Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio
This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported.
Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece
Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment.
Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas
In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.
AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance
The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 ). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.
... abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing to worry about. ... feels good. If your child is preoccupied with masturbation (cannot be distracted from doing it), it could ...
Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R
This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.
Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S
Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.
Realmuto, G M; Ruble, L A
Surveys of sexual behavior in autism suggest a variety of behavioral expression. However, the course of sexual development in autism is unplotted, leaving questions about the normalcy of specific behaviors. Even less is known about deviations of sexual development and the incidence of paraphilias in this population. We explore the problems of definition of sexual behaviors and describe a case report that highlights the difficulties of management. An application of a testosterone-suppressing medication and its effect on sexual behavior are reported. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, leuprolide, an injectable antiandrogen, resulted in suppression of behaviors and retention of the participants' community placement. Follow-up for almost 3 years shows no abnormal physical effects. Dosage has been tapered over that period to a low but effective dose. Directions for research are discussed.
Morgan, Elizabeth M.
Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…
R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt
This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s
Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups.
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interv...
Revadi, Santosh; Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Dekker, Teun; Becher, Paul G
A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly's reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Sexual behavior in D. suzukii is characterized by distinct elements of male courtship leading to female acceptance for mating. Time of day and age modulate D. suzukii mating activity. As with other drosophilids, female sexual maturity is paralleled by a quantitative increase in CHCs. Neither female CHCs nor other olfactory signals were required to induce male courtship, however, presence of those signals significantly increased male sexual behavior. With this pilot study we hope to stimulate research on the reproductive biology of D. suzukii, which is relevant for the development of pest management tools.
Kellogg, Nancy D
Sexual behaviors in children are common, occurring in 42 to 73 percent of children by the time they reach 13 years of age. Developmentally appropriate behavior that is common and frequently observed in children includes trying to view another person's genitals or breasts, standing too close to other persons, and touching their own genitals. Sexual behaviors become less common, less frequent, or more covert after five years of age. Sexual behavior problems are defined as developmentally inappropriate or intrusive sexual acts that typically involve coercion or distress. Such behaviors should be evaluated within the context of other emotional and behavior disorders, socialization difficulties, and family dysfunction, including violence, abuse, and neglect. Although many children with sexual behavior problems have a history of sexual abuse, most children who have been sexually abused do not develop sexual behavior problems. Children who have been sexually abused at a younger age, who have been abused by a family member, or whose abuse involved penetration are at greater risk of developing sexual behavior problems. Although age-appropriate behaviors are managed primarily through reassurance and education of the parent about appropriate behavior redirection, sexual behavior problems often require further assessment and may necessitate a referral to child protective services for suspected abuse or neglect.
Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe
This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.
Paulk, H. H.; And Others
Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)
Full Text Available Sexual relations hold an important place in the life and development of the individual. However, it can cause health risks such as HIV infection without done the necessary protective measures. The purpose of this study is to review sexual behaviors which increase HIV infection and AIDS risk. This sexual behavior expressed as: anal sex, one-night stand, sex without condoms, sex with older persons, concurrent sexual relationships, using alcohol and illegal drugs before or during intercourse, and starting sex at an early age. Because HIV is likely to rise in accordance with the increase in the number of people the person had sexual intercourse, especially concurrent sexual behavior and one-night stand, the most effective way to stay away from HIV/AIDS risk is to have sexual intercourse only with stable partners who know each other's sexual history and use condoms regularly. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 147-162
Both, Stephanie; Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen
Sexual excitement can be seen as an action disposition. In this study sexual arousal was expected to generate sexual action and to increase interest and responsiveness to sexual stimuli. In two experiments, male and female participants were exposed to a neutral or a sexual film. We measured genital and subjective responses to the film, and sexual behavior following the laboratory visit. In Experiment 2, film exposure was followed by a task in which participants rated the sexual arousability of neutral and sexual pictures. Rating time of the sexual pictures served as an index for sexual interest. Responsiveness to the sexual pictures was measured by modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes. Sexual activity, but not sexual desire, was higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for participants in the neutral condition. Sexual interest and responsiveness to still pictures were not higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for those in the neutral film condition. In addition, men who saw the neutral film showed a greater responsiveness to still pictures than men who saw the sexual film. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state generating action tendencies and actual sexual behavior.
Codispoti, Victoria L
In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction
Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.
Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim
Berdahl, Jennifer L; Aquino, Karl
Sexual behavior at work (e.g., sexual jokes and propositions) has been largely portrayed as offensive and harmful. The current research represents the first studies to test whether this is typically the case. Study 1 surveyed manufacturing and social service workers (N = 238) about their psychological well-being, work withdrawal, and exposure to sexual behavior at work. Respondents indicated how often they were exposed to different sexual behaviors and how much they enjoyed or were bothered by them. Study 2 surveyed university staff (N = 1,004) about their psychological well-being, drug use, feelings of being valued at work, and exposure to sexual behavior at work. Fifty-eight percent of employees in Study 1 were exposed to sexual behavior in the past 2 years; 40% of employees in Study 2 were exposed to sexual behavior in the past year. Some women and many men reported enjoying sexual behavior at work. Despite this, exposure to sexual behavior at work predicted negative employee work and psychological well-being, even for employees who said they enjoyed the experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž
Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507
Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and fem...
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.
Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Neilson, Elizabeth C; English, Diana J; Litrownik, Alan J; Margolis, Benyamin; Proctor, Laura; Dubowitz, Howard
Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed. Neglect significantly predicted unprotected sex. Substance use predicted unprotected sex and four or more partners but did not mediate the effects of maltreatment. Trauma symptoms predicted unprotected sex and mediated effects of emotional maltreatment on unprotected sex and on assertiveness in sexual refusal and the effects of sexual abuse on unprotected sex. Both neglect and emotional maltreatment emerged as important factors in risky sexual behavior. Trauma symptoms appear to be an important pathway by which maltreatment confers risk for risky sexual behavior. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should include assessment and treatment for trauma symptoms and for history of child maltreatment in all its forms.
Fong, Timothy W
Compulsive sexual behavior, otherwise known as sexual addiction, is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has significant medical and psychiatric consequences. Until recently, very little empirical data existed to explain the biological, psychological, and social risk factors that contribute to this condition. In addition, clinical issues, such as the natural course and best practices on treating sexual addictions, have not been formalized. Despite this absence, the number of patients and communities requesting assistance with this problem remains significant. This article will review the clinical features of compulsive sexual behavior and will summarize the current evidence for psychological and pharmacological treatment.
Fong, Timothy W.
Compulsive sexual behavior, otherwise known as sexual addiction, is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has significant medical and psychiatric consequences. Until recently, very little empirical data existed to explain the biological, psychological, and social risk factors that contribute to this condition. In addition, clinical issues, such as the natural course and best practices on treating sexual addictions, have not been formalized. Despite this absence, the number of patients and com...
van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C
There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.
Schnarrs, Phillip W; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men's sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men's sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts.
The Internet appears to have become an ever-increasing part in many areas of people’s day-to- day lives. One area that deserves further examination surrounds sexual behavior and excessive Internet usage. It has been alleged by some academics that social pathologies are beginning to surface in cyberspace and have been referred to as “technological addictions.” Such research may have implications and insights into sexuality and sexual behavior. Therefore, this article examines the concept of “I...
Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J
Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.
Nofzinger, E A; Reynolds, C F; Jennings, J R; Thase, M E; Frank, E; Yeager, A; Kupfer, D J
Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) studies are commonly used in the assessment of sexual dysfunction in diabetic men. While much of the evidence in favor of its use has come from the observation of markedly abnormal NPT in impotent diabetic men, little research has focused on the quality of nocturnal erections in sexually functional diabetics. Ten diabetic men who reported normal daytime sexual function were studied with 4 nights of polysomnography, including NPT assessment. They had significantly diminished NPT profiles when compared with that of an age-matched, nondiabetic, healthy control group. Without controlling for the effect of diabetes on NPT, between 70% and 90% of sexually functional diabetics had NPT profiles in a range that would be classified as indicative of organic sexual dysfunction for a man presenting for evaluation of sexual dysfunction. The finding of NPT abnormalities in a diabetic man should not be taken as evidence for irreversible sexual dysfunction. Rather, the condition of diabetes appears to result in NPT abnormalities, regardless of the adequacy of daytime sexual function.
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara
The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Keith W. Beard
Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.
Wetherill, Reagan R; Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim
Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college. The current study tested the influence of sexual values and perceived awareness and caring (PAC), or beliefs about how much parents and peers know and care about students' behavior, on sexual behavior during this transitional period. Using data from a longitudinal study, generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear model were used to examine the associations among sexual values, parental and peer PAC, and sexual behavior, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants (N = 1,847; 61% female) completed web-based surveys the summer before college matriculation and at the end of the first semester in college. Results indicated that individuals with high levels of both parental and peer PAC engaged in less frequent sexual behaviors and that PAC moderated the effect of sexual values on sexual behaviors. Furthermore, both PAC variables decreased during the transition from high school to college, and high school sexual values, parental PAC, and their interaction predicted the number of sexual partners during the first semester of college. Only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual behaviors predicted unsafe sexual behavior in college. Findings suggest that complex associations exist among perceived awareness and caring, sexual values, and sexual behaviors, and that the transition from high school to college may be an ideal time for safer-sex interventions.
Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed.
Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…
Prakash, Ravi; Pathak, Amit; Munda, Sanjay; Bagati, Dhruv
Dementia of Lewy body disease is the second most common degenerative cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, among all the dementias. The core features are a progressive dementia, fluctuations in cognitive functions, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous parkinsonism. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, severe neuroleptic sensitivity, and low dopamine transporter uptake in basal ganglia are other suggestive features. Behavioral abnormalities are commonly present in the form of aggressive behavior, irritability, and uninhibited behaviors. These are mostly seen in the advanced stages of dementia. However, inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommonly seen in such cases. Three types of inappropriate sexual behaviors commonly found in cases of dementia are sex talks, sexual acts, and implied sexual acts. Such inappropriate sexual behaviors have not been described adequately in dementia of Lewy body disease. We report inappropriate sexual behaviors in a case of dementia of Lewy body disease, which improved rapidly after treatment with quetiapine.
Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.
The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if t
Herrenkohl, L R; Whitney, J B
Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the stress of restraint, heat and bright lights three times daily from Days 14 to 22 of gestation. Because prepartal stress did not markedly disturb the mother's retrieving and crouching behavior, disturbances in postpartal nursing behavior do not seem to account for the abnormal sexual behavior of male offspring as adults. The most significant finding was that litter weights were reduced, not only at birth, but for 3 weeks thereafter, suggesting that prepartal stress not only altered the pups in utero but also affected postpartal milk synthesis. The possibility emerges that prepartal stress may alter adult sexual behavior in males by modifications in fetal and/or maternal pituitary glands.
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Sexual behavior patterns among Nigerian university students and factors influencing them were studied. While permarital cohabitation is common, a large percentage (48%) had their first coital experience between the ages of 22 and 27. Religion does not appear to have a strong inhibiting influence on premarital sex, although it does affect the frequency of changing partners. Contraceptives, although known to almost all the respondents, are not widely used. The use of contraceptives had little influence on premarital cohabitation. Oral-genital, male-male, and female-female sexual practices are very uncommon.
Bachelor thesis titled Risk sexual behavior of adolescents and HIV / AIDS prevention focuses on biological and emotional development of adolescents, describes sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases and focuses on the prevention of STDs, especially HIV and AIDS. The practical part determines, based on a quantitative questionnaire survey, knowledge of pupils, secondary vocational schools in the prevention of sexual diseases and compares students' knowledge about specific sexual dise...
Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng
A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.
Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura
Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.
Lars I Holmberg; Dan Hellberg
Objective To investigate the development of sexuality from early to late adolescence,and to compare girls and boys of different agesMethods A cross sectional survey in all schools was performed covering all pupilsbetween 13 and 18years of age that were in school when the survey was conducted. Avalidated instrument, Q90, created for use in teenagers was distributed in the class-rooms to 3 216 teenagers. Q90 covers 30 questions about body development andsexual behavior. Non-response was insignificant (n=19; 0. 6%).Results Pubertal development was considered "early" or "late" by about 50% ofboth boys and girls. Eighty percent of the 13 to 15 years old boys and girls had had aromance and 30% had experience of sexual cuddling (petting), while significantlymore girls than boys had sexual intercourse (18% vs 13%; odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI1.1-1.9). The difference between girls and boys remained in those being 16-18 yearsold, where 63% of the girls and 53% of the boys (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9)admitted having intercourse. Mean age at first intercourse was 14.9 and 15 years,respectively. At 16-18years of age, 23% of the sexually active girls, as compared with25% of the boys estimated that they had had 6 or more sexual partners. About 30% ofthe adolescents, irrespective of age and gender, did not use contraceptives at theirfirst and latest intercourse. Eight percent of the older girls had been pregnant, andthey had an increased history of sexually transmitted infections, as compared withthe boys (6.2% vs 2.7%; odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.0).Conclusion Exploring sexuality and experimentation is a normal behavior inadolescence. The results of this study, however, indicate that there are substantialgroups of teenagers who practice sexual risk-taking. In addition to general sexualeducation, programs should also be directed to define sexual risks and its consequences.
Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.
Diamond, Lisa M.
Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…
Zabin, L S
Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy.
Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
Abnormal event detection has been an important issue in video surveillance applications. Due to the huge amount of surveillance data, only a small proportion could be loaded during the training. As a result, there is a high chance of incomplete normal patterns in the training data, which makes...... of normal behavior in the training video. Moreover, ‘missed atoms’ that are potentially from infrequent normal features are used to refine these behavior dictionaries. To further reduce false alarms, the detection of abnormal features is not only dependent on reconstruction error from the learned...
Full Text Available Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it conceptions of both cuckoldry and male ownership of female partners. These conceptions have often led researchers to overlook female behavior and adaptations, such as female initiation of mating. Such social norms and ideologies influence both theories and research in biology. Social norms of gender and sexuality also influence school cultures. Although awareness of gender issues has had a major impact in Sweden during recent years, the interventions conducted have been based on a heteronormative understanding of sex; this has rendered sexual norms a non-prioritized issue and thereby rendered non-heterosexuals invisible in teaching and textbooks. Since this research was published in 2007 and 2009, norm critical pedagogics have been included in the Swedish National Agency for Education's guidelines for teaching. This inclusion represents one way to tackle the recurring problem of heterosexuality being described as a naturalized "normal" behavior and homosexuals, bisexuals and transsexuals being described from a heteronormative perspective. In this paper, I employ gender and queer perspectives to scrutinize how animal sexual behavior is described and explained in Swedish biology textbooks. The analysis is based in gender and queer theory, feminist science studies, and evolutionary biology. The article begins with an outline a discussion of my theoretical framework, relating gender and queer perspectives on evolutionary biology to a discussion of queer
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual...
Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William
Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…
Staats, A W
Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.
Wayment, Heidi A; Aronson, Bethany
Ninety-five sexually active White American female college students participated in a questionnaire study about their sexual behavior in the past 12 months. A path model was tested in order to assess specific hypothesized predictors of risky sexual behavior. As predicted, participants with greater sex guilt reported using condoms more and having had fewer sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that White American female college students are at some degree of risk due to risky sexual behavior. Taking into account attitudes about sexuality and past sexual abuse along with the requisite training in condom use self-efficacy may enhance the success of interventions designed to reduce risky sexual behavior among White American female college students.
Full Text Available Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up participated in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. Design :The study design is a cross-sectional survey done independently by four observers. Materials and Methods :A semi-structured proforma for demographic profile has been used. The behavioral abnormalities are assessed by using DASH II (Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped second modified version scale. Statistical Analysis :Demographic comparison has been done by analysis of variance. Correlation matrix has been run to identify correlation between individual items. Principal component analysis has been used for grouping the behavioral pattern. Results :Behavioral abnormalities as expected are more common in people having intellectual disability than the normal population. The Down syndrome group unlike other causes of intellectual disability shows higher scores in Stereotypy. Impulse control and Mania subscales. Factor analysis yields five characteristic factor structures, namely, hyperactive-impulsive, biological functions, affective, neurotic and organic-pervasive developmental disorder clusters. Conclusions :Contrary to the conventional belief of docile-fun and music loving prototype, individuals diagnosed with Down syndrome show clusters of behavioral abnormalities and management can vary depending on these target symptoms.
An example is given to reveal the abnormal behavior of the least squares estimate of multiple regression. It is shown that the least squares estimate of the multiple linear regression may be "improved in the sense of weak consistency when nuisance parameters are introduced into the model. A discussion on the implications of this finding is given.
Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John
A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance.
Nofzinger, E A; Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Frank, E; Jennings, J R; Garamoni, G L; Fasiczka, A L; Kupfer, D J
Clinicians have long associated depression with alterations in sexual function, predominantly loss of sexual interest. In a longitudinal study measuring self-report, behavioral, and nocturnal penile tumescence variables before and after treatment with cognitive behavior therapy in an unmedicated sample of 40 outpatient depressed men, we found, contrary to expectation, that sexual activity per se was not reduced during the depressed state. Rather, loss of sexual interest appeared to be related to the cognitive set of depression, ie, loss of sexual satisfaction that then improved with remission from depression. Depressed men were heterogeneous, however, with respect to sexual behavior, eg, an anxious and more chronically depressed subgroup of men who did not have remissions with cognitive behavior therapy reported increased sexual interest and sexual activity. Also, contrary to expectation, nocturnal penile tumescence abnormalities in depressed men did not reverse when measured in early remission, nor did nocturnal penile tumescence measures correlate significantly with behavioral measures of sexual function. Nocturnal penile tumescence alterations in depression may thus be similar to other persistent electroencephalographic sleep abnormalities seen in depressed patients in remission, in being more trait-like than statelike.
Moon, Sang Huy
This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…
Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the structure and intensity of relation-ships between dimensions of sexual behavior and personal characteristics in the context of sexual dimorphism. The sample included 233 participants (both genders, mean age 29,34. Dimensions of sexual behavior were measured using the Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, and personal characteristics were measured using the Big Five Inventory and short form of Delta 10 questionnaire. The results suggested that the importance of personality for the understanding of sexual behavior is not far from the relevance of sexual dimorphism. It was found that personality was signifi-cant predictor of almost all dimensions of sexual behavior, independent from gender, and in case of tendency to have casual sex a strong interaction effect of gender and Conscientiousness was found. The nature of relationships between dimensions of sexual behavior and personality were very similar withih the subsamples of males and females. Namely, adaptive personality functioning was related to richness of sexual experience following by low sexual fantasies and low tendency to paraphilias. Small, but important difference in the structure of canonical factors extracted in the domain of sexual behavior was the following: in male sample adaptive personality structure correlated with high tendency to casual sex, while in female sample the opposite was obtained. In female sample there was one more significant relation suggesting that psychopatic personal structure has sexual style which include ric-hness and casual sexual experience without tendency to non-coital sexual play. The results are discussed in the context of the evolutionary theories of behavior.
Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David
A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood.
Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A
Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.
Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.
Askun, Duysal; Ataca, Bilge
In this study, sexual attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students were explored by taking many influential agents both at the distal and the proximal levels into consideration. A total of 563 students from three universities located in three cities completed a questionnaire that assessed their virginity status, first intercourse, sexual permissiveness, pornography usage, endorsement of traditional sexual double standards, and the perception of parental attitudes about sexuality. The results showed that women and students from rural areas were more traditional and conservative in their attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality. The perception of maternal restriction about sexuality was related to sexual conservatism, negative affective reaction at first coitus, and endorsing traditional sexual double standards. The results are discussed in terms of various degrees of influences originating from proximal and distal variables in the Turkish context.
Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer
The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.
Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.
Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previ...
Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F
Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.
Damasceno, Fabio; Skinner, Gabriela O; Cordeiro, Júlia F; Ferraz, Marcos R; Almeida, Olga M M S
Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) produces alterations in dopaminergic systems and also modifies sexual behavior. In this work we evaluated PSD effects on the sexual response and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in dopaminergic pathways related to sexual behavior of naive and sexual experienced rats. Male Wistar rats had their sexual behavior evaluated in 6 copulatory tests, with a 4 days interval. In these tests, the animals interacted with a receptive female and parameters that compose each component of the male sexual reply (initiation, arousal and ejaculation) were evaluated. After the 5th test, the animals were randomly divided in 2 groups, control and PSD, and 96 h later they were submitted to the last copulatory test. PSD facilitated the excitatory and the ejaculatory component, increasing the copulatory efficiency. In addition, reduced mount frequency and ejaculation latency were observed. The temporal patterning of the sexual behavior was modified, with reduction in the number of mount bouts. PSD per se was not able to modify TH levels, but in PSD sexual trained rats, an increase in the number of TH-immunoreactive cellular bodies in all dopaminergic areas evaluated was detected. Our data suggest that PSD facilitates the sexual response and this facilitation combined to sexual training could be the consequence of increased TH levels in dopaminergic pathways related to sexual reply.
Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie M; Legg, Angela M
Previous research in gorillas suggests that females engage in post-conception mating as a form of sexual competition designed to improve their own reproductive success. This study focused on sexual behaviors in a newly formed group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed at Zoo Atlanta. All females engaged in mating outside their conceptive periods, although there was individual variation in the frequency of the behavior. An analysis of the presence/absence of sexual behavior found females, regardless of reproductive condition, were more likely to engage in sexual behavior on days when other females were sexually active. On these "co-occurrence" days, females were significantly more likely to solicit the silverback, but copulations did not differ from expectation. The results find further evidence for sexual competition among female gorillas and suggest that this may occur throughout their reproductive cycle rather than only during pregnancy.
Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Cooper, M Lynne; Lee, Christine M
A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations against sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and extend a set of Sexual Motivations Scale-Revised subscales assessing motivations for sexual behavior (Intimacy, Enhancement, Coping). Participants were surveyed the summer prior to college (N = 1,653; 58.4% female). Exploratory factor analysis on a random one quarter of respondents supported the hypothesized factors. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good overall fit to the data and configural invariance across gender and ethnicity and across lifetime sexual experience. Motivations were associated with lifetime oral and penetrative sexual behaviors. This combined measure may be used for identifying motivations, predicting behaviors, and tailoring motivational interventions for sexual health among adolescents and young adults.
Hilburn, L R; Rai, K S
When male hybrids of Aedes aegypti females and A. mascarensis males were backcrossed to A. aegypti females, 32.8 percent of the male progeny exhibited abnormal sexual development, including failure of the terminalia to rotate, a split sternite of the eighth abdominal segment with partially duplicated telomeres, or feminization that gives rise to sterile intersexes. Observations made on three morphological marker loci and five isozyme loci with characteristic electromorphs in the two parental species suggested that when the sex-determining M locus is derived from A. mascarensis and the chromosome regions including s, LDH, and lDH2 on chromosome 2 and blt and 6PGD on chromosome 3 are homozygous for genes from A. aegypti, the frequency of abnormal sexual development is increased. An even greater percentage of males suffer aberrant development if recombination also occurs between the M and re locus of chromosome 1. The data suggest that genes on chromosome 2 control normal development of the male terminalia, genes on chromosome 3 control sexual differentiation, and the entire process is controlled by genes on chromosome 1 that are linked to, but not identical with, the M locus.
Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Feinberg, Mark E
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents' own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for "making out" showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both "heavy" and "light" sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.
Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying
In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed.
Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and
Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey
Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…
Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-) combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to
Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
Background: Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human’s life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. Methods: we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of “risky sexual behavior assessment”, “sexual risk assessment”, “high risk sexual behavior”, “sexual risk taking”. By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Results: Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Conclusion: Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended. PMID:27047267
Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S
Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed.
Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen
Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives.
González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix
Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.
Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M
The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naive males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naive animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naive animals.
Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Aken, Marcel A. G.
The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal t...
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena
Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Sexual deviance in human refers to abnormal sexual expression. Though it is very difficult to exactly say what is normal or abnormal in sexual relationships, some sexual behaviors are clearly documented as abnormal in our society. Paraphilias or perversions are sexual stimuli or acts that are deviations from normal sexual behaviors, but are necessary for some individual’s to experience arousal and orgasm. Here we discuss abnormal sexual deviations in a young married male who presented with just feelings of guilt and without any psychosocial dysfunctions because of his uncommon sexual perversions.
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Fisher, Terri D.
Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…
Rice, Cara E; Turner, Abigail Norris; Lanza, Stephanie T
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of sexual behavior among MSM and how those patterns are related to STIs. We examined patterns of sexual behavior using behavioral and clinical data from a cross-sectional study of 235 MSM who presented to an urban sexual health clinic for STI testing. Analyzed data were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered surveys and electronic health records. We used LCA to identify underlying subgroups of men based on their sexual behavior, described the demographics of the latent classes, and examined the association between the latent classes and STI status. We identified three latent classes of sexual behavior: Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) Only (67%), Partner Seekers (14%), and Multiple Behaviors (19%). Men in the Multiple Behaviors class had a 67% probability of being STI positive, followed by men in the UAI Only class (27%) and men in the Partner Seekers class (22%). Examining the intersection of a variety of sexual practices indicates particular subgroups of MSM have the highest probability of being STI positive.
Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.
Al-Alawi, Intisar; Goud, Tadakal Mallana; Al-Harasi, Salma; Rajab, Anna
The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic findings in Omani patients who had been referred for suspicion of sex chromosome abnormalities that resulted in different clinical disorders. Furthermore, it sought to examine the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in these patients and to compare the obtained results with those reported elsewhere. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1232 cases with variant characteristics of sexual development disorders who had been referred to the cytogenetic department, National Genetic Centre, Ministry of Health, from different hospitals in the Sultanate of Oman between 1999 and 2014. The karyotype results demonstrated chromosomal anomalies in 24.2% of the cases, where 67.5% of abnormalities were identified in referral females, whereas only 32.6% were in referral males. Of all sex chromosome anomalies detected, Turner syndrome was the most frequent (38.2%) followed by Klinefelter syndrome (24.9%) and XY phenotypic females (16%). XXX syndrome and XX phenotypic males represented 6.8% and 3.8% of all sex chromosome anomalies, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of patients referred with various clinical suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities revealed a high rate of chromosomal anomalies. This is the first broad cytogenetic study reporting combined frequencies of sex chromosome anomalies in sex development disorders in Oman.
Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M
Motivations for and against sex are salient predictors of engaging in or abstaining from sex in cross-sectional studies. Participants (N = 637, 41.4% male) provided data on their motivations for and against sex and lifetime sexual behavior prior to entering college and six months into the first year in college. Longitudinal data were used to examine differences on motivations for and against sex reported the summer before college entrance for students who continued to abstain (Nevers, 44.7%), transitioned to sexual behavior in the following months (Transitioners, 11.0%), and who were previously sexually active (Actives, 44.3%). Multivariate analysis of variance analyses indicated that Transitioners evidenced mean-level differences in motivations surrounding sex (greater intimacy and enhancement motives for sex, lower values motives against sex) prior to their behavioral initiation compared to Nevers. In addition, Transitioners reported greater changes in motivations from pre-college to the six-month follow-up, including increased enhancement motivations for sex and decreased values and not ready motivations against sex. Men reported more important motivations for sex and less important motivations against sex than women, with an interaction showing that sexually experienced women reported more important intimacy motivations and sexually inexperienced men reported more important coping motivations for sex. Identifying salient motivations associated with imminent changes in sexual behavior may support the development of sexual health promotion programs that seek to reach sexually inexperienced individuals at important times of transition.
Ward, L. Monique; Epstein, Marina; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann
Efforts to link media use to adolescents' sexual initiation have produced somewhat inconsistent results, perhaps as a result of the limited framing of the question. This study sought to expand current approaches by sampling college students instead of high school students, by investigating a range of sexual behaviors and media formats, and by…
Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp
Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…
Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.
A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)
Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric
Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.
Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet
Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39% reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57% had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5 more
Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.
Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Coolen, Lique M
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important for mediation of arousal and sleep as well as feeding and energy homeostasis. Recent studies have indicated that orexin also plays a key role regulating motivation and reward associated with food intake and with drugs of abuse. Based on those findings, it has been hypothesized that orexin is involved in control of other natural reward behaviors. This review will summarize studies that examine the role of orexin in motivation and reward associated with food intake, maternal behavior, and male sexual behavior. In particular for sexual behavior in male rats, we have recently shown that orexin cell-specific lesions do not impair sexual performance and motivation but disrupt conditioned responses associated with sexual reward.
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Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M
Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand.
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.
Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G
Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners
Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. E...
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).
This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was positively related to sexual risk, pressure to satisfy a male partner sexually was more common than physical coercion. Dyadic trust was negatively related, indicating that women engaged in sexual risk behavior with men they distrusted. Sensation seeking was positively related to sexual risk. Findings suggest the need for enhancing awareness of non-sexually imposing relationship alternatives and incorporating thrill and excitement in health promotion messages.
Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos
Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.
阿地力江·伊明; 范强; 潘建春; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔; 张盼盼; 季志红; 佐合拉古丽·木塔力甫
目的 研究维医异常黏液质证候与阳痿病证大鼠模型性行为学改变,探讨异常黏液质型阳痿病证发病特点.方法 选用100只性功能正常的雄性SD大鼠,从中随机取10只为正常对照组(N),余90只采用湿寒性饲料+湿寒性环境的干预条件建立异常黏液质证候模型,判定证候模型建立后,以APO勃起实验筛选阳剩女病证模型,并随机分为病证模型组(A1)、病证自然反证组(A 2)和病证药物反证组(A3)；证候模型组(B1)、证候自然反证组(B 2)和证候药物反证组(B3),予以反证,时间2周,并分别在造模前、造模第20周与反证后行大鼠性行为学检测.结果 造模前造模组与正常组间各项观测指标均无统计学差异(P＞0.05)；造模因素干预第20周,造模组在插入潜伏期与射精潜伏期较正常组显著延长(P＜0.05),骑跨次数、插入次数与射精次数较正常组显著减少(P＜0.05)；反证2周后,A1、A2、B1组骑跨潜伏期、插入潜伏期和射精潜伏期均显著长于正常组(P＜0.05),骑跨、插入、射精次数显著少于正常组(P＜0.05).A3组较A1、A2组插入潜伏期、射精潜伏期显著缩短(P＜0.05),插入次数、射精次数显著增多(P＜0.05)；B3组较B1组插入潜伏期与射精潜伏期显著缩短,骑跨次数、插入次数、射精次数显著增多(P＜0.05).A1与A2组在各项指标上的差异均无统计学意义(P＞0.05).结论 (1)维医异常黏液质型阳痿病证模型大鼠主要从勃起潜伏期、勃起次数、交配能力、射精功能方面发生显著改变,致性功能减退,并最终引发勃起功能障碍(erectile dysfunction,ED).(2)异常黏液质阳痿病证大鼠模型具有良好的科学性、可靠性和稳定性.%Objective To study abnormal phlegmatic syndrome of rats in the light of Uygur medicine and its impact on the sexual behavior of impotent male rats, and to investigate the characteristics of ED in the rat subjects. Methods One hundred
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI create a great hazard to public health. STIs occur mostly as a result of different types of risky sexual behavior, such as early sexual debut, unprotected sexual intercourses, alcohol use during sex, multiple partnership etc. Condoms are known to provide the best protection against negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. In this study we aimed to determine factors associated with condom use at first sexual intercourses by women in Ukraine.METHODS: Secondary analysis of data of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey was conducted. Responses of 883 sexually experienced women aged 15–24 were included in the analysis. Associations between condom use at first sex and independent variables were assessed using multivariate binary logistic regression.RESULTS: Light (less than 3,5 drinks per week and heavy (3,5 drinks per week or more drinkers were more likely to use condoms at first sexual intercourse compared to abstainers or occasional drinkers (OR 1,83 (CI 1,32-2,53 and 2,21 (CI 1,43-3,42, respectively. Besides that, women from households with above average income had 1,65 (CI 1,17-2,33 higher odds to use condoms at sexual debut in comparison to women from households with lower income. Women who read printed media at least once a week had twice (CI 1,36-2,94 as high odds of using condoms at first intercourse as women who read newspapers or magazines rare. Non-Western region of residence and sexual partner of about the same age were positively associated with condom use as well.CONCLUSIONS: Wealthy young adults from industrially developed regions are active users of condoms during sexual debut, which is to be accounted for in determining target groups for social policy in Ukraine.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Laws, D R; Marshall, W L
This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today.
Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.
Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G
The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents.
Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S
Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita
This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Klein, Carolina A
A variety of sexual behaviors occur online, including those that are highly unusual or even plainly illicit. There is a growing body of literature pertaining to sexual abuse of minors that occurs or may be promoted online, but there is a paucity of information regarding other Internet-based sexual interactions, such as manufacturing, dissemination, and online viewing of other atypical sexual material. In this article, I explore and analyze these different practices, which include, but are not limited to, videos of rape, sadomasochism with bodily disfigurement, zoophilia, and necrophilia, with the intention of diminishing the gap in information about this industry. The impact that these behaviors may have on clinical or forensic psychiatric evaluations is discussed, along with pertinent legal regulations and ethics-related considerations.
Schwartz, Mark F
Highly pernicious events can result in a variety of severe adult psychiatric manifestations, including pedophilia in select individuals with a history of prior "at-risk factors." Influences such as social isolation can either increase or decrease the outcome. This article reviews some of the other sequential developmental factors that might contribute to sexual compulsivity in such biographies, including temperament, early attachment, family influences, trauma re-enactments, affect dysregulation, social isolation, vandalized love maps, self-formation, sexualization in families, and addictive cycles.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Elvira M. Ventura-Filipe
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare HIV seronegative (HIV- and HIV seropositive (HIV+ males in terms of sexual behavior with female and male partners of different types. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. From August 1994 to February 1995, a sample of 236 respondents (150 HIV- and 86 HIV+ recruited from public health centers in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, answered a questionnaire, including questions on demographic aspects, HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sexual orientation, use of alcohol and other drugs, sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners within the previous three months, was investigated. RESULTS: A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in sexual contact with regular female partners (p < .01 and in vaginal intercourse with this type of partner (p < .01. A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in overall sexual activity (p < .001 and reported lower frequency of penetrative sexual practices (p < .05. A high level of condom use with female and male partners was identified with no significant differences being found between the two serostatus groups. Some risky sexual behavior was identified, however, especially with regular partners, suggesting that some men were continuing to practice unsafe sex. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of condom use identified suggests that safer sex advice has been taken up. Condom use was not universal, however, and some men continue to place themselves at risk, especially with regular partners. Prevention programs should strive not only to encourage HIV- to practice safer sex, but also to encourage HIV+ to do so in order to prevent further transmission of the virus.
Ventura-Filipe Elvira M.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare HIV seronegative (HIV- and HIV seropositive (HIV+ males in terms of sexual behavior with female and male partners of different types. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. From August 1994 to February 1995, a sample of 236 respondents (150 HIV- and 86 HIV+ recruited from public health centers in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, answered a questionnaire, including questions on demographic aspects, HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sexual orientation, use of alcohol and other drugs, sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners within the previous three months, was investigated. RESULTS: A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in sexual contact with regular female partners (p < .01 and in vaginal intercourse with this type of partner (p < .01. A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in overall sexual activity (p < .001 and reported lower frequency of penetrative sexual practices (p < .05. A high level of condom use with female and male partners was identified with no significant differences being found between the two serostatus groups. Some risky sexual behavior was identified, however, especially with regular partners, suggesting that some men were continuing to practice unsafe sex. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of condom use identified suggests that safer sex advice has been taken up. Condom use was not universal, however, and some men continue to place themselves at risk, especially with regular partners. Prevention programs should strive not only to encourage HIV- to practice safer sex, but also to encourage HIV+ to do so in order to prevent further transmission of the virus.
Bayley, M; Nielsen, J R; Baatrup, E
There is widespread concern that some environmental chemicals can reduce the reproductive capability of humans and wildlife by mimicking natural estrogens and disrupting endocrine function. This potential threat to animal populations posed by xenoestrogens has, hardly surprisingly, been met...... strongly on the ability to perform the appropriate sexual behavior. The sexual display of the male guppy is strongly linked to reproductive success and is readily quantified under laboratory conditions. This preliminary study demonstrates that exposure of adult male guppies to water weakly contaminated...
Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132
Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra
The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior.
Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend
The introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the mid 1980s has led not only to an increased attention to antidepressant-induced sexual side effects, but also to a paradigm shift in the theory of premature ejaculation (PE). Because of their ejaculation delaying effects,
Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor
Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.
Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified
Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E
We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.
Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…
Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M
Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.
Spees, Emil R.
Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…
Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM) are engaging in sexual risk taking in China in recent years. Given the high rates of HIV infection among MSM in China, it is urgent that we understand the factors that influence MSM's practice of sexual risk taking. Disgust sensitivity, which elicits a behavioral avoidance response, has the potential to influence risky sexual behavior. The present study examined the relationship between disgust sensitivity and sexual risk behavior among MSM in China. Men (n = 584) who reported having anal intercourse in the previous 6 months were recruited from the Internet. Two indicators of sexual risk behaviors were measured: condom use and the number of sex partners. The results indicated that moral disgust was positively associated with condom use, with MSM who had higher moral disgust being more likely to use condoms than others did. Sexual disgust was positively associated with the number of sex partners, with MSM who had higher sexual disgust having fewer male sex partners than others did. Sexual and moral disgust sensitivity significantly predicted HIV testing. Our study verified that sexual and moral disgust suppressed sexual risk behaviors and promoted HIV testing. Moral and sexual education should be incorporated in future strategies for HIV prevention and encouragement of safe sex behaviors among MSM in China. PMID:28119646
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…
Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.
Longitudinal research has demonstrated a link between exposure to sexual content in media and subsequent changes in adolescent sexual behavior, including initiation of intercourse and various noncoital sexual activities. Based on a reanalysis of one of the data sets involved, Steinberg and Monahan (2011) have challenged these findings. However,…
Fraser, S E
The application on a massive scale of various population, family planning, sex education measures in China is a societal feature that is quickly evident to the country's visitors. For anyone concerned with population limitation on a national scale, the Chinese experiments and progress are of particular interest. In China there is a clearly discernible 3 step program: the minimization of sexual interest or enforced "national abstinence standard" in the teen years; a period of intense propaganda to postpone marriage until the mid 20s and avoid sexual intercourse outside marriage; and a concerted educational campaign aimed predominantly at married females for the 20 year span covering the fertile ages of approximately 25-45 to limit families. The Chinese approach to family planning and sexual education is direct and ubiquitous. One of the more paradoxical aspects of China's campaign to enforce their severe and particular natalist policy is the relatively high level of preventive sex knowledge among young married couples and the virtual absence of any major form of sex education for teenagers in the schools. In the past few years there has been a modest yet detectable change in this approach. Some middle school students are now being introduced, albeit on a sexually segregated basis, to somewhat wider aspects of population knowledge and human population studies. For the most part these units fall into the traditional teaching areas utilized in many western nations, i.e., physiology, biology, and physical education courses. The development and expansion of such courses may foreshadow the gradual introduction nationally of new material into the middle schools, but the predominant aim of sex education will remain the limitation and control of population. Some of the answers to sex education questions posed by this author in various schools and to a range of senior education officials are reported. The answers represent a recent sample, extracted from a number gathered
Roller, Cyndi Gale
Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.
