WorldWideScience

Sample records for abnormal operating conditions

  1. The Operator's Diagnosis Task under Abnormal Operating Conditions in Industrial Process Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of serious accidents in connection with the operation of technical installations demonstrate that the diagnosis task which confronts personnel under non-normal plant conditions is a critical one. This report presents a preliminary outline of characteristic traits connected with the task...... of diagnosis for use in discussions of (a) the studies which are necessary in order to formulate the operator's diagnostic procedures and (b) the possibilities which exists for supporting these procedures through appropriate data processing and display in the control system. At the same time, attempts are made...... to connect ideas for display which currently are under consideration in the department to various phases of the diagnostic task which itself is postulated as being divided up into a sequence of subtasks each with its own typical features....

  2. Flexible operation strategy for environment control system in abnormal supply power condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liping, Pang; Guoxiang, Li; Hongquan, Qu; Yufeng, Fang

    2017-04-01

    This paper establishes an optimization method that can be applied to the flexible operation of the environment control system in an abnormal supply power condition. A proposed conception of lifespan is used to evaluate the depletion time of the non-regenerative substance. The optimization objective function is to maximize the lifespans. The optimization variables are the allocated powers of subsystems. The improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm is adopted to obtain the pareto optimization frontier with the constraints of the cabin environmental parameters and the adjustable operating parameters of the subsystems. Based on the same importance of objective functions, the preferred power allocation of subsystems can be optimized. Then the corresponding running parameters of subsystems can be determined to ensure the maximum lifespans. A long-duration space station with three astronauts is used to show the implementation of the proposed optimization method. Three different CO2 partial pressure levels are taken into consideration in this study. The optimization results show that the proposed optimization method can obtain the preferred power allocation for the subsystems when the supply power is at a less-than-nominal value. The method can be applied to the autonomous control for the emergency response of the environment control system.

  3. Electro-thermal Modeling of Modern Power Devices for Studying Abnormal Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui

    In modern power electronic systems, there are increasing demands to improve the whole system endurance and safety level while reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules are the most widely used as well as most critical power devices...... in industrial power electronic systems in the range above 10 kW. The failure of IGBTs can be generally classified as catastrophic failures and wear out failures. A wear out failure is mainly induced by accumulated degradation with time, while a catastrophic failure is triggered by a single-event abnormal...... been given in Chapter 2. The failure mechanisms investigation suggests that the abnormal junction temperature or hot spots normally happen with the occurrence of failure. Practical challenges of predicting junction temperature during short circuit operations are also identified: a) electro...

  4. A computerized operator support system for BWR power plant during normal and abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, K.; Sato, N.; Tsunoyama, S.; Sekimizu, K.; Mori, N.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized operator support system for BWR was developed based on the operators tasks which are divided into problem solving and controlling. Problem solving comprises fault managing and planning tasks. One of the operator supports for the problem solving is the automatic diagnostic support. However, the operator supports for controlling tasks are still important, e.g. to support its rule memory and rule execution. In the system presented here, operator supports are considered for both of these two categories. In the paper two subsystems for the latter are mainly described. (author)

  5. Analysis of communication contents and the associated crew performance data collected from abnormal operating conditions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Man Cheol

    2010-11-01

    There would be no objection about the fact that, in the case of human operators working in a large process control system, the consequence of inappropriate communications would be more sensitive because they have to carry out many kinds of crucial activities (sharing key information or planning actions, etc.) based on communications. Accordingly, the reduction of inappropriate communications has been regarded as one of the key approaches in securing the safety of large process control systems, such as commercial airplanes, off-shore oil platforms and nuclear power plants (NPPs). This means that one of the practical methods would be the investigation of communication contents, through which we are able to identify useful insights pertaining to the prevention of inappropriate communications. For this reason, communications of main control room (MCR) operating crews that were faced with two kinds of abnormal operating conditions are analyzed to identify the variation of communication contents. To this end, in total 39 audio-visual records about abnormal training sessions, which were carried out by MCR operating crews, are collected from the full scope simulator of reference NPPs. Then communication contents and the associated crew performance data are compared for selected MCR operating crews. As a result, although additional effort is indispensable to draw a more concrete conclusion, it is strongly expected the performance of operating crews is proportional to the amount of '3-way communication.' In addition, it is necessary to develop a novel framework that can be used to analyze the communication characteristics of MCR operating crews because it is insufficient to retrieve insightful information from simple comparisons based on the empirical observation of crew communications

  6. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  7. How to Secure UPS Operation And Supply of Safety Critical Load During Abnormal Conditions in Upstream Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Gert; Kissling, Silvan; Laaser, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    UPS system design margins are usually given by manufacturer, but the events in Forsmark showed that these margins are not sufficient to protect UPS equipment and secure supply to critical loads. To withstand such events, it is not enough just to define margins for particular equipment. The overall plant design including environmental influences must be taken into consideration. For extreme environmental conditions, a UPS must include protection which design is matching to the upstream plant equipment. Immunity against abnormal conditions can not be finally guaranteed by higher margins. A limitation that excludes such influences must be implemented into the design. This presentation discusses possibilities to specify design margins, for rectifiers and inverters based on GUTOR thyristor and IGBT technology. It shows protection features to resist and solutions to limit overvoltages. (authors)

  8. An abnormal event advisory expert system prototype for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators must respond correctly during abnormal conditions in the presence of dynamic and potentially overwhelming volumes of information. For this reason, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of nuclear plant operator aids using artificial intelligence techniques. The objective of such systems is to diagnose abnormal conditions within the plant, possibly predict consequences, and advise the operators of corrective actions in a timely manner. The objective of the work is the development of a prototype expert system to diagnose abnormal events at a nuclear power plant and advise plant operators of the event and applicable procedures in an on-line mode. The major difference between this effort and previous work is the use of plant operating procedures as a knowledge source and as an integral part of the advice provided by the expert system. The acceptance by utilities of expert systems as operator aids requires that such systems be compatible with the regulatory environment and provide economic benefits. For this reason, commercially viable operator aid systems developed in the near future must complement existing plant procedures rather than reach beyond them in a revolutionary manner. A knowledge source is the resource providing facts and relationships that are coded into the expert system program. In this case, the primary source of knowledge is a set of selected abnormal operating procedures for a modern Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

