among youth have lead to widespread concern with the sexual behaviors of teenagers. Alcohol use is one of the most commonly cited correlates of risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this research is to investigate the causal role of alcohol in determining sexual activity and risky sexual behavior among teenagers and young adults. This research also addresses the question of whether there are pub...

  11. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  12. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  13. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, 1974-1985: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Emil R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…

  14. THE COMPARISON OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SELF-HARM BEHAVIOUR IN STIMULANTS/NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Mirsoleimani

    2009-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.

  15. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  16. Sexual behavior and social education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S E

    1978-01-01

    The application on a massive scale of various population, family planning, sex education measures in China is a societal feature that is quickly evident to the country's visitors. For anyone concerned with population limitation on a national scale, the Chinese experiments and progress are of particular interest. In China there is a clearly discernible 3 step program: the minimization of sexual interest or enforced "national abstinence standard" in the teen years; a period of intense propaganda to postpone marriage until the mid 20s and avoid sexual intercourse outside marriage; and a concerted educational campaign aimed predominantly at married females for the 20 year span covering the fertile ages of approximately 25-45 to limit families. The Chinese approach to family planning and sexual education is direct and ubiquitous. One of the more paradoxical aspects of China's campaign to enforce their severe and particular natalist policy is the relatively high level of preventive sex knowledge among young married couples and the virtual absence of any major form of sex education for teenagers in the schools. In the past few years there has been a modest yet detectable change in this approach. Some middle school students are now being introduced, albeit on a sexually segregated basis, to somewhat wider aspects of population knowledge and human population studies. For the most part these units fall into the traditional teaching areas utilized in many western nations, i.e., physiology, biology, and physical education courses. The development and expansion of such courses may foreshadow the gradual introduction nationally of new material into the middle schools, but the predominant aim of sex education will remain the limitation and control of population. Some of the answers to sex education questions posed by this author in various schools and to a range of senior education officials are reported. The answers represent a recent sample, extracted from a number gathered

  17. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  18. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  19. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  20. Kinsey revisited, Part I: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of white women over 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-06-01

    This research compared data from two studies of women's sexual behavior--one conducted in the 1940s, the other in the 1980s. The first sample included 3952 white women, ages 18 to 36, drawn from the larger sample of women who participated in the original Kinsey study. The second comprised 122 white women, in the same age range, who had taken part in a recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, CA. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age, education, and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results tended to reflect changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, the newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in the new study were also more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3408344

  1. Kinsey revisited, Part II: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of black women over 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-08-01

    Kinsey's findings regarding the sexual behavior of black women were compared with data from a more recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, Ca. The study examined responses from two groups of college-educated black women, ages 18 to 36, 196 women from the original Kinsey sample and 64 women from the new sample. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results reflected changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in this study were slightly more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3421826

  2. Measurement of Motivations for and against Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Cooper, M. Lynne; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations "against" sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and…

  3. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  4. Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors of College Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Donna J.; Ding, Kele; Hoban, Mary T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the substance use and the sexual behaviors of college students with disabilities. Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted of the spring 2009 administration of the ACHA-NCHA II. Results: College students with disabilities tended to be 24 or more years old; of an ethnic minority; and bisexual, gay, or lesbian. They…

  5. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Teaching on Improvement of Women's Sexual Function with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Najme-Sadat Hajivosough; Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh; Alireza Rajayi; Alireza Atarodi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypoactive sexual desire disorder as the most prevalent sexual dysfunction has a major role in marital relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cognitive-behavioral teaching on improvement of women sexual function.Materials and Methods: In this semi experimental study, the sample size were 30 women that 15 were randomly selected for each experimental and control group of women with hypoactive sexual desire. At first the pretest was carried out in bot...

  6. Coaching behavior : any consequences for the prevalence of sexual harassment?

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Trond Svela; Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stilani; Knorre, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Coaches can easily dominate athletes and this unbalanced power distribution may be strengthened by authoritarian behavior; i.e. negative feedback, directive communication, coach-led decision making, taskcentered role orientation, and goal orientation on performance. An unwanted risk emerges when the power is abused, which can lead to the occurrence of sexual harassment. This article examines whether authoritarian coaching behaviors may have any implications for female ath...

  7. A selective androgen receptor modulator enhances male-directed sexual preference, proceptive behavior, and lordosis behavior in sexually experienced, but not sexually naive, female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    2010-06-01

    Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.

  8. Characteristics of sexual behavior among teenagers in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić Milan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The risks associated with teenage sex include pregnancy and a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Material and methods The study compared female teenagers: 32 with STDs and 90 with fungal skin infections who were treated in the City Center for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from January 2000 to June 2001. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data and an univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The mean age of participants was 18.2 years. About 40% of respondents reported to have their first sexual intercourse at the age of 14-16 years. The majority of cases and controls had one or two partners, but a greater percentage of cases had six or more partners compared to controls (12.5% vs. 3.3%. Adolescents with STDs frequently had sexual intercourse on the first date (p<0.05, and more frequently reported previous STDs in their personal history (p<0.05. Consistent use of condoms was less frequent among cases than among controls, both with steady (9.4% vs. 27.8% and irregular partners (30.0% vs. 70.6%. The majority of teenagers (95% thinks that sexual education at schools should be better. Discussion According to the results obtained, which are in agreement with literature data, teenagers should change their behavior, especially with respect to condom use both during vaginal and anal sex. Health education at schools could probably influence future sexual behavior, and counseling for STDs should be offered to all teenagers attending STD clinics. Conclusion The best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy and STDs is to delay the first sexual experience, reduce the number of sexual partners and increase the protection by condom use.

  9. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sara De; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health.Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries.Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents ...

  10. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  11. The Internet May Encourage Risky Sexual Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡开明

    2001-01-01

    “网恋”,作为一个新名词,始见于报端。“网恋”,似乎以悲剧或失败告终者居多。本文让我们大吃一惊: Over 80% of those questioned reported having Internet access, and almost35% of these men said they went online to seek a sexual partner, the majorityreporting they did so more than once. …seeking sex on the Internet was generally associated with high-risk sexualbehavior。 我的儿子,每日上网,近来成绩迅速下跌,此文引起我的思考:Interntrepresent a new risk environment?】

  12. Alcohol and HIV sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Kamyar; Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlis, Theresa E

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed data from 6341 injection drug users (IDUs) entering detoxification or methadone maintenance treatment in New York City between 1990 and 2004 to test the hypothesis that alcohol use and intoxication is associated with increased HIV sexual risk behaviors. Two types of associations were assessed: (1) a global association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the 6 months prior to the interview and at-risk drinking in that period, defined as more than 14 drinks per week for males or 7 drinks per week for females), and (2) an event-specific association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the most recent sex episode and alcohol intoxication during that episode). Sexual risk behaviors included multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex. After adjusting for the effects of other variables, at-risk-drinkers were more likely to report multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex with casual sex partners (both global associations). IDUs who reported both they and their casual partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode were more likely to engage in unprotected sex (an event-specific association). We also observed two significant interactions. Among IDUs who did not inject cocaine, moderate-drinkers were more likely to report multiple partners. Among self-reported HIV seropositive IDUs, when both primary partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode they were more likely to engage in unprotected sex. These observations indicate both global and event-specific associations of alcohol and HIV sexual-risk behaviors. PMID:18242009

  13. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  14. Evaluation of sexual functions and sexual behaviors after penile brachytherapy in men treated for penile carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Patrice Njomnang; Delaunay, Boris; Nasr, Elie Bou; Delannes, Martine; Soulie, Michel; Huyghe, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess sexual functions and behaviors of men treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis. Materials and methods Thirty eight men (19 patients treated by penile brachytherapy for a cancer of the penis and 19 age paired-matched controls) participated in a survey about sexuality. The mean age of patients and controls were 73.2 +/- 11.7 and 70.0 +/- 10.5 years, respectively (NS). Controls were men without penile pathology, without history of cancer and no evidence of cogn...

  15. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  16. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; us...

  18. Gender differences in the enactment of sociosexuality: an examination of implicit social motives, sexual fantasies, coercive sexual attitudes, and aggressive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2006-05-01

    An unrestricted sociosexual orientation (the endorsement of casual sex) has been found to correlate with undesirable behaviors and personality characteristics more so in men than in women. Using a community sample of men and women, we investigated the correlations between sociosexuality and behaviors, motives, attitudes, and fantasies related to sexual aggression. Participants (n = 168; ages 21-45) completed self-report measures of sociosexual orientation, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, attitudes toward women, sexual behaviors, and perpetration of sexual aggression. Participants also wrote five brief stories that were scored for power and affiliation-intimacy motives and two sexual fantasies that were coded for the theme of dominance. For both men and women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was correlated with behavioral items indicating earlier life experiences with sex, a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and more frequent sexual activity. For men, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was linked with higher levels of rape myth acceptance and adversarial sexual beliefs; more conservative attitudes toward women; higher levels of power motivation and lower levels of affiliation-intimacy motivation; and past use of sexual aggression. For women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual fantasies of dominance and lower levels of sexual conservatism. PMID:16817063

  19. Stereotypies and other abnormal repetitive behaviors: potential impact on validity, reliability, and replicability of scientific outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Normal behavior plays a key role in facilitating homeostasis, especially by allowing the animal to control and modify its environment. Captive environments may interfere with these behavioral responses, and the resulting stress may alter many physiological parameters. Abnormal behaviors indicate that an animal is unable to adjust behaviorally to the captive environment and, hence, may be expressing abnormal physiology. Therefore, captive environments may affect the following aspects of an experiment: validity, by introducing abnormal animals into experiments; reliability, by increasing interindividual variation through the introduction of such individuals; and replicability, by altering the number and type of such individuals between laboratories. Thus, far from increasing variability, enrichment may actually improve validity, reliability, and replicability by reducing the number of abnormal animals introduced into experiments. In this article, the specific example of abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) is explored. ARBs in captive animals appear to involve the same mechanisms as ARBs in human psychiatry, which reflect underlying abnormalities of brain function. ARBs are also correlated with a wide range of behavioral changes that affect experimental outcomes. Thus, ARBs in laboratory animals may compromise validity, reliability, and replicability, especially in behavioral experiments; and enrichments that prevent ARB may enhance validity, reliability, and replicability. Although many links in this argument have been tested experimentally, key issues still remain in the interpretation of these data. In particular, it is currently unclear (1) whether or not the differences in brain function seen in animals performing ARB are abnormal, (2) which common behavioral paradigms are affected by ARB, and (3) whether enrichment does indeed improve the quality of behavioral data. Ongoing and future work addressing these issues is outlined. PMID:15775020

  20. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States. PMID:19626536

  1. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian Ayebale; Lynn Atuyambe; William Bazeyo; Erasmus Otolok Tanga

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted a...

  2. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  3. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; da Silva, Leandro Nascimento; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users. Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0. Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9) reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0) and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8), alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2) were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:26444164

  4. Sexual behavior and erotism in university students, Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Arias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the main components related to the thoughts and erotic practices of students at Universidad del Valle, San Fernando Campus. Method: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 to evaluate the students´ necessities on sexual and reproductive health (SRH in two faculties in a public university in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. A total of 1120 students were evaluated. Results: An information technology system was designed for this study. Six hundred and ninety five (62% of the subjects were women with an average age of 20 years, mostly coming from underprivileged economic backgrounds. The average age for the beginning of sexual intercourse was 16 without differences by educational level. Fifty percent had their first intercourse before their final adolescence, 42.3% have had 2 to 5 sexual partners. Women enjoy sex with less frequency than men (p=0.022. Men have higher frequency of sexual intercourse outside of the couple than women (p=0.001. Conclusions: Men adopted risk behaviors in erotic practices such as more sexual couples, high frequency of unfaithfulness. Men report more pleasure in their erotic practices.

  5. The Effect of Sexual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Females\\' Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Attitude, and Sexual Self-Confidence. A Case Study in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahimi

    2009-10-01

    21.Lawrence S, Janet S. African- American adolescents knowledge, health- related attitudes, Sexual behavior, and contraceptive decisions: Implications for the prevention of adolescent HIV infection. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 200515: 104-112.Abstract retrieved Jul 15, 2007, from Psych INFO database,. 22.Shojayizade D, Ghobbe N, Mansurian M editors. The effectiveness of Health education couples on Sexual attitude about contraception means. Sexual health position in fertility and infertility seminar: 2003. 15-18: Tehran. Tehran Shahid Beheshti University of Medicine 2004. 23.Usefi E, Besharat M, Yunesi J. An investigation of the correlation between Sexual knowledge and attitude with marital satisfaction among serried couples Inhabiting in married students dormitory at shahid beheshti university. Quarterly journal of Iranian Counseling Association Winter 2008,Vol.6,No26,27-39.

  6. Ready, Set, Go: African American Preadolescents' Sexual Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…

  7. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior.

  8. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Marília Lavocart Nunes; Fátima Carvalho Madeira; Maria Goreth Santos; Silvia Reise Bregmann; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Luana Giatti; Sandhi Maria Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected ...

  9. Assessing base rates of sexual behavior using the unmatched count technique

    OpenAIRE

    Starosta, Amy J.; Earleywine, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of sexual behaviors is difficult because of self-report biases. This is particularly relevant in assessing high-risk sexual behaviors for the purpose of reducing the transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. The present study employed the unmatched count technique (UCT), which provides estimates of the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors without requiring participants to confess to socially undesirable or stigmatized behavi...