Somers, C L; Paulson, S E
The main goal of this study was to explore how parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality were associated with three aspects of adolescent sexuality (sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors). Participants were 157 boys and girls in grades 9 to 12 from two suburban high schools in the Midwest. Canonical correlation analyses revealed two significant combinations of variables. First, younger age and less maternal and paternal communication were related to less sexual behavior and less sexual knowledge. Second, being younger and female and receiving less maternal communication was related to less sexual knowledge and more conservative attitudes. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of parental closeness in conjunction with parental communication did not have a significant influence on these adolescents' sexuality. Given the importance of both age and parental communication in predicting adolescent's sexuality in this study, implications concerning the timing of communication become evident.
Webb, Monica C; Chaney, J Don; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia J; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie
Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one's intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause's instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies.
Brower, Linda A.; Southworth, Warren H.
Describes sex education as process of character-building, indicating need for teacher to decide what personal commitments are necessary for meaningful personal relationships. Presents research data to help teachers clarify stand on sexual behavior or use findings as background information for discussion. (Author/CJ)
Harvey, S. Marie; Spigner, Clarence
A self-administered survey examining multiple factors associated with engaging in sexual intercourse was completed by 1,026 high school students in a classroom setting. Findings suggest that effective interventions to address teenage pregnancy need to utilize a multifaceted approach to the prevention of high-risk behaviors. (JPS)
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
LIU Yongchang; F.Sommer; E.J. Mittemeijer
The austenite → ferrite transformation is the most important reaction route in the manufacture of Fe-based materials. Here the austenite (γ) → ferrite (α)transformation of pure iron was systematically explored by high-resolution dilatometry. Abnormal transformation kinetics, multi-peak discontinuous reaction, was recognized in pure iron according to the variation of the ferrite-formation rate. The occurrence the one or the other type of γ→α trans formation strongly depends on the grain size: the transformation type changes from abnormal to normal (single-peak continuous reaction) with decreasing grain size. The inherent reason for the occurrence of abnormal transformation could be attributed to the repeated nucleation in front of the moving γ/α interface induced by the accumulation of elastic and plastic accommodation energy.
Pachankis, John E; Buttenwieser, Indiana G; Bernstein, Laura B; Bayles, Damon O
Recent evidence suggests that young sexual minority men's sexual position identities (e.g., "top," "bottom," "versatile") may be governed by dynamic influences. Yet, no study has prospectively examined whether, how, and why this aspect of sexual minority men's sexuality changes over time. Consequently, the present study investigated the extent to which young sexual minority men use sexual position identities consistently over time, typical patterns of position identity change, explanations given for this change, and the correspondence of changing sexual position identities with changing sexual behavior and fantasies. A total of 93 young sexual minority men indicated their sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies at two assessment points separated by 2 years. Following the second assessment, a subset (n = 28) of participants who represented the various sexual position identity change patterns provided explanations for their change. More than half (n = 48) of participants changed their sexual position identity. Participants showed a significant move away from not using sexual position identities toward using them and a significant move toward using "mostly top." Changes in position identity were reflected, although imperfectly, in changes in sexual behavior and largely not reflected in fantasy changes. Participants offered 11 classes of explanations for their identity changes referencing personal development, practical reasons, changing relationships, and sociocultural influences. Previous investigations of sexual minority men's sexual position identities have not adequately attended to the possibility of the changing use of the sexual position categories "top," "bottom," and "versatile" across young adulthood. Results of the present study suggest the possibility of a more fluid, context-dependent use of these terms than previously documented.
Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel
Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.
Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J
Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.
Bjekić Milan D.
Full Text Available Introduction The risks associated with teenage sex include pregnancy and a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Material and methods The study compared female teenagers: 32 with STDs and 90 with fungal skin infections who were treated in the City Center for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from January 2000 to June 2001. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data and an univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The mean age of participants was 18.2 years. About 40% of respondents reported to have their first sexual intercourse at the age of 14-16 years. The majority of cases and controls had one or two partners, but a greater percentage of cases had six or more partners compared to controls (12.5% vs. 3.3%. Adolescents with STDs frequently had sexual intercourse on the first date (p<0.05, and more frequently reported previous STDs in their personal history (p<0.05. Consistent use of condoms was less frequent among cases than among controls, both with steady (9.4% vs. 27.8% and irregular partners (30.0% vs. 70.6%. The majority of teenagers (95% thinks that sexual education at schools should be better. Discussion According to the results obtained, which are in agreement with literature data, teenagers should change their behavior, especially with respect to condom use both during vaginal and anal sex. Health education at schools could probably influence future sexual behavior, and counseling for STDs should be offered to all teenagers attending STD clinics. Conclusion The best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy and STDs is to delay the first sexual experience, reduce the number of sexual partners and increase the protection by condom use.
Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.
“网恋”,作为一个新名词,始见于报端。“网恋”,似乎以悲剧或失败告终者居多。本文让我们大吃一惊: Over 80% of those questioned reported having Internet access, and almost35% of these men said they went online to seek a sexual partner, the majorityreporting they did so more than once. …seeking sex on the Internet was generally associated with high-risk sexualbehavior。 我的儿子,每日上网,近来成绩迅速下跌,此文引起我的思考:Interntrepresent a new risk environment?】
Full Text Available Background: Abnormal illness behavior (AIB can contribute poor functioning in an individual along with significant increase in health care utilization. It has been studied in various disorders. This study examined the feasibility of assessing abnormal illness behavior in individuals with stroke who were undergoing treatment in a psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were admitted to the department of psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation ward for post-stroke rehabilitation treatment were assessed using screening version of Illness Behavior Questionnaire (SIBQ. Results: The total number of subjects who were screened was eight. The mean score of SIBQ was 6.125 ± 1.35. With the cut off score of 7, five subjects had abnormal illness behavior. Conclusions: The above study highlights that it is feasible to screen individuals with stroke undergoing rehabilitation for possibility of abnormal illness behavior.
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
Atuyambe, Lynn; Bazeyo, William; Tanga, Erasmus Otolok
Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34) compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97). Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59). Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58). Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote individual
Yost, Megan R; Zurbriggen, Eileen L
An unrestricted sociosexual orientation (the endorsement of casual sex) has been found to correlate with undesirable behaviors and personality characteristics more so in men than in women. Using a community sample of men and women, we investigated the correlations between sociosexuality and behaviors, motives, attitudes, and fantasies related to sexual aggression. Participants (n = 168; ages 21-45) completed self-report measures of sociosexual orientation, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, attitudes toward women, sexual behaviors, and perpetration of sexual aggression. Participants also wrote five brief stories that were scored for power and affiliation-intimacy motives and two sexual fantasies that were coded for the theme of dominance. For both men and women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was correlated with behavioral items indicating earlier life experiences with sex, a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and more frequent sexual activity. For men, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was linked with higher levels of rape myth acceptance and adversarial sexual beliefs; more conservative attitudes toward women; higher levels of power motivation and lower levels of affiliation-intimacy motivation; and past use of sexual aggression. For women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual fantasies of dominance and lower levels of sexual conservatism.
Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook
Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.
Full Text Available Aim: To identify the main components related to the thoughts and erotic practices of students at Universidad del Valle, San Fernando Campus. Method: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 to evaluate the students´ necessities on sexual and reproductive health (SRH in two faculties in a public university in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. A total of 1120 students were evaluated. Results: An information technology system was designed for this study. Six hundred and ninety five (62% of the subjects were women with an average age of 20 years, mostly coming from underprivileged economic backgrounds. The average age for the beginning of sexual intercourse was 16 without differences by educational level. Fifty percent had their first intercourse before their final adolescence, 42.3% have had 2 to 5 sexual partners. Women enjoy sex with less frequency than men (p=0.022. Men have higher frequency of sexual intercourse outside of the couple than women (p=0.001. Conclusions: Men adopted risk behaviors in erotic practices such as more sexual couples, high frequency of unfaithfulness. Men report more pleasure in their erotic practices.
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
21.Lawrence S, Janet S. African- American adolescents knowledge, health- related attitudes, Sexual behavior, and contraceptive decisions: Implications for the prevention of adolescent HIV infection. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 200515: 104-112.Abstract retrieved Jul 15, 2007, from Psych INFO database,. 22.Shojayizade D, Ghobbe N, Mansurian M editors. The effectiveness of Health education couples on Sexual attitude about contraception means. Sexual health position in fertility and infertility seminar: 2003. 15-18: Tehran. Tehran Shahid Beheshti University of Medicine 2004. 23.Usefi E, Besharat M, Yunesi J. An investigation of the correlation between Sexual knowledge and attitude with marital satisfaction among serried couples Inhabiting in married students dormitory at shahid beheshti university. Quarterly journal of Iranian Counseling Association Winter 2008,Vol.6,No26,27-39.
Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex
Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…
Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...
Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H
This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior.
The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to t...
Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B
This study examined the relations of unintentional exposure to Internet sexual content to intentions for sex and condom use and potential mediators of these relations, including attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, among college students in China. A sample of 524 Chinese college students completed an online questionnaire. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the theory of planned behavior as a model of the relations between unintentional exposure and intentions to have sex and use condoms. On average, students reported being unintentionally exposed to Internet sexual content about 3 to 4 times during the past month. Unintentional exposure was indirectly associated with intention to have sex, mediated through descriptive and injunctive norms. Descriptive norm was a stronger mediator for females than males. In contrast, unintentional exposure was unrelated to condom-use intention and mediators. The theory of planned behavior provides a model for the development of Internet-based interventions with these students.
Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C
The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that, when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P
In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.
Thorsen, Maggie L
Adolescent sexuality is a multidimensional concept involving sexual behavior as well as aspects of youth's sexual self-concept and sexual socialization. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of adolescent sexuality, with data from a nationally representative sample of youth (Add Health; n = 13,447), incorporating information on behavioral and psychosocial dimensions of adolescent sexual experiences. LCA results highlighted that youth may exhibit similar sexual behaviors but vary on psychosocial dimensions, including sexual self-efficacy, knowledge, and views about sex. Sociodemographic characteristics, family factors, mental health, and substance use emerged as predictors of membership into different latent classes of sexuality. Given persistent racial differences in sexual outcomes and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, the current study also examined how adolescent patterns of sexuality may help mediate racial differences in sexual outcomes by young adulthood. Results suggested that racial differences in adolescent patterns of sexuality help mediate racial differences in the number of sexual partners by young adulthood but not differences in STI diagnosis. Findings highlight the need for research on multiple aspects of adolescent sexuality to understand linkages with later outcomes and group differences.
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo
We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.
Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena
For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Dubowitz, Howard; And Others
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of 93 prepubertal children evaluated for sexual abuse and 80 nonabused children. Sexually abused children had significantly more behavior problems, including depression, aggression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity, and sexual problems. At four-month follow-up, children with…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.
Jason W Krellman
Full Text Available Pleiotrophin (PTN is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC. PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Pena, Juan; Goldberg, Vincent
The relationship among acculturation-related variables, past sexual activity, and subsequent sexual behavior was examined for a sample of Latino youth in the United States over a 12-month period. A subsample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health database was analyzed by means of a prospective design. History of sexual intercourse predicted subsequent sexual behavior over the ensuing 12 months. The acculturation-related variables were related to whether an adolescent reported being sexually active at Wave 1 but in a complex fashion. Among recent immigrants, youth from English-speaking homes were less likely to be sexually active than those from Spanish-speaking homes. The opposite was observed for youth who were born in the United States or who had resided in the United States most of their lives.
Myers, W C; Burgess, A W; Nelson, J A
This preliminary research provides a descriptive, systematic study of juvenile sexual homicide. Fourteen incarcerated juveniles, identified through a department of corrections computer search, were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview, an author-designed clinical interview, and a review of correctional files and other available records. Five of the offenders' victims survived the homicidal attack, but their cases were nevertheless included in this study as the offenders' intent was clearly to kill their victim, and the victim's survival was merely by chance. All victims were female and all offenders were male. Their crimes typically occurred in the afternoon, and involved a low-risk victim of the same race who lived in the offender's neighborhood. The sexual component of the crime consisted of vaginal rape in over one-half of the cases. Weapons, typically a knife or bludgeon, were used in all but one case. Thirteen of these youths had a prior history of violence, and twelve had previous arrests. Chaotic, abusive backgrounds and poor adjustment in school were typical for these boys. A conduct disorder diagnosis was present in twelve of the youths, and violent sexual fantasies were experienced by one-half of the sample. The findings in this study suggest that juvenile sexual murderers comprise less than 1% of juvenile murderers, and are likely to be an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with serious familial, academic, and environmental vulnerabilities.
Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen
Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)
Chi, Xinli; 遲新麗
This present research aimed (1) to examine the level of sexual health knowledge, patterns of sexual attitudes and prevalence of sex-related behaviours among college students in contemporary China; (2) to explore factors predicting knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding sexuality; and (3) to assess gender differences in both characteristics and correlates. Based on data collected from 274 college students (167 male and 107 female) by the way of convenience sampling, in Hefei, China, Ph...
Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…
... Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors AGENCY: The National... email@example.com . Travel expenses will be paid at the government rate for selected participants who live... behavioral models to monitor the size and destinations of financial transfers, and/or on-line...
Full Text Available Detecting abnormal user activity in social network websites could prevent from cyber-crime occurrence. The previous research focused on data mining while this research is based on user behavior process. In this study, the first step is defining a normal user behavioral pattern and the second step is detecting abnormal behavior. These two steps are applied on a case study that includes real and syntactic data sets to obtain more tangible results. The chosen technique used to define the pattern is process mining, which is an affordable, complete and noise-free event log. The proposed model discovers a normal behavior by genetic process mining technique and abnormal activities are detected by the fitness function, which is based on Petri Net rules. Although applying genetic mining is time consuming process, it can overcome the risks of noisy data and produces a comprehensive normal model in Petri net representation form.
van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Sandfort, T.; Deković, M.
The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms—descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex—and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk b
Full Text Available Background/Aim: It was to investigate the view of registered nurses and nursing students regarding the impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD on their sexual behavior. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: 54.6 % of students and 64.7% of nurses consider that the persons they have sex with could never be infected with AIDS. The majority of students (56.9 % believed, with a statistically significant difference from the nurses (21.3% that it is the man’s responsibility to provide the condoms. A statistically significant difference was also observed between nurses and nursing students regarding the sufficiency of their STD knowledge (75.0% vs 8.6%. Conclusions: STD have an impact on nurses’ and nursing students’ sexual behavior Nursing students’ consider they have a lack of knowledge on STD issues.
Pfaus, J G
Theoretical models of animal and human sexual behavior have evolved from two very different literatures, yet they contain many common behavioral components that may reflect the action of similar neuroendocrine and neurochemical systems. The study of animal sexual behavior has been largely concerned with mechanisms that underlie the pattern of consummatory behaviors observed during copulation, behaviors that tend to be highly stereotyped, sexually differentiated, and species-specific. There are important species differences in the behavioral topography, endocrine control, and neural substrates of consummatory behaviors, which tend to be extreme when comparing animals and humans. Although this has led to an increased interest in comparative animal behavior, it has also helped to foster a general perception that animals and humans are fundamentally different. In contrast to consummatory behaviors, appetitive behaviors (which serve to bring animals and humans into contact with sexual incentives) are more flexible, less sexually differentiated, and less species-specific and span a variety of situations other than sexual interactions. Appetitive behaviors are thus viewed as "sexually specific" when they are displayed under sexual circumstances and reinforced by sexual incentives. Interestingly, an appetitive/consummatory dichotomy has emerged in the human literature which distinguishes measures of sexual desire or arousal from "performance" measures of masturbation or copulation. In fact, sexual desire, which reflects fantasy and behavioral excitement, has been further differentiated from sexual arousal, which reflects genital blood flow. The present analysis attempts to pull together these seemingly disparate literatures into a coherent theoretical framework that emphasizes similarities and differences in the structure of sexual behavior across rats and humans.
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W
Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior.
Alves, R; Alóe, F; Tavares, S; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V
Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. Family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome.
Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma
Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys.
Marshall H. Medoff
Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether womens unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.
Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A
Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological
Sarah L. Jacobson
Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to
Pal, Aruna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath
The decline in the male reproductive ability in terms of sexual behavior and seminal traits might lead to nonavailability of required number of bulls in a progeny testing program. The present study was conducted in 493 crossbred cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bulls to study polymorphisms of growth hormone (GH) gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral characteristics. A 428-base pair fragment of GH gene spanning over the fourth exon, fourth intron, and fifth exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Bulls were found to be polymorphic, with two variants, LL and LV, and higher genotypic frequency for LL being 0.88. Twelve nucleotide changes and a single nonsynonymous substitution of Leucine by Valine were observed from GH1 (L) to GH2 (V). Statistical analysis revealed that the genotype of the GH gene had a significant effect on libido score, reaction time, Flehmen response, requirement of mounting stimulus, sperm mass activity, number of semen doses per collection, individual fresh sperm motility, postthaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling test, live and dead count, total morphological abnormality, and head abnormality of sperm in crossbred bulls. Growth hormone gene might be considered a candidate gene for seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.
Apt, C; Hurlbert, D F
To examine the sexual attitudes, behaviors, and intimate relationships of individuals with histrionic personality disorder, this study compared a sample of women with histrionic personality disorders to an adequately matched sample of women without personality disorders (aged 24-31 years) using various measures. As compared to the control group, women with histrionic personality were found to have significantly lower sexual assertiveness, greater erotophobic attitudes toward sex, lower self-esteem, and greater marital dissatisfaction. Women in the histrionic group were also found to evidence significantly greater sexual preoccupation, lower sexual desire, more sexual boredom, greater orgasmic dysfunction, and were more likely to enter into an extramarital affair than their counterparts. Despite these findings, a higher sexual esteem was noted among the histrionic group. This pattern of sexual behavior noted among histrionic women appears consistent with those behaviors exhibited in sexual narcissism. These findings and treatment considerations are explored.
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R
The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.
Ogura, Yuki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Nagino, Koki; Ishikawa, Kei; Fukahori, Yoko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
In the Japanese quail, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed avian neurosteroid, is actively produced in the brain. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a novel neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of quail. Therefore, in this study, we determined whether 7α-hydroxypregnenolone changes the expression of sexual behavior in Japanese quail. We first measured diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail exposed to a long-day photoperiod. We found that sexual behavior of male quail was high in the morning when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is high. Subsequently, we centrally administered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone in the evening when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is low. In the 30 min after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone dose dependently increased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. However, 7β-hydroxypregnenolone, a stereoisomer of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, did not effect on the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. In addition, to confirm the action of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone on sexual behavior, male birds received an ICV injection of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450s, and behavioral experiments were performed in the morning. Ketoconazole significantly decreased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail, whereas administration of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone to ketoconazole-treated males increased the frequency of their sexual behavior. These results indicate that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.