  9. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  10. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  11. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  12. Team performance measures for abnormal plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Seaver, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Gaddy, C.D.; Toquam, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to work effectively, control room crews need to possess well-developed team skills. Extensive research supports the notion that improved quality and effectiveness are possible when a group works together, rather than as individuals. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the role of team performance in plant safety and has attempted to evaluate licensee performance as part of audits, inspections, and reviews. However, reliable and valid criteria for team performance have not yet been adequately developed. The purpose of the present research was to develop such reliable and valid measures of team skills. Seven dimensions of team skill performance were developed on the basis of input from NRC operator licensing examiners and from the results of previous research and experience in the area. These dimensions included two-way communications, resource management, inquiry, advocacy, conflict resolution/decision-making, stress management, and team spirit. Several different types of rating formats were developed for use with these dimensions, including a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) format and a Behavioral Frequency format. Following pilot-testing and revision, observer and control room crew ratings of team performance were obtained using 14 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a BWR and a PWR reactor. It is concluded, overall, that the Behavioral Frequency ratings appeared quite promising as a measure of team skills but that additional statistical analyses and other follow-up research are needed to refine several of the team skills dimensions and to make the scales fully functional in an applied setting

  13. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    , the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...

  14. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  15. Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Nan; Shao Shuangquan; Tian Changqing; Yan Yuying

    2010-01-01

    There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and abnormal working conditions. The appropriate discriminant method is adopted to switch the normal and abnormal conditions smoothly and to eliminate the simulated data oscillation. In order to verify the dynamic model, we built a test system with variable frequency compressor, water-cooling condenser, evaporator and electronic expansion valve. Calculated values from the mathematical model show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that the transient behaviours of the variable capacity refrigeration system in the abnormal working conditions can be calculated reliably with the dynamic model when the compressor rotary speed or the opening of electronic expansion valve changes abruptly.

  16. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  17. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  18. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral density......, the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...... quite well by the second order conditional wave including directional spreading and finite water depth the probability to encounter such a wave is still, however, extremely rare. The use of the second order conditional wave as initial condition to a fully non-linear three-dimensional analysis...

  19. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  20. Analysis of VVER-1000 main circulation pump condition under operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskin, S.T.; Slobodchuk, V.I.; Shelegov, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Authors present a method and algorithms for detecting the abnormal condition of the main circulation pumps based on their on-power testing results. The efficiency of these algorithms has been demonstrated by their application for detecting abnormalities in the main circulation pump operation at the Russian nuclear power plants [ru

  1. ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING IN ADOLESCENTS — ENDOCRINE PROFILE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the endocrine profile condition in adolescent girls with abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients and methods: The participants of the study were 110 adolescent girls in the age between 11 and 15 years taken to hospital by emergency indication in the period between 2010–2013 years with dysfunctional uterine bleeding for the term from 3 to 48 days. In the first day of hospitalization before starting the hormonal therapy all patients underwent the physical examination, ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs and endocrine profile assessment. Concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH and the levels of mammotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in their blood were determined. Besides that physicians assessed the complete blood count indices: hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and hematocrits. Results: It was determined that the predisposing causes of abnormal uterine bleeding development in adolescents: high somatic pathology frequency, abnormalities of neuroendocrinal system and menstrual cycle. Gynecological pathology in adolescents is represented by significant disorders of menstrual function establishment expressed in the later beginning of menstruation, its intensity and duration. The authors also note the higher frequency of inflammatory diseases such as adnexitis, edeitis, vulvovaginitis and coleitis in comparison with the control group (37.3 and 30%, respectively. Another tendency was observed while studying the endocrine profile: in patients with hyperestrogenism the normal or increased content of FSH at the normal or lowered LH concentration is observed. At the same time, in patients with hypestrogenism FSH concentration at the lower limits of the age group is lowered, while LH concentration is lowered or normal. Conclusion: Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents in the most cases is developing in the setting

  2. Complexity rating of abnormal events and operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeivind Braarud, Per

    1998-01-01

    The complexity of the work situation during abnormal situations is a major topic in a discussion of safety aspects of Nuclear Power plants. An understanding of complexity and its impact on operator performance in abnormal situations is important. One way to enhance understanding is to look at the dimensions that constitute complexity for NPP operators, and how those dimensions can be measured. A further step is to study how dimensions of complexity of the event are related to performance of operators. One aspect of complexity is the operator 's subjective experience of given difficulties of the event. Another related aspect of complexity is subject matter experts ratings of the complexity of the event. A definition and a measure of this part of complexity are being investigated at the OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway. This paper focus on the results from a study of simulated scenarios carried out in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory, which is a full scope PWR simulator. Six crews of two licensed operators each performed in 16 scenarios (simulated events). Before the experiment subject matter experts rated the complexity of the scenarios, using a Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The Complexity Profiling Questionnaire contains eight previously identified dimensions associated with complexity. After completing the scenarios the operators received a questionnaire containing 39 questions about perceived complexity. This questionnaire was used for development of a measure of subjective complexity. The results from the study indicated that Process experts' rating of scenario complexity, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire, were able to predict crew performance quite well. The results further indicated that a measure of subjective complexity could be developed that was related to crew performance. Subjective complexity was found to be related to subjective work load. (author)

  3. LHC beam dump system Consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system is one of the most critical systems concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated using particle tracking in MAD-X, including an asynchronous dump action, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setting up and operation of these protection elements are discussed.

  4. Abnormal condition detector for a local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao.

    1976-01-01

    Object: to permit determination of abnormal condition by a number of local power range monitors (LPRM) to be quickly made through precise estimation of the ratio between the true rate of change in neutron flux and true change in the neutron flux by making use of the fact that the status of the neutron distribution does not widely change with a change in the core flow rate for a short period of time. Structure: While carrying out power control according to the core flow rate, detection values from LPRM which are disposed in a three-dimensional fashion within the reactor core are indicated on an indicator. The average value of rates of change in the indicated values for a group of LPRM under substantially the same fluid dynamic condition as that for each LPRM is determined while measuring time-wise change rate in the indicated value of each of the LPRM. The average value is successively divided by the rate of change in the indicated value for each LPRM and the amplifier gain thereof to obtain the reference value. When the difference between the average value and reference value obtained in this way exceeds a prescribed value, the corresponding LPRM is determined to be defective. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. WORK CONDITIONS OF CHAINSAW OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Malinovski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the human factors and the work conditions in clear-cutting operations using chainsaws in mountainous areas. Data were colected in a forestry company in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by interviews with 29 chainsaw operators. The results indicated that the operators average age was 32.3 years, height 1.68m and body weight 64.4Kg. The average job time in the company was 112 months and the average time of chainsaw operation experience was 81.5 months. Most (93.1% were dexterous and 6.9% were left-handed. The high incidence of backache (41.4% indicated that the task demands an overload of lumbar column, so that the company should take preventive measures to avoid backaches, using educational strategies or changing the opera-tional system. The high level of accidents (44.8% indicated that some precautions are needed to im-prove work safety.