  10. Neighborhoods and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity...

  11. Exposure of sexually inactive males to estrogenized females increased the investigative and consummatory sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Muñoz, J M; Meza-Herrera, C A; Santos-Jimenez, Z; Rivas-Muñoz, R; Luna-Orozco, J R; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2016-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of diverse socio-sexual cues upon male sexual behavior and the reproductive performance of anestrous does (AD). Trials were conducted in northern Mexico (26°N) during the natural anestrous season (Feb-Mar) with crossbred dairy bucks. In Experiment 1, sexually inactive bucks (SIB, n=12) were randomly allotted to three groups, four males/group: a) DEE 9novelty stimulation) - daily exchange of estrogenized females (EF) 12&12h, b) NEE (no novelty stimulation) - no-exchange of EF, 24h, or c) CON (saline-treated_ -daily exchange of AF 12&12h. Sexually active bucks (SAB) from the DEE, NEE and CON groups were subsequently exposed to AD (n=72; n=24/group) and the reproductive outcomes were recorded. In Experiment 2, SAB (n=12; n=6/group) were randomly divided in: 1) B+EF - males+four-EF exposed to AF (n=36), and 2) B+NEF; males+four-saline-treated AD and exposed to AD (n=36). Prior to the onset of the experimental breeding in both experiments, the investigative (ISB), consummatory (CSB) and resting (RSB) sexual behavior of males were quantified (2h×d×2d). Sexual behaviors considered were: ISB - flehmen, ano-genital sniffing, approaches, vocalizations, kicking, penis extrusion, CSB; mount attempts and mounts, and RSB - isolation, attempted escape, aggression and distractions. While EF were an effective stimulus (P<0.05) for evoking mounting in SIB males, daily exchange of estrous does used to stimulate males promoted an enhanced response (P<0.05) in terms of both ISB and CSB. After being exposed to AD, the B+EF bucks induced an earlier estrous response (P<0.05) as compared with the B+NEF bucks. The untreated females did not induce any sexual activity in males and stimulation of ovarian function did not occur when saline treated (CON) AD were exposed to AD. Also, the B+EF group induced an enhanced increase (P<0.05) of the male ISB and CSB, inducing in turn an increase percentage onset of estrus in does that had previously

  12. Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Dae-sik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse.

  13. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Survey Newest CDC data on teen risk behaviors Publications Check here to find the latest sexual ... Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Risk Behaviors Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS [1] WHO working ...

  14. Childhood Sexual Trauma and Subsequent Parenting Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M

    2016-01-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that, when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655

  15. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania

  16. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  17. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    OpenAIRE

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demogr...

  18. Sexual Differentiation of Behavior in Monkeys: Role of Prenatal Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Wallen, Kim; Hassett, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to sexual differentiation of behavior has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation requiring both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance...

  19. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  20. DETECTING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL NETWORK WEBSITES BY USING A PROCESS MINING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sahlabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting abnormal user activity in social network websites could prevent from cyber-crime occurrence. The previous research focused on data mining while this research is based on user behavior process. In this study, the first step is defining a normal user behavioral pattern and the second step is detecting abnormal behavior. These two steps are applied on a case study that includes real and syntactic data sets to obtain more tangible results. The chosen technique used to define the pattern is process mining, which is an affordable, complete and noise-free event log. The proposed model discovers a normal behavior by genetic process mining technique and abnormal activities are detected by the fitness function, which is based on Petri Net rules. Although applying genetic mining is time consuming process, it can overcome the risks of noisy data and produces a comprehensive normal model in Petri net representation form.

  1. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  2. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  3. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  4. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  5. Criminal and behavioral aspects of juvenile sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Burgess, A W; Nelson, J A

    1998-03-01

    This preliminary research provides a descriptive, systematic study of juvenile sexual homicide. Fourteen incarcerated juveniles, identified through a department of corrections computer search, were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview, an author-designed clinical interview, and a review of correctional files and other available records. Five of the offenders' victims survived the homicidal attack, but their cases were nevertheless included in this study as the offenders' intent was clearly to kill their victim, and the victim's survival was merely by chance. All victims were female and all offenders were male. Their crimes typically occurred in the afternoon, and involved a low-risk victim of the same race who lived in the offender's neighborhood. The sexual component of the crime consisted of vaginal rape in over one-half of the cases. Weapons, typically a knife or bludgeon, were used in all but one case. Thirteen of these youths had a prior history of violence, and twelve had previous arrests. Chaotic, abusive backgrounds and poor adjustment in school were typical for these boys. A conduct disorder diagnosis was present in twelve of the youths, and violent sexual fantasies were experienced by one-half of the sample. The findings in this study suggest that juvenile sexual murderers comprise less than 1% of juvenile murderers, and are likely to be an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with serious familial, academic, and environmental vulnerabilities.

  6. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  7. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  8. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  9. A study on sexual health knowledge, sexual attitudes and sex-related behaviors of university students in Hefei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Xinli; 遲新麗

    2014-01-01

    This present research aimed (1) to examine the level of sexual health knowledge, patterns of sexual attitudes and prevalence of sex-related behaviours among college students in contemporary China; (2) to explore factors predicting knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding sexuality; and (3) to assess gender differences in both characteristics and correlates. Based on data collected from 274 college students (167 male and 107 female) by the way of convenience sampling, in Hefei, China, Ph...

  10. Sexuality on Campus: Changes in Attitudes and Behavior During the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)

  11. Lacrimal gland removal impairs sexual behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria eCavaliere

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exocrine gland-secreting peptides (ESPs are a protein family involved in the pheromonal communication of rodents. ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual behavior in females. Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females during mating. In contrast, C57BL/6 and ICR males, both unable to express ESP1, failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females providing these were pre-exposed to ESP1. To exclude any strain differences, here, we investigated the pheromonal role of the extraorbital glands and indirectly of ESP1 in animals of the same strain. This was performed by applying the lordosis experimental paradigm in BALB/c mice before and after the surgical removal of these glands in males. The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did not abolish the production of ESP1 in the lacrimal fluid of BALB/c mice. An immunological analysis on soluble extracts of the glands that drain into the conjunctival sac revealed that the intraorbital glands are also responsible for the production of ESP1. The removal of both the extra and intraorbital glands completely eliminated the tear secretion of ESP1. Extraorbital gland-deficient BALB/c mice were still able to induce lordosis behavior in sexually receptive females. In contrast, males with the removal of both the extra and intraorbital glands failed to enhance lordosis behavior in females. Unexpectedly, C57BL/6 males did improve this sexual performance in BALB/c females. However, an analysis of the tear fluid of C57BL/6 males revealed low but detectable levels of ESP1. Overall, our study highlights the relevance of the orbital glands in modulating reproductive behavior and the sensitivity of the vomeronasal system to detect trace amount of ESP

  12. Neuropeptide Y stimulates feeding but inhibits sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J T; Kalra, P S; Kalra, S P

    1985-12-01

    The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a tyrosine-rich peptide found in the rat brain, on feeding and sexual behavior were studied in male and female rats. Intraventricular (ivt) injections of NPY during the final hours of the light period induced feeding in a dose-related manner. While the lowest dose tested (0.02 nM) was without effect, higher doses (0.12, 0.47, 2.3 nM) uniformly elicited feeding with a latency of about 15 min in male rats. With the most effective dose, 0.47 nM, the increased food intake was due to an increased local eating rate. In contrast, the pattern of feeding behavior after a related peptide, rat pancreatic polypeptide (rPP), was quite different and less impressive. During the first hour, only one ivt dose of rPP (0.45 nM) evoked an increase in food intake, due to an increased time spent eating. Further, the effects of NPY on food intake were greater during the nocturnal period. Interestingly, increased food intake in nocturnal tests (4 h) was due solely to augmented intake during the first 60 min after ivt administration. In mating tests, initiated 2 h after the onset of darkness and 10 min after ivt administration of peptide, all but the lowest dose of NPY (0.01 nM) drastically suppressed ejaculatory behavior. Most rats treated with higher doses of NPY (0.02, 0.12, or 0.47 nM) mounted and intromitted only a few times before the cessation of sexual activity, and elongated latencies to the initial mount and intromission were observed. In contrast to the dramatic NPY-induced suppression of ejaculatory behavior, rPP (0.11 and 0.45 nM) was without effect on copulatory behavior. To substantiate further that the impairment of sexual behavior seen in NPY-treated rats was not due to an attenuated sexual ability, an additional experiment was performed. Penile reflexes, including erection, were monitored 10 min after ivt injection of NPY (0.12 nM), rPP (0.11 nM), or saline. No effect of NPY or rPP was observed on the proportion of rats showing

  13. Androgen induction of male sexual behaviors in female goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, N; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The effectiveness of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (K) in inducing male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish was examined by implanting intact adult females with one empty (blank) Silastic implant (B females), one implant containing T or K, or one T and one K implant (T + K females). Behavior of the four female groups was compared to that of untreated males and males containing a blank implant. Male-typical behaviors (coutship, spawning) and associated behavioral changes (increased activity, reduced spontaneous feeding) were assessed 3.5 and 4.5 months after implant in 30-min tests in which the test female or male was allowed to interact with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity had been induced by acute prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Prostaglandin-induced female-typical spawning behavior in the test females and males was also assessed 4.5 months after implant in a 60-min test for female-typical behavior in which the test fish was injected with prostaglandin and placed immediately with a sexually active male. Blood samples 5 months postimplant showed that implants generated physiological levels of T and K. In both tests for male-typical behaviors, K and T + K females exhibited the full suite of behaviors shown by spawning males, e.g., male-typical courtship and spawning, increased swimming activity, and reduced spontaneous feeding. Although behaviors of K and T + K females did not differ, those of T + K females were more often equivalent to those of males and significantly different from those of B females. T females exhibited marginal male-typical behaviors which never differed significantly from those of B females. Androgen-treated females exhibited female-typical; spawning behaviors equivalent to that of males and B females. The results show that adult female goldfish can be behaviorally masculinzed without behavioral defeminization, and suggest that male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish are dependent on K, although other

  14. Use of Sexual Material Online and At-Risk Sexual Behavior Regarding HIV/AIDS among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel A; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre

    2012-01-01

    Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people's thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the study, and it was found that USMO from rich media is connected to at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS (pmedia for masturbation (F[2,189]=10.169, psexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. The study also found that young people may experience pleasure from USMO in rich media and feel motivated to model what they observe. PMID:24199040

  15. I Did What Last Night?!!! Adolescent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sara Markowitz

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to examine the causal impact of substance use on risky sexual behaviors by teenagers. Risky sexual behaviors, which include unprotected sex and multiple partners, are highly correlated with alcohol and illicit drug use, although the nature of the causal relationship is in question. This study uses two-stage least squares and reduced form models to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors by gender. Data come from the Youth Risk Behavior...

  16. A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van de Bongardt; E. Reitz; T. Sandfort; M. Deković

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms—descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex—and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk b

  17. Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Paul SF; Zhang, Huiping; Lam, Tai-Hing; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lee, Antoinette Marie; Chan, John; Fan, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unm...

  18. The influence of sexually explicit internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Peter; P.M. Valkenburg

    2011-01-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age modera

  19. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether women’s unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.

  20. Barrier and Facilitators of HIV Related Risky Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Asgari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to identify the determinants of protective behavior in relation to HIV transmission. Since the risk of transmission is higher among those who have extramarital intercourse, the study sample constituted of such people.Methods: We started this study in 2010 and finished it in 2011. Participants were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups. High-risk people included sex workers and those who presented at drop-in centers. Interviewees were 18 men and women in the low-risk group and 12 men and women in the high-risk group. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using the thematic framework method.Results: In both groups, protective behavior was influenced by willingness to protect, intention or decision to protect, and personal, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators. In terms of willingness, behavior was influenced to preserve sexual pleasure by avoiding condoms. In terms of barriers and facilitators, trust in partner, misperceptions, condom inaccessibility, unplanned sex, fear of contracting the disease, partner’s wish, ethical commitments were mentioned by both groups, stigma of condom possession by the low-risk group, and partner’s force was mentioned by the high-risk group.Conclusion: Educational programs need to focus on changing the concept that “condoms reduce sexual pleasure”. In addition, interventional programs to strengthen factors such as self-efficacy, ethical commitments, faithfulness, and correct beliefs such as undue trust in partner, misconception of being safe, unplanned sex, and the stigma of possessing condoms can be very effective in changing high-risk sexual behavior.

  1. The relation between sexual behavior and religiosity subtypes: a test of the secularization hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Trapnell, Paul D; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-10-01

    Previous literature on religion and sexual behavior has focused on narrow definitions of religiosity, including religious affiliation, religious participation, or forms of religiousness (e.g., intrinsic religiosity). Trends toward more permissive premarital sexual activity in the North American Christian-Judeo religion support the secularization hypothesis of religion, which posits an increasing gap between religious doctrine and behavior. However, the recent rise of fundamentalist and new age religious movements calls for a reexamination of the current link between religion and sexual behavior. The use of dual definitions of religiosity, including religious affiliation and dimensional subtypes, may further characterize this link. The present cross-sectional study evaluated patterns of sexual behavior in a young adult sample (N = 1302, M age = 18.77 years) in the context of the secularization hypothesis using religious affiliation and a liberal-conservative continuum of religious subtypes: paranormal belief, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism. Results indicated few affiliation differences in sexual behavior in men or women. Sexual behaviors were statistically predicted by spirituality, fundamentalism, and paranormal belief, and the endorsement of fundamentalism in particular was correlated with lower levels of female sexual behavior. The secularization hypothesis was supported by consistent levels of sexual activity across affiliations and is contradicted by the differential impact of religiosity subtypes on sexual behavior. Findings suggested that the use of religious subtypes to evaluate religious differences, rather than solely affiliation, may yield useful insights into the link between religion and sexual behavior. PMID:18839301

  2. OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES OF PARENTS AND STUDENTS FOR SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT, SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND GENDER IDENTITY OF PERSONS WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bisera MLADENOVSKA; Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2015-01-01

    Persons with autism can experience severe issues during the puberty and adolescence resulting from the changes that occur in their body. People with autism are sexual beings. They have sexual needs and desires as other people. Sexual development is part of the overall development of their personality.The main objective of this research was to present sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity among persons with autism. Furthermore, we determined the views and opinions of the par...

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior, Sexual Orientation, and Psychosexual Milestones Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Rosario, Margaret; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Scharf-Matlick, Alice A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of reliable self-reported sexual information for research on sexuality and sexual health, research has not examined reliability of information provided by gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths. Test-retest reliability of self-reported sexual behaviors, sexual orientation, sexual identity, and psychosexual developmental milestones was examined among an ethnically diverse sample of 64 self-identified GLB youths. Two face-to-face interviews were conducted approximately t...

  4. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

  5. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  7. Relations between trait impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity, physiological arousal, and risky sexual behavior among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  8. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.