An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a "route map" in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different academic perspectives on understanding sexuality. It is suggested that both excitation and inhibition of sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior act at various levels in a hierarchical structure, and much confusion can be avoided by distinguishing these levels. The model integrates information from different branches of psychology: biological, evolutionary, clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social. It describes interactions between sexual behavior and anxiety, attachment, aggression, and drug taking; and it is applied to gender differences, evolutionary psychology, sexual deviancy, sexual addiction, and the biological bases of sexuality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, more adolescents are engaging in premarital sex in China. However, only a limited number of studies have explored out-of-school youth's sexual attitudes and behaviors, critical for prevention intervention development. Methods Using data from the baseline survey of a comprehensive sex education program that was conducted in a suburb of Shanghai in 2000–2002, this study describes sexual attitudes, patterns of communication on sexual matters, and premarital sexual behavior among 1,304 out-of-school youth. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with youth's premarital sexual intercourse. Results The majority (60% of out-of-school youth held favorable attitudes towards premarital sex. Males were more likely to have favorable attitudes compared with females. Male youth generally did not communicate with either parent about sex, while one-third of female youth talked to their mothers about sexual matters. Both males and females chose their friends as the person with whom they were most likely to talk about sexual matters. About 18% of the youth reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. One-fifth of sexually active youth had always used a contraceptive method, and one-quarter had been pregnant (or had impregnated a partner. There were no gender differences in rate of premarital sex or frequency of contraceptive use. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, education, family structure, parent's discipline, attitudes towards premarital sex, pattern of communication and dating were significantly associated with youth premarital sex. Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sexual behaviors. Prevention programs that empower communication and sexual negotiation skills, and promote condom use should be implemented for this vulnerable group.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora
Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R
Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research report focuses on the associations between substance use, sexual behaviors, deviant behaviors, self-reported health, and cyber dating abuse perpetration. Participants included 705 ethnically diverse adolescents ( n = 408; 57.9% female) in Southeast Texas. Having had sexual intercourse or using alcohol or drugs before having sex was significantly linked with cyber dating abuse perpetration, as was poor physical health, and substance use. Consistent with limited research, we found a link between cyber dating abuse and engagement in bullying behaviors. The discussion section includes suggestions for school nurse practice and further research.
Deptula, Daneen P; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E
Parents have the potential to protect against adolescent sexual risk, including early sexual behavior, inconsistent condom use, and outcomes such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Identification of the specific parenting dimensions associated with sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood is necessary to inform and focus prevention efforts. The current study examined the relation of proximal (e.g., discussions of sexual costs) and distal (e.g., parental involvement, relationship quality) parenting variables with concurrent and longitudinal adolescent sexual behavior. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) provided a nationally representative sample with information about the family using adolescent and parent informants. Longitudinal information about sexual risk included adolescent condom use and adolescent sexual initiation, as well as young adult unintended pregnancy, reports of STIs, and biological assay results for three STIs. Higher parent-adolescent relationship quality was associated with lower levels of adolescent unprotected intercourse and intercourse initiation. Better relationship quality was also associated with lower levels of young adult STIs, even when accounting for prior sexual activity. Unexpectedly, more parent reports of communication regarding the risks associated with sexual activity were negatively associated with condom use and greater likelihood of sexual initiation. These results demonstrate that parents play an important role, both positive and negative, in sexual behavior, which extends to young adulthood, and underscores the value of family interventions in sexual risk prevention.
Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G
Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.
Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.
Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni
This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477
Full Text Available According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, brain white matter (WM abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and MDD/suicidal behavior. Microstructural WM abnormalities may be located in neural circuits critically implicated in emotional processes and mood regulation resulting in enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric morbidity. WM abnormalities detected using DTI may contribute to functional deficits and help to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD as well as suicidal behavior. By a clinical point of view, research also suggested that affective temperaments may play a relevant role in the psychopathological characteristics of mood disorders, clinical trajectory of episodes and polarity, long-term outcome and suicidality. Unfortunately, only few studies investigated the association between affective temperaments and WM abnormalities and discussed their possible implications in patients with MDD and suicidal behavior. Using a comprehensive search of Medline database, the aim of the present study was to critically review the current literature on the association between WM alterations as assessed by MRI and DTI techniques, affective temperaments, MDD and suicidal behavior.
Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni
This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…
Explored differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers for a sample of 2,808 Dutch secondary school students in 22 schools. Eighteen percent reported unwanted sexual behavior at school in the last 12 months (72% girls; 28% boys). Sexual harassment by teachers was more upsetting than unwanted sexual…
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and
Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi
Estimating the size of key risk groups susceptible to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STI) is necessary for establishment of interventions and budget allocation. This study aimed to identify various dimensions of sexual orientation and practices in Israel, and correlate the findings with sexual risk behavior (SRB). It used a random representative sample of the Jewish population aged 18-44 years who completed online questionnaires regarding their self-identified sexual orientation, attraction and practices, and SRB. Concordant heterosexuals were those who self-reported heterosexual identity, were attracted and had sex only with the opposite gender. National estimates regarding prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women were based on the civil census. The sample included 997 men and 1005 women, of whom 11.3 and 15.2 % were attracted to the same-gender, 10.2 and 8.7 % reported lifetime same-gender encounters, while 8.2 and 4.8 % self-identified as gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and 57,671, respectively. SRB was more common among self-identified gays or bisexual men and among discordant heterosexual men and women. Those who reported same-gender sexual practices reported greater SRB than those who only had opposite-gender encounters. Interestingly, SRB among discordant heterosexuals was associated with same-sex behavior rather than attraction. Health practitioners should increase their awareness of sexual diversity among their clientele, and should recognize that risk for HIV/STI may exist among self-identified heterosexuals, who may not disclose their actual sexual attraction or practices.
More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.
Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon
The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present.
Abstract Background and aim: According to the American Psychiatric Association female sexual dysfunction are classified in four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal, orgasm and pain. Having chronic Sexual dysfunction can lead to anxiety, depression, aggression and create problems in other aspects of life. The aim of this study was to Investigate the effect of cognitive-behavior counseling on anxiety and aggression in women with sexual dysfunction. Methods: In thi...
Baams, L.; Dubas, J.S.; Overbeek, G.J.; van Aken, M.A.G.
The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2
Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric
Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…
Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R
Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
Harden, K Paige
There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Singh, B K; Koman, J J; Catan, V M; Souply, K L; Birkel, R C; Golaszewski, T J
This study examined sexual risk behavior of 154 seropositive Hispanic injection drug-using clients who were a subsample of a larger study. The results revealed that while nearly 71% followed safe sex practices at a 6-month follow-up, the other 29% were following risky sexual behaviors. Among males who were 25 years of age or younger, slightly over 58% were practicing unsafe sex. Among females, those in the 31-35 age group were all following risky sexual behaviors. Generally, those who lived with their sexual partners, females, and younger clients tended to follow risky sexual behaviors. These findings are very significant in the light of the heterosexual transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Educational and case management programs are needed to provide such clients with an understanding of the possibility of HIV transmission to their sexual partners and to their children in case of pregnancies.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender
Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Abenavoli, Elisabetta; Schimmenti, Adriano; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A
Alexithymia is a construct which denotes thought characterized by pragmatic content, an inability to recognize and verbally express emotion, a difficulty in distinguishing between feelings and bodily sensations, and a limitation in fantasy life. Research has revealed a role for alexithymia in different kinds of sexual dysfunctions; it was also associated with reduced frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse but not with sexual behaviors-like masturbation-which do not include an emotional interaction in normal individuals. The aim of this research was to further investigate the association between alexithymia scores and sexual behavior in a sample of normal individuals, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and anger). Participants were 300 university students (142 men and 158 women); sexual behavior was measured by the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man) Scale while alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The findings of the study showed that higher alexithymia scores were associated with lower levels of sexual satisfaction and higher levels of sexual detachment for females, and with sexual shyness and sexual nervousness for both genders. Results also suggested that the correlations between alexithymia scores and sexual behavior are partially influenced by the effect of negative emotions. Overall, it seems that the same detachment which denotes the alexithymic interpersonal style also characterizes sexual behavior.
Andreev-Andrievskii, A A; Tsvirkun, D V; Makarenko, E Yu; Andreeva, L A; Mart'yanov, A A
Centrally administered doses of the tripeptide corticoliberin fragment CRF(4-6) (Pro-Pro-Ile) suppressed mating behavior in male rats. Doses of 1 and 2 microg of the tripeptide produced dose-dependent increases in the latent periods of mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Changes in measures of sexual behavior demonstrated that the corticoliberin fragment CRF(4-6) suppressed both sexual motivation and sexual performance.
Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition.
Karp, Natasha A; Heller, Ruth; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K; Benjamini, Yoav
Biological research frequently involves the study of phenotyping data. Many of these studies focus on rare event categorical data, and functional genomics studies typically study the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype. With the growing interest in the role of sex, there is a need to assess the phenotype for sexual dimorphism. The identification of abnormal phenotypes for downstream research is challenged by the small sample size, the rare event nature, and the multiple testing problem, as many variables are monitored simultaneously. Here, we develop a statistical pipeline to assess statistical and biological significance while managing the multiple testing problem. We propose a two-step pipeline to initially assess for a treatment effect, in our case example genotype, and then test for an interaction with sex. We compare multiple statistical methods and use simulations to investigate the control of the type-one error rate and power. To maximize the power while addressing the multiple testing issue, we implement filters to remove data sets where the hypotheses to be tested cannot achieve significance. A motivating case study utilizing a large scale high-throughput mouse phenotyping data set from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, where the treatment is a gene ablation, demonstrates the benefits of the new pipeline on the downstream biological calls.
Lei, Ming; Luo, Lu; Ma, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xi-Hong; Li, Liang
Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, social isolation affects cell apoptosis in different brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Both the changes in neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis may contribute to the behavioral dysfunctions in social isolated rats. Since schizophrenic patients have similar abnormalities in behaviors and neurotransmitters, isolation rearing can be used as a useful animal model of schizophrenia.
Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Chul Sung; Cho, Yong-Hyun
Sexually transmitted infections are diseases provoking a great social and economic burden as well as health-related problems, and with the aging of society and the extension of life expectancy sexually transmitted infections in the elderly have drawn more attention these days. For the management of sexually transmitted infections in this population, basic epidemiological data need to be established. In this study, 1,804 persons from the general population aged over 60 years visiting health examination centers were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and interviewed about the patterns of sexual behavior of elderly people through questionnaires. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia recorded were 0.222% (4/1804), 0 (none), and 0.776% (14/1804), respectively. The results of the survey showed that the sexual life of the elderly people was currently active, and the sexual behavior of chlamydia patients was distinguished in some characteristics from that of the general participants. Political management to prevent sexually transmitted infections needs to be continued in elderly people as it is in other age groups. More detailed follow-up studies are necessary to determine the incidence and prevalence rates of the diseases in the elderly population in future, and the results of this study are considered to be useful as basic data for such studies.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTParkinson’s disease (PD is a neuropathological and debilitating disorder involving the degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Neuroprotective effect of hesperetin has already been reported, therefore, this study examined whether the administration of this flavonoid would attenuate behavioral abnormalities in an experimental model of PD in rat. For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 12.5 μg/5μl of saline-ascorbate-lesioned rats were pretreated i.p. with hesperetin (10 mg/kg. It was found out that hesperetin administration attenuates the rotational behavior in lesioned rats. In summary, hesperetin administration attenuates behavioral abnormality in hemiparkinsonian rats and this may be of benefit, along with other therapies, in neurodegenerative disorders including PD.
Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173
Trieu, Sang Leng; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Bratton, Sally I.
Analyzed were the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander (API) California community college students who took the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey. This was done to identify characteristics related to sexual behavior and choice of birth control and examine the association between condom use and history…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail
Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…
Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record
Houle, Brian; Angotti, Nicole; Clark, Samuel J; Williams, Jill; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Menken, Jane; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Tollman, Stephen M
Researchers are often skeptical of sexual behavior surveys: respondents may lie or forget details of their intimate lives, and interviewers may exercise authority in how they capture responses. We use data from a 2010-2011 cross-sectional sexual behavior survey in rural South Africa to explore who s
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…
Full Text Available Background: Hypoactive sexual desire disorder as the most prevalent sexual dysfunction has a major role in marital relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cognitive-behavioral teaching on improvement of women sexual function.Materials and Methods: In this semi experimental study, the sample size were 30 women that 15 were randomly selected for each experimental and control group of women with hypoactive sexual desire. At first the pretest was carried out in both groups and then the experimental group was thought for 10 sessions. At the end the posttest was carried out in the groups. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 software and differential independent t test.Results: There was a significant difference between mean of differential scores of both groups sexual function that suggests a significant impact of the educational program on improvement of sexual function in women with hypoactive sexual desire (p=0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended to use these teachings by specialist into therapeutic program of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura
In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393
Michelle Elena Hartley-McAndrew
Full Text Available The relationship between epilepsy, epileptiform discharges, cognitive, language and behavioral symptoms is not clearly understood. Since difficulties with socialization and maladaptive behaviors are found in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, we inquired whether epileptiform activity and seizures are associated with adverse behavioral manifestations in this population. We reviewed our EEG database between 1999-2006, and identified 123 children with ASD. EEG abnormalities were found in 39 children (31%. A control group of age and gender matched ASD children with normal EEG’s was obtained. Packets of questionnaires including the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (VABS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS were sent by mail. Out of 21 packets received, 11 had normal and 10 had abnormal EEG’s. There were no statistically significant differences in behavior between the two groups. Statistical analysis of discharge location and frequency did not reveal a significant trend. However, children with ASD and seizures had statistically significant lower scores in VABS daily living (P=0.009 and socialization (P=0.007 as compared to those without seizures. ASD children with seizures had higher ABC levels of hyperactivity and irritability. Differences in irritability scores nearly reached statistical significance (P=0.058. There was no significant difference in the degree of CARS autism rating between the groups. Our study did not reveal statistically significant differences in behaviors between ASD children with and without EEG abnormalities. However, ASD children with seizures revealed significantly worse behaviors as compared to counterparts without seizures.
Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high adaptive potential in old age.
Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high potential for adaptation in old age.
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Full Text Available Group anomaly identification and location is an important issue in the field of artificial intelligence. Capture of the accident source and rapid prediction of mass incidents in public places are difficult problems in intelligent video identification and processing, but the traditional group anomaly detection research has many limitations when it comes to accident source detection and intelligent recognition. We are to research on the algorithms of accident source location and abnormal group identification based on behavior analysis in the condition of dramatically changing group geometry appearance, including: 1 to propose a logic model of image density based on the social force model, and to build the crowd density trend prediction model integrating “fast and fuzzy matching at front-end” and “accurate and classified training at back-end”; 2 to design a fast abnormal source flagging algorithm based on support vector machine, and to realize intelligent and automatic marking of abnormal source point; 3 to construct a multi-view human body skeleton invariant moment model and a motion trajectory model based on linear parametric equations. The expected results of the research will help prevent abnormal events effectively, capture the first scene of incidents and the abnormal source point quickly, and play a decision support role in the proactive national security strategy.
Marina Fisher Nucci
analyzing if and how contemporary theories about homosexuality are related to the idea of the "Third sex", we reviewed 211 papers about homosexuality, published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior from 1971 to 2006. The papers were classified in five categories: Psychological, Biomedical, Sociological/Cultural, HIV and Others. We analyzed two groups of papers included in the "Biomedical" category. The first group encompasses studies that try to establish a relationship between homosexuality in adulthood and "atypical gender behavior" in childhood (for instance, how girls preferred balls instead of dolls and vice-versa. In the second group, the studies searched for anatomic differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals (such as length of the fingers and of the penis that would indicate "abnormal levels" of pre-natal hormones, these being responsible for the cerebral lateralization that defines sexual orientation. We concluded that both groups of papers are based on a view of heterosexuality as a distinctive characteristic of gender that links homosexual males to heterosexual females and vice versa. This type of approach has great similarity with the 19th century theory of the "Third sex"; however, vague and metaphysical concepts, such as "soul" and "mind", have been replaced by more concrete and physical concepts such as "brain".
Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane
Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…
Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C
While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.
Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.
Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137
Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20-76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder.
Lang Delia L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall.
Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia
Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p < .001] and unprotected vaginal acts [F(8, 422) = 8.444, p < .001] at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors.
Zn1-xMnxO nanowires were synthesized through chemical vapor deposition of pure Zn and MnCl2 power mixtures on silicon substrates. The morphology, structure and composition were measured by SEM, TEM, EDX and XRD. Magnetic properties were measured by SQUID. The results show that the nanowires exhibit clear ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature. An abnormal peak is observed in the M-T curve at 55 K in a magnetic field of 500 Oe.
Parvaneh Karimzadeh; Hadi Zarafshan; Mohammad Reza Alaee
Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The...
Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões
The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexu...
Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed.
Sallah, E D; Grunitzky-Bekele, M; Bassabi, K; Dodzro, K; Sadzo, A; Balogou, A K; Grunitzky, E K; Gaudreau, L
Many studies have shown that in Africa, particularly in Togo, the 20- to 29-year-old age group is the age group most frequently affected by AIDS. This age group accounts for 84% of the students of the University of Benin. We studied students, most of the age group thought to be most at risk, investigating sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes to AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The level of knowledge about the problems of AIDS and STDs was similar for both sexes and for all ages and levels of education of the students. Students had a reasonable knowledge of AIDS, particularly concerning the transmission of HIV (88.6% of students aware), risk behavior (80.8%), AIDS treatment (57.0%) and more general information about HIV (49.4%). They were poorly informed about the transmission (42.9%) and complications (0.69%) of other STDs. Most students had positive attitudes towards HIV issues, particularly the use of preventive measures (3.41 in 5) and the acceptance of infected individuals (3.98 in 5). However, few had seriously considered that AIDS and STDs might impact on their own sex lives (1. 84 in 5) and some were even fatalistic concerning HIV infection. The students were highly sexually active, having intercourse a mean of 31 times per year. Their sexual behavior depended on age and sex. The 15- to 19-year-olds preferred occasional partners. They had sexual intercourse 1 to 3 times per month and used condoms 10 to 20% of the time. The 20- to 29-year-olds had multiple partners. They had sexual intercourse 3 to 5 times per month and used condoms more than 30% of the time. Students over the age of 30 had many partners in addition to their regular partner. They had sexual intercourse 5 to 10 times per month and used condoms 0 to 20% of the time. Significantly more women than men had high-risk sexual behavior (40. 5% of men claimed to regularly use condoms, versus only 22.7% of the women and 11.9% of the women accepted anal penetration versus only 8. 4% of
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) is known to influence sexual behavior in many vertebrate taxa,but there have been no systematic studies on the role of lhrh in sexual behavior of turtles.we tested the hypotheses that exogenous lhrh analogues would induce sexual behavior of male four-eyed turtle,sacalia quadriocellata.we examined this by challenging males with intramuscular injections of mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (lhrh-a),human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg),or a combination of the two,and subsequently exposing them to sexually receptive females for behavioral observation.our data show that the injection of only hcg could not,while that of only lhrh-a could,facilitate sexual behavior along with testicular recrudescence and spermatogenesis in s.quadriocellata.the injection of both lhrh-a and hcg would induce more drastic sexual behavior of the animals than that of lhrh-a alone,indicating hcg enhances the effects of lhrh-a induced sexual behavior.however,different pharmacological dosages of lhrh-a (0.5 μg,1 μg,2 μg per 100 g bodyweight) did not correspond to different activity levels.though the mechanism of lhrh effect was not determined,this study may support that the sexual behavior ofs.quadriocellata which occurs at the beginning of the injection despite regression of the gonads.this is the first report on the exogenous lhrh-a induced sexual behavior for this species.
Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon
While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.
Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M
"Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.
Deutsch, Arielle R; Crockett, Lisa J
There is little research on how specific parent-adolescent sexual communication topics influence Latino/a youth's sexual behaviors, and how gender and generational status may moderate effects. This study examined effects of three different messages on intercourse and condom use among 1944 Latino/as from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (T1 mean age=15.46; sd=1.50). Results indicated discussing health consequences predicted higher odds of intercourse one year later across gender and generation groups. Birth control recommendation effects on subsequent intercourse and condom use differed by generational status and gender. Results indicated that message content is important for understanding effects of parent-adolescent sex communication on adolescents' behavior, and underscored the need to consider gender and generational status in Latino/a parent-adolescent sexual communication studies.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…
Jones, Sherri Lee; Farrell, Sara; Gregory, James Gardner; Pfaus, James G
The ovariectomized (OVX) rat treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) is used to elucidate neuroendocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior. Chronic behavioral and pharmacological manipulations can be confounded by rising baselines, since females are behaviorally more sensitive to repeated EB injections. The literature lacks a systematic examination of chronic effects of EB administered alone to the sexually experienced OVX rat. Long-Evans rats were repeatedly treated (8 tests) with s.c. injections of 2, 5, or 10 μg EB at different time intervals (4 or 8 days). Female sexual behaviors as well as receipt of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations from the male were observed in the unilevel 4-hole pacing chamber. The effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) and strain (Long-Evans vs. Wistar) were also assessed. Long-Evans OVX rats treated with 5 μg EB every 8 days showed persistently low levels of sexual behavior. Sensitization was most robust following 10 μg EB at 4-day intervals. Very few sexual behaviors were ever induced by 2 μg EB. ADX did not affect the development of behavioral sensitization by 10μg EB. Therefore, to achieve a low steady state of sexual behaviors in sexually experienced Long-Evans OVX rats 5μg of EB administered every 8days is optimal, whereas a persistently high level of sexual behaviors is induced with 10 μg EB administered every 4 days. OVX Wistar rats are behaviorally more sensitive to EB. Behavioral sensitization to EB may serve as a mechanism to optimize reproductive success.
Bankoff, Sarah M; Pantalone, David W
Most disordered eating research has focused on White, heterosexual women. More empirical work is needed to better understand disordered eating among women of diverse backgrounds. Given evidence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) women in other health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease), it appears important to study disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority women. In this article, we review the extant literature on disordered eating behaviors in women across sexual orientations, with a focus on research examining potential mechanisms of disparities in disordered eating, including awareness and internalization of sociocultural norms.
Ozan, S; Aras, S; Semin, S; Orcin, E
Gaining a healthy sexual attitude and behavior and being able to show appropriate approaches to patients in terms of sexual issues are important acquisitions for medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine, compare, and evaluate the sexual attitudes and behaviors of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine students. An anonymous questionnaire was filled in by first- and sixth-year students in order to determine their sexual attitudes and behaviors. While information sources in the adolescence period for both genders were friends in the first place, these sources were mostly mothers, books, newspapers--magazines for females, and newspapers--magazines and television for males. The opinion of males about having sexual intercourse before marriage for males was positive, and females were more tolerant about males having this experience before marriage as compared to females having sexual experience before marriage. Rates of expression of having sexual intercourse and masturbation were found to be higher for male students. The first sexual experience with a sex worker or sentimentally insignificant partner was high among males. In general, the rate of condom use was lower, and the rate of coitus interruptus was found to be higher than in foreign studies. All the students declared 'my own will and values' as the most frequent factor affecting their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and high rates for 'social factors', 'religious requirements', 'the expectations of families', and 'protection from sexually transmitted diseases' were observed. The findings lead to the conclusions that gender differences exist in the sexual attitudes and behaviors of medical students; the enhancing effect of the traditional structure on gender discrimination is still continuing; students are not provided with sufficient scientific approach or training prior to the university education; and beyond biomedical training, they should receive more support in those fields during
Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J
This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.
Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.
Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV
Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs.
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.; George, William H.
A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students' experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes…
Full Text Available Developmental exposure with diazepam when coinciding with the ontogenesis of its receptors may be crucial for the induction of long-term functional disturbances in the rat brain. To investigate the possibility of intervention in the sexually dimorphic behavior of reproduction and the under lying morphological and hormonal basis the time-mated female rats were treated with 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, i.p.(n = 6-8 separately. Treatment was continued from gestation day 15 till delivery and further continued to neonates 5 days, postnatally. Control group (n= 5-8 given saline also followed the same treatment protocol. Sexual behavior in the male offspring at adulthood born to diazepam-exposed rats was enhanced, both in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0.01. Accordingly plasma LH and testosterone concentration both in plasma and testis was also influenced. Compared to controls treated animals also showed complete abolition of spermatogenesis and drastically reduced testicular steroidogenesis. Our findings, thus support the hypothesis that like psychoactive drugs benzodiazepines sedatives that crosses the blood brain barrier during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation offer serious risk of abnormal post-pubertal reproductive functions in the male rat.
Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L
Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently.
Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Gregory, W Larry
Using a prospective design over three complete menstrual cycles, 147 heterosexual and 89 lesbian women made daily recordings of their basal body temperature (BBT), cervical mucus status, menses, and completed a daily checklist of various sexual behaviors (including sexual self-stimulation and sexual activity with a partner). They also gave their age, height, weight, age at menarche, number of pregnancies, duration of sleep, tobacco, caffeine, and alcohol use, and whether they had a live-in sexual partner. Using BBT, cervical mucus status, and menses information, cycle days were grouped into five discrete phases: menses, follicular, ovulatory, early luteal, and premenstrual. Daily frequencies of sexual behavior with a partner and autosexual behavior were computed for each phase. Mixed ANOVAs on the resultant proportional data revealed similar patterns for autosexual behavior across the phases for both heterosexuals and lesbians who did not have a live-in partner, in which autosexual behavior was highest during the follicular and ovulatory phases. For those with live-in partners, autosexual behavior did not vary across the phases. Lesbians engaged in more autosexual behavior overall. Allosexual behavior peaked during the follicular phase for both heterosexuals and lesbians, and the phasic pattern was unrelated to live-in partner status. Additional analyses suggest that the observed patterns were unrelated to anticipated changes in sexual activity due to menses. Results are discussed in terms of social variables and hormonal fluctuations associated with the menstrual cycle.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG to produce phosphatidic acid (PA. DGKβ is widely distributed in the central nervous system, such as the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Recent studies reported that the splice variant at the COOH-terminal of DGKβ was related to bipolar disorder, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed behavioral tests using DGKβ knockout (KO mice to investigate the effects of DGKβ deficits on psychomotor behavior. DGKβ KO mice exhibited some behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and reduced depression. Additionally, hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were attenuated by the administration of the mood stabilizer, lithium, but not haloperidol, diazepam, or imipramine. Moreover, DGKβ KO mice showed impairment in Akt-glycogen synthesis kinase (GSK 3β signaling and cortical spine formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice exhibit lithium-sensitive behavioral abnormalities that are, at least in part, due to the impairment of Akt-GSK3β signaling and cortical spine formation.
Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A
A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.
Sang Su Kwak
Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.
Zhao, Ye; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Li, Feng; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents and sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 295 eligible participants (gay n = 179, bisexual n = 116) were recruited from MSM venues and MSM organizations in Anhui Province, China. Overall, 16.6 % of participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation to parents. Fewer bisexual participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation than gay participants (9.5 vs. 21.2 %, p sex partners among gay and bisexual MSM (AOR = 2.91), non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents was positively associated with the number of female sex partners (AOR = 3.40) and with engagement in unprotected anal intercourse with men (AOR = 2.49) among gay MSM, in the past 6 months. Our findings indicated that HIV/AIDS intervention programs should promote the disclosure of sexual orientation and should design interventions specific to gay and bisexual MSM separately.
Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.
Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles
Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Van Aken, Marcel A G
Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles
Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D
Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.
Doornwaard, Suzan; Bickham, D.S.; Rich, Michael; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether
Apodaca, T R; Moser, N C
Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.
Kenny, Maureen C.; Dinehart, Laura H.; Wurtele, Sandy K.
Many early childhood educators encounter children who exhibit sexual behavior and are not sure how to respond. Although they have had training in childhood development, sexual development is rarely given the attention it deserves. At the same time, early childhood education personnel often get training in child abuse and in their responsibilities…
McKibben, A; Proulx, J; Lusignan, R
The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship in sexual offenders between conflict, affective states and particular sexual behaviors (fantasies and masturbatory activities while having such fantasies). To this end we developed the "Fantasy Report", a self-assessment method for recording affective components and sexual behaviors. Thirteen rapists and 9 pedophiles filled out the Fantasy Report every 2 days for a period of 60 days. In rapists, negative mood and the presence of conflicts coincided with both overwhelming deviant sexual fantasies and increased masturbatory activities while having such fantasies. Furthermore, the emotions most frequently reported by rapists following conflicts were loneliness, humiliation, anger and feelings of inadequacy and rejection. Affective components, however, were not associated with nondeviant sexual behaviors. For the pedophiles, the data revealed a significant relationship only between negative moods and deviant sexual fantasies. These data are interpreted to mean that, in sexual offenders, negative affect is a crucial component in the chain that leads to deviant sexual behaviors.
Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…
March, Alice L.; Atav, A. Serdar
In 2007, 48% of U.S. students of grades 9 to 12 had experienced sexual debut, 7% before the age of 13 years. Preventing early intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, and the loss of educational opportunity are important concerns for nurses and educators. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)…
Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…
Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine
Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…
Baldwin, Patrick; Shrestha, Roman; Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael
Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.
Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.
McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F
We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.
Almonte, Maribel; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Asare, Akua; Gilham, Clare; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Desai, Mina; Kitchener, Henry C; Peto, Julian
Sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs), most frequently HPV 16, are the primary cause of cervical carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior and prevalence and acquisition of HPV infection among British women attending regular cervical screening who responded to postal questionnaires and/or telephone interviews. A total of 1,880 women who had been tested for HPV in the ARTISTIC (A Randomized Trial In Screening To Improve Cytology) trial were randomized to three methods of data collection: group 1 (questionnaire including sexual history, no interview), group 2 (questionnaire excluding sexual history, short interview including sexual history), and group 3 (questionnaire and long interview including sexual history in both). Questions on sexual history included age at first sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, lifetime (total and regular) sexual partners, and number of partners in the last 5 years (total and new). Demographics, reproductive, cervical screening, and smoking history were also collected in questionnaires. The overall participation rate was 35%. There was good agreement (87.4-95.5%) on sexual behavior answers in questionnaires and interviews in women in group 3 and no significant differences between data obtained by questionnaire or interview. Odds ratios (OR) for both HPV prevalence and acquisition increased consistently with increasing numbers of lifetime sexual partners, regular partners, and new partners in the last 5 years (recent partners). No significant association was found for other characteristics investigated. The effect of recent sexual partners on HPV acquisition (OR for 2+ recent partners: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.7-11.2) was stronger than that of earlier (> 5 years ago) partners (OR for 2+ earlier partners: 2.2, 95% CI: 0.7-6.7) suggesting that most incident HPV infections are newly acquired rather than recurrent.
Wen LU; Qiao WANG; Mingyi TIAN; Jin XU; Jian LV; Aizhi QIN
Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle,Glenea cantor (F.)(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae),were investigated.Upon encounter,a male approached a female,mounted her,grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi,and attempted to mate.Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h.Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success,the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait,the bursa copulatrix length,and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length.Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate,suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition.Under a female-biased sex ratio,more than 20％ of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers,suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice.Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating.During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert,and as a result,males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success.
Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN
Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013].
Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Donnelly, J; Goldfarb, E S; Ferraro, H; Eadie, C; Duncan, D F
The association between sexual abstinence and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana was examined in data from questionnaires completed by 874 students in Grades 6 through 8 at six urban schools. These students participated in a program that implemented and evaluated an educational program on abstinence sexuality. It focused on raising self-esteem, improving communication skills, and learning to set life goals. The evaluation instrument contained items assessing sexuality and attitudes toward behaviors related to drug use. Use of each drug (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) was significantly (p < .00001) and positively associated with self-report of having experienced sexual intercourse and expectation of having intercourse during the next year.
This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men’s sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Interne...
Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun
Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects' levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB. PMID:26648855
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A
Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur  that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs.
Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent
Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.
Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon
This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.
Nosenko, N D; Lymarieva, A A
The parameters of female and male sexual behavior in 3- and 6- month old female rats which were exposed to an androgen excess (subcutaneous implantation of Silastic capsules containing 5 mg of crystalline testosterone) from the beginning of pubertal period (at the age of 35 days), or within postpubertal period (at the age of 4 months). Hyperandrogenia in pubertal period had no effect on female sexual behavior formation, but it led to appearance of male behavior components in 100% of animals. In female rats which were implanted with testosterone capsules in postpubertal period, sexual disturbances were more pronounced and were characterized by masculinization and defeminization, which was due to a higher degree of androgenic saturation. The data obtained suggest a leading role of hyperandrogenemia in the pathogenesis of sexual behavior disturbances in female rats in different periods of individual development.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…
Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.
For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.
Benson Wui-Man Lau
Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.
Full Text Available Persons with autism can experience severe issues during the puberty and adolescence resulting from the changes that occur in their body. People with autism are sexual beings. They have sexual needs and desires as other people. Sexual development is part of the overall development of their personality.The main objective of this research was to present sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity among persons with autism. Furthermore, we determined the views and opinions of the parents and students, special educators and rehabilitators, about children with autism. Basic tasks of this research were: to determine whether persons with autism have a clear picture and concept of their sexuality, whether the parents discuss this topic with their children, whether and how persons with autism know what sex is, what is contraception, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases or intimate parts of the body, whether they show some kind of sexual behavior, and whether the parents and students should be educated regarding the sexual development, behavior, and sexual identity of persons with autism.The survey was conducted over a period of almost 3 months, which included 94 respondents.Obtained data was collected, grouped, tabled, and processed with the standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Еxact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and interpretation of the results, we can conclude that in Macedonian families and schools there is a very small extent or no existence of communication between the parents and professionals with persons with autism about sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Persons with autism have very little or no general knowledge about sexuality.
Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H.; Lescano, Celia M.; Stewart, Angela J.; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.
Aims To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Methods Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. Results For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. Discussion These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience. PMID:26023302
Brody, Stuart; Fischer, Agneta H; Hess, Ursula
In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results are discussed in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, as well as susceptibility to reinforcement, and psychoanalytic views of conversion hysteria.
Michael Grossman; Robert Kaestner; Sara Markowitz
Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordin...
Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.
Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska
The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students
Moore, Erin W.
Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…
Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Dornan, Anthony J; Goodwin, Stephen F
Understanding how genes influence behavior, including sexuality, is one of biology's greatest challenges. Much of the recent progress in understanding how single genes can influence behavior has come from the study of innate behaviors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, the elab
McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni
There are not many studies exploring the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors among migrant workers. This study analyzed how changes in alcohol use was associated with changes in risky sexual behavior and psychosocial variables. Data for this study was drawn from an HIV risk reduction project. Repeated measures ANOVA and Linear mixed model statistical method was conducted to find changes and association between alcohol use, sexual risk and psychosocial variables over time. The sample (n = 203) was composed of African Americans (33.0 %) and Hispanics (77.0 %) men. Both groups, over time, showed reduction in sexual risk in accordance with reduction in alcohol use. Changes in alcohol use and psychosocial variables showed significant association with sexual risk changes over time. Psychological strategies like building social support should be considered for HIV risk reduction intervention directed towards high alcohol consuming migrant workers.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Full Text Available A method for the detection of abnormal behavior in HVAC systems is presented. The method combines deterministic subspace identification for each zone independently to create a system model that produces the anticipated zone’s temperature and the sequential test CUSUM algorithm to detect drifts of the rate of change of the difference between the real and the anticipated measurements. Simulation results regarding the detection of infiltration heat losses and the detection of exogenous heat gains such as fire demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.
This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore itis important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Clustermethod from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments wereSchaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, andPornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual BehaviorsScale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldnessin family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in thefirst step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent'spornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances ofpornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents.
Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo
A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system (CNS, the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interests of males and females rarely coincide (sexual conflict, and these conflicting interests influence morphology, behavior and speciation in various organisms. We examined consequences of variation in sexual conflict in two closely-related passerine birds with contrasting breeding systems: the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus (EPT exhibiting a highly polygamous breeding system with sexually antagonistic interests over parental care, and the socially monogamous Cape penduline tit Anthoscopus minutus (CPT. We derived four a priori predictions from sexual conflict theory and tested these using data collected in Central Europe (EPT and South Africa (CPT. Firstly, we predicted that EPTs exhibit more sexually dimorphic plumage than CPTs due to more intense sexual selection. Secondly, we expected brighter EPT males to provide less care than duller males. Thirdly, since song is a sexually selected trait in many birds, male EPTs were expected to exhibit more complex songs than CPT males. Finally, intense sexual conflict in EPT was expected to lead to low nest attendance as an indication of sexually antagonistic interests, whereas we expected more cooperation between parents in CPT consistent with their socially monogamous breeding system. Results Consistent with our predictions EPTs exhibited greater sexual dimorphism in plumage and more complex song than CPTs, and brighter EPT males provided less care than duller ones. EPT parents attended the nest less frequently and less simultaneously than CPT parents. Conclusions These results are consistent with sexual conflict theory: species in which sexual conflict is more manifested (EPT exhibited a stronger sexual dimorphism and more elaborated sexually selected traits than species with less intense sexual conflict (CPT. Our results are also consistent with the notion that EPTs attempt to force their partner to work harder as expected under sexual conflict: each
Yi, W; Ross, J M; Zarkower, D
Sex determination is controlled by global regulatory genes, such as tra-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, Sex lethal in Drosophila, or Sry in mammals. How these genes coordinate sexual differentiation throughout the body is a key unanswered question. tra-1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, TRA-1A, that regulates, directly or indirectly, all genes required for sexual development. mab-3 (male abnormal 3), acts downstream of tra-1 and is known to be required for sexual differentiation of at least two tissues. mab-3 directly regulates yolk protein transcription in the intestine and specifies male sense organ differentiation in the nervous system. It encodes a transcription factor related to the products of the Drosophila sexual regulator doublesex (dsx), which also regulates yolk protein transcription and male sense-organ differentiation. The similarities between mab-3 and dsx led us to suggest that some aspects of sex determination may be evolutionarily conserved. Here we find that mab-3 is also required for expression of male-specific genes in sensory neurons of the head and tail and for male interaction with hermaphrodites. These roles in male development and behavior suggest further functional similarity to dsx. In male sensory ray differentiation we find that MAB-3 acts synergistically with LIN-32, a neurogenic bHLH transcription factor. Expression of LIN-32 is spatially restricted by the combined action of the Hox gene mab-5 and the hairy homolog lin-22, while MAB-3 is expressed throughout the lateral hypodermis. Finally, we find that mab-3 transcription is directly regulated in the intestine by TRA-1A, providing a molecular link between the global regulatory pathway and terminal sexual differentiation.
Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L
We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years.
Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.
Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu
Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Alberto CORRAL-L(O)PEZ; Simon ECKERSTR(O)M-LIEDHOLM; Wouter VAN DER BIJL; Alexander KOTRSCHAL; Niclas KOLM
Animal behavior is remarkably variable at all taxonomic levels.Over the last decades,research on animal behavior has focused on understanding ultimate processes.Yet,it has progressively become more evident that to fully understand behavioral variation,ultimate explanations need to be complemented with proximate ones.In particular,the mechanisms generating variation in sexual behavior remain an open question.Variation in aspects of brain morphology has been suggested as a plausible mechanism underlying this variation.However,our knowledge of this potential association is based almost exclusively on comparative analyses.Experimental studies are needed to establish causality and bridge the gap between micro-and macroevolutionary mechanisms concerning the link between brain and sexual behavior.We used male guppies that had been artificially selected for large or small relative brain size to study this association.We paired males with females and scored the full known set of male and female sexual behaviors described in guppies.We found several previously demonstrated associations between male traits,male behavior and female behavior.Females responded more strongly towards males that courted more and males with more orange coloration.Also,larger males and males with less conspicuous coloration attempted more coerced copulations.However,courting,frequency of coerced copulation attempts,total intensity of sexual behavior,and female response did not differ between large-and small-brained males.Our data suggest that relative brain size is an unlikely mechanism underlying variation in sexual behavior of the male guppy.We discuss these findings in the context of the conditions under which relative brain size might affect male sexual behavior [Current Zoology 61 (2):265-273,2015].
Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P
Literature suggests that young adult prescription opioid misusers who are using alternate routes of administration (e.g., snorting, injecting) may be engaging in sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors. This study examines demographics, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and health and social problems associated with alternate routes of administration of prescription opioids among a sample of young adult prescription opioid misusers. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial. Eligible participants were ages 18-39, and reported recent (past 90 days) heterosexual sex, and recent and regular substance use and attendance at large, recognized local nightclubs. The analyses include 446 racially/ethnically diverse participants. In bivariate regression models, compared to those who did not, participants reporting alternate routes of administration (n = 209) were more likely to be White (p routes of administration of prescription opioids are associated with sexual HIV transmission risk behaviors. Early prevention and intervention efforts that address sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors are warranted.
Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.
Celso Xavier de Melo Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study/understand sexual risk behaviors and the perception of occupational competence in drug addicts, regarding the existence/absence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD. Method: We opted for a quantitative and transversal methodology that provided an exploratory and descriptive nature to the study. To this end, 166 drug addicts aged 34.6 years on average were assessed through the following questionnaires: “Occupational Self Assessment” and “HIV-KQ”. Results: Regarding sexual behaviors, drug addicts infected with HIV were the group using condoms more frequently and having a more comprehensive knowledge about HIV. On the other hand, drug addicts with no STDs presented higher median scores related to occupational competence, volition, and performance ability when compared with the other two groups. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors among drug addicts differ according to their serology. Drug addicts without STD maintain sexual risk behaviors. They seem to have no perception of how serious the fact of being infected with HIV is to their health and occupational ability. When a drug addict is confronted with his own seropositivity to HIV, there seems to be a common behavior related to the use of precautions (condoms, risk reduction in every type of sexual relation, and decreased perception of occupational competence.
Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G
Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.
Nitschke, Joachim; Mokros, Andreas; Osterheider, Michael; Marshall, William L
The phenomenon of sexual sadism was first scientifically described by Richard von Krafft-Ebing in 1999 as a sexual preference disorder that focuses on the infliction of suffering, pain, or humiliation to achieve sexual gratification. The present article reviews the historical development of the term sexual sadism, including the current descriptive nosology of psychiatric classification. Despite clear definitions that specify the sexual objects, duration, and distress necessary for a disorder, evidence for the diagnostic reliability for sexual sadism in the forensic domain is mixed. We argue that the reliance on the patient's willingness to divulge corresponding violent sexual fantasies is the Achilles' heel of the diagnosis. In an attempt to improve agreement across diagnosticians, we argue for the use of behavioral indicators. We summarize the extant research on the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SESAS), which is a file-based observer rating of pertinent crime-scene actions. We conclude that the analysis of crime-scene behavior, as achieved with the SESAS, can provide a useful complement for the clinical diagnosis in forensic psychiatry and psychology.
Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mirandola, Massimo; Weatherburn, Peter; Berg, Rigmor C; Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J
While the prevalence of sexual identities and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) varies across countries, no study has examined country-level structural stigma toward sexual minorities as a correlate of this variation. Drawing on emerging support for the context-dependent nature of MSM's open sexual self-identification cross-nationally, we examined country-level structural stigma as a key correlate of the geographic variation in MSM's sexual attraction, behavior, and identity, and concordance across these factors. Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey, a multi-national dataset containing a multi-component assessment of sexual orientation administered across 38 European countries (N = 174,209). Country-level stigma was assessed using a combination of national laws and policies affecting sexual minorities and a measure of attitudes toward sexual minorities held by the citizens of each country. Results demonstrate that in more stigmatizing countries, MSM were significantly more likely to report bisexual/heterosexual attractions, behaviors, and identities, and significantly less likely to report concordance across these factors, than in less stigmatizing countries. Settlement size moderated associations between country-level structural stigma and odds of bisexual/heterosexual attraction and behavior, such that MSM living in sparsely populated locales within high-structural stigma countries were the most likely to report bisexual or heterosexual behaviors and attractions. While previous research has demonstrated associations between structural stigma and adverse physical and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities, this study was the first to show that structural stigma was also a key correlate not only of sexual orientation identification, but also of MSM's sexual behavior and even attraction. Findings have implications for understanding the ontology of MSM's sexuality and suggest that a comprehensive picture of MSM's sexuality will come
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Gütl, P; Greimel, E R; Roth, R; Winter, R
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy on women's sexual behavior, sexual dysfunction, body image and satisfaction with surgery. A prospective study was conducted on 90 women to evaluate the outcomes of hysterectomy. Data were collected prior to surgery, three months and two years after surgery, using self-report questionnaires. The results showed significant differences in women's sexual behavior and sexual dysfunction before and after hysterectomy, independent of the surgical procedure performed. Women in both groups reported improvements in sexual desire, sexual activity and sexual intercourse three months and two years after surgery. Sexual dysfunction such as dyspareunia, vaginismus, lack of orgasm and loss of sexual interest diminished significantly after surgery. Regression analyses revealed that postmenopausal status, severity of gynecological complaints and frequency of sexual intercourse were the most important factors for improved sexual outcomes. Women in the abdominal group were dissatisfied with their body image because of the abdominal scar, experienced more pain and had a longer period of recovery from surgery compared to women in the vaginal group. According to the results, sexual behavior alone is not an important factor in choosing vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy. However, sexual behavior was important in both groups when evaluating outcomes after hysterectomy.
Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D
The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.
Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D
Consistent with symbolic interactionism and motivation research, the study explored the meanings of sexual behavior in romantic relationships in a sample of 3,003 online respondents. Starting with a pool of 104 respondent-generated items, Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor analyses in separate sample halves revealed a stable set of 9 dimensions within that item pool that formed 2 higher-order factors representing positive (to share pleasure, to bond, to de-stress, to energize the relationship, to learn more about each other) and negative (to manage conflict, as an incentive, to express anger, and to control partner) meanings of sexual behavior within relationships. Item Response Theory analyses helped select the 4-5 most effective items of each dimension for inclusion in the Meanings of Sexual Behavior Inventory (MoSBI). Generalizability analyses suggested that the MoSBI subscale scores continued to show high levels of internal consistency across a broad range of demographic subgroups (e.g., racial/ethnic groups, gay and lesbian respondents, and various levels of education). The MoSBI subscales demonstrated moderate and distinct patterns of association with a range of conceptual boundary scales (e.g., relationship and sexual satisfaction, emotional support, negative conflict behavior, and frequency of sexual behavior) suggesting that these scales represent novel relationship processes. Consistent with this, analyses in the 862 respondents completing a 2-month follow-up assessment suggested that the meanings of sexual behavior predicted residual change in relationship satisfaction, even after controlling for frequency of sexual behavior within the relationships. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Nikken, Peter; de Graaf, Hanneke
Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexual attitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexual attitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexual attitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920
Full Text Available A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8-16 kHz hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR test showed decreased vertical (head movement-induced VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory-related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions.
Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal
This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.
Adelisandra S. S. Castelhano
Full Text Available Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of status epilepticus (SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p. and control animals received saline (0.9 %, 0,1mL/10 g. It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal status epilepticus in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors.
Breitenbecher, Kimberly Hanson
The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the convergent validities of two measures of dating behaviors related to risk for sexual victimization, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) and the Dating Behavior Survey (DBS). Three hundred seventy-seven women responded to measures assessing self-protective dating…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Amoral sexual behaviors refer to the behaviors that are dissociated with moral and immoral sexual behaviors,or in other words,they neither fit in the category of moral behaviors nor in the category of immoral behaviors.The creation of amoral sexual behavior concept will provide necessary support for the transition from the traditional immoral behaviors to the modem moral sexual behaviors,or vice versa.%提出非道德性行为的概念,是指游离于性道德(道德的性行为和不道德德性行为)之外、与之并行的的性行为,它应该是与性道德无关的、即无所谓道德或不道德的性行为.这个概念的提出,可为某些传统的不道德的性行为过渡为当代道德的性行为或某些传统的道德的性行为过渡为当代不道德的性行为起到一定的支撑作用.
Wijkstra, S.; Valkhof, N.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Schuiling, G.A.
The offspring of endotoxin-infused pregnant rats (0.2 µg endotoxin, 53.3 min, day 18 of pregnancy) did not exhibit different behavior in the Hebb-Williams-type maze test, but the males showed aberrations in the sexual behavior test. Because endotoxin did not cross the placental barrier, it was concl
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Baker, Sharon A.; And Others
Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.
Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie
Recent studies point to an important role for the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in regulating sexual behavior in male mice. We asked whether sexual experience could compensate for the disruptive effects of lesioning the MOE on sexual behavior in male mice. Male mice, which were either sexually naive or experienced, received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate solution to destroy the MOE or saline. Sexual behavior in mating tests with an estrous female was completely abolished in zinc sulfate-treated male mice regardless of whether subjects were sexually experienced or not before the treatment. Furthermore, zinc sulfate treatment clearly disrupted olfactory investigation of both volatile and nonvolatile odors. Destruction of the MOE by zinc sulfate treatment was confirmed by a significant reduction in the expression of Fos protein in the main olfactory bulb following exposure to estrous female urine. By contrast, vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by zinc sulfate treatment: nasal application of estrous female urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of zinc sulfate- and saline-treated males. Likewise, the expression of soybean agglutinin, which stains the axons of vomeronasal organ neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB, was similar in zinc sulfate- and saline-treated male mice. These results show that the main olfactory system is essential for the expression of sexual behavior in male mice and that sexual experience does not overcome the disruptive effects of MOE lesioning on this behavior.
Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may
Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob
Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob
Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776
Layla Melize Santos Menezes; Igor Soares Vieira; Leda Maria Delmondes Trindade
Adolescence pregnancy pictures the interaction between the exertion of sexuality and the reproductive life, as a process influenced by the historical and social context of the embedded person. This study aims to portray the demographic and socioeconomic profile and the sexual behavior of pregnant teenagers. It is a cross-sectional study accomplished at Family Health Units in a Brazilian northeast city. Participated in the study 50 adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age. It was adopted a s...
Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E
Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.
Hamson, Dwayne K; Watson, Neil V
This study utilized Fos expression to map the distribution of activated cells in brainstem areas following masculine sexual behavior. Males displaying both appetitive and consumatory sexual behaviors (Cop) were compared to animals prevented from copulation (NC) and to socially isolated (SI) animals. Following copulation, Fos was preferentially augmented in the caudal ventral medulla (CVM), a region mediating descending inhibition of penile reflexes, and which may be regulated by a forebrain circuit that includes the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Copulation-induced Fos was observed in the medial divisions of both the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DC) and trapezoid bodies (Tz), areas which are part of a circuit processing auditory information. In addition, the medullary linear nucleus (Li) displayed comparable amounts of Fos in Cop and NC as compared to the SI animals. Other regions of the pontomedullary reticular system, which may mediate sleep and arousal, did not exhibit Fos expression associated with consumatory sexual behavior. We suggest that Fos is associated with the inhibition of sexual behavior following ejaculation in the CVM, and that auditory information arising from the DC and Tz is combined with copulation-related sensory information in the subparafasicular nucleus and projected to the hypothalamus. In addition, equal amounts of Fos expression observed in the Li in both the Cop and NC animals suggests that this region is involved in sexual arousal. Overall, the data suggest that processing by brainstem nuclei directly contributes to the regulation of mating behavior in male rats.
Oropeza-Hernández, Luis F; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Albores, Arnulfo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso
Adult male rats were exposed to inhale halothane in the following regime: 15 ppm/4 h/5 days/week/9 weeks. Sexual behavior observations and sperm motility test were made before halothane exposure (0 days) and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of exposure. Fifteen days after halothane exposure, this anesthetic inhibited the proportion of animals displaying ejaculation. In those animals ejaculating, halothane produced an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior reflected as an increase in the intromission latency, number of mounts and postejaculatory interval. At 30 days after exposure, only an increase in the intromission latency was observed. At 45 and 60 days, the inhibitory effect of halothane on sexual behavior disappeared. Similarly, at 15 and 30 days, but not at 45 or 60 days of halothane exposure, a reduced sperm motility was observed. Such transient effects of halothane suggest the development of tolerance to the inhibitory actions of this anesthetic on sexual behavior and sperm motility. These halothane effects are in line with an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior after stimulation of the GABAergic system.
Nehl, Eric J.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1,535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographics, and psychological functioning factors helps explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618
Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W
The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious worldwide problem. Despite years of research on the treatment of SUDs, relapse remains high. One factor that may complicate SUDs treatment for some patients is compulsive sexual behavior. Factors that are related to both SUDs and compulsive sexual behavior could be targeted in SUDs treatment. In the current study, we examined dispositional mindfulness, a protective factor for a range of mental health problems, and its relationship to compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs treatment sample. This is the first study to examine this relationship in a SUDs sample. Medical records from men in residential SUDs treatment were reviewed for the current study (N = 271). Upon admission to treatment, men completed self-report measures on alcohol and drug use, dispositional mindfulness, and compulsive sexual behavior. Bivariate correlations demonstrated dispositional mindfulness to be negatively associated with a variety of indicators of compulsive sexual behavior. After controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems in hierarchical regression analyses, which were both associated with compulsive sexual behaviors, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the compulsive sexual behavior indicators. Our results provide the first empirical association between dispositional mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs sample. Although continued research is needed in this area, our findings suggest that it may be beneficial for SUDs treatment to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with comorbid compulsive sexual behavior.
Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan
Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore
This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.
Allouh, M Z
Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.
Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi
Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.
Mpofu, Sibonginkosi; Odimegwu, Clifford; De Wet, Nicole; Adedini, Sunday; Akinyemi, Joshua
One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.
This study sought to determine whether religious beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males of differing sexual experience and to determine whether such beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males differing in frequency of contraceptive use. Results are discussed and implications for health educators are set forth. (MT)
Truong, Hong-Ha M; Chen, Yea-Hung; Grasso, Michael; Robertson, Tyler; Tao, Luke; Fatch, Robin; Curotto, Alberto; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M; Reznick, Olga; Raymond, H Fisher; Steward, Wayne T
When traveling internationally, HIV serodisclosure and knowledge of partners' serostatus were hampered by the lack of a common language. Condomless anal intercourse was less likely to occur in partnerships where HIV serostatus was not disclosed or known. Taken together, these observations suggest that language barriers may affect sexual decision making.
Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.
The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…
McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…
Milagros García Mazorra
Full Text Available Background: abortion in adolescence has become a global problem of major proportions by the impact of its complications in reproductive health. Objective: to determine some aspects of sexuality of adolescents requesting a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Method: a study of evaluation, retrospective, descriptive of 1000 adolescents who requested the termination of pregnancy in a period of two years (2008-2010 at the General Teaching Hospital ¨Enrique Cabrera¨. Results: 41,3 % had the first coital relations in the first two years of his gynecological age, motivated by the pursuit of pleasure in 52,8 %. The 39,4 % had two or three sexual companions being the age difference of 5 years in the 47,1 %. Conclusion: he first sexual relationships was presented with the highest incidence in early adolescence motivated by the pursuit of pleasure as the root cause. A significant % had three sexual partners prevail an age difference of more than five years.
Full Text Available In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s. Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.
Sakai, Naoko; Iwata, Ryo; Yokoi, Saori; Butcher, Rebecca A; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi
In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s). Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.
Forbes-Lorman, Robin; Auger, Anthony P; Auger, Catherine J
Progesterone and progestin receptors (PRs) are known to play a role in the development of brain physiology and behavior in many different species. The distribution and regulation of PRs within the developing brain suggest that they likely contribute to the organization of the brain and behavior in a sex-specific manner. We examined the role of PR signaling during development on the organization of adult sexual behavior and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the brain. We administered the PR antagonist, RU-486, subcutaneously to male and female rats on postnatal days 1-7 (0=day of birth) and examined adult sexual behavior and AR-immunoreactivity (AR-ir) in the adult brain. A typical sex difference in lordosis quotient (LQ) was observed and neonatal RU-486 treatment did not alter this behavior. In contrast, neonatal RU-486 treatment increased adult male sexual behavior and AR-ir in several brain areas in males. These data indicate that a transient disruption in PR signaling during development can have lasting consequences on the male brain and may increase male sexual behavior in part by increasing AR expression, and therefore androgen sensitivity, in adulthood.
Li, Yi; Guo, Guang
Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects.
ZHOU Hong; WANG Xiao-ye; YE Fang; GU Hai-hua; ZENG Xiao-pei lily; WANG Yan
Background Sexual and reproductive health among adolescents have become increasingly important and aroused international concerns.In this study,we investigate sexual knowledge,attitudes,sexual behaviors,the unwanted pregnancy and the abortion rate and to explore related determinants among college students in Beijing.Methods This study is based on a cross-sectional survey of college students' knowledge,attitudes and behavior.Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects in Beijing.The self-questionnaire designed by our research group including general information,knowledge,attitude and behavior about sexuality was used to collect information.A total of 2003 questionnaires were collected from June to July 2010.Results The data showed that most of the college students lacked knowledge about reproductive health.Only 17.9％ of the respondents knew the appropriate time of abortion.Data also showed that the respondents had high-risk attitude about sex,58.7％ could accept premarital sex,and 29.7％ had negative attitude towards contraception.Moreover,sexual activity of the respondents was active.Data showed that 18.5％ of the respondents had had sexual activities.Significantly more boys than girls had sex (X2=73.374,P ＜0.001 ).Among the boys and girls who reported sexual history,43.1％ of the boys had impregnated girlfriend and 49.3％ of the girls among those people who have sex had unwanted pregnancies.Logistic regression analysis showed that the variables the gender (OR=3.12,95％ Cl:2.39-4.11 ),grade (OR=1.78,95％CI:1.40-2.26),specialty (OR=1.35,95％ CI:1.12-1.74),family situation (OR=1.66,95％ CI:1.15-2.38),score of knowledge (OR=0.74,95％ CI:0.58-0.95) and attitude to sex activity (OR=0.09,95％ CI:0.04-0.22) had a significant effect on having sexual behavior.Conclusions College students lack knowledge and methods to avoid risky sexual behaviors in Beijing.College students have high-risk sexual attitude and behaviors.Therefore,suitable and
Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L
We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.
Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.
Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…
Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.
Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Biello, Katie B.; Novak, David S.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
In Venezuela, members of a social and sexual partner-networking site for MSM completed an online survey regarding sexual behaviors and HIV medical care. Among the 3,175 respondents, self-reported HIV prevalence was 7.8%. Of participants living with HIV, 73.2% reported taking antiretroviral medication and, 56.6% reported complete adherence within the past month. Participants living with HIV were more likely to be older (aOR=1.04 per one-year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and diagnosed with an STI in the previous year (aOR=32.35,10.2). These data provide further understanding of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Venezuela, and potential targets for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26378188
To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took
Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.
Likawunt Samuel and Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo*
Full Text Available Background: Evidences notify that most of higher learning students rush to range of maladaptive high-risk activities like, substance and sexual abuse which predispose to HIV. More often this is unrecognized and not well researched. Objective: To determine magnitude of substance use and risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission among students in Hosanna Health Science College from December 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010.Methods and Materials: Cross sectional study undertaken among statistically determined (n =428 and randomly selected Students from all departments and years of study in Hossana Health Science College. Piloted and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Summary measures like mean, chi-square and regression were utilized to quantify magnitude and identify independently associated factors. Results: Majority 267 (63.1% of study participants were female, and 379 (89.5% in age group (17-24. From 423 participants, 330(78.0% were, sexually experienced. Khat (27.7% and Alcohol (21.7% were the commonly used substances and having multiple sexual partners (47.6%, inconsistent condom use (20.0% were common sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission. Female [AOR=1.5], fresh students [OR=2.4] and alcohol users [OR=3.5] were more likely to engage in sexual risk practices. Conclusions: Substance use and risky sexual practices were significantly higher among study participants. Practicing sex with multiple partners, inconsistent condom use and commencing sex with female commercial sex workers, which were highly risky sexual behaviors for HIV infection transmission among study participants, were commonly practiced among study participants.
Full Text Available The recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in human sexual behavior, partly because of the growing AIDS pandemic. We undertook a study of the pattern of sexual behavior among outpatients attending our dermatology clinic. Sexually active patients attending the dermatology clinic for non-STD complaints from March 2007 to June 2007 were randomly selected and interviewed about their sexual behavior using a questionnaire. The study included 500 respondents (240 women, 260 men. The mean ages of the women and men were 37.9 years and 38.9 years, respectively. Forty-two of the unmarried men (54.5% were sexually active, while 55 of the married men (30% admitted to having had premarital sex. A total of 81 men (38.8% admitted to premarital sex, compared to only 2.9% of women. With regard to extramarital contact, 62 of the married men (33.8% were affirmative in their response, while the corresponding figure for married women was 12 (5.5%. Nine men had a history of bisexual contact and, of these, one man admitted to having had exclusively homosexual contact. Fifteen men had indulged in anal sex; 48.3% men with pre/extramarital contact had more than one partner, and 43 (30.1% had visited commercial sex workers (CSWs. Most of the respondents (141; 87% with pre/extramarital contact had had unsafe sex. Among the women with pre/extramarital sexual contact, most (17; 89.5% had only one partner; all were heterosexual and the majority had had sexual contact with relatives (73.7%. To summarize, men had overwhelmingly more pre/extramarital sexual contact as compared to women.
Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record
Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.
Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D
"Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Brian W. Haas
Full Text Available Williams syndrome is a condition caused by a deletion of ~26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23 often characterized by abnormal social behavior and disrupted oxytocin and vasopressin functioning. The observation that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit oxytocin and vasopressin dysregulation is compelling. There is currently a lack of evidence that any of the genes typically deleted in Williams syndrome have any direct effect on either oxytocin or vasopressin. In this perspective article, we present a novel epigenetic model describing how DNA methylation may impact the expression of key genes within the oxytocin and vasopressin systems, which may ultimately influence the social behavior observed in Williams syndrome. We draw support from data pooled from a prior empirical research study (Henrichsen, et al., 2011, demonstrating that OXTR is overexpressed in Williams syndrome. These preliminary findings may create new opportunities to target the oxytocin and vasopressin systems with the specific goal of improving outcomes in Williams syndrome and other psychiatric conditions.
Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta
Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed.
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14–16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was “deep kissing” and the most difficult was “receiving anal sex” for females and “giving anal sex” for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner,...
Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, Julie
We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexu...
Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N
Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.
Nagendra Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution, PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg, PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg, and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg. Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level.
Maswood, Navin; Sarkar, Jhimly; Uphouse, Lynda
In an earlier study, we reported that daily fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/day) rapidly disrupted estrous cyclicity and sexual receptivity in adult, regularly cycling Fischer rats. The current study was designed to investigate if comparable fluoxetine treatment would similarly affect intact, regularly cycling Sprague Dawley rats. In the first experiment, fluoxetine was injected for 24 days. After 11-14 days of daily fluoxetine treatment, 40% of the rats showed a transient disturbance of the estrous cycle with elimination of sexual receptivity. In these affected rats, reduced sexual receptivity generally preceded disruption of vaginal cyclicity. In a second experiment, a shorter exposure was used to attempt to dissociate effects of fluoxetine on behavior and estrous cyclicity. Nine days of fluoxetine treatment eliminated sexual receptivity and proceptivity (hops/darts) in 40% and 46%, respectively, of rats without altering the estrous cycle. Female rats then received a 10th fluoxetine injection 30 min prior to assessment of sexual motivation (measured with the male preference paradigm). There was no effect of fluoxetine on male preference, but fluoxetine significantly reduced the number of crossings and seconds of grooming during preference testing. Therefore, effects of fluoxetine on estrous cyclicity and behavior of Sprague Dawley female rats were smaller and required longer to develop than previously reported in Fischer female rats. These findings reinforce a probable relationship between fluoxetine's effect on sexual activity and neuroendocrine disturbances and illustrate the importance of strain selection in attempting to model human disease.
Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal
This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.
Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who had not yet undergone gender-confirming interventions. Data originated from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence Initiative, conducted in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. Information on outcome variables was collected using self-administered questionnaires at first clinical presentation. Compared with late-onset male-to-females, early-onset individuals tended to show sexual attraction toward males more frequently (50.5%), involve genitals less frequently in partner-related sexual activity, and consider penile sensations and orgasm as more negative. Early-onset female-to-males predominantly reported sexual attraction toward females (84.0%), whereas those with a late-onset more frequently showed other sexual attractions (41.7%). The study (a) shows that early- and late-onset male-to-females differ considerably with regard to coping strategies involving their body during sexual relations and (b) reveals initial insights into developmental pathways of late-onset female-to-males.
Francis, Andrew M
In this paper, I test a simple microeconomic theory of sexuality. I apply the theory to make predictions about the effect of AIDS on sexuality, since AIDS dramatically altered the cost of sexual activities. Using a nationally representative dataset on sexuality in the United States, I estimate the effect of AIDS on male and female homosexual behavior. To do so, I postulate that people who have a relative with AIDS, on average, have more knowledge, awareness, and fear of AIDS. Empirically, this variable is uncorrelated with a number of individual background characteristics. I present evidence that AIDS causes some men to shift from homosexual to heterosexual behavior, whereas AIDS causes some women to shift from heterosexual to homosexual behavior. Thus, sexual behavior may respond to incentives. I consider alternative hypotheses, including biological theories of sexual orientation and stigma-related survey bias, and argue that they are unlikely to explain the results.
Saleem, Naeem Hassan; Adrien, Alix; Razaque, Ali
As a part of a second generation surveillance, we investigated the sociodemographics, risky sexual behavior, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and treatment seeking behavior among a vulnerable population. A cross-sectional study preceded by mapping, was conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2005. Subjects were recruited through snowball, time location cluster and cluster sampling techniques. Behavioral interviews were conducted with 203 female sex workers (FSWs), 101 male sex workers (MSWs), 101 Hijras (transgender men) and 200 injecting drug users (IDUs), who were deemed a vulnerable population for STIs. Among this population 136 (67%) FSWs were illiterate, 145 (71.4%) were married and entertained on average 23 clients per month. Consistent condom use during one month was reported by 34 (17%) FSWs. One hundred thirty-three (66%) FSWs had a knowledge of STIs, 69 (34%) suffered from STIs. MSWs and Hijras had the youngest average ages at 24.4 (+/- 6.8), 25.8 (+/- 5.9) and started sexual activity even at age 14.7, and 13.9 years, respectively. Consistent condom usage was as low as 3 (3.1%) and 4 (4%) among MSWs and Hijras. IDUs had lowest monthly income of US$ 69 (+/- 41) and had a predominant migratory pattern. Fifty (25.2%) IDUs shared a needle with the last injection. Though knowledge of STIs was lowest among IDUs, 61 (30.7%), however, all utilized the public health facility for their treatment. Difference between knowledge of STIs and educational levels among IDUs and Hijras were found to be statistically significant (p=0.015 and p=0.04, respectively). The present study indicates the knowledge of HIV/STIs is high among the vulnerable population but condom usage is very low.
Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio
As there are data showing enhanced sexual activity in paradoxical sleep deprived (PSD) rats, and cocaine (COC) is a drug of abuse known to also increase the sexual drive, the present study aimed to assess sexual behavior in animals submitted to PSD and/or COC administration. The data revealed that PSD followed by COC administration produced the largest percentage of animals having erection and ejaculation (100% and 60%) and differ statistically from the control groups. The PSD group that received saline produced 50% erections and 20% ejaculations whereas COC administration induced 10% erections and 10% ejaculations. Sexual activity was absent in control animals (saline injection). These findings are due probably to PSD causing supersensitivity of dopamine (DA) receptors exacerbating the cocaine actions on dopaminergic pathways inducing penile erection and ejaculation.
Walsh, Jennifer L; Ward, L Monique
These studies investigate connections between magazine reading and involvement and young people's sexual health knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions, and contraception use. Study 1 assessed sexual health behaviors and magazine reading among 579 undergraduate students (69% were female; 68% were White; M(age) = 19.73). As expected, more frequent reading of mainstream magazines was associated with greater sexual health knowledge, safe-sex self-efficacy, and consistency of using contraception, although results varied across sex and magazine genre. Study 2 replicated and expanded on these findings with a survey of 422 undergraduate students (51% were female; 71% were White; 49% were age 18 or younger), incorporating a more extensive knowledge scale, questions about safe-sex intentions, and measures of magazine involvement. Results suggest that magazine use is associated with positive sexual health outcomes among young people.
Full Text Available Fibromyalgia, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, negatively impacts sexuality by provoking dispareunia, and loss of desire and of dyadic gratification. Chronic pain syndromes tend to associate and FM women have a higher probability to develop vulvodynia than women not affected by fibromyalgia. Vulvodynia, characterized by burning pain that interferes with sexual penetration, is classified as Genitopelvic/Penetration Disorders in DSM 5. The association between Fibromyalgia and vulvodynia is difficult to recognize because patients tend to attribute all symptoms to disease spread and not think that dyspareunia may have different origins. To establish the necessary criteria for the differential diagnosis between the two syndromes, we evaluated the characteristics of dyspareunia and sexual behavior of fibromyalgia patients versus vulvodynia patients and we found significant differences on the onset of burning pain, orgasmic capability, and sexual frequency.
This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.
Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli
Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-rand...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.
Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E
Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.
Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine
Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.
Cummings, Jennifer A; Clinton, Sarah M; Perry, Adam N; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B
High- versus low-novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively bred for high-novelty exploration (bred-high responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared with low-novelty reactive rats (bred-low responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior-sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance.
Amoo, Emmanuel O; Oni, Gholahan A; Ajayi, Mofoluwake P; Idowu, Adenike E; Fadayomi, Theophilus O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K
The study examined men's reproductive health problems and sexual behavior and their implications for men's welfare in Nigeria. It used the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data set of 2013. The analysis used only male recode files, representing 17,359 males. The dependent variable is the computed wealth index, which was selected as proxy for welfare condition. Analysis involved univariate and multivariate levels. The findings indicated that 49.3% of the respondents currently have more than one sexual partner. The total lifetime sexual partner index identifies 70.2% of the men interviewed have had at least two sexual partners in their lifetime. It revealed that men who experience reproductive health challenges, such as sexually transmitted infections and genital ulcer, are 44% and 93%, respectively, less likely to enjoy good welfare condition. It also indicated that men in urban area are 7.256 times more likely to enjoy good welfare condition compared with their rural counterparts. There is a negative association between total lifetime sexual partnerships and exposure to good welfare. The study concludes that social workers, marriage counselors, other health personnel, and policy makers need to focus on the practice of multiple sexual partnership and reproductive health diseases as major determinants of men's welfare. The authors suggest that the index of welfare should include reproductive health issues and indicators of sexual behavior. Also, there is need for the establishment of specialized reproductive health care services and centers that are accessible to all men for effective servicing of reproductive health needs of men in the country.
MANRIQUE ABRIL FRED GUSTAVO
Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1995 we validated descriptive studies, as a need to research prior educational interventions, given the cultural plurality that disqualifies the application of universal models in as far as sexual education. Purpose: Describing practices and sexual behavior of university students of the UPTC, in the city of Tunja. Methods: transversal cut, sequential sampling study with a sample of 764 students. In the Epiinfo 2002® they estimated frequencies, cross variables, percentages. Results: Average age: 20,4 years; 56,7% females; 82,8% lower middle class; 79,7% catholic o Christian; when solving intimacy matters, 11,4% trust the father, 33,5% on the mother; only 36,2% have 100% certainty to avoidaundesiredpregnancy and 27% in contracting a STD. 61,2% considers necessary to increase sexual knowledge; 40,5% has had at least one alcohol loss of memory; 30% has had undesired sex, at least once, under the effect of alcohol. Global reason for fertility: 25,4%. 45,3% of pregnancies end up in undesired miscarriages. Conclusions: Most relevant Problems: high rate of fecundity, birth and induced abortions, high alcohol consumption.Introducción: Desde 1995 se validaron estudios de tipo descriptivo, como necesidad de investigar previamente a las intervenciones educativas, dada la pluralidad cultural que descalifica modelos de aplicación universal en lo referente a la educación sexual. Objetivo: Describir prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios de la UPTC de Tunja. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, muestreo secuencial, muestra de 764 estudiantes. En Epiinfo 2002® se estiman frecuencias, cruce de variables, porcentajes. Resultados: Edad promedio: 20,4 años; 56,7% mujeres; 82,8% clase media-baja; 79,7% católico o cristiano; para resolver intimidades, 11,4% confía en el padre, 33,5% en la madre; apenas 36,2% tiene 100% de certeza de evitar un embarazo no deseado y27%,de contraeruna ETS. 61,2% considera
JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ
Full Text Available Introducción: Desde 1995 se validaron estudios de tipo descriptivo, como necesidad de investigar previamente a las intervenciones educativas, dada la pluralidad cultural que descalifica modelos de aplicación universal en lo referente a la educación sexual. Objetivo: Describir prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en estudiantes universitarios de la UPTC de Tunja. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, muestreo secuencial, muestra de 764 estudiantes. En Epiinfo 2002® se estiman frecuencias, cruce de variables, porcentajes. Resultados: Edad promedio: 20,4 años; 56,7% mujeres; 82,8% clase media-baja; 79,7% católico o cristiano; para resolver intimidades, 11,4% confía en el padre, 33,5% en la madre; apenas 36,2% tiene 100% de certeza de evitar un embarazo no deseado y27%,de contraeruna ETS. 61,2% considera necesario incrementar sus conocimientos sexuales; 40,5% ha tenido al menos una laguna alcohólica; 30% ha tenido sexo no deseado, al menos una vez, bajo el efecto del alcohol. Razón global de fertilidad: 25,4%. 45,3% de embarazos termina en aborto provocado. Conclusiones: Problemas más relevantes: altas tasas de fecundidad, natalidad y aborto provocado, elevado consumo de alcohol.Introduction: Since 1995 we validated descriptive studies, as a need to research prior educational interventions, given the cultural plurality that disqualifies the application of universal models in as far as sexual education. Purpose: Describing practices and sexual behavior of university students of the UPTC, in the city of Tunja. Methods: transversal cut, sequential sampling study with a sample of 764 students. In the Epiinfo 2002® they estimated frequencies, cross variables, percentages. Results: Average age: 20,4 years; 56,7% females; 82,8% lower middle class; 79,7% catholic o Christian; when solving intimacy matters, 11,4% trust the father, 33,5% on the mother; only 36,2% have 100% certainty to avoidaundesiredpregnancy and 27% in contracting a STD. 61
Bahrami, Zahra; Zarani, Fariba
As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. For this purpose, a group of 151 male students was sampled using a multistage random sampling method to complete the quality of HIV information questionnaire, national AIDS questionnaire, international AIDS questionnaire and global positive attitude to AIDS questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the perception of HIV infection risk and sexual behavior. Thus, the perception of risk is considered the first step toward modifying sexual behaviors from risk-taking behaviors to safer behaviors.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexual men must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population-specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer sex intentions). The current report proposes and longitudinally examines a model of risk factors for subsequent sexual risk behaviors among young gay and bisexual men in New York City. As hypothesiz...
Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.
Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…
Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer
Despite media attention to teen sexual behavior and public concern about its consequences, the public is surprisingly ill-informed or misinformed on the subject. Yet without the facts, it is difficult to develop effective approaches to curb risky sexual behaviors and prevent teen pregnancy and STI transmission. This paper presents a true or false…
Vail-Smith, Karen; Maguire, Rachel L.; Brinkley, Jason; Burke, Sloane
The transition from high school to college offers adolescents more freedom that may result in increased risky sexual behaviors. This exploratory study examines sexual behaviors of freshmen. Half of participants completed a questionnaire during the first week of college and the other half during the last week of their freshmen year. Significant…
William Fred P. Italia
Full Text Available –This study was conducted to determine the sociodemographic profile, sexual history, level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual risk-taking behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM in Iloilo City. 126 MSM, who were members of MSM clans taken using stratified random sampling, were included in the study. Interview schedule was used to gather data. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were utilized for univariate analysis. To determine the relationship between knowledge and sexual risk-taking behavior, Chi-square was used. Findings revealed that most of the respondents are young, single, have some college education, unemployed, earning less than Php 6,000 and have an early sexual history. Most of the respondents have high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. However, they have multiple sex partners; nearly half does not use condom hence are at high risk of contracting HIV. There is no significant relationship between sexual risk-taking behavior and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. This study found that a high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS does not guarantee safer sexual practices of the respondents. As long as there is a practice of risky sexual behavior, the risk of HIV transmission and infection remain high.
Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín
Temperature determines all aspects of the biology of ectotherms. Although sexual differences in thermal ecology are not the rule in lizards, some species exhibit such differences. We studied the effect of sex and reproductive condition on the thermoregulation of an introduced population of Scelarcis perspicillata during the summer in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). These lizards live in the wall surfaces of a limestone quarry, where the sun is scarce because of the narrowness of the quarry walls. The population is sexually dimorphic, with larger males than females. We measured body temperature (Tb) of adult males and females in the field, and air (Ta) and substrate temperature (Ts) at the capture sites, and recorded exposure to sunlight, height of the perch, and type of substrate. We also recorded operative temperatures (Te) as a null hypothesis of thermoregulation. Finally, we studied the thermal preferences of adult males and females in a laboratory thermal gradient. Thermal preferences were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant females, and sex did not affect the thermal preferences of lizards, even after controlling for the effect of body size. However, in the field, females achieved higher Tb than males, and occupied microhabitats with higher Ta and Ts and lower perch heights than males. Furthermore, females selected perches in full sun at a higher frequency than males. As a consequence, females achieved a higher accuracy and effectiveness of thermoregulation (0.89) than males (0.84). Thus, all else being equal, females would achieve a higher performance than males. The observed results are attributable to sexual differences in behaviour, probably in relation with the reproductive season.