  6. Abnormal peri-operative haemorrhage in asymptomatic patients is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, we undertook two studies to detertnine whether it could be justified in patients without a history of abnormal bleeding. In the first of these, 45 of 159 patients were excluded because of aspirin ingestion and a further 3 because of positive bleeding history so that prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin ...

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Martin, Gregory; Hurtt, James

    2017-05-08

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 with Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and volt-age/frequency ride-through, among others. A comparative experimental evaluation has been completed on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and the effect on abnormal grid condition response. This study examines the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. This report reviews comparative test data, which shows that GSFs have little impact on the metrics of interest in most tests cases.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Gregory D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurtt, James [Florida Power and Light Company

    2017-10-03

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and voltage/frequency ride-through, among others. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental evaluation on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and its effect on abnormal grid condition response. The evaluation examined the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. Testing results indicated a wide variance in the performance of GSF enabled inverters to various test cases.

  9. Radiological Consequences Analysis for Abnormal Condition on NPPs 1000 MWe by Using Radcon Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Mande Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro

    2009-01-01

    The operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Indonesia to anticipates rare of energy will generate various challenges, especially about NPPs safety. So installation organizer of nuclear must provide scientific argument to safety NPPs, one of them is by providing document of safety analysis. Calculation of radiological consequences after abnormal condition applies on generic PWR-1000 power reactor. Calculation is done by using program package RadCon (Radiological Consequences Model), with postulate condition is based on DBA (Design Basis Accident). Calculation of dispersion of radionuclide concentration is using PC-COSYMA as input data for RadCon. Simulation for radiological consequences analysis uses by site data sample. Analysis result shows that maximum receiving of internal - externals radiological consequence for short term and long-term below 1 km radius area is below the limit acceptably effective dose for a member of the public as a result of an accident which should not exceed 5 mSv (ICRP 1990). (author)

  10. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites.

  11. Abnormal peri-operative haemorrhage in asymptomatic patients is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was found, according to the same battery of tests employed for pre-operative screening, in 49 of 1 872 patients who had undergone major surgical procedures ... which inadvertent contamination of the specimen with heparin is the single most common cause of prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, with correction ...

  12. The resource theory under conditioned thermal operations

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhachar, Varun; Gour, Gilad

    2016-01-01

    The "thermal operations" framework developed in past works is used to model the evolution of microscopic quantum systems in contact with thermal baths. Here we extend this model to bipartite devices with one part acting as a control external to the system--bath setup. We define the operations of such hybrid devices as conditioned thermal operations. We examine the resource under these operations, which we call conditional athermality. In the quasiclassical limit, we quantify this resource and...

  13. Operation aid system upon occurrence of abnormality and display method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Ueno, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid system for a plant having a large number of systematic equipments upon occurrence of an abnormality and a method of displaying it. Namely, contents of an operation manual upon occurrence of an abnormality is displayed in the form of a flow chart divided into a judging section and an operation section depending on symptoms of plant parameters. Discrimination numbers are provided to a plurality sets of the judging sections and the operation sections respectively. With such procedures, using various measured signals of the plant as inputted data, the discrimination numbers of the judging sections in accordance with the inputted data are stored. Then a flow chart for the judging sections and the operation sections corresponding to the stored discrimination numbers are displayed. Further, an operation manual upon occurrence of abnormalities relevant to the judging sections and the operation sections in the form of writings, and previously determined drawings of relevant systems and trend graphs of the plant are also displayed with reference to the discrimination numbers described above. As a result, both of an appropriate operation manual and relevant information are displayed simultaneously for the occurrence of a plant abnormality and an operator's erroneous operation. (I.S.)

  14. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  15. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  16. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITION AND ABNORMALITY FOUND ON PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION BEFORE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Radiography is very useful as diagnostic aids and is widely used in dentistry. Panoramic radiography, as an inherent part of orthodontic examination, is a very useful in evaluating the condition of the jaw. This paper will discuss the role of panoramic radiography examination in pathologic condition and abnormalities of teeth and jaw to support the treatment planning of orthodontic treatment.

  17. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  18. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  19. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  20. Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2004-11-30

    Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception.

  1. Operational Markov Condition for Quantum Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Felix A.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César; Frauenheim, Thomas; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2018-01-01

    We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a quantum process to be Markovian which coincides with the classical one in the relevant limit. Our condition unifies all previously known definitions for quantum Markov processes by accounting for all potentially detectable memory effects. We then derive a family of measures of non-Markovianity with clear operational interpretations, such as the size of the memory required to simulate a process or the experimental falsifiability of a Markovian hypothesis.

  2. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  3. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  4. Operant conditioning of facial displays of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.

  5. Modelling and analysis of radionuclide dispersion from PWR on abnormal condition in Bojanegara Serang site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Additional of electrical power especially Nuclear Power Plant will give radiological consequence sto population and environment due to radioactive release in normal and abnormal condition. In consequence the management of nuclear power plant must supply data and strong argumentation to clarify the safety of nuclear power plant to environment. For that purpose it needs to be carried out an analysis of abnormal condition in nuclear power plant and its radiological consequences to the environment. That analysis is done using abnormal condition simulation model postulated on 1000 MWe nuclear power plant.That simulation model is used also to evaluate environmental potential as site capability in supporting the radiological consequences. Radionuclide transport modeling from reactor core to containment uses EMERALD computer code. Other computer codes are Wind rose, PC-COSYMA and Arc View are used to simulate meteorology condition, radionuclide release to population distribution of food production and consumption and distribution of radiation dose received to population around nuclear power plant. Application of that simulation is carried out to NPP candidate site in Bojanegara-Kramatwatu, Serang Banten peninsula. Using source term data, meteorology data, dispersion data and pathways modeling are resulting radionuclide dispersion model and radiation pathway acceptance at the surrounding nuclear power plant site (Bojanegara-Serang peninsula). The result shows that maximum radiation dose received is lower than dose permitted in accordance with regulatory body (BAPETEN). (author)

  6. Operational forecasting of human-biometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment. This is of particular significance for providing effective, human-biometeorology-oriented, warnings for both heat waves and cold outbreaks.