  9. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Doornwaard

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS] sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys and SNS use (among boys and girls predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  10. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health. PMID:26086606

  11. Sexual attitudes, pattern of communication, and sexual behavior among unmarried out-of-school youth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naar-King Sylvie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, more adolescents are engaging in premarital sex in China. However, only a limited number of studies have explored out-of-school youth's sexual attitudes and behaviors, critical for prevention intervention development. Methods Using data from the baseline survey of a comprehensive sex education program that was conducted in a suburb of Shanghai in 2000–2002, this study describes sexual attitudes, patterns of communication on sexual matters, and premarital sexual behavior among 1,304 out-of-school youth. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with youth's premarital sexual intercourse. Results The majority (60% of out-of-school youth held favorable attitudes towards premarital sex. Males were more likely to have favorable attitudes compared with females. Male youth generally did not communicate with either parent about sex, while one-third of female youth talked to their mothers about sexual matters. Both males and females chose their friends as the person with whom they were most likely to talk about sexual matters. About 18% of the youth reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. One-fifth of sexually active youth had always used a contraceptive method, and one-quarter had been pregnant (or had impregnated a partner. There were no gender differences in rate of premarital sex or frequency of contraceptive use. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, education, family structure, parent's discipline, attitudes towards premarital sex, pattern of communication and dating were significantly associated with youth premarital sex. Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sexual behaviors. Prevention programs that empower communication and sexual negotiation skills, and promote condom use should be implemented for this vulnerable group.

  12. Sexual Behavior Pattern and Related Factors in Women with Breast Cancer in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient’s life, attention to sexual issues don’t be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. Methods: This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to Sayed-Al-Shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (p<0.031). Cases that were homemaker had more desirable Sexual behavior than of were working and retired (p<0.023). Non-surgical treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy had a negative impact on sexual behavior (p<0.014). Conclusion: Study of sexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended. PMID:26925917

  13. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths' Involvement in Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…

  15. Assessing parental risk in parenting plan (child custody) evaluation cases involving internet sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Philip H.; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Connell, Mary; Douglas P. Boer

    2010-01-01

    One type of claim in parenting assessment (child custody)1 cases is that one parent, typically the father, is alleged to be engaging in improper or compulsive sexual behavior via the Internet. The sexual behavior at issue can range from frequent sexually explicit chats with other adults to compulsive viewing of adult pornography. In more extreme cases, the problematic behavior may involve viewing child pornography, and in some cases the parent faces actual criminal charges in this regard. The...

  16. The Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yoonmi; Chung, Un-Sun; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Won Kee

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in Korean children aged from 6 to 12 years old and the suitability of and potential for clinical application of the CSBI in Korean population. Methods The participants consisted of 158 typically growing children and 122 sexually abused children. The subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), the Child Behavior Check...

  17. Victimization and Sexual Risk Behavior in Young, HIV Positive Women: Exploration of Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Perez, Lori V.; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary W.; Hamvas, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    In this study we explore associations between child and adult victimization and sexual risk behavior in 118 young, HIV positive women. Prior research has demonstrated associations between victimization and engagement in sexual risk behavior. Victimization sequelae can include disrupted assertiveness and communication, as well as increased association with risky partners, both of which are also linked with engagement in sexual risk behavior. Thus, we propose a model wherein victimization is li...

  18. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are...

  19. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior. PMID:26943712

  20. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  1. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  2. An Exploration of Counselor Experiences of Adolescents with Sexual Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassman, Linda; Kottler, Jeffrey; Madison, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study of 18 American and Australian counselors explores the impact of working with adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Findings are reported reflecting the counselors' own histories of abuse, their feelings regarding sexual information, their sexual and emotional responses to clients, and the importance of self-care and…

  3. "Mostly Straight" Young Women: Variations in Sexual Behavior and Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have begun to explore and identify various gradations in sexual orientation identity, paying attention to alternative sexual identity categories and attempting to clarify potential subtypes of same-sex sexuality, particularly among women. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the behavioral experiences…

  4. A Comparison between Unwanted Sexual Behavior by Teachers and by Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2002-01-01

    Explored differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers for a sample of 2,808 Dutch secondary school students in 22 schools. Eighteen percent reported unwanted sexual behavior at school in the last 12 months (72% girls; 28% boys). Sexual harassment by teachers was more upsetting than unwanted sexual…

  5. Another Look at Heterosocial Behaviors: One Side of the Early Intimate Sexual Behaviors Coin

    OpenAIRE

    Braxter, Betty J.; Doswell, Willa M.; Ren, Dianxu

    2011-01-01

    The number of adolescent births is once again on the rise. Heterosocial competence described as successful interactions (i.e., heterosocial behaviors) with males (Grover et al., 2005; 2007) is one emerging factor that has been found to be associated with adolescent sexual behavior. The aims of this cross sectional design study with 159 African American middle school girls using the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) were to describe and assess the relationship between heteroso...

  6. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and

  7. Sexual Orientation and Behavior of Adult Jews in Israel and the Association With Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-08-01

    Estimating the size of key risk groups susceptible to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STI) is necessary for establishment of interventions and budget allocation. This study aimed to identify various dimensions of sexual orientation and practices in Israel, and correlate the findings with sexual risk behavior (SRB). It used a random representative sample of the Jewish population aged 18-44 years who completed online questionnaires regarding their self-identified sexual orientation, attraction and practices, and SRB. Concordant heterosexuals were those who self-reported heterosexual identity, were attracted and had sex only with the opposite gender. National estimates regarding prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women were based on the civil census. The sample included 997 men and 1005 women, of whom 11.3 and 15.2 % were attracted to the same-gender, 10.2 and 8.7 % reported lifetime same-gender encounters, while 8.2 and 4.8 % self-identified as gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and 57,671, respectively. SRB was more common among self-identified gays or bisexual men and among discordant heterosexual men and women. Those who reported same-gender sexual practices reported greater SRB than those who only had opposite-gender encounters. Interestingly, SRB among discordant heterosexuals was associated with same-sex behavior rather than attraction. Health practitioners should increase their awareness of sexual diversity among their clientele, and should recognize that risk for HIV/STI may exist among self-identified heterosexuals, who may not disclose their actual sexual attraction or practices. PMID:26754157

  8. Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present.

  9. Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present. PMID:25179401

  10. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Osso Bernardo; Marazziti Donatella

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs) include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topir...

  11. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-01-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a ...

  12. FEMALE = SUBMISSIVE and MALE = ASSERTIVE Sexuality-priming leads to gender-based self-perception and automatic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hundhammer, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    Sexuality is a domain in which gender stereotypes thrive. A cultural standard for the sexual experience and expression of women and men prescribes different gender roles in sexuality. Women�s sexual role is submissive and tender, men�s assertive and dominant. These sexual roles reflect the stereotypical view of women as more communal and men as more agentic. If gender stereotypes and sexual roles are activated by sexuality cues, this may have consequences for subsequent thought and behavior. ...

  13. Transitions in Body and Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baams; J.S. Dubas; G.J. Overbeek; M.A.G. van Aken

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2

  14. Transitions in Body and Behavior : A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 20

  15. Transitions in body and behavior : A meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2

  16. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  17. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  18. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  19. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults. PMID:23837266

  20. Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

  1. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Correlation between aberrant behaviors, EEG abnormalities and seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elena Hartley-McAndrew

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between epilepsy, epileptiform discharges, cognitive, language and behavioral symptoms is not clearly understood. Since difficulties with socialization and maladaptive behaviors are found in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, we inquired whether epileptiform activity and seizures are associated with adverse behavioral manifestations in this population. We reviewed our EEG database between 1999-2006, and identified 123 children with ASD. EEG abnormalities were found in 39 children (31%. A control group of age and gender matched ASD children with normal EEG’s was obtained. Packets of questionnaires including the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (VABS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS were sent by mail. Out of 21 packets received, 11 had normal and 10 had abnormal EEG’s. There were no statistically significant differences in behavior between the two groups. Statistical analysis of discharge location and frequency did not reveal a significant trend. However, children with ASD and seizures had statistically significant lower scores in VABS daily living (P=0.009 and socialization (P=0.007 as compared to those without seizures. ASD children with seizures had higher ABC levels of hyperactivity and irritability. Differences in irritability scores nearly reached statistical significance (P=0.058. There was no significant difference in the degree of CARS autism rating between the groups. Our study did not reveal statistically significant differences in behaviors between ASD children with and without EEG abnormalities. However, ASD children with seizures revealed significantly worse behaviors as compared to counterparts without seizures.

  3. Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:25428577

  4. Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition.

  5. Brief Report: Parsing the Heterogeneity of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behavior--Relationships to Individual and Interpersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…

  6. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Siyan; Poudel Krishna C; Yasuoka Junko; Palmer Paula H; Yi Songky; Jimba Masamine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 stud...

  7. Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a ...

  8. Safer Sexual Practices and HIV Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Sinha, Karabi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on safer sexual practices and HIV screening behavior among rural California American Indians. Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N=457). Measures included socio-demographics, safer sexual practices, HIV testing, high-risk behaviors, perception of wellness, general health status, neglect, physical and sexual abuse history. Statistical tests included chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, as well as multiple logistic regr...

  9. Predictors of sexual transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive young men

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, J A; Rotheram-Borus, M.-J.; Swendeman, D; Milburn, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction in the incidence of high-risk sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men is a priority. We examined the roles of proximal substance use and delinquency-related variables, and more distal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of serious high-risk sexual behaviors among 248 HIV-positive young males, aged 15–24 years. In a mediated latent variable model, demographics (ethnicity, sexual orientation and poverty) and background psychosocial factors (coping style, peer norms, e...

  10. [Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick De Weiss, S; Vargas-trujillo, E

    1990-01-01

    The Latin American literature on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior is reviewed to provide professionals in the area with more relevant findings. The data demonstrates that sexually active adolescents of both gender are increasing and starting sexual activity at an earlier age. For example in Panama one out of every 5 births is from an adolescent 15-19 with 25% of these out of wedlock; in Chile, 44% of live births are illegitimate. Factors that are affecting these changes are the media, peer groups and other sources of information competing with parental discipline (TV, movies, music). In spite of the high incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, the majority of pregnancies among adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean take place in marriage with the average age of marriage at 20, with variation between the rural and urban areas. In 1978 the total fertility rate of El Salvador's urban areas was 3.3 as against 8.4 in the rural. Young girls in developing countries have few options for education, retaining their virginity and marriage, so when presented with the change early on, they marry and get pregnant. Cuba remains the only Latin American Country where abortion is offered (up to 10 weeks) within the context of health services; while illegal abortion in the majority of Latin American countries continues to increase. The proportion of complications due to abortion for those under 20 ranges from 11-20% in the region. Illegal abortions has become a major cause of maternal mortality constituting from 12-53% of deaths among the majority of women 15-24. Significant data is given for pregnancy, factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception, and available sex education programs, an extensive bibliography in these areas is included. PMID:12283397

  11. Based on Wide Area Environment Abnormal Behavior Analysis and Anomaly Detection Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Group anomaly identification and location is an important issue in the field of artificial intelligence. Capture of the accident source and rapid prediction of mass incidents in public places are difficult problems in intelligent video identification and processing, but the traditional group anomaly detection research has many limitations when it comes to accident source detection and intelligent recognition. We are to research on the algorithms of accident source location and abnormal group identification based on behavior analysis in the condition of dramatically changing group geometry appearance, including: 1 to propose a logic model of image density based on the social force model, and to build the crowd density trend prediction model integrating “fast and fuzzy matching at front-end” and “accurate and classified training at back-end”; 2 to design a fast abnormal source flagging algorithm based on support vector machine, and to realize intelligent and automatic marking of abnormal source point; 3 to construct a multi-view human body skeleton invariant moment model and a motion trajectory model based on linear parametric equations. The expected results of the research will help prevent abnormal events effectively, capture the first scene of incidents and the abnormal source point quickly, and play a decision support role in the proactive national security strategy.

  12. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Torsten B Neilands

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment...

  13. Sexual discounting among high-risk youth ages 18-24: implications for sexual and substance use risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior. PMID:25545764

  14. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Teaching on Improvement of Women's Sexual Function with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme-Sadat Hajivosough

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoactive sexual desire disorder as the most prevalent sexual dysfunction has a major role in marital relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cognitive-behavioral teaching on improvement of women sexual function.Materials and Methods: In this semi experimental study, the sample size were 30 women that 15 were randomly selected for each experimental and control group of women with hypoactive sexual desire. At first the pretest was carried out in both groups and then the experimental group was thought for 10 sessions. At the end the posttest was carried out in the groups. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 software and differential independent t test.Results: There was a significant difference between mean of differential scores of both groups sexual function that suggests a significant impact of the educational program on improvement of sexual function in women with hypoactive sexual desire (p=0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended to use these teachings by specialist into therapeutic program of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  15. The Health Belief Model, Sexual Behaviors, and HIV Risk among Taiwanese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Simoni, Jane M.; Zemon, Vance

    2005-01-01

    In this first investigation of Taiwanese sexual behaviors in the United States, 144 Taiwanese students completed an online anonymous survey. Demographics, health belief model (HBM) constructs, and acculturation were examined as predictors of sexual behaviors over the last year. Analyses indicated that participants who reported a higher number of…

  16. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  17. Identifying Mediators of the Influence of Family Factors on Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal

    2013-01-01

    Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…

  18. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  19. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  20. Correlates of Precoital Behaviors, Intentions, and Sexual Initiation among Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…

  1. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  2. Sexual Behavior, Drugs, and Relationship Patterns on a College Campus over Thirteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, Bernard I; And Others

    1989-01-01

    In 1974, 1979, and 1986, college students completed questionnaires regarding their sexual philosophies, behavior, relationships, self-perceived attractiveness, relationship with parents, use of drugs and alcohol, attitudes toward marriage and abortion, and other issues. Found that sexual behavior increased dramatically from 1974 to 1979, and then…

  3. Sexual Communication, Sexual Goals, and Students’ Transition to College: Implications for Sexual Assault, Decision-Making, and Risky Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students’ experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes included gender differences in communication of sexual interest, with men reportedly perceiving more sexualized intentions than women intended to commun...

  4. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques. PMID:19886470

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.

  6. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  7. [Diagnosis and care of senile sexual problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Katsuki

    2013-10-01

    By aging process, sexual behaviors of elderly people may change. Some changes are normal ones, but may be misunderstood as abnormal by prejudice and ignorance of the senile sexuality. As the sexual function of elderly people is influenced by many factors, evaluation of it should include physical, pharmacological, psychological, and partner relational aspects. By using drug, some sexual dysfunctions may be improved. But treatment should not be focused only on penile-vaginal intercourse. Kissing, touching and other alternative sexual behaviors may be useful for the improvement of the senile sexual problems. PMID:24261217

  8. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high potential for adaptation in old age.