Mangan, Michael A
First-person reports of individuals' experiences of problematic "sleep sex" were collected in an Internet-based study. Qualitative analysis of 121 reports yielded 6 distinct themes: (1) fear and a lack of emotional intimacy; (2) guilt and confusion; (3) a sense of repulsion and feelings of sexual abandonment; (4) shame, disappointment, and frustration; (5) annoyance and suspicion; (6) embarrassment and a sense of "self-incrimination." Results suggest that sleep sex can elicit negative emotions and cognitions that may become a source of personal and relational distress. Clinician familiarity with problematic sleep sex may foster more effective communication with individuals presenting with such complaints.
Wayne J. G. Hellstrom
@@ Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting up to one-third of men through-out their lives. According to the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS), ED affects an estimated 52% of men between the ages of 40 and 70. With the approval of silde-nafil (USA in March 1998), the first phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor to be made available for treatment of ED, and the subse-quent approval of vardenafil (USA in August 2003) and tadalafil (USA in November 2003), the PDE-5 inhibitor class of drugs has rapidly become the first-line therapy for ED of varying etiologies and se-verities.
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja
The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.
Half of all pregnancies in the USA are unintended, suggesting a high incidence of either improper or nonuse of contraceptives. Emergency birth control (EBC) provides individuals with additional insurance against unplanned pregnancy in the presence of contraception failure. This study is the first to estimate the impact of switching EBC from prescription to nonprescription status in the USA on abortions and risky sexual behavior as measured by STD rates. Utilizing state-level variation in access to EBC, we find that providing individuals with over-the-counter access to EBC leads to increase STD rates and has no effect on abortion rates. Moreover, individual-level analysis using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates that risky sexual behavior such as engaging in unprotected sex and number of sexual encounters increases as a result of over-the-counter access to EBC, which is consistent with the state-level STD findings.
Li, Jiantao; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong; Xu, Delong; Xiao, Han; Cao, Yue; Mao, Zongfu
This study aims to explore the association between early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and risks among Chinese female undergraduates. Of 4769 participants, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse. The mean age of sexual debut was 19.3 (±1.7) years. Females initiating sex earlier were more likely to have first sex with men who were not their "boyfriends" and less likely to take contraception, to use a condom at first encounter, to use contraception consistently in past year, and/or to use condom consistently during the course of a sexual intercourse. They were more likely to have multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partners, to report pregnancy, and be diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases. Comprehensive early sex education should be advocated for young people, not only teaching knowledge of physical health but also providing practical skills training for making them consciously delay start of sexual activity or protecting themselves during sexual intercourse.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.
Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli
Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV.
Noar, Seth M
Over the past 25 years, scores of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior have been developed and evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize what is known about such interventions by systematically reviewing and synthesizing extant meta-analyses of the literature. Comprehensive search procedures resulted in a set of 18 meta-analyses that targeted HIV-related sexual risk behavior in a defined target population. The median meta-analysis in the review contained k = 19 primary studies with a cumulative N = 9,423 participants. All meta-analyses (11/11) that examined condom use found a statistically significant increase (median effect: OR = 1.34); 9/11 for reducing unprotected sex (median effect: OR = .76); 3/8 for reducing numbers of sexual partners (median effect: OR = .87); 4/6 for reduction of STDs (median effect: OR = .74); and 5/5 for reducing composite sexual risk (median effect: OR = .78). Summaries of moderator analyses suggested particular participant, intervention, and methodological characteristics that may influence the success of interventions. Implications include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators as well as increasing effectiveness trials and translation/dissemination of efficacious interventions to those populations most at risk.
Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie
We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior.
Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.
Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen
Objective This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. Methods A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. Results For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys’ but not girls’ sexual experiences. Conclusions Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools. PMID:22467883
Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita
This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.
Chantler, Lisa; And Others
This study investigated methods for accurately identifying sexually abused children (n=26), mental health clinic-referred children (n=37), and community children (n=39), ages 6-12. Results suggest limited support for the Louisville Behavior Checklist but caution in using the Emotional Indicator Scoring System for Human Figure Drawings in the…
Clark, Shelley; Poulin, Michelle; Kohler, Hans-Peter
We explore how marital aspirations are related to the sexual behaviors of adolescents and young adults in Malawi, where HIV/AIDS prevalence among adults exceeds 10%. We also consider whether the specter of AIDS is shaping ideals about marriage. By combining survey data (N = 1,087) and in-depth interviews (N = 133) with young Malawians from the…
Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope
Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…
Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and development of both online (OnSRB) and offline sexual risk behavior (OffSRB) in adolescence, (2) to establish whether OnSRBs and OffSRBs are related, and (3) to identify risk factors that determine problematic pathways of
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gordis, Leon; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Harris, Russell; Isham, George; Leipzig, Rosanne; LeFevre, Michael L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Marion, Lucy N.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Yawn, Barbara P.
Description: New U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations about behavioral counseling of adolescents and adults to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of counseling. The review included studies evalu
Chi, X.; van de Bongardt, D.; Hawk, S.T.
The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397 unive
Brody, S.; Fischer, A.H.; Hess, U.
In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results a
Ligezinska, Malgorzata; And Others
This study evaluated the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 41 children (ages 5-15) within the first 3 months following disclosure of extrafamilial sexual abuse. Findings indicated that children's perceptions of self-blame and guilt for the abuse and the extent of traumatization predicted their self-reported symptomatology of depression,…
Winters, Ken C.; Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Baumel, Lindsey; Lee, Susanne
We examined a mediational model of the interrelationship of drug use, sexual risk, and impulsivity in a sample of young adults (N = 89), of which almost half displayed highly disruptive behaviors as children. We chose a mediational model given the emerging evidence that impulsivity is an underlying risk factor for many youth health risk problems,…
Ana Paula de Andrade Verona
Full Text Available Religion is becoming an important and highly present factor in the lives of many adolescents and young adults in Brazil. In addition to creating more space for them to maintain close relationships and participate actively in a religious environment, some religions have promoted the dissemination of clearer standards and objectives, as well as punitive sanctions, with respect to many aspects of their younger followers' lives, including their sexual behavior. This article examines how religion can affect, direct and indirectly, the sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. The main objective of this study is to look for a connection between Christian Smith's theoretical framework, which suggests several mechanisms through which religion can influence the lives of American adolescents, and ethnographic studies conducted in Brazil, as well as quantitative works that have brought attention to social and demographic consequences of recent religious transformations. Even though there is limited empirical evidence as to how the mechanisms of religious involvement work in Brazil, this study concludes that each of Smith's pathways can also be used to explain potential effects of religion on sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. This research should encourage empirical studies on such effects in Brazil. Besides the importance of examining the impact of the recent transformations in Brazil religious landscape on demographic phenomena, this topic deserves further consideration from Brazilian demographers because religion is a primary socialization agent of adolescents, and sexual activity is a sphere of human behavior of high importance in its religious applicability.
Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.
Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson
abuse and internet dating to be triggers of unsafe sex. Conclusion According to Danish adolescents there were four important key topics which could lead to unsafe sex and these points differed slightly from our expectations. Those points of interest will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire...
The current series of studies was conducted to explore the interplay between death awareness, fear of intimacy, and unsafe sex. In Study 1 (n=73), making mortality salient led to higher willingness to engage in risky sexual behaviors, in comparison to a control condition. In addition, only in the mortality salience condition, lower fear of…
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated inc
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally accep
Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.
Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…
Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben
Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.
Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.
Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben
Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400
Gilbert J. Botvin
Full Text Available High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19% reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8% reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and
Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J
High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.
Full Text Available Olusesan S Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,2 Wasiu O Adebimpe,2 Akin G Omisore21Department of Mass Communication, Babcock Business School, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaIntroduction: The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern.Objectives: To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.Materials and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16.Results: Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%. Most (64.0% respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332, electronic mail (89.0%, n=356, and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298. Most of the respondents (73.5% opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%, 37 (16.4%, 31 (13.7%, and 10 (4.4% practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0% always used condoms
Urrea-Giraldo, Fernando; Congolino, Mary Lily; Herrera, Hernán Darío; Reyes, José Ignacio; Botero, Waldor Federico
In order to qualitatively evaluate sexual behaviors or practices and the incidence of sexual and reproductive health programs in adolescent and postadolescent users educated in Cali, Colombia, two quota samples were carried out, one in schools in poor neighborhoods of the city and one at Valle University (UNIVALLE). In addition, a limited number of twelve open interviews was made among two different student population groups, the schools and the university. The study addresses the sexual behaviors of adolescents and postadolescents, contraceptive methods and prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS, and the uses of sexual and reproductive health programs by both populations, controlling for social class (socioeconomic stratum), gender, and race. Two sexual and reproductive health programs were taken as reference: that of PROFAMILIA (Pro-Wellbeing of the Colombian Family Association), and the sexual and reproductive health program of the University Medical Service of the UNIVALLE. Results show how the behaviors and responses to sexual and reproductive health programs are mediated by multiple sociological categories that orient the analysis.
da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Oba, Eunice; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; Mayor, Pedro; de Araujo Guimarães, Diva Anelie
The goal of this study was to describe the sexual behavior in female and male collared peccary. Twenty females and twelve males were monitored in familiar and non-familiar units for two 60 days periods. During both phases, we recorded 2747 sexual interactions initiated by 20 different females toward males and 4461 sexual interactions initiated by 12 males toward females. The frequency of sexual interactions initiated per female significantly increased from proestrus to estrus, and they were significantly more frequently courted. Females initiated olfactory inspections 15.42 times more and were mounted 22.6 times more during estrus than during proestrus. Nulliparous and primiparous females copulated only when exposed to non-parental males. After estrus, the frequency of sexual interactions received by females sharply decreased. One mating event was recorded during the first gestation week and 31 mountings were observed after the second week. In conclusion, the behavioral monitoring is a useful procedure for the recognition of estrus. Our results suggest that ovulation may be associated with the end of the estrus, which will support future work in assisted reproduction in this species. To promote good handling practices, females of reproductive age should be removed from their family unit of origin.
Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sexual behavior of women with human papillomavirus (HPV admitted to two referral health units for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the city of Fortaleza. Methods: A quantitative and descriptive study, conducted in the months of August- September 2005 in two referral units for STDs. A questionnaire was applied to all women who were undergoing treatment for HPV in clinical or subclinical forms. The questionnaire comprised sociodemographic variables, behavioral and sexual. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics using Epi Info, version 15.1. Results: Joined in the study 39 women, of whom 25 (64.1% had clinical form of the disease. Most 22 (56.4% were in the age group of 20-29 years and 16 (41% had completed or incompleted high school. Most 31 (79.5% hace a steady partner, and of these, 19 (48.7% lived with their partners. Of all women, 29 (74.4% began their sexual life with less than 19 years. In 21 (53.8% cases the sexual partners had no verrucous lesions. The number of partners ranged from two to four for 20 (51.3% women, 27 (73% denied the concomitant presence of other STD and 32 (82.1% had already been tested for HIV. Conclusion: Women with HPV were generally young, with a steady partner. More than half of the partners had no symptoms. It is necessary to developpreventive strategies and of health promotion for youth.
Gorzalka, B B; Whalen, R E
It has been proposed that estrous behavior in the female rat may be under tonic inhibition by a central serotonergi system. Studies conbining estrogen priming and the pharmacological depletion of serotonin have provided some support for this hypothesis. Some evidence, however, is not consistent with this hypothesis. In the present study estrogen primed ovariectomized-adrenalectomized rats were administered p-chlorophenylalanine and were tested for lordosis behavior 66 and 70 hr later. Lordosis was not facilitated. The animals were then administered progesterone and retested at hour 74. PCPA inhibited progesterone-induced lordosis behavior in a dose dependent manner.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH. The purpose of this study was to: (a identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7% but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months, sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8% knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection
Ferraz, M R; Ferraz, M M; Santos, R
There are conflicting findings about the sexual effects of REM sleep deprivation (REMd). Otherwise, several studies show a dopaminergic hypersensitivity after REMd. The effect of REMd and amantadine (AMA) was studied for standard measures and temporal patterning in the first experiment, in four groups: normal with vehicle, normal with AMA (5.0 and 10 mg/kg), REMd with vehicle and REMd with AMA (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg). REMd reduced mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL) and mount number (MN) and increased copulatory efficiency (CE) and hit rate factor. REMd also reduced the mount bout number (MBN) and increased the sexual interaction (mount bout time, MBT) among male and female during copula. AMA stimulates initiation and hit rate factors and accelerates the temporal patterning of sexual behavior, evoking fewer and quicker mount bouts. In the experiments with combination of REMd and AMA administration, AMA did not increase behavior effects evoked by REM deprivation, probably due to a top or a bottom effect, depending on the measures considered. A second experiment studied the effects of AMA (1.25 to 5.0 mg/kg) and REMd on the sexual reflexes of nonimmobilized male rats. REMd enhanced the AMA effects upon the seminal emission reflex, but inhibited the penile erection reflex elicited by 1.25 mg/kg of AMA. Curiously, our results showed that REMd, like AMA, a dopaminergic agonist, causes similar effects of sexual behavior in the male rat, particularly those related to arousal mechanism and hit rate factor. The results are discussed and the effects of REMd probably involve dopaminergic hypersensitivity and increased sexual motivational response.
Guarraci, Fay A
Preclinical and clinical research investigating female sexual motivation has lagged behind research on male sexual function. The present review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the specific roles of various brain areas, as well as our understanding of the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in sexual motivation of the female rat. A number of behavioral paradigms that can be used to thoroughly evaluate sexual behavior in the female rat are first discussed. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture has been useful in understanding the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms described in this review have helped us expand our understanding of appetitive and consumatory behavioral patterns that better assess sexual motivation - the equivalent of "desire" in humans. A summary of numerous lesion studies indicates that different areas of the brain, including forebrain and midbrain structures, work together to produce the complex repertoire of female sexual behavior. In addition, by investigating the effects of commonly addictive drugs, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in female sexual motivation. Consequently, research in this area may contribute to meaningful advances in the treatment of human female sexual dysfunction.
Bulduk, Serap; Erdogan, Semra
This study investigated how HIV/sexually transmitted infection peer education (PE) affected HIV knowledge, perceived prevention self-efficacy, and risky sexual behaviors among Turkish university students (N = 118) who were sexually active but did not use condoms. A methodological and pre-/posttest controlled study design was used, with data collected before PE, just after PE, 3 months after PE, and 6 months after PE. We found significant differences according to group*time interaction in the variables of HIV knowledge, self-efficacy for condom use and refusing sexual intercourse, and vaginal-oral-anal intercourse with condom, talking with the partner about condom use, refusing sexual intercourse with someone not using a condom, and taking alcohol before sexual intercourse. No differences were found according to group*time interaction in self-efficacy for asking potential partners questions, using drugs before and after sexual intercourse, and sexual partner. Peer education was found to reduce risky sexual behaviors among university students. Peer education should focus on safer sexual behaviors to develop strategies to increase self-efficacy.
Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is
Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and engaging in condomless sexual behaviors. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the last 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by minority stress theory and syndemic theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs.
Full Text Available Kassahun Demissie,1 Shifera Asfaw,2 Lakew Abebe,2 Getachew Kiros2 1Addis Ababa Regional Laboratory, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the major public health problems throughout the world. Nowadays, antiretroviral treatment (ART is available in health institutions and HIV-positive individuals who are eligible for ART are taking it. But studies show reinfection of HIV is occurring in them for unknown reasons. Purpose: This study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV-positive ART attendees. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed in ten randomly selected health centers in Addis Ababa, between October 05 and November 05, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 376 respondents for face-to-face interviews from ART registration book. After the data collection process, data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package. Then the effect of each variable was observed by regression analysis to identify the predictors for risky sexual practice at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: A total of 376 respondents were included in the study, with 100% response rate. The mean age of the total respondents was 35.28±8.94 (standard deviation. Of the 376 respondents, 30.4% had a history of risky sexual practice, which was inconsistent condom use in the last 3 months prior to the study period. Factors associated with risky sexual practice included alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.01, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.77, being single (AOR =0.29, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59 and widowed (AOR =0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77 respondents, and the gender of the respondents, with an AOR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.33, shows a significant relationship with risky sexual behavior. Conclusion
Cicolin, Alessandro; Tribolo, Antonella; Giordano, Alessandra; Chiarot, Elisabetta; Peila, Elena; Terreni, Anna; Bucca, Caterina; Mutani, Roberto
Parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) refers to a sleep disorder characterized by the association of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with NREM sleep parasomnia in the same patient. Sexual behaviors during sleep (SBS) can include most wakeful sexual activities and are classified in the ICSD-2 as a variant of confusional arousals and sleepwalking, both NREM parasomnias. A case of SBS associated with sleepwalking and possible RBD has been previously described, but it was not confirmed by polysomnography (PSG). We report two patients with SBS associated with POD documented by PSG. In one patient (60-year-old female) SBS was video-polysomnographically demonstrated: a few minute episode of masturbation occurring during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and preceded by hypersynchronous delta pattern. During the episode, the EEG pattern showed the persistence of delta rhythms with increasing alpha activity. When awoken by technicians, the patient was not aware of her sexual behavior and did not report any dream. The other patient, a 41-year-old male with a history of sleepwalking and RBD, was legally charged with repeatedly sexually fondling a young girl during the night. The POD was documented by PSG. The parasomnia defense, including sleepsex, was accepted by the Court and the patient was acquitted. This is an unprecedented report of SBS in patients with PSG-confirmed POD and of SBS documented during video-PSG.
Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena
Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.
Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte
Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample.
McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R
In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.
Alexander, G M; Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C; Davidson, T; McDonald, V; Steiner, B; Hines, M
Mood and response to auditory sexual stimuli were assessed in 33 hypogonadal men receiving testosterone (T) replacement therapy, 10 eugonadal men receiving T in a male contraceptive clinical trial, and 19 eugonadal men not administered T. Prior to and after 6 weeks of hormone administration, men completed a mood questionnaire, rated sexual arousal to and sexual enjoyment of auditory sexual stimuli, and performed a dichotic listening task measuring selective attention for sexual stimuli. Mood questionnaire results suggest that T has positive effects on mood in hypogonadal men when hormone levels are well below the normal male range of values, but does not have any effects on mood when hormone levels are within or above the normal range. However, increased sexual arousal and sexual enjoyment were associated with T administration regardless of gonadal status. Eugonadal men administered T also increased in the bias to attend to sexual stimuli. In contrast, the comparison group of eugonadal men not administered T showed no mood or sexual behavior changes across the two test sessions. These data support a positive relationship between T and sexual interest, sexual arousal, and sexual enjoyment in men.
Stevenson, Margaret C; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Wiley, Tisha R A
Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be registered as sex offenders, and when informed that they can be, participants were unaware of the breadth of adolescent sexual behavior that warrants registration. Furthermore, those unaware of juvenile registration policies, compared to those who were aware, were marginally more likely to have had sex prior to age 18. Thus, youth most at risk of registration were least aware of this possibility, suggesting that juvenile registration likely does little to deter many behaviors that are considered to be juvenile sex offenses.
Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.
Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.