  7. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  8. Experimental loop for fast neutron fuels under normal, abnormal, transient and emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, M.; Colomez, G.; Marfaing, R.J.; Mourain, M.

    1976-01-01

    Within the scope of safety experiments on power reactor fuels, an experimental loop is described which can, by reduction of the flow, flush the sodium joint of vented mixed carbide fuel elements and allow the study of the resulting phenomena. With the help of the annex laboratories at OSIRIS, the control test can be analyzed and followed, with special attention to the study of the migration of fission products inside and outside the fuel. This apparatus can, of course, also be used for testing the fuels under normal and abnormal working conditions [fr

  9. Application of LMS-Based NN Structure for Power Quality Enhancement in a Distribution Network Under Abnormal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul Kumar; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim

    2017-03-16

    This paper proposes an application of a least mean-square (LMS)-based neural network (NN) structure for the power quality improvement of a three-phase power distribution network under abnormal conditions. It uses a single-layer neuron structure for the control in a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) to attenuate the harmonics such as noise, bias, notches, dc offset, and distortion, injected in the grid current due to connection of several nonlinear loads. This admittance LMS-based NN structure has a simple architecture which reduces the computational complexity and burden which makes it easy to implement. A DSTATCOM is a custom power device which performs various functionalities such as harmonics attenuation, reactive power compensation, load balancing, zero voltage regulation, and power factor correction. Other main contribution of this paper involves operation of the system under abnormal conditions of distribution network which means noise and distortion in voltage and imbalance in three-phase voltages at the point of interconnection. For substantiating and demonstrating the performance of proposed control approach, simulations are carried on MATLAB/Simulink software and corresponding experimental tests are conducted on a developed prototype in the laboratory.

  10. Operator support system for power unit control in abnormal modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurka, J.

    1993-01-01

    I and C system technology, partly Soviet and partly Czechoslovakian, used on the NPP Dukovany units represents the control technology standard of late 70-ties and it becomes the weak part of the whole system. The modernization of the system, therefore, is necessary and it is already in preparation. The specification of both the scope and the depth of upgrading/replacement is being carried out within the framework of the PHARE program. The second phase of the program aimed at the final specifications of requirements on new I and C system is in progress. The output will serve as detailed specification for bid invitation for control system supplier. Parallely, the preparation of specification for WWER-440 full-scope plant simulator for operator training is in progress as well. In the case of two units with WWER-1000 MW reactors, the completion of construction of which was even threaten for a certain period of time, essential changes have taken place in the design of both the I and C systems and the reactor core. 7 figs

  11. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  12. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-12-03

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi(®) Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops.

  13. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunji Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops.

  14. A new fuzzy framework for the optimal placement of phasor measurement units under normal and abnormal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab A. El-Sehiemy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new procedure for finding the optimal placement of the phasor measurement units (PMUs in modern power grids to achieve full network observability under normal operating conditions, and also abnormal operating conditions such as a single line or PMU outage, while considering the availability of PMU measuring channels. The proposed modeling framework is implemented using the fuzzy binary linear programming (FBLP technique. Linear fuzzy models are proposed for the objective function and constraints alike. The proposed procedure is applied to five benchmark systems such as the IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus, 39-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of finding a fine-tuned optimal solution with a simple model and acceptable solution characteristics compared with early works in the literature. Besides, four evaluation indices are introduced to assure the various criteria under study such as the observability depth, measurement redundancy, and robustness of the method under contingencies. The results show that full network observability can be met under normal conditions using 20% PMUs penetration; however, under contingencies, approximately 50% PMUs penetration is required. The novelty of the proposed procedure has proven the capability of the proposed linear fuzzy models to find better optimal number of PMUs with lower number of channels compared to other algorithms under various operating conditions. Hence, the proposed work represents a potential tool to monitor power systems, and it will help the operators in a smart grid environment. Keywords: Binary linear programming, Fuzzy models, Observability, Optimization, Phasor measurement unit, Smart grids

  15. Aldosterone-cortisol imbalance immediately after fontan operation with implications for abnormal fluid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Hirofumi; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal water metabolism is frequently observed after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that patients' adrenal hormones show unique responses immediately after Fontan operation and that such a hormonal profile is related to postoperative hemodynamics and water imbalance. Twenty-eight patients who underwent a Fontan operation (n = 16) or a non-Fontan type operation (n = 12; controls) under cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Postoperative urine cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured daily to minimize the influence of circadian rhythms and temporal hemodynamic variations. Cortisol excretion was markedly elevated on postoperative day (POD) 0 in controls, consistent with a stress-induced cortisol response. Cortisol excretion was not high on POD 0 in Fontan patients and was markedly lower than that in the controls (444 ± 150 vs 34 ± 6 μg/m(2)/day, p imbalance occurred specifically after the Fontan operation. This unique hormonal profile significantly affected patients' postoperative water balance and hemodynamics. Modulation of the adrenal hormone could be useful for reducing postoperative complications after the Fontan operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A decision support system for identifying abnormal operating procedures in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Han; Hwang, Sheue-Ling; Liu, Kang-Hong; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Chuang, Chang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A decision support system has been constructed and verified. ► The operator's decision-making time was decreased by about 25%. ► The accuracy was increased by about 18%. ► The system prevents overlooking important information. ► Fewer erroneous solutions were implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. - Abstract: In order to prevent safety hazards that can result from inappropriate decisions made by the operators of a nuclear power plant (NPP), this study was undertaken to develop a decision support system to reduce the complexity of the decision-making process by aiding operators’ cognitive activities, integrating unusual symptoms, and identifying the most suitable abnormal operating procedure (AOP) for operators. The study was conducted from the perspective of human factors engineering in order to compare the process that operators originally used to select an AOP with a process that included a support system for AOP identification. The results of the study indicated that the existence of a support system reduces errors by quickly suggesting likely AOPs. With such a support system in place, there were clear improvements in human performance, i.e., decision-making time decreased by about 25%, and the accuracy of the operators’ decisions, judged by the successful resolution of specific problems, increased by about 18%. In addition, there were fewer erroneous solutions implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. Hence, the decision support system is proposed as a training tool in identifying AOPs in the main control room (MCR).