  9. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high adaptive potential in old age.

  10. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

  11. O terceiro sexo revisitado: a homossexualidade no Archives of Sexual Behavior Third sex revisited: homosexuality in the Archives of Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fisher Nucci

    2009-01-01

    analyzing if and how contemporary theories about homosexuality are related to the idea of the "Third sex", we reviewed 211 papers about homosexuality, published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior from 1971 to 2006. The papers were classified in five categories: Psychological, Biomedical, Sociological/Cultural, HIV and Others. We analyzed two groups of papers included in the "Biomedical" category. The first group encompasses studies that try to establish a relationship between homosexuality in adulthood and "atypical gender behavior" in childhood (for instance, how girls preferred balls instead of dolls and vice-versa. In the second group, the studies searched for anatomic differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals (such as length of the fingers and of the penis that would indicate "abnormal levels" of pre-natal hormones, these being responsible for the cerebral lateralization that defines sexual orientation. We concluded that both groups of papers are based on a view of heterosexuality as a distinctive characteristic of gender that links homosexual males to heterosexual females and vice versa. This type of approach has great similarity with the 19th century theory of the "Third sex"; however, vague and metaphysical concepts, such as "soul" and "mind", have been replaced by more concrete and physical concepts such as "brain".

  12. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  13. Quantitative analysis of abnormal spontaneous behavior and clinical assessment of the stargazer rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J W; Truett, G E; Ross, K D; Kloster, C A

    1995-06-01

    A new mutant derived from the Zucker rat strain called stargazer (homozygous stg/stg) displays abnormal behavior that is characterized by pronounced arching of the neck ("stargazing"), rapid circling, and conspicuous hyperactivity. Results of serologic assays performed by two independent diagnostic laboratories have indicated that the abnormal behavior in the stargazer is not the result of a viral or bacterial infection. In this report, different groups of stargazer rats and their normal-behaving littermates (heterozygous stg/+) were assessed with regard to spontaneous behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma biochemical profiles. Besides frequent stargazing, the predominant behavioral feature of the stargazers was extreme hyperactivity; they had sevenfold greater activity than the normal littermates (P stargazers had significantly greater daily calorie and water consumption, despite being significantly smaller in body weight than the littermates (P Stargazers had significantly lower total triglycerides concentration and lower aminotransferase activity than littermates (P stargazer rats are extremely hyperactive but normotensive; heterozygous littermates are behaviorally normal, despite being carriers of the stg gene; and routine diagnostic blood testing revealed no important differences between the stargazers and their unaffected littermates. PMID:7650898

  14. Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156

  15. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  16. Using Sexually Transmitted Infection Biomarkers to Validate Reporting of Sexual Behavior within a Randomized, Experimental Evaluation of Interviewing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, Paul C.; Mensch, Barbara S.; de A. Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S.; Jones, Heidi E.; Sheri A. Lippman; Montgomery, Mark R; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for STIs, 818 women aged 18−40 years were recruited in 2004 at or near a primary care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, and were randomized to a face...

  17. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861

  18. Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Delia L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here.

  19. High Adult Sex Ratios and Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systemati...

  20. Correlates of Cumulative Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Youth Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter

    2016-09-01

    African American youth and especially those who reside in public housing report high rates of sexually transmitted disease (STI) risk behaviors; however, too few studies have examined the correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors among this population. This study recruited 298 youth ages 11 to 21 and examined to what degree factors such as age, gender, self-efficacy, substance use, negative peer norms, and delinquency were correlated with cumulative sexual risk behaviors. Major findings indicated that gender, substance use, self-efficacy, and involvement with delinquent peer networks were independent correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors, with gender and self-efficacy being the strongest of these factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that gendered approaches to sexual risk reduction among this population are warranted with special content and attention focused on substance abuse risk reduction, improving self-efficacy and managing negative peer influences. PMID:27294733

  1. Formal and informal sex education as determinants of premarital sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, G B

    1976-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the subject of much speculation but which have received little attention by researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate--through the use of respondent reports--how formal and informal sex education influences premarital sexual behavior during college. A national probability sample of 1177 college students was studied using face-to-face interviews with approximately equal numbers of males and females. These interviews, which were conducted for the Institute for Sex Research, included questions about past and present sexual involvement and other attitudinal, behavioral and background variables. Accordingly, the data about sexual behavior and attitudes are based on the interviewees' self-reports. Indices were created which operationalized independent variables such as familial sexual conservatism, exposure to eroticism, perceived sex knowledge, and sexual exposure and assault during childhood and adolescence. Individual items reflecting childhood sex play, masturbation, current religiosity, religiosity while growing up, social class, sources of sex information, sex education in classrooms, and high school and college dating were used. The dependent variable, premarital sociosexual involvement, is a composite measure of incidence and prevalence of premarital heterosexual involvement which meets Guttman scaling criteria. An Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was used to determine the relative influences of reported sexualization variables on premarital sexual behavior. Major findings can be summarized as follows: Heterosexual behavior progresses in stepwise fashion from elementary to advanced levels of involvement

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed=.40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed=.22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed=.10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed=.11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

  3. Sexual Harassment in Casinos: Effects on Employee Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedham, Yvonne; Mitchell, Merwin C.

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on sexual harassment and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover among casino employees. It is the first study investigating sexual harassment in the gaming industry. Based on sex-role spillover theory it was expected that sexual harassment has less of an impact on casino employees than on employees in other industries. Six Reno, Nevada casinos participated in the study and 330 responses were generated from casino employees. The study results show that sexual harassment of and by casino employees is perceived to occur at about the same rate as in other industries. Sexually harassed employees were compared to employees who indicated that they had not been sexually harassed. Sexually harassed employees were less satisfied with their jobs and less committed to the organization. However, they were not more likely to quit their jobs. Sexually harassed employees tended to be younger, Caucasian, and in dealer positions. Hence, in addition to the well-publicized cost of sexual harassment lawsuits, the study shows that sexual harassment in casinos may well be the source of hidden costs important to human resources managers. A result of major interest was that employees who had been harassed held management responsible for not ensuring a work environment that is free of sexual harassment. Implications for casino management are discussed.

  4. Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky sexual behaviors of young adults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of young adults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI and HIV/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or alcohol are scarce in this specific context. Methods The study participants were 393 men and 400 women between 18 and 30 years of age, from a shantytown in Lima, Peru. Data were obtained via survey: one section applied by a trained research assistant, and a self-reporting section. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between use of any illicit drug, high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms, adjusting for alcohol consumption level and various socio-demographic characteristics. Results Among men, age of sexual debut was lower, number of lifetime sexual partners was higher, and there were higher risk types of sexual partners, compared to women. Though consistent condom use with casual partners was low in both groups, reported condom use at last intercourse was higher among men than women. Also, a lifetime history of illicit drug consumption decreased the probability of condom use at last sexual intercourse by half. Among men, the use of illicit drugs doubled the probability of intercourse with a casual partner during the last year and tripled the probability of reported STI symptoms. Conclusion Drug consumption is associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms in a Lima shantytown after controlling for alcohol consumption level. Development of prevention programs for risky sexual behaviors, considering gender differences, is discussed.

  5. Mediators of the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexu...

  6. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Ebigbo, Peter O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Eaton, Julian; Onwukwe, Jojo U; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2009-01-01

    Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This...

  7. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  8. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  9. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  10. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  11. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  12. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Following Re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Crailsheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.

  13. Exploring the intention-behavior relationship in the prediction of sexual risk behaviors: can it be strengthened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical models examining health risk behaviors, such as sexual risk taking, assume intentions directly predict behavior, and intentions are sometimes measured as a proxy for behavior. Given that there is often a discrepancy between intentions and behaviors (e.g., Sheeran, 2002 ), this study addressed factors that predict intention-behavior congruence. Specifically, utilizing a prospective design, the goal of the study was to determine if characteristics of university students' last sexual encounter predicted whether those students who intended to use condoms, contraception, or dual methods did so in their last sexual encounter with both relationship and casual partners. The seven tested variables were condom planning and preparatory behaviors, mood, sexual arousal, substance use, perceived partner attractiveness, intention certainty, and intention stability. Data were collected from 520 American undergraduate students at a medium-sized university. The six discriminant function analyses examining the intention-behavior relationship were able to correctly classify between 74% and 92% of the participants concerning whether intenders engaged in safe sex behaviors. The variables that best discriminated between behavior engagement over the six analyses were intention stability, intention certainty, and engagement in condom preparatory behaviors. The implications of these results for sexual risk prevention and intervention research are discussed. PMID:21660837

  14. effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue on the sexual behavior of sacalia quadriocellata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) is known to influence sexual behavior in many vertebrate taxa,but there have been no systematic studies on the role of lhrh in sexual behavior of turtles.we tested the hypotheses that exogenous lhrh analogues would induce sexual behavior of male four-eyed turtle,sacalia quadriocellata.we examined this by challenging males with intramuscular injections of mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (lhrh-a),human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg),or a combination of the two,and subsequently exposing them to sexually receptive females for behavioral observation.our data show that the injection of only hcg could not,while that of only lhrh-a could,facilitate sexual behavior along with testicular recrudescence and spermatogenesis in s.quadriocellata.the injection of both lhrh-a and hcg would induce more drastic sexual behavior of the animals than that of lhrh-a alone,indicating hcg enhances the effects of lhrh-a induced sexual behavior.however,different pharmacological dosages of lhrh-a (0.5 μg,1 μg,2 μg per 100 g bodyweight) did not correspond to different activity levels.though the mechanism of lhrh effect was not determined,this study may support that the sexual behavior ofs.quadriocellata which occurs at the beginning of the injection despite regression of the gonads.this is the first report on the exogenous lhrh-a induced sexual behavior for this species.

  15. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.

  16. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs. PMID:23185126

  17. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  18. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  19. Victim and victimizer: the role of traumatic experiences as risk factors for sexually abusive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A

    2012-01-01

    The Victim to Victimizer paradigm purports to explain the connection between being a victim of sexual abuse and becoming a perpetrator, attributing sexually abusive behavior to a predictable cycle of cognitive distortions and self-destructive and/or abusive behaviors. Integration of two ecological models, Trauma Outcome Process Assessment and Family Lovemap provides a more comprehensive explanation of salient contributors to sexually abusive behavior in youth (i.e., trauma). A case example illustrates the parallel Trauma Outcome Process in a victim, and the victim's perpetrator, identifying protective factors beneficial for trauma recovery. PMID:23585464

  20. Sexual attitudes and behaviors among medical students in Dokuz Eylul university, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, S; Aras, S; Semin, S; Orcin, E

    2005-09-01

    Gaining a healthy sexual attitude and behavior and being able to show appropriate approaches to patients in terms of sexual issues are important acquisitions for medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine, compare, and evaluate the sexual attitudes and behaviors of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine students. An anonymous questionnaire was filled in by first- and sixth-year students in order to determine their sexual attitudes and behaviors. While information sources in the adolescence period for both genders were friends in the first place, these sources were mostly mothers, books, newspapers--magazines for females, and newspapers--magazines and television for males. The opinion of males about having sexual intercourse before marriage for males was positive, and females were more tolerant about males having this experience before marriage as compared to females having sexual experience before marriage. Rates of expression of having sexual intercourse and masturbation were found to be higher for male students. The first sexual experience with a sex worker or sentimentally insignificant partner was high among males. In general, the rate of condom use was lower, and the rate of coitus interruptus was found to be higher than in foreign studies. All the students declared 'my own will and values' as the most frequent factor affecting their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and high rates for 'social factors', 'religious requirements', 'the expectations of families', and 'protection from sexually transmitted diseases' were observed. The findings lead to the conclusions that gender differences exist in the sexual attitudes and behaviors of medical students; the enhancing effect of the traditional structure on gender discrimination is still continuing; students are not provided with sufficient scientific approach or training prior to the university education; and beyond biomedical training, they should receive more support in those fields during

  1. Effects of perinatal exposure to diazepam on the development of sexual behavior and neuroendocrine functions in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Siddiqui

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure with diazepam when coinciding with the ontogenesis of its receptors may be crucial for the induction of long-term functional disturbances in the rat brain. To investigate the possibility of intervention in the sexually dimorphic behavior of reproduction and the under lying morphological and hormonal basis the time-mated female rats were treated with 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, i.p.(n = 6-8 separately. Treatment was continued from gestation day 15 till delivery and further continued to neonates 5 days, postnatally. Control group (n= 5-8 given saline also followed the same treatment protocol. Sexual behavior in the male offspring at adulthood born to diazepam-exposed rats was enhanced, both in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0.01. Accordingly plasma LH and testosterone concentration both in plasma and testis was also influenced. Compared to controls treated animals also showed complete abolition of spermatogenesis and drastically reduced testicular steroidogenesis. Our findings, thus support the hypothesis that like psychoactive drugs benzodiazepines sedatives that crosses the blood brain barrier during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation offer serious risk of abnormal post-pubertal reproductive functions in the male rat.

  2. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    and often lead to unsafe sex. 3) Low self-esteem increases the risk of ignoring crossing of one’s personal boundaries and thereby resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior. 4) Increased sexual experience was found to be associated with lack of condom use. Surprisingly, the informants did not consider drug...... importance regarding adolescents’ sexual behavior. Method We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews of overall 19 adolescents aged 18 to 23 who were all sexual experienced. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from the same folk school, but with different...... abuse and internet dating to be triggers of unsafe sex. Conclusion According to Danish adolescents there were four important key topics which could lead to unsafe sex and these points differed slightly from our expectations. Those points of interest will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire...