  17. Children with autism spectrum disorders show abnormal conditioned response timing on delay, but not trace, eyeblink conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oristaglio, Jeff; West, Susan Hyman; Ghaffari, Manely; Lech, Melissa S.; Verma, Beeta R.; Harvey, John A.; Welsh, John P.; Malone, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typically-developing (TD) peers were tested on two forms of eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a Pavlovian associative learning paradigm where subjects learn to execute an appropriately-timed eyeblink in response to a previously neutral conditioning stimulus (CS). One version of the task, trace EBC, interposes a stimulus-free interval between the presentation of the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US), a puff of air to the eye which causes subjects to blink. In delay EBC, the CS overlaps in time with the delivery of the US, usually with both stimuli terminating simultaneously. ASD children performed normally during trace EBC, exhibiting no differences from typically-developing (TD) subjects with regard to learning rate or the timing of the CR. However, when subsequently tested on delay EBC, subjects with ASD displayed abnormally-timed conditioned eye blinks that began earlier and peaked sooner than those of TD subjects, consistent with previous findings. The results suggest an impaired ability of children with ASD to properly time conditioned eye blinks which appears to be specific to delay EBC. We suggest that this deficit may reflect a dysfunction of cerebellar cortex in which increases in the intensity or duration of sensory input can temporarily disrupt the accuracy of motor timing over short temporal intervals. PMID:23769889

  18. Operating conditions of the BPX divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Milovich, J.; Rognlien, T.; Braams, B.J.; Brooks, J.N.; Campbell, R.; Haines, J.; Knoll, D.; Prinja, A.; Stotler, D.P.; Ulrickson, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the expected operating conditions at the divertor of the BPX tokamak (Burning Plasma Experiment), the next- step US tokamak proposed for the study of self-heated plasmas at Q ≅ 5 to ignition. In this double-null device (κ ≅ 2), the predicted first-wall loading is high because of is compact size (R = 2.6m, α = 0.8m, I p = 10.6 MA, and B T ) and its high projected fusion power output (100--500 MW with up to 20 MW of ICRH). Present designs call for inertially cooled carbon-based target plate material and X-point sweeping to handle the divertor heat flux during the 3--5 s flat-top at full power. The X-point is maintained about 15--20 cm off the target plates (a distance of ∼5m along field lines), which represents a reasonable compromise between lowering the divertor electron temperature (T e,d ) by increasing the connection length, and lowering the peak divertor heat flux (q d ) by increasing the magnetic flux expansion (which is about 15--20 in this case). It is planned for the BPX device to operate with H-mode confinement; ELMs are expected because of the relatively high power flow through the edge plasma (P sep ≅ 0.6 MW/m 2 for P fus = 500 MW). The ELMs will help reduce the impurity concentration in the core plasma (Z eff ≅ 1.7) and keep the density down, but should not add significantly to the divertor heat flux since their measured contribution to the global power balance drops with increasing input power

  19. LHCb Conditions database operation assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Shapoval, I.; Cattaneo, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Santinelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Conditions Database (CondDB) of the LHCb experiment provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger (HLT), reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues. The first system is a CondDB state tracking extension to the Oracle 3D Streams replication technology, to trap cases when the CondDB replication was corrupted. Second, an automated distribution system for the SQLite-based CondDB, providing also smart backup and checkout mechanisms for the CondDB managers and LHCb users respectively. And, finally, a system to verify and monitor the internal (CondDB self-consistency) and external (LHCb physics software vs. CondDB) compatibility. The former two systems are used in production in the LHCb experiment and have achieved the desired goal of higher flexibility and robustness for the management and operation of the CondDB. The latter one has been fully designed and is passing currently to the implementation stage.

  20. MAPI's knowledge-based system will help to deal with abnormal conditions (in nuclear plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries (MAPI) in Japan is incorporating artificial intelligence characteristics into a system for guiding nuclear power plant operators during fault conditions. The central feature of the system is the incorporation of the operator's cognitive processes as the framework for its display of information and its mode of reasoning. A small scale prototype system has been developed and work is underway to produce and test a full-scale prototype system by 1991. (UK)

  1. Retention of iodine and other airborne radionuclides in nuclear facilities during abnormal and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Extensive research efforts have been undertaken in the world scientific community advancing the status of systems to maintain high air cleaning efficiency under the extreme abnormal conditions. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme to upgrade technology in the area started in 1983 on the recommendations of a previous programme and the development covering a five year term is described in this document. Research laboratories from ten Member States participated, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, India and Yugoslavia for three years with Austria, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Korea and UK for lesser periods. Research co-ordination meetings were held in Belgium (1984), Canada (1986) and Hungary (1988). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 presentations from experts from the above mentioned Member States who participated in this research programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Corrosion properties of sealing surface material for RPV under abnormal working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhua; Wen Yan; Zhang Xuemei; Hou Songmin; Gong Bin; He Yanchun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corrosion issue of sealing surface material for RPV in some nuclear projects, the corrosion properties of sealing surface material for RPV under abnormal working conditions were investigated. The corrosion behavior of 308L stainless steel were studied by using autoclave in different contents of Cl - solutions, and these samples were observed and analyzed by means of the metalloscope and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that no pitting, crevice and stress corrosion occurred, when the content of Cl - was lower than 1 mg/L at the temperatures of 270℃ and the pressure of 5.5 MPa. However, with the increase of the content of Cl - , the susceptibility to pitting, crevice and stress corrosion of 308L was enhanced remarkably. (authors)

  3. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module

  4. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module.

  5. Insulation resistance abnormal condition detector for a local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kai, Takaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit determination of abnormal condition by a number of local power range monitors (LPRM ) to be quickly made through estimation of the leakage current value by precisely estimating the ratio between the true rate of change in neutron flux and true change in the neutron flux by making use of the fact that the status of the neutron distribution does not widely change with a change of the core flow rate for a short period of time. Structure: While carrying out power control according to the core flow rate, detection values from LPRM which are disposed in a three-dimensional fashion within the reactor core are indicated on an indicator. The average value of rates of change in the indicated values for a group of LPRM under substantially the same fluid dynamic condition as that for each LPRM is determined by measuring the ratio before and after the alteration of the power of the indicated value. Further, the estimation of leakage current is determined by using the ratio of the indicated value, average value thereof and amplifier gain of each LPRM. When the estimation leakage current exceeds a prescribed value, the corresponding LPRM is determined to be defective. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides practical guidance on all important aspects of developing, formulating and presenting the operational limits and conditions as well as the operating procedures for research reactors. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content, and the responsibilities of the operating organization with respect to their establishment, modification, documentation and compliance. The guidance also covers the training of operating personnel on performing periodic testing, established by the operational limits and conditions, and operating procedures

  7. Operational performance of generator condition monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.M.; Brown, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the generator condition monitor (GCM) developed in an attempt to detect overheating inside large turbine generators. As part of a broader study on rotating machinery diagnostics, generator condition monitors were evaluated under field conditions in a 550 MW turbogenerator. Small 100 W resistors coated with insulating paints and varnishes were mounted inside the generator to simulate insulation overheating. The GCM responded very rapidly to an overheating event, typically within two minutes, even for hot spots as small s 10 cm 2 . Similarly the aerosols produced on overheating were found extremely short lived, decaying within two to three minutes after overheating was discontinued. Use of heated ion chambers was found to desensitize the GCM regardless of the nature of the overheated insulation and in some cases would altogether prevent the GCM from reaching the 50% pre-set alarm level commonly used on GCMs

  8. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  9. LHCb Conditions Database Operation Assistance Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Shapoval, Illya

    2012-01-01

    The Conditions Database of the LHCb experiment (CondDB) provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger, reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues: - an extension to the automatic content validation done by the “Oracle Streams” replication technology, to trap cases when the replication was unsuccessful; - an automated distribution process for the S...

  10. Operator strategies under varying conditions of workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnegard, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to operationally define and measure strategic behavior in a complex multiple task environment. The Multi-Attribute Task battery was developed to simulate various aspects of flight and consisted of an auditory communication task, monitoring tasks, a tracking tasks, a resource management task which allowed a wide range of responding patterns, and a scheduling window which allowed operators to predict changes in workload. This battery was validated for its sensitivity to strategic behavior, and baseline measures for each individual task were collected. Twenty-four undergraduate and graduate students then performed the battery for four 64 minute sessions which took place over a period of 2 days. Each subject performed the task battery under four levels of workload, which were presented for equal lengths of time during all four sessions. Results indicated that in general, performance improves as a function of experience with the battery, but that performance decreased as workload level increased. The data also showed that subjects developed strategies for responding to the resource management task which allowed them to manage the high workload levels more efficiently. This particular strategy developed over time but was also associated with errors of complacency. These results are presented along with implications for the aviation field and areas of future research.

  11. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountassir, M El; Yaacoubi, S; Dahmene, F

    2015-01-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method. (paper)

  13. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM equipment... equipment otherwise complies with the rules in this part, the operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful... interference to an authorized radio station or a radiocommunication device operating in an ISM frequency band...

  14. Infant Operant Conditioning and Its Implications for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giullo E.

    1980-01-01

    In this article infant operant conditioning studies are grouped according to distinct procedures: free operant; discrete trial with one discriminative stimulus; discrete trial with two or more discriminative stimuli; controlled operant with two or more discriminative stimuli; and unrestricted operant with two or more discriminative stimuli.…

  15. Accident identification system with automatic detection of abnormal condition using quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Alan Miranda Monteiro de [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Transient identification systems have been proposed in order to maintain the plant operating in safe conditions and help operators in make decisions in emergency short time interval with maximum certainty associated. This article presents a system, time independent and without the use of an event that can be used as a starting point for t = 0 (reactor scram, for instance), for transient/accident identification of a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The model was developed in order to be able to recognize the normal condition and three accidents of the design basis list of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, postulated in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Were used several sets of process variables in order to establish a minimum set of variables considered necessary and sufficient. The optimization step of the identification algorithm is based upon the paradigm of Quantum Computing. In this case, the optimization metaheuristic Quantum Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) was implemented and works as a data mining tool. The results obtained with the QEA without the time variable are compatible to the techniques in the reference literature, for the transient identification problem, with less computational effort (number of evaluations). This system allows a solution that approximates the ideal solution, the Voronoi Vectors with only one partition for the classes of accidents with robustness. (author)

  16. Accident identification system with automatic detection of abnormal condition using quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto; Lima, Alan Miranda Monteiro de

    2011-01-01

    Transient identification systems have been proposed in order to maintain the plant operating in safe conditions and help operators in make decisions in emergency short time interval with maximum certainty associated. This article presents a system, time independent and without the use of an event that can be used as a starting point for t = 0 (reactor scram, for instance), for transient/accident identification of a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The model was developed in order to be able to recognize the normal condition and three accidents of the design basis list of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, postulated in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Were used several sets of process variables in order to establish a minimum set of variables considered necessary and sufficient. The optimization step of the identification algorithm is based upon the paradigm of Quantum Computing. In this case, the optimization metaheuristic Quantum Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) was implemented and works as a data mining tool. The results obtained with the QEA without the time variable are compatible to the techniques in the reference literature, for the transient identification problem, with less computational effort (number of evaluations). This system allows a solution that approximates the ideal solution, the Voronoi Vectors with only one partition for the classes of accidents with robustness. (author)

  17. Gender classification under extended operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Howard N.; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    Gender classification is a critical component of a robust image security system. Many techniques exist to perform gender classification using facial features. In contrast, this paper explores gender classification using body features extracted from clothed subjects. Several of the most effective types of features for gender classification identified in literature were implemented and applied to the newly developed Seasonal Weather And Gender (SWAG) dataset. SWAG contains video clips of approximately 2000 samples of human subjects captured over a period of several months. The subjects are wearing casual business attire and outer garments appropriate for the specific weather conditions observed in the Midwest. The results from a series of experiments are presented that compare the classification accuracy of systems that incorporate various types and combinations of features applied to multiple looks at subjects at different image resolutions to determine a baseline performance for gender classification.

  18. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  19. Virasoro conditions, vertex operators, and string dynamics in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We present the perturbatively renormalized expression of a scalar vertex operator for strings in a background metric and dilaton field. The equations of motion for the background fields and the wave equation for the vertex function emerge upon imposing Virasoro conditions on the vertex operator

  20. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydraulic turbines are operating at part load conditions depending on availability of hydraulic energy or to meet the grid requirements. The turbine experiences ... The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load.Pressure ... University of Technology, Lulea ., Sweden ...

  1. Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…

  2. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  3. Situational restriction: using your physical exam to differentiate pulley abnormalities from other vertical deviations secondary to restrictive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Steven E; Shippman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The description of the orbital pulley system has changed the way we understand eye movements and ocular motility disorders. The presence of abnormalities in the orbital pulley system can complicate the assessment of vertical restrictive conditions. The standard tests for restriction are reviewed. These include version and duction testing, assessing saccades, differential intraocular pressure measurements, forced duction testing, and forced generation testing. We introduce the concept of situational restriction and how to look for it during your physical exam. Situational restriction is a limitation of ocular rotation that is dependent on the path that is taken to try to arrive at a tertiary position of ocular rotation. Specifically, it shows noncommutative movement that breaks Listing's Law. The presence of situational restriction denotes that a pulley abnormality is present.