  3. Factors related to coercive sexual behavior in a nonclinical sample of males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, W D; Coleman, E M; Haynes, M R

    1986-01-01

    The sexual coercion literature has suggested numerous factors related to aggressive sexual behavior. The present investigation explores a number of these factors in a community sample. Data collected from 189 volunteers from the community included measures of sexual arousal, social perception, personality variables, attitudes toward women, and self-reported likelihood to rape. Multiple-regression analyses were used to determine the relative association of these factors to coercive sexual behavior. The present findings suggested that social perception, Extraversion and Neuroticism from the Eysenck Personality Inventory, sexual arousal, and self-reported likelihood to rape all contributed to the multiple regression. Rape Myth Acceptance, although not contributing significantly to the multiple regression, did show a significant zero-order correlation with coercive sexual behavior. Additional analyses were performed in an attempt to replicate an earlier predictive study by Malamuth and Check (1983) that found self-reported sexual arousal to be predicted by a combination of self-reported likelihood to rape, Psychoticism and Neuroticism from the Eysenck Personality Inventory, power motivation, and sexual experience. In the present study, both self-reported sexual arousal and penile tumescence measures were significantly related to attitudinal measures, social perception measures, and self-reported likelihood to rape. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:3154152

  4. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  5. Sexual Communication, Sexual Goals, and Students' Transition to College: Implications for Sexual Assault, Decision-Making, and Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students' experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes…

  6. Influence of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Films on the Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2015-01-01

    Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs.

  7. Influence of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Films on the Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2015-01-01

    Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs. PMID:26099156

  8. Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

  9. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  10. Sexual behavior among unmarried business process outsourcing employees in Chennai: Gender differences and correlates associated with It

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal Charles; Saumya Rastogi; Asirvatham Edwin Sam; Williams, Joseph D; Aarthi Kandasamy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Premarital sex is often associated with high risk sexual behavior such as early age of initiation, multiple partners and inconsistent condom use. Evidence shows that such sexual behavior pre-disposes to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Objectives: This paper tried to investigate the correlates of premarital sexual behavior among male and female business process outsourcing (BPO) employees to highlight the gender differences that exist in relation to it. Materials and M...

  11. Sexual behaviors of US women at risk of HIV acquisition: A longitudinal analysis of findings from HPTN 064

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, J.; Befus, M.; Hughes, J; Wang, J.; Golin, C. E.; Adimora, A.A.; Kuo, I.; Haley, D. F.; del Rio, C.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Rompalo, A.; Mannheimer, S.; Soto-Torres, L; Hodder, S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about participants’ sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected ...

  12. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Degu, Genet; Yitayew, Meseret; Misganaw, Worku; Muche, Mikiyas; Demelash, Tiguaded; Mesele, Meless; Ayehu, Melat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory sch...

  13. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Ellen Reitz; Regina J J M van den Eijnden

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer...

  14. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently. PMID:24269964

  15. Hook-Up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the sexual phenomenon of "hooking up." A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban middle and high school students and…

  16. Environmental Influences on Genetic Expression: Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Sexual Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmer, Norman, Ed.; Walcher, Dwain N., Ed.

    A cross-disciplinary approach to the topic of sexual differentiation comprises this volume. Diverse papers are included under a variety of headings: 1) critical Periods in development; 2) embryology; 3) RNA-DNA; 4) chromosomes-growth and development; 5) physiology; 6) primates; 7) cognition; 8) cultural differences in patterns of sexual behavior;…

  17. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  18. Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979--the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present…

  19. Recognizing and Responding to Young Children's Sexual Behaviors in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C.; Dinehart, Laura H.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2015-01-01

    Many early childhood educators encounter children who exhibit sexual behavior and are not sure how to respond. Although they have had training in childhood development, sexual development is rarely given the attention it deserves. At the same time, early childhood education personnel often get training in child abuse and in their responsibilities…

  20. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  1. Is There a Specific Relationship between Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Repeated Suicidal Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystgaard, Mette; Hestetun, Ingebjorg; Loeb, Mitchell; Mehlum, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Studies show that childhood sexual and physical abuse predict repeated suicide attempts and self-mutilation. Little is known about the importance of sexual and physical abuse when compared to other severe childhood adversities with respect to chronic suicidal behavior. Method: Seventy-four subjects, 65% of whom were women, consecutively…

  2. Precocious Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Employment and the Transition to First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between employment and first sexual intercourse in the early teen years. Past research has examined the influence of a wide range of social contexts on adolescent sexual behavior. Very few studies, however, consider the work-place. In this study, a series of Cox proportional hazard models predicting the risk…

  3. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  4. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  5. Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

  6. Sex-Related Online Behaviors and Adolescents’ Body and Sexual Self-Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan; Bickham, D.S.; Rich, Michael; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether

  7. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  8. Abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior in a Pt/GaO1.3/Pt structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable and repeatable abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in a Pt/GaO1.3/Pt sandwich structure without an electroforming process. The low resistance state (LRS) and the high resistance state (HRS) of the device can be distinguished clearly and be switched reversibly under a train of the voltage pulses. The LRS exhibits a conduction of electron tunneling, while the HRS shows a conduction of Schottky-type. The observed phenomena are considered to be related to the migration of oxygen vacancies which changes the space charge region width of the metal/semiconductor interface and results in a different electron transport mechanism

  9. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Siyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering

  10. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LU; Qiao WANG; Mingyi TIAN; Jin XU; Jian LV; Aizhi QIN

    2013-01-01

    Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle,Glenea cantor (F.)(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae),were investigated.Upon encounter,a male approached a female,mounted her,grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi,and attempted to mate.Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h.Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success,the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait,the bursa copulatrix length,and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length.Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate,suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition.Under a female-biased sex ratio,more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers,suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice.Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating.During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert,and as a result,males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success.

  11. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshimizu Hisatsugu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system (CNS, the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

  12. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  13. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Moeini; Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei; Saeed Bashirian; Alireza Soltanian; Amir Abbas Mousali; Vahid Kafami

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This ...

  14. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Bongardt, Daphne van de; Hawk, Skyler T

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397 university students (M(age) = 20.3 years) completed related questionnaires. Intrapersonal behaviors (i.e., sexual fantasizing, solitary masturbation, and viewing pornography) were generally reported more frequently than interpersonal behaviors (i.e., petting, oral sex, and intercourse). Gender differences were most evident for intrapersonal sexual behaviors, all of which were reported more frequently by men. Men reported significantly more heterosexual intercourse than women but not petting or oral sex. Several correlates (i.e., age, educational aspiration, family income, urbanity, relationship experience, and Internet use) were significant predictors of various intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors. Gender significantly moderated these correlations in three cases: Family income was a stronger negative predictor of intercourse for women, romantic relationship history was a stronger positive predictor of intercourse for men, and Internet use was a stronger positive predictor of sexual fantasizing for men. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexuality education and sexual health policies and practices in contemporary China. PMID:25085004

  15. Neural substrates of sexual desire in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo eSeok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB. Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects’ levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB.

  16. The differential effects of Autism and Down's syndrome on sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur [] that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs.

  17. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model…

  18. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede;

    . Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one......Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents......’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from...

  19. Sexual Harassment and Bullying Behaviors in Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…

  20. Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes of Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.

    For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…

  1. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  2. Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Wui-Man Lau

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.

  3. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs. PMID:19526700

  4. OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES OF PARENTS AND STUDENTS FOR SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT, SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND GENDER IDENTITY OF PERSONS WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera MLADENOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Persons with autism can experience severe issues during the puberty and adolescence resulting from the changes that occur in their body. People with autism are sexual beings. They have sexual needs and desires as other people. Sexual development is part of the overall development of their personality.The main objective of this research was to present sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity among persons with autism. Furthermore, we determined the views and opinions of the parents and students, special educators and rehabilitators, about children with autism. Basic tasks of this research were: to determine whether persons with autism have a clear picture and concept of their sexuality, whether the parents discuss this topic with their children, whether and how persons with autism know what sex is, what is contraception, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases or intimate parts of the body, whether they show some kind of sexual behavior, and whether the parents and students should be educated regarding the sexual development, behavior, and sexual identity of persons with autism.The survey was conducted over a period of almost 3 months, which included 94 respondents.Obtained data was collected, grouped, tabled, and processed with the standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Еxact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and interpretation of the results, we can conclude that in Macedonian families and schools there is a very small extent or no existence of communication between the parents and professionals with persons with autism about sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Persons with autism have very little or no general knowledge about sexuality.

  5. Associations Between Psychiatric Impairment and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Teens in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H.; Lescano, Celia M.; Stewart, Angela J.; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Methods Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. Results For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. Discussion These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience. PMID:26023302

  6. Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    OpenAIRE

    el-Bassel, N; Wingood, G; Wyatt, GE; III, JJB; Pequegnat, W; Landis, JR; Bellamy, S.; Gilbert, L; Remien, RH; Witte, S; Wu, E; DiClemente, R; Myers, H.; Jemmott, LS; Metzger, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographi...

  7. Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Robert Kaestner; Sara Markowitz

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordin...

  8. Behavioral Markers of Coping and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Sexually Abused Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Danielle N.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined coping and psychiatric symptoms in a longitudinal sample of sexually abused children. Coping was behaviorally coded from children's forensic interviews in the aftermath of sexual abuse. Using principal components analysis, coping behaviors were found to cluster into 3 categories: avoidant, expressive, and positive affective coping. Avoidant coping had predictive utility for a range of psychiatric symptoms, including depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and dis...

  9. Economic Booms and Risky Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Zambian Copper Mining Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...

  10. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned w...

  11. Neural substrates of sexual desire in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Woo eSeok; Jin-Hun eSohn

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned w...

  12. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Fischer, Agneta H; Hess, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results are discussed in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, as well as susceptibility to reinforcement, and psychoanalytic views of conversion hysteria. PMID:18576235

  13. Predictors of Adolescents' Pornography: Level of Sexual Behavior and Family Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbobe Ghavidel-Heidari; Yahya Kazemi; Zahra Nikmanesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore itis important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Clustermethod from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old). The research instruments wereSchaefer’s Family Environment ...

  14. Characteristics of youth sexual and reproductive health and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jaime R; Mukaire, Pamela E; Mataya, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    Background The global number of youths has risen with a majority living in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, rural youths often face difficult barriers to health, which include lack of sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information, and services. Risky behaviors are a threat to the health of many young people in Cambodia. Methods We studied a sample of 300 youths to describe sexual and reproductive health characteristics and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia. Using a multi-...

  15. Unmarried male migrants and sexual risk behavior: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ke-Wei; Wu, Jun-Qing; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhao, Rui; Ying ZHOU; Ji, Hong Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, there is increasing concern because of the rapid increase in HIV infection recorded over recent years. Migrant workers are recognized as one of the groups most affected. In this study, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried migrant workers in Shanghai are investigated, with the aim of providing critical information for policy makers and sex educators to reinforce sexual health services and sex health education targeting the behavior and sexual...

  16. Risky Sexual Behaviors: The Role of Ethnic Identity in HIV Risk in Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H. Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (N = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated measures M...

  17. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students

  18. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Dornan, Anthony J; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how genes influence behavior, including sexuality, is one of biology's greatest challenges. Much of the recent progress in understanding how single genes can influence behavior has come from the study of innate behaviors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, the elab

  19. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity. PMID:27166294

  20. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. PMID:26718543

  1. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  2. A longitudinal examination of parenting processes and Latino youth's risky sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E; Deutsch, Arielle R

    2014-12-01

    Latino adolescents engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to their peers, shown by their higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and lower rates of condom usage; therefore, examining the precursors and correlates of these risky sexual behaviors is important for prevention-intervention program development. Based on cultural-ecological, symbolic interaction, and gender socialization perspectives, we examined associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting and Latino youth's sexual risk over a 5 year period. Further, we investigated the direct and moderating roles of acculturation (e.g., language spoken in the home), nativity (e.g., citizenship status), and adolescents' gender. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 1,899 Latino youth; 49 % female), we conducted a multi-level path model controlling for adolescents' age and prior sexual experience. Our findings revealed that more strictness by mothers and less strictness by fathers at Time 1 were related to lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 2. Additionally, more monitoring by fathers at Time 2 was associated with lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 3. Significant gender differences were found such that there were stronger associations among parenting processes and sexual risk for girls than for boys. Finally, we found support for the immigrant paradox (foreign-born youth reported lower sexual risk than US-born youth) and greater gender differences (boys had riskier sexual behaviors than girls) for immigrant compared to US-born youth. The findings reveal the complex associations among parenting processes, nativity status, gender, and sexual risk for Latino adolescents. PMID:24186702

  3. Predictors of Adolescents' Pornography: Level of Sexual Behavior and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Ghavidel-Heidari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore itis important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Clustermethod from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments wereSchaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, andPornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual BehaviorsScale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldnessin family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in thefirst step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent'spornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances ofpornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents.

  4. Substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26324405

  5. Sexualized behaviors in cohorts of children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533

  6. Predictors of sexual transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J A; Rotheram-Borus, M-J; Swendeman, D; Milburn, N G

    2005-05-01

    Reduction in the incidence of high-risk sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men is a priority. We examined the roles of proximal substance use and delinquency-related variables, and more distal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of serious high-risk sexual behaviors among 248 HIV-positive young males, aged 15-24 years. In a mediated latent variable model, demographics (ethnicity, sexual orientation and poverty) and background psychosocial factors (coping style, peer norms, emotional distress, self-esteem and social support) predicted recent problem behaviors (delinquency, common drug use and hard drug use), which in turn predicted recent high-risk sexual behaviors. Hard drug use and delinquency were found to predict sexual risk behaviors directly, as did lower self-esteem, white ethnicity and being gay/bisexual. Negative peer norms strongly influenced delinquency and substance use and positive coping predicted less delinquency. In turn, less positive coping and negative peer norms exerted indirect effects on sexual transmission risk behavior through delinquency and hard drug use. Results suggest targeting hard drug use, delinquency, maladaptive peer norms, dysfunctional styles of escaping stress and self-esteem in the design of intervention programs for HIV-positive individuals. PMID:16036228

  7. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Rechsteiner, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314.