  4. New layout concepts in MW-scale IGBT modules for higher robustness during normal and abnormal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents six different layout designs for MW-level Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules. The aim is to optimize the normal switching and abnormal short circuit performances of IGBT modules in terms of stray inductance reduction and inductance coupling cancellation. Using...... the Finite-Element-Method AnSYS Q3D Extractor, electromagnetic simulations are conducted to extract the self and mutual inductance from the six different layouts. PSpice simulations are used to reveal that the stray parameters inside the module play an important role under normal and abnormal operations......, and thus the best performing layout strategies can be selected. The prototypes are fabricated to validate the results of the Q3D simulation analysis, in which the self-inductance is measured by using a high precision impedance analyzer....

  5. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  6. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    by the hyperreactivity and hyperplasticity found in the lateral amygdala, which may in turn be due to a deficit in the inhibitory system of the amygdala. We hypothesize an 'aversive world' syndrome that could, even if not a primary cause of the disorder itself, underlie some core symptoms in autism, such as impairments......A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic...... acid (VPA) rat model of autism to (a) screen for autism-like symptoms in rats, (b) test for alterations in amygdala-dependent fear processing, and (c) evaluate neuronal reactivity and synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala by means of in vitro single-cell electrophysiological recordings. VPA...

  7. A novelty detection diagnostic methodology for gearboxes operating under fluctuating operating conditions using probabilistic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Heyns, P. S.; de Villiers, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a fault diagnostic methodology is developed which is able to detect, locate and trend gear faults under fluctuating operating conditions when only vibration data from a single transducer, measured on a healthy gearbox are available. A two-phase feature extraction and modelling process is proposed to infer the operating condition and based on the operating condition, to detect changes in the machine condition. Information from optimised machine and operating condition hidden Markov models are statistically combined to generate a discrepancy signal which is post-processed to infer the condition of the gearbox. The discrepancy signal is processed and combined with statistical methods for automatic fault detection and localisation and to perform fault trending over time. The proposed methodology is validated on experimental data and a tacholess order tracking methodology is used to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic methodology.

  8. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools.

  9. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  10. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  11. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  12. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  13. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  14. VERIFICATION OF GEAR DYNAMIC MODEL IN DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz PERUŃ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of verification of the drive system dynamic model with gear. Tests were carried out on the real object in different operating conditions. For the same assumed conditions were also carried out simulation studies. Comparison of the results obtained from those two series of tests helped determine the suitability of the model and verify the possibility of replacing experimental research by simulations with use of dynamic model.

  15. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  16. Operational limit conditions of the spur gears in lubricated modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benilha, S.; Belarifi, F.

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of the gear teeth resistance, shows the using of a certain number of coefficients determined experimentally and which are accepted by the various international standards. However, this kind of calculation determines the gears by excess material and does not support the tribological parameters of operation. We propose in this work the support of these parameters, to determine the limit operation conditions of the spur gears, using the equivalent geometry. This is represented by two cylinders, which geometrically models of the contact between two teeth of a gear and whose lubrication is generally in mixed lubrication mode. The concept of Mc cool is used to determine the distribution of the load and the friction force, which are distributed in liquid (elastohydrodynamic) and solid domains and interact with each other. The phenomenon of interaction between the two domains is used, to predict the tribological limit conditions of operation. The proposed model is based on the resolution of elastohydrodynamic equations for the determination of load and friction as well as the deduction of mixed friction by tracing the Stribeck curve. This is calculated by the model of the decomposition of the patterns profile of rough surfaces in contacts. The results of non-dimensional calculations allow us to deduce the boundary conditions and can be adapted for any type of gear pair defined according to pre-established operating conditions.

  17. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    hydraulic energy or demand of market. The turbine expe- riences unstable flow conditions during .... gate the pressure loading inside the turbine at a similar load. No measurements have been reported in the .... speed factor (nED) and discharge factor (qED) are 0.18 and. 0.15, respectively. The operating point selected for ...

  18. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  19. Teleportation protocol with non-ideal conditional local operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, C.; Ballester, D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze teleportation protocol when some of receiver's conditional operations are more reliable than others and a non-maximally entangled channel is shared by the two parts. We show that the average fidelity of teleportation can be maximized by choosing properly the basis in which the sender performs her two-qubit measurement.

  20. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix C of this part or those for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1... pilot may fly an airplane into known or forecast severe icing conditions. (e) If current weather reports... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD...

  1. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Updating Coverage of Operant Conditioning in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Miller, Erin; Ecott, Cheryl; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Offers an example of determining what the experts of psychology deem as essential concepts in their subfield by investigating the current principles in operant conditioning through surveys of the board of editors of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior." Recommends concepts that are appropriate for up-to-date coverage of operant…

  3. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  4. Design of a microcontroller based temperature monitoring and time of day display for abnormal nuclear reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, B.

    2012-01-01

    A device has been constructed to measure and record temperature, an important parameter in the operation of a nuclear reactor. The device also records the time and date when an abnormal incident (indicated by a rise in temperature) occurs for reference at a later time if investigating the incident becomes necessary. The methods used in this research include the modelling of a suitable circuit, the building of the modelled circuit, programming a microcontroller, testing the built circuit using electronically generated parameters and finally testing the built circuit with an experimental setup mimicking the GHARR-1 Research Reactor. The built device was tested with a standard laboratory probe for measuring temperature and a mercury thermometer. Temperature values were recorded for each temperature sensor in an experimental setup to ensure that the values recorded by the device were reliable. The error of the temperatures measured by the device was ±1 degrees Celsius resulting from the semiconductor temperature sensor (LM35ZC) and the electric circuitry. The time recorded by the device for an abnormality was found to have an error of ±3 seconds. The thermocouples used as temperature sensors in the GHARR-1 research reactor have their voltage output cables available in the research reactor's control room where they can be connected to the device instead of the semiconductor temperature sensor (LM35CZ). Permission has been granted to connect the device in the control room which will demand the recalibration of the device for use with the thermocouples.(au)

  5. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning.