  8. Sexual conflict predicts morphology and behavior in two species of penduline tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komdeur Jan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interests of males and females rarely coincide (sexual conflict, and these conflicting interests influence morphology, behavior and speciation in various organisms. We examined consequences of variation in sexual conflict in two closely-related passerine birds with contrasting breeding systems: the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus (EPT exhibiting a highly polygamous breeding system with sexually antagonistic interests over parental care, and the socially monogamous Cape penduline tit Anthoscopus minutus (CPT. We derived four a priori predictions from sexual conflict theory and tested these using data collected in Central Europe (EPT and South Africa (CPT. Firstly, we predicted that EPTs exhibit more sexually dimorphic plumage than CPTs due to more intense sexual selection. Secondly, we expected brighter EPT males to provide less care than duller males. Thirdly, since song is a sexually selected trait in many birds, male EPTs were expected to exhibit more complex songs than CPT males. Finally, intense sexual conflict in EPT was expected to lead to low nest attendance as an indication of sexually antagonistic interests, whereas we expected more cooperation between parents in CPT consistent with their socially monogamous breeding system. Results Consistent with our predictions EPTs exhibited greater sexual dimorphism in plumage and more complex song than CPTs, and brighter EPT males provided less care than duller ones. EPT parents attended the nest less frequently and less simultaneously than CPT parents. Conclusions These results are consistent with sexual conflict theory: species in which sexual conflict is more manifested (EPT exhibited a stronger sexual dimorphism and more elaborated sexually selected traits than species with less intense sexual conflict (CPT. Our results are also consistent with the notion that EPTs attempt to force their partner to work harder as expected under sexual conflict: each

  9. A prospective study of intraindividual and peer influences on adolescents' heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Collins, W Andrew

    2004-08-01

    Theories and empirical studies of adolescent sexual behavior have identified the contributions of personal attributes and social experiences; however, it is rare that models have clarified developmental pathways to adolescent sexual behavior that include (1) factors assessed prior to and early in adolescence and (2) dyadic experiences in adolescence that provide the opportunity for sexual behavior (i.e., dating). Using data from a prospective study, structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting adolescent sexual behavior at age 19, denoted by the number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors examined were sociability and impulsivity assessed at 30 months of age, physical characteristics and experiences with peers measured at age 12-13, the age of first romantic relationship, and frequency of alcohol use at age 16. The pathway to greater sexual involvement was marked by some desired personal attributes (e.g., sociability) and peer experiences (e.g., higher quality friendships). These associations were mediated, however, by earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent use of alcohol in middle adolescence. Earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent alcohol use were predicted by greater sociability and less impulsivity in childhood, higher quality friendships and greater peer acceptance in early adolescence, and a more mature appearance and physical attractiveness (among females) at age 13. The findings imply a complex pathway that leads to a greater accumulation of sexual partners by age 19. This pathway begins in childhood and includes individual qualities, peer acceptance, romantic relationships, and alcohol use. PMID:15162084

  10. Social influences on the sexual behavior of youth at risk for HIV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, D; Black, M; Ricardo, I; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L; Galbraith, J; Nesbit, R; Hornik, R C; Stanton, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Adolescents are increasingly at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially in poor urban minority communities. To aid the design of interventions in these communities, this study investigated the role of knowledge, attitudes, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior in the onset and progression of sexual behavior in children at risk for exposure to HIV. METHODS. A computerized personal interview was administered to 300 African-American 9- to 15-year-old children living in six public housing developments in a large US city. RESULTS. Although children's knowledge about the hazards of sex increased with age, their sexual activity also increased (from 12% sexually experienced at 9 years of age to more than 80% experienced at 15 years of age). Parental monitoring appeared able to influence sexual activity. However, the perceived behavior of friends was associated with the rate at which sexual activity progressed with age and the degree to which condom use was maintained with age. CONCLUSIONS. The early onset and prevalence of sexual behavior and the importance of peer group influence call for early interventions that simultaneously influence the parents and peers in children's social networks. PMID:8203696

  11. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    DMAB Dissanayake; P S Wijesinghe; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Wimalasena, S

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control gr...

  12. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.; Makarova T.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiaritie...

  13. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  14. Dating age and stage as correlates of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B C; Mccoy, J K; Olson, T D

    1986-01-01

    Dating experiences, especially the type or stage of dating, have consistently been found to be related to premarital sexual behavior. Findings regarding the age at 1st date and sexual behavior have been less consistent. This paper examined the age at which dating began and the type of dating relationship as correlates of premarital sexual attitudes and behavior among mid-teen adolescents. The analyses were based on a sample of high school students (n=836), most of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18 when the surveys were conducted. Early dating, especially early steady dating, was related to permissive attitudes and to premarital sexual experience among both males and females. The relationship between early dating and intercourse experience was particulary strong among Mormons, a religious group which has institutionalized age 16 as the legitimate age to begin dating. PMID:12341601

  15. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; SMOLENSKI, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J.; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals’ sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior v...

  16. Impaired auditory-vestibular functions and behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk6-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8-16 kHz hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR test showed decreased vertical (head movement-induced VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory-related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions.

  17. No association between brain size and male sexual behavior in the guppy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto CORRAL-L(O)PEZ; Simon ECKERSTR(O)M-LIEDHOLM; Wouter VAN DER BIJL; Alexander KOTRSCHAL; Niclas KOLM

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior is remarkably variable at all taxonomic levels.Over the last decades,research on animal behavior has focused on understanding ultimate processes.Yet,it has progressively become more evident that to fully understand behavioral variation,ultimate explanations need to be complemented with proximate ones.In particular,the mechanisms generating variation in sexual behavior remain an open question.Variation in aspects of brain morphology has been suggested as a plausible mechanism underlying this variation.However,our knowledge of this potential association is based almost exclusively on comparative analyses.Experimental studies are needed to establish causality and bridge the gap between micro-and macroevolutionary mechanisms concerning the link between brain and sexual behavior.We used male guppies that had been artificially selected for large or small relative brain size to study this association.We paired males with females and scored the full known set of male and female sexual behaviors described in guppies.We found several previously demonstrated associations between male traits,male behavior and female behavior.Females responded more strongly towards males that courted more and males with more orange coloration.Also,larger males and males with less conspicuous coloration attempted more coerced copulations.However,courting,frequency of coerced copulation attempts,total intensity of sexual behavior,and female response did not differ between large-and small-brained males.Our data suggest that relative brain size is an unlikely mechanism underlying variation in sexual behavior of the male guppy.We discuss these findings in the context of the conditions under which relative brain size might affect male sexual behavior [Current Zoology 61 (2):265-273,2015].

  18. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  19. Perception of occupational competence and sexual risk behaviors in drug addicts

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    Celso Xavier de Melo Teixeira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study/understand sexual risk behaviors and the perception of occupational competence in drug addicts, regarding the existence/absence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD. Method: We opted for a quantitative and transversal methodology that provided an exploratory and descriptive nature to the study. To this end, 166 drug addicts aged 34.6 years on average were assessed through the following questionnaires: “Occupational Self Assessment” and “HIV-KQ”. Results: Regarding sexual behaviors, drug addicts infected with HIV were the group using condoms more frequently and having a more comprehensive knowledge about HIV. On the other hand, drug addicts with no STDs presented higher median scores related to occupational competence, volition, and performance ability when compared with the other two groups. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors among drug addicts differ according to their serology. Drug addicts without STD maintain sexual risk behaviors. They seem to have no perception of how serious the fact of being infected with HIV is to their health and occupational ability. When a drug addict is confronted with his own seropositivity to HIV, there seems to be a common behavior related to the use of precautions (condoms, risk reduction in every type of sexual relation, and decreased perception of occupational competence.

  20. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  1. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission. PMID:25953422

  2. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether womens unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected) sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their a...

  3. A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Naoko; Iwata, Ryo; Yokoi, Saori; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communicati...

  4. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelisandra S. S. Castelhano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of status epilepticus (SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p. and control animals received saline (0.9 %, 0,1mL/10 g. It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal status epilepticus in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors.

  5. The experience of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior among HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, D W; Kirton, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the phenomenon of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, heterosexual, minority men. In-depth interviews were conducted by using a purposive sample of 18 HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men who were recruited from an outpatient acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic in upstate New York and a community-based HIV/AIDS service organization in New York City. All participants expressed concern about the seriousness and health threat of unsafe sexual behaviors. The perceived benefits and barriers to unsafe sexual practices were identified. Content analysis revealed the following themes related to relapse to unsafe sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, state of mind, "looking good" and "helping" fallacies, male-female relationship issues, influence of friends, weighing the risks, sexual preparation, uncontrollable sexual urges, and the symbolic meaning of condoms. Clinical implications related to health assessment, interventions, and health education and prevention programs for HIV-positive heterosexual, minority men and their sexual partners are presented.

  6. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  7. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  8. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  9. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  10. Abnormal Resistance Switching Behaviors of NiO Thin Films: Possible Occurrence of Simultaneous Formation and Rupture of Conducting Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chunli; Chae, S. C.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, S B; Noh, T. W.; Lee, J. S.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D. -W.; Jung, C.U.; Seo, S.; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2008-01-01

    We report the detailed current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of resistance switching in NiO thin films. In unipolar resistance switching, it is commonly believed that conducting filaments will rupture when NiO changes from a low resistance to a high resistance state. However, we found that this resistance switching can sometimes show abnormal behavior during voltage- and current-driven I-V measurements. We used the random circuit breaker network model to explain how abnormal switching behavio...

  11. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Gartrell; H.M.W. Bos; N.G. Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathere

  12. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research. PMID:25587721

  13. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  14. The Effect of Sexual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Females\\' Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Attitude, and Sexual Self-Confidence. A Case Study in Shiraz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, E; A Shafiabadi; F Yunesi

    2009-01-01

    1.Nikkhoo MR. Avadais yance, Hamayak. Females Sexual life. 4th ed.Tehran: sokhan 2001 9-10. 2.Warnock JJ. Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs 200216(11):745-53. 3.Spence SH. Psychosexual therapy. Translation by Hassan tuzandejani, 1380. 3th ed. Tehran: Peyk farhang 199110. 4.Arman S. Females sexual dysfunction comparison between pre and post menopause. Journal of Arak university of medicine 2005 8(3):2-7. 5.Besharat MA. Sexu...

  15. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. PMID:27019974

  16. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  17. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamblé, A; Sahpaz, S; Brunet, C; Bailleul, F

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of observation, intromission and ejaculation, mounting behavior, number of intromissions and mating performances were evaluated and compared to those obtained with untreated rats in the presence of receptive and non-receptive females. The results have shown that aqueous extract and alkaloids of M. keayana stimulate sexual parameters in rats' sexual behavior. A short-term toxicity study undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of aqueous extract, showed that a high dose of the extract (2g/kg body weight) caused no mortality or changes in rats' behavior. PMID:18061417

  18. Implicações do conhecimento corporal no comportamento sexual Corporal knowledge implications in sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa almejou identificar e comparar aspectos da corporeidade e sexualidade de homens (n=54 e mulheres (n = 54 com distintas orientações sexuais e de gênero, participantes do "I Jogos da Diversidade" realizado em Florianópolis, em julho de 2006, mediante aplicação anônima do Questionário de Identidade Corporal - QIC. Os principais objetivos deste estudo foram identificar as diferenças em termos de corporeidade e sexualidade entre homens e mulheres, o perfil sexual de homens e mulheres, bem como o perfil da satisfação corporal e sexual para cada sexo. Os participantes que afirmam gostar do corpo tendem a considerá-lo fisicamente bonito e proporcional, como também causar boa impressão. Participantes que relatam sentir satisfação corporal tendem a encontrar-se sexualmente satisfeitos, porém ao se controlar o sexo biológico, a correlação é verificada apenas entre os homens, os quais também demonstram tendência a ter maior intimidade corporal enquanto as mulheres valorizam carícias íntimas preliminares. Participantes com parceiro fixo chegam mais rápido ao orgasmo, embora reações corporais sejam percebidas mais comumente entre as mulheres.This research aimed to identify and compare the corporeity and sexuality aspects of male (n = 54 and female (n = 54 participants with distinct sexual and gender orientations at the I Floripa Diversity Games, in Florianópolis, July/ 2006, using the Questionnaire of Body Identity - QIC anonymously. The main objectives of this study were to identify the differences in terms of corporeity and sexuality among men and women; women`s and men's sexual profile, as well as the profile of the corporal and sexual satisfaction for each sex. Participants who affirm to like their body tended to consider themselves beautiful and proportional and believe that they cause good impression. Participants with corporal satisfaction tended to be also sexually satisfied, however, when we controlled the sex

  19. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  20. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  1. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  2. On amoral sexual behaviors%非道德性行为概念初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪武

    2013-01-01

    Amoral sexual behaviors refer to the behaviors that are dissociated with moral and immoral sexual behaviors,or in other words,they neither fit in the category of moral behaviors nor in the category of immoral behaviors.The creation of amoral sexual behavior concept will provide necessary support for the transition from the traditional immoral behaviors to the modem moral sexual behaviors,or vice versa.%提出非道德性行为的概念,是指游离于性道德(道德的性行为和不道德德性行为)之外、与之并行的的性行为,它应该是与性道德无关的、即无所谓道德或不道德的性行为.这个概念的提出,可为某些传统的不道德的性行为过渡为当代道德的性行为或某些传统的道德的性行为过渡为当代不道德的性行为起到一定的支撑作用.

  3. Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Sexual Orientation: A Conceptual Analysis and Quantitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. Michael; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research examining the predictive aspects of childhood sex-typed behavior for sexual orientation. Prospective studies suggest that childhood cross-typed behavior is strongly predictive of adult homosexual orientation for men, whereas retrospective studies are useful in determining how many homosexual individuals displayed cross-sex…

  4. Weight-Related Issues and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine D.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with high body mass index (BMI), negative body image, and unhealthy weight control behaviors may be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than others. Researchers have not fully investigated these relationships in a sample of college students. The authors collected data regarding several weight-related issues and…

  5. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  6. Sexual and Drug Use Behavior in Perinatal HIV-Infected Youth: Mental Health and Family Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    A study found that youth and caregiver mental health problem have greater impact than key environmental factors and family functioning on sex and drug use risk behaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV+) and PHIV- youths. No differences in the rates of sexual risk behavior and substance use were observed between…

  7. Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…

  8. Risky Sexual Behaviors in First and Second Generation Hispanic Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2009-01-01

    Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…

  9. Parents' Behavioral Norms as Predictors of Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sharon A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…

  10. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  11. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psycholo...

  12. Racial residential segregation and risky sexual behavior among non-Hispanic blacks, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may

  13. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Sonya S.; Sieving, Renee E.; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, BR Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-01-01

    Background Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. Objective The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of Te...

  14. A Qualitative Assessment of South African Adolescents' Motivations For and Against Substance Use and Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Megan E.; Palen, Lori-Ann; Caldwell, Linda; Gleeson, Sarah; Smith, Ed; Wegner, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Focus groups (N = 15 groups; eight with girls, seven with boys) with adolescents in high schools near Cape Town, South Africa were used to conduct a qualitative investigation of reported reasons for using and not using substances, and for having and not having sex. Adolescents reported Enhancement, Negative States, Social, and Aversive Social motivations for both substance use and sexual behavior. In addition, being addicted as a reason for using drugs and rape as a context for sexual behavio...

  15. Characteristics and determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents of migrant workers in Shangai (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Gang; Cai Yong; Huang Hong; Li Shenghui; Huang Fengrong; Shen Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI) epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high sch...

  16. Identity, Peer Relationships, and Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Behavior: An Exploration of the Contemporary Double Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy; Manning, Wendy; Longmore, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, while women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. The current research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. We explore the broader social costs and low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focus on characteristics of the adolescents’ close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n=6...

  17. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse, net of effects of HIV knowledge, age, educatio...

  18. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children. PMID:25111019

  19. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  20. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and appetitive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jessica Y; Wood, Ruth I

    2014-09-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase libido and sexual behavior, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. One way AAS may enhance expression of sexual behavior is by increasing the willingness to work for sex. In the present study, sexually-experienced male rats received daily injections of testosterone at supraphysiologic doses (7.5 mg/kg in water with 13% cyclodextrin) or vehicle and were tested for appetitive sexual behavior measured by operant responding for access to an estrous female. Initially, rats were trained in their home cage to respond on a nose-poke under a 10-min fixed-interval schedule for food reward. Once rats achieved stable response rates, the food was replaced by a female, followed by mating for 10 min. There was no effect of testosterone on operant responding for food (28.1 ± 4.4 responses/10 min for testosterone, 30.6 ± 4.3 for vehicle) or sex (35.0 ± 4.0 responses/10 min for testosterone, 37.3 ± 5.2 for vehicle). However, rats made significantly more responses for sex than for food (p 0.05). These findings suggest that chronic high-dose testosterone does not enhance appetitive drive for sexual behavior. PMID:25200201

  1. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  2. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  3. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  4. Associations between parental deployment, relocation, and risky sexual behaviors among a clinic-based sample of military-dependent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling.

  5. Improved sexual behavior in male rats treated with a Chinese herbal extract: hormonal and neuronal implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.

  6. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  7. A sexually conditioned switch of chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Sakai

    Full Text Available In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s. Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.

  8. Suicidal Behavior and Sexual/Physical Abuse among Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E.; Shade, Starley B.; Kral, Alex H.; Booth, Robert E.; Watters, John K.

    1998-01-01

    Street youth 12 to 19 years old (N=775) in four American cities were interviewed to examine the relationship between suicide attempts and antecedent home life variables. Forty-eight percent of the females and 27% of the males had attempted suicide. Sexual and physical abuse before leaving home were independent predictors of suicide attempts for…

  9. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  10. Religious Correlates of Male Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether religious beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males of differing sexual experience and to determine whether such beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males differing in frequency of contraceptive use. Results are discussed and implications for health educators are set forth. (MT)

  11. HIV Serodisclosure and Sexual Behavior During International Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Chen, Yea-Hung; Grasso, Michael; Robertson, Tyler; Tao, Luke; Fatch, Robin; Curotto, Alberto; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M; Reznick, Olga; Raymond, H Fisher; Steward, Wayne T

    2016-07-01

    When traveling internationally, HIV serodisclosure and knowledge of partners' serostatus were hampered by the lack of a common language. Condomless anal intercourse was less likely to occur in partnerships where HIV serostatus was not disclosed or known. Taken together, these observations suggest that language barriers may affect sexual decision making. PMID:27322049

  12. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. PMID:27601407

  13. Contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and behavior about sexuality among college students in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; WANG Xiao-ye; YE Fang; GU Hai-hua; ZENG Xiao-pei lily; WANG Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual and reproductive health among adolescents have become increasingly important and aroused international concerns.In this study,we investigate sexual knowledge,attitudes,sexual behaviors,the unwanted pregnancy and the abortion rate and to explore related determinants among college students in Beijing.Methods This study is based on a cross-sectional survey of college students' knowledge,attitudes and behavior.Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects in Beijing.The self-questionnaire designed by our research group including general information,knowledge,attitude and behavior about sexuality was used to collect information.A total of 2003 questionnaires were collected from June to July 2010.Results The data showed that most of the college students lacked knowledge about reproductive health.Only 17.9% of the respondents knew the appropriate time of abortion.Data also showed that the respondents had high-risk attitude about sex,58.7% could accept premarital sex,and 29.7% had negative attitude towards contraception.Moreover,sexual activity of the respondents was active.Data showed that 18.5% of the respondents had had sexual activities.Significantly more boys than girls had sex (X2=73.374,P <0.001 ).Among the boys and girls who reported sexual history,43.1% of the boys had impregnated girlfriend and 49.3% of the girls among those people who have sex had unwanted pregnancies.Logistic regression analysis showed that the variables the gender (OR=3.12,95% Cl:2.39-4.11 ),grade (OR=1.78,95%CI:1.40-2.26),specialty (OR=1.35,95% CI:1.12-1.74),family situation (OR=1.66,95% CI:1.15-2.38),score of knowledge (OR=0.74,95% CI:0.58-0.95) and attitude to sex activity (OR=0.09,95% CI:0.04-0.22) had a significant effect on having sexual behavior.Conclusions College students lack knowledge and methods to avoid risky sexual behaviors in Beijing.College students have high-risk sexual attitude and behaviors.Therefore,suitable and

  14. HIV prevalence, sexual behaviors, and engagement in HIV medical care among an online sample of sexually active MSM in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Biello, Katie B.; Novak, David S.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In Venezuela, members of a social and sexual partner-networking site for MSM completed an online survey regarding sexual behaviors and HIV medical care. Among the 3,175 respondents, self-reported HIV prevalence was 7.8%. Of participants living with HIV, 73.2% reported taking antiretroviral medication and, 56.6% reported complete adherence within the past month. Participants living with HIV were more likely to be older (aOR=1.04 per one-year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and diagnosed with an STI in the previous year (aOR=32.35,10.2). These data provide further understanding of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Venezuela, and potential targets for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26378188

  15. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NDSS Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self- ... community standards for adult behavior. How Can Healthy Sexuality be Encouraged for Individuals with Down Syndrome? Creating ...

  16. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research. PMID:26479019

  17. A Model of Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Gay and Bisexual Men: Longitudinal Associations of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and the Coming-Out Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexualmen must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer-sex intentions). The current report proposes and…

  18. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  19. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  20. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  1. SUBSTANCE USE AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIV TRANSMISSION IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likawunt Samuel and Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo*

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences notify that most of higher learning students rush to range of maladaptive high-risk activities like, substance and sexual abuse which predispose to HIV. More often this is unrecognized and not well researched. Objective: To determine magnitude of substance use and risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission among students in Hosanna Health Science College from December 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010.Methods and Materials: Cross sectional study undertaken among statistically determined (n =428 and randomly selected Students from all departments and years of study in Hossana Health Science College. Piloted and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Summary measures like mean, chi-square and regression were utilized to quantify magnitude and identify independently associated factors. Results: Majority 267 (63.1% of study participants were female, and 379 (89.5% in age group (17-24. From 423 participants, 330(78.0% were, sexually experienced. Khat (27.7% and Alcohol (21.7% were the commonly used substances and having multiple sexual partners (47.6%, inconsistent condom use (20.0% were common sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission. Female [AOR=1.5], fresh students [OR=2.4] and alcohol users [OR=3.5] were more likely to engage in sexual risk practices. Conclusions: Substance use and risky sexual practices were significantly higher among study participants. Practicing sex with multiple partners, inconsistent condom use and commencing sex with female commercial sex workers, which were highly risky sexual behaviors for HIV infection transmission among study participants, were commonly practiced among study participants.

  2. Sensual, Erotic, and Sexual Behaviors of Women from the “Kink” Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rehor, Jennifer Eve

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors (herein referred to as kink behaviors) investigated by academia are based largely on clinical and criminal cases, and most published, peer-reviewed, quantitative research on these behaviors is based almost exclusively on male participants. For this study, information was collected and analyzed from 1580 female participants recruited from the kink community, using a non-clinical and non-criminal sample. We explored and described the preferen...

  3. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  4. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  5. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex. PMID:24073183

  6. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Xinli; Yu Lu; Winter Sam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response...

  7. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

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    Ajuwon Ademola J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and

  8. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

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    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution, PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg, PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg, and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg. Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level.

  9. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  10. Visual Sexual Stimuli—Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  11. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.

  12. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explain

  13. Abnormal Gait Behavior Detection for Elderly Based on Enhanced Wigner-Ville Analysis and Cloud Incremental SVM Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.

  14. Pornography Use and Sexual Behavior Among Polish and German University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Urszula; Briken, Peer; Sehner, Susanne; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Dekker, Arne

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between pornography use and sexual behavior in young adults from two culturally different countries. Data were collected in an online survey among German (n = 1,303; G) and Polish (n = 1,135; P) university students aged 18 to 26 years. Pornography use was associated with engaging in a greater variety of sexual activities (e.g., sexual role playing, using sex toys; G > P) rather than with a high number of sex partners or condom use consistency. The differences between the samples were found primarily for females (in anal sex experience and age at the first sexual intercourse; G > P). PMID:26177786

  15. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Bernardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topiramate is a powerful anticonvulsant which has recently been proposed also for the treatment of migraine, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder. This case-report suggests that topiramate might be beneficial in augmentation with citalopram in patients suffering from C-ISBs, although controlled studies to confirm our findings are needed.

  16. Sexual behavior in a cohort of patient affected by fibromyalgia and/or vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghizzani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, negatively impacts sexuality by provoking dispareunia, and loss of desire and of dyadic gratification. Chronic pain syndromes tend to associate and FM women have a higher probability to develop vulvodynia than women not affected by fibromyalgia. Vulvodynia, characterized by burning pain that interferes with sexual penetration, is classified as Genitopelvic/Penetration Disorders in DSM 5. The association between Fibromyalgia and vulvodynia is difficult to recognize because patients tend to attribute all symptoms to disease spread and not think that dyspareunia may have different origins. To establish the necessary criteria for the differential diagnosis between the two syndromes, we evaluated the characteristics of dyspareunia and sexual behavior of fibromyalgia patients versus vulvodynia patients and we found significant differences on the onset of burning pain, orgasmic capability, and sexual frequency.

  17. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same e...

  18. Evidence that the deficit in sexual behavior in adult rats neonatally exposed to citalopram is a consequence of 5-HT1 receptor stimulation during development

    OpenAIRE

    Maciag, Dorota; Coppinger, David; Paul, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal (postnatal days 8-21) exposure of rats to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, results in persistent changes in behavior including decreased sexual activity in adult animals. We hypothesized that this effect was a consequence of abnormal stimulation of serotonergic receptors 5- HT1A or/and 5-HT1B as a result of increased synaptic availability of serotonin during a critical period of development. We examined whether neonatal exposure to a 5-HT1A (8OH-DPAT) an...

  19. Using biomarkers to assess the validity of sexual behavior reporting across interview modes among young women in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Christine A Kelly; Hewett, Paul C.; Mensch, Barbara S.; Rankin, Johanna; Nsobya, Sam; Kalibala, Sam; Kakande, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is critically dependent on accurate behavioral data. This paper investigates the effect of questionnaire delivery mode on the quality of sexual behavior reporting in a survey conducted in Kampala in 2010 among 18–24 year old females using the women’s instrument of the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. We compare the reported prevalence of five sexual outcomes across three interview modes: traditi...

  20. The Dispersal of High Risk Sexual Behaviors in Different Occupations of People Referred to Council Center of Shiraz Medical University

    OpenAIRE

    Pezhman Bagheri; Hossain Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    Background: High risk sexual behaviors endanger young people and adolescents to HIV infection and other sexual diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the dispersal of high risk sexual behaviors in different in our referred patients to council center of Shiraz medical university.Materials and Method: This descriptive, cross sectional study was done between 2004-2009 years on referred people to council center of Shiraz medical university by census method.Results: Maximum prevalence...

  1. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Steffanie A Strathdee

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower ...

  2. Social context and perceived effects of drugs on sexual behavior among individuals who use both heroin and cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kopetz, Catalina E.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Hart, Carl L; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified the association between the use of cocaine and sexual behavior as an important risk factor for HIV infection and have attempted to elucidate the nature of this association. Several lines of research have suggested that facilitation of sexual behavior during intoxication with cocaine may be due to the direct pharmacological effects of the drug (e.g., increase in sexual desire), whereas others have pointed to the importance of factors related to the context of drug u...

  3. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qiaoqin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  4. Restricted morphological and behavioral abnormalities following ablation of β-actin in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Cheever

    Full Text Available The local translation of β-actin is one mechanism proposed to regulate spatially-restricted actin polymerization crucial for nearly all aspects of neuronal development and function. However, the physiological significance of localized β-actin translation in neurons has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To investigate the role of β-actin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS, we characterized brain structure and function in a CNS-specific β-actin knock-out mouse (CNS-ActbKO. β-actin was rapidly ablated in the embryonic mouse brain, but total actin levels were maintained through upregulation of other actin isoforms during development. CNS-ActbKO mice exhibited partial perinatal lethality while survivors presented with surprisingly restricted histological abnormalities localized to the hippocampus and cerebellum. These tissue morphology defects correlated with profound hyperactivity as well as cognitive and maternal behavior impairments. Finally, we also identified localized defects in axonal crossing of the corpus callosum in CNS-ActbKO mice. These restricted defects occurred despite the fact that primary neurons lacking β-actin in culture were morphologically normal. Altogether, we identified novel roles for β-actin in promoting complex CNS tissue architecture while also demonstrating that distinct functions for the ubiquitously expressed β-actin are surprisingly restricted in vivo.

  5. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAAR) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABAAR agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 μg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 μg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABAAergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p AR was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABAAR inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  6. Dido mutations trigger perinatal death and generate brain abnormalities and behavioral alterations in surviving adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Julio; Fütterer, Agnes; Trachana, Varvara; Gutiérrez del Burgo, Fernando; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2015-04-14

    Nearly all vertebrate cells have a single cilium protruding from their surface. This threadlike organelle, once considered vestigial, is now seen as a pivotal element for detection of extracellular signals that trigger crucial morphogenetic pathways. We recently proposed a role for Dido3, the main product of the death inducer-obliterator (dido) gene, in histone deacetylase 6 delivery to the primary cilium [Sánchez de Diego A, et al. (2014) Nat Commun 5:3500]. Here we used mice that express truncated forms of Dido proteins to determine the link with cilium-associated disorders. We describe dido mutant mice with high incidence of perinatal lethality and distinct neurodevelopmental, morphogenetic, and metabolic alterations. The anatomical abnormalities were related to brain and orofacial development, consistent with the known roles of primary cilia in brain patterning, hydrocephalus incidence, and cleft palate. Mutant mice that reached adulthood showed reduced life expectancy, brain malformations including hippocampus hypoplasia and agenesis of corpus callosum, as well as neuromuscular and behavioral alterations. These mice can be considered a model for the study of ciliopathies and provide information for assessing diagnosis and therapy of genetic disorders linked to the deregulation of primary cilia. PMID:25825751

  7. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  8. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  9. Variation in prolactin is related to variation in sexual behavior and contact affiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Snowdon

    Full Text Available Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.

  10. Variation in prolactin is related to variation in sexual behavior and contact affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.

  11. Sexual behaviors and Practices among university students Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANRIQUE ABRIL FRED GUSTAVO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1995 we validated descriptive studies, as a need to research prior educational interventions, given the cultural plurality that disqualifies the application of universal models in as far as sexual education. Purpose: Describing practices and sexual behavior of university students of the UPTC, in the city of Tunja. Methods: transversal cut, sequential sampling study with a sample of 764 students. In the Epiinfo 2002® they estimated frequencies, cross variables, percentages. Results: Average age: 20,4 years; 56,7% females; 82,8% lower middle class; 79,7% catholic o Christian; when solving intimacy matters, 11,4% trust the father, 33,5% on the mother; only 36,2% have 100% certainty to avoidaundesiredpregnancy and 27% in contracting a STD. 61,2% considers necessary to increase sexual knowledge; 40,5% has had at least one alcohol loss of memory; 30% has had undesired sex, at least once, under the effect of alcohol. Global reason for fertility: 25,4%. 45,3% of pregnancies end up in undesired miscarriages. Conclusions: Most relevant Problems: high rate of fecundity, birth and induced abortions, high alcohol consumption.Introducción: Desde 1995 se validaron estudios de tipo descriptivo, como necesidad de investigar previamente a las intervenciones educativas, dada la pluralidad cultural que descalifica modelos de aplicación universal en lo referente a la educación sexual. Objetivo: Describir prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios de la UPTC de Tunja. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, muestreo secuencial, muestra de 764 estudiantes. En Epiinfo 2002® se estiman frecuencias, cruce de variables, porcentajes. Resultados: Edad promedio: 20,4 años; 56,7% mujeres; 82,8% clase media-baja; 79,7% católico o cristiano; para resolver intimidades, 11,4% confía en el padre, 33,5% en la madre; apenas 36,2% tiene 100% de certeza de evitar un embarazo no deseado y27%,de contraeruna ETS. 61,2% considera

  12. Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios Sexual behaviors and Practices among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde 1995 se validaron estudios de tipo descriptivo, como necesidad de investigar previamente a las intervenciones educativas, dada la pluralidad cultural que descalifica modelos de aplicación universal en lo referente a la educación sexual. Objetivo: Describir prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios de la UPTC de Tunja. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, muestreo secuencial, muestra de 764 estudiantes. En Epiinfo 2002® se estiman frecuencias, cruce de variables, porcentajes. Resultados: Edad promedio: 20,4 años; 56,7% mujeres; 82,8% clase media-baja; 79,7% católico o cristiano; para resolver intimidades, 11,4% confía en el padre, 33,5% en la madre; apenas 36,2% tiene 100% de certeza de evitar un embarazo no deseado y27%,de contraeruna ETS. 61,2% considera necesario incrementar sus conocimientos sexuales; 40,5% ha tenido al menos una laguna alcohólica; 30% ha tenido sexo no deseado, al menos una vez, bajo el efecto del alcohol. Razón global de fertilidad: 25,4%. 45,3% de embarazos termina en aborto provocado. Conclusiones: Problemas más relevantes: altas tasas de fecundidad, natalidad y aborto provocado, elevado consumo de alcohol.Introduction: Since 1995 we validated descriptive studies, as a need to research prior educational interventions, given the cultural plurality that disqualifies the application of universal models in as far as sexual education. Purpose: Describing practices and sexual behavior of university students of the UPTC, in the city of Tunja. Methods: transversal cut, sequential sampling study with a sample of 764 students. In the Epiinfo 2002® they estimated frequencies, cross variables, percentages. Results: Average age: 20,4 years; 56,7% females; 82,8% lower middle class; 79,7% catholic o Christian; when solving intimacy matters, 11,4% trust the father, 33,5% on the mother; only 36,2% have 100% certainty to avoidaundesiredpregnancy and 27% in contracting a STD. 61

  13. Identity, peer relationships, and adolescent girls' sexual behavior: an exploration of the contemporary double standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-09-01

    The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, whereas women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. This research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. The research explores whether there are broader social costs and feelings of low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focuses on characteristics of the adolescents' close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n = 600) provide support for the emphasis on the adolescents' immediate network of friends: Friends' attitudes and behaviors were significant predictors of respondents' own sexual experiences, while those reporting a higher number of sex partners did not report a lack of popularity, desire for more friends, or lower self-esteem. In-depth relationship history narratives collected from a subset of respondents (n = 46) provide additional context. Women often recognized the existence of a double standard on a societal or school level, but support or acceptance provided by the more immediate network of similarly situated friends serves as a buffer against such negative attributions. The findings suggest that programs targeting sexual behaviors should focus on how peer norms influence girls' sexual choices. PMID:20818574

  14. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  15. A Model of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men: Longitudinal Associations of Mental Health, Substance Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and the Coming-Out Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexual men must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population-specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer sex intentions). The current report proposes and longitudinally examines a model of risk factors for subsequent sexual risk behaviors among young gay and bisexual men in New York City. As hypothesiz...

  16. Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM in Iloilo City, Philippines: Profile, Sexual History,Level of Knowledge About HIV/AIDS and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fred P. Italia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available –This study was conducted to determine the sociodemographic profile, sexual history, level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual risk-taking behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM in Iloilo City. 126 MSM, who were members of MSM clans taken using stratified random sampling, were included in the study. Interview schedule was used to gather data. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were utilized for univariate analysis. To determine the relationship between knowledge and sexual risk-taking behavior, Chi-square was used. Findings revealed that most of the respondents are young, single, have some college education, unemployed, earning less than Php 6,000 and have an early sexual history. Most of the respondents have high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. However, they have multiple sex partners; nearly half does not use condom hence are at high risk of contracting HIV. There is no significant relationship between sexual risk-taking behavior and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. This study found that a high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS does not guarantee safer sexual practices of the respondents. As long as there is a practice of risky sexual behavior, the risk of HIV transmission and infection remain high.

  17. Implicações do conhecimento corporal no comportamento sexual Corporal knowledge implications in sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso; Ana Carolina Savall; Samantha Sabbag; Aline Knepper Mendes; Thais Silva Beltrame

    2009-01-01

    A pesquisa almejou identificar e comparar aspectos da corporeidade e sexualidade de homens (n=54) e mulheres (n = 54) com distintas orientações sexuais e de gênero, participantes do "I Jogos da Diversidade" realizado em Florianópolis, em julho de 2006, mediante aplicação anônima do Questionário de Identidade Corporal - QIC. Os principais objetivos deste estudo foram identificar as diferenças em termos de corporeidade e sexualidade entre homens e mulheres, o perfil sexual de homens e mulheres,...

  18. How Much Do You Know about Teen Sexual Behavior? A True-False Quiz. Fact Sheet. Publication 2008-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Despite media attention to teen sexual behavior and public concern about its consequences, the public is surprisingly ill-informed or misinformed on the subject. Yet without the facts, it is difficult to develop effective approaches to curb risky sexual behaviors and prevent teen pregnancy and STI transmission. This paper presents a true or false…

  19. Sex on the beach: the influence of social norms and trip companion on spring break sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Patrick, Megan E; Mittmann, Angela; Kaysen, Debra L

    2014-06-01

    Spring Break trips are associated with heavy drinking and with risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, unwanted sexual contact), especially for those students who go on trips with friends. The present study adds to this growing event-specific risk literature by examining Spring Break-specific normative perceptions of sexual risk behavior and the role that these perceptions and taking a trip with a friend or with a romantic partner have on Spring Break sexual behavior. College students (N = 1,540; 53.9 % female) were asked to report descriptive normative perceptions of sex with casual partners, drinking prior to sex, number of drinks prior to sex, and condom use as well as their own Spring Break drinking and sexual behaviors. Students perceived the typical same-sex student to have engaged in more frequent sexual behavior for all outcomes than students' own self-reported sexual behavior. Furthermore, results revealed that these perceptions were positively associated with behavior. The choice of travel companion (friend(s) versus romantic partner) also differentially predicted sexual behaviors. Results suggested that intervention efforts aimed at reducing risks for Spring Break trip-takers may be strongest when they incorporate corrective normative information and target those traveling with friends. PMID:24464322

  20. Social Support Moderates the Relationship between Gay Community Integration and Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay Male Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Stevenson; Lewis, Megan A.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Kral, Alex H.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies of partnered gay men consider the social context within which sexual behaviors occur or investigate positive aspects of the social environment that may offset factors that are related to risky sexual behaviors. Fewer still include assessment of both individuals making up couples. Using an ecological framework and an actor-partner…

  1. Hormone-dependent adolescent organization of socio-sexual behaviors in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    The adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood requires both reproductive and behavioral maturation as individuals acquire the ability to procreate. Gonadal steroid hormones are key players in the maturation of behaviors required for reproductive success. Beyond activating behavior in adulthood, testicular and ovarian hormones organize the adolescent brain and program adult-typical and sex-typical expression of sociosexual behaviors. Testicular hormones organize sexual and agonistic behaviors, including social proficiency-the ability to adapt behavior as a function of social experience. Ovarian hormones organize behaviors related to energy balance and maternal care. These sex differences in the behaviors that are programmed by gonadal hormones during adolescence suggest that evolution has selected for hormone-dependent sex-specific organization of behaviors that optimize reproductive fitness. PMID:26963894

  2. Does erectile dysfunction drug use contribute to risky sexual behavior?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2010-01-01

    @@ Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting up to one-third of men through-out their lives. According to the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS), ED affects an estimated 52% of men between the ages of 40 and 70. With the approval of silde-nafil (USA in March 1998), the first phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor to be made available for treatment of ED, and the subse-quent approval of vardenafil (USA in August 2003) and tadalafil (USA in November 2003), the PDE-5 inhibitor class of drugs has rapidly become the first-line therapy for ED of varying etiologies and se-verities.

  3. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation. PMID:4072987

  4. Indirect Over-Time Relations Between Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Emotions Through Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed. PMID:26452563

  5. Indirect Over-Time Relations Between Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Emotions Through Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.

  6. Early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and sex-related risks among female undergraduates in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong; Xu, Delong; Xiao, Han; Cao, Yue; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the association between early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and risks among Chinese female undergraduates. Of 4769 participants, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse. The mean age of sexual debut was 19.3 (±1.7) years. Females initiating sex earlier were more likely to have first sex with men who were not their "boyfriends" and less likely to take contraception, to use a condom at first encounter, to use contraception consistently in past year, and/or to use condom consistently during the course of a sexual intercourse. They were more likely to have multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partners, to report pregnancy, and be diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases. Comprehensive early sex education should be advocated for young people, not only teaching knowledge of physical health but also providing practical skills training for making them consciously delay start of sexual activity or protecting themselves during sexual intercourse.

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369

  8. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  9. Attitudinal and behavioral characteristics predict high risk sexual activity in rural Tanzanian youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Aichele

    Full Text Available The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12-26 years of age across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin, age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior.

  10. Attitudinal and behavioral characteristics predict high risk sexual activity in rural Tanzanian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen R; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12-26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421

  11. Sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors of women from the "kink" community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Jennifer Eve

    2015-05-01

    Unconventional sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors (herein referred to as kink behaviors) investigated by academia are based largely on clinical and criminal cases, and most published, peer-reviewed, quantitative research on these behaviors is based almost exclusively on male participants. For this study, information was collected and analyzed from 1580 female participants recruited from the kink community, using a non-clinical and non-criminal sample. We explored and described the preferences and diversity of more than 126 sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors found among these participants, along with recommendations for continued research. Gaining a better understanding of the breadth and depth of activities engaged in by female kink practitioners could benefit educators, counselors, therapists, medical doctors, and other professionals when interacting with members of the kink community. PMID:25795531

  12. Identifying teens at risk: developmental pathways of online and offline sexual risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Baumgartner; S.R. Sumter; J. Peter; P.M. Valkenburg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and development of both online (OnSRB) and offline sexual risk behavior (OffSRB) in adolescence, (2) to establish whether OnSRBs and OffSRBs are related, and (3) to identify risk factors that determine problematic pathways of

  13. Explanations for religious influence on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil: direct and indirect effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Verona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion is becoming an important and highly present factor in the lives of many adolescents and young adults in Brazil. In addition to creating more space for them to maintain close relationships and participate actively in a religious environment, some religions have promoted the dissemination of clearer standards and objectives, as well as punitive sanctions, with respect to many aspects of their younger followers' lives, including their sexual behavior. This article examines how religion can affect, direct and indirectly, the sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. The main objective of this study is to look for a connection between Christian Smith's theoretical framework, which suggests several mechanisms through which religion can influence the lives of American adolescents, and ethnographic studies conducted in Brazil, as well as quantitative works that have brought attention to social and demographic consequences of recent religious transformations. Even though there is limited empirical evidence as to how the mechanisms of religious involvement work in Brazil, this study concludes that each of Smith's pathways can also be used to explain potential effects of religion on sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. This research should encourage empirical studies on such effects in Brazil. Besides the importance of examining the impact of the recent transformations in Brazil religious landscape on demographic phenomena, this topic deserves further consideration from Brazilian demographers because religion is a primary socialization agent of adolescents, and sexual activity is a sphere of human behavior of high importance in its religious applicability.

  14. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  15. Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

  16. Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

  17. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention : Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on personali

  18. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention: Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baams; G. Overbeek; D. van de Bongardt; E. Reitz; J.S. Dubas; M.A.G. van Aken

    2014-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on personali

  19. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  20. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brody; A.H. Fischer; U. Hess

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results a