  6. Operant conditioning of reciprocal inhibition in rat soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang Yang; Chen, Lu; Chen, Yi; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2006-10-01

    Operant conditioning of the H-reflex, the electrical analog of the spinal stretch reflex (SSR), induces activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord and might be used to improve locomotion after spinal cord injury. To further assess the potential clinical significance of spinal reflex conditioning, this study asks whether another well-defined spinal reflex pathway, the disynaptic pathway underlying reciprocal inhibition (RI), can also be operantly conditioned. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electromyographic (EMG) electrodes in right soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and a stimulating cuff on the common peroneal (CP) nerve. When background EMG in both muscles remained in defined ranges, CP stimulation elicited the TA H-reflex and SOL RI. After collection of control data for 20 days, each rat was exposed for 50 days to up-conditioning (RIup mode) or down-conditioning (RIdown mode) in which food reward occurred if SOL RI evoked by CP stimulation was more (RIup mode) or less (RIdown mode) than a criterion. TA and SOL background EMG and TA M response remained stable. In every rat, RI conditioning was successful (i.e., change > or =20% in the correct direction). In the RIup rats, final SOL RI averaged 171+/- 28% (mean +/- SE) of control, and final TA H-reflex averaged 114 +/- 14%. In the RIdown rats, final SOL RI averaged 37 +/- 13% of control, and final TA H-reflex averaged 60 +/- 18%. Final SOL RI and TA H-reflex sizes were significantly correlated. Thus like the SSR and the H-reflex, RI can be operantly conditioned; and conditioning one reflex can affect another reflex as well.

  7. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  9. The behaviour of WWER nuclear power stations under abnormal operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Dreger, P.; Prasser, H.M.; Reichenbach, D.

    1985-01-01

    The big power WWER type reactors can show the volumetric oscillations of the power density into the reactor core because of xenon poisoning. The ununiform xenon distribution occurs in the case of nonideal mixing of the coolant into the reactor vessel. This effect usually leads to decreasing of the reactor power. The theoretical and experimental investigations with the goal to evaluate the volumetric distribution of the temperature near the coolant input into the reactor core is discussed in this paper as well as the three dimensional model of the reactor core together with the primary coolant circuit model to calculate volumetric xenon oscillations

  10. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-01-01

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.

    2011-07-28

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Calculations of stresses in GCFR cladding under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Hsieh, T.C.; Billone, M.C.

    1979-11-01

    A modified version of the LIFE-III code, LIFE-GCFR, and classical stress-analysis techniques have been used to calculate the stresses in the GCFR cladding under normal reactor operating conditions. Several types of loadings on the cladding that occur during normal operation have been considered. These include fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, thermal stresses induced by radial and axial temperature gradients, and swelling gradient-induced stresses. The combined and individual effects of these loadings, as well as the effect of creep on cladding stresses, have been assessed

  13. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  14. Early detection of power system disturbances as a condition for safe operation of the Dukovany NPP in the 'Island operation mode'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzela, I.

    1997-01-01

    The ''Frequency Plan'' worked out for the Czech Power System specifies a set of preventive measures along with the set of the frequency ranges. This problem was solved in details for the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The design changes under preparation support a reliable as well as safe operation in the island-operation mode until a full restoration of the whole power system. The design modifications are based on the following three main innovations: An incorporation of the FREA 16 frequency relay into the protection circuits; large modifications in turbine control loops; installation of software routine for the operator to support the island operation mode. The capability of the island operation has been demanded by relevant regulations both for the operating units and for that under construction. The capability can be tested under the transition to houseloads, as well as through the direct simulation of abnormal grid conditions. 1 fig

  15. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  16. Abnormal condition and events analysis for instrumentation and control systems. Volume 2: Survey and evaluation of industry practices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKemy, S.; Marcelli, M.; Boehmer, N.; Crandall, D.

    1996-01-01

    The ACES Project was initiated to identify a cost-effective methodology for addressing abnormal conditions and events (ACES) in digital upgrades to nuclear power plant systems, as introduced by IEEE Standard 7-4.3.2-1993. Several methodologies and techniques currently in use in the defense, aerospace, and other communities for the assurance of digital safety systems were surveyed, and although several were shown to possess desirable qualities, none sufficiently met the needs of the nuclear power industry. This report describes a tailorable methodology for performing ACES analysis that is based on the more desirable aspects of the reviewed methodologies and techniques. The methodology is applicable to both safety- and non-safety-grade systems, addresses hardware, software, and system-level concerns, and can be applied in either a lifecycle or post-design timeframe. Employing this methodology for safety systems should facilitate the digital upgrade licensing process

  17. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Sturdy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning.

  18. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning. PMID:29163295

  19. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  20. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner's arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children's language learning.

  1. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...

  2. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in ...

  3. Automated Operant Conditioning in the Mouse Home Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nikolas A; Kanold, Patrick O

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems. Here, we describe a new system for automated operant conditioning, the Psibox. It is assembled from low cost parts, designed to fit within typical commercial wire-top cages, and allows large numbers of mice to train independently in their home cages on positive reinforcement tasks. We found that groups of mice trained together learned to accurately detect sounds within 2 weeks of training. In addition, individual mice isolated from groups also showed good task performance. The Psibox facilitates high-throughput testing of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills in mice, and provides a readily available animal population for studies ranging from experience-dependent neural plasticity to rodent models of mental disorders.

  4. ANALYSIS OF OPTIMUM OPERATING MODES OF POWER TRANSFORMERS UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study of parallel operation optimal modes of transformer equipment for a variety of operating conditions: same or different types of transformers, with or without reactive power flows. Methodology. Losses of energy in transformers make 30 % of all losses. Therefore the choice of the economically justified parallel operation of transformers is effective action to reduce losses. Typically, in the calculations of reactive power flows in the transformers are not taken into account. It is interesting to analyze the optimal operating conditions of transformers with and without reactive power flows. Results. Calculations for transformers in distribution networks showed that the inclusion of reactive power flows in transformers significant impact on the calculated optimum regimes of transformers.

  5. Analysis of operating conditions of the voltage transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastiy G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In electrical networks, constant monitoring of the electrical equipment operation is necessary. To accomplish this task, current transformers and voltage transformers (VT are used, on which the accuracy of electrical measurements, electricity metering, and the reliability of the emergency control system depend. The results of the analysis of the conditions for forming the magnetization of a voltage transformer in the mode with unilateral connection of overhead transmission lines, as well as variants of violations in the 110 kV network that may exist for a relatively long time have been presented. It should be noted that the considered network has its own peculiarities: the overhead transmission lines connected in series have a significant length and a low level of load, which may be a condition for the appearance of a transmission lines capacitive effect (the Ferranti effect, the latter can cause overvoltage. Overvoltage occurs when the operating modes are temporary in terms of operation, adverse combinations of network parameters take place, and can continue until the circuit and network modes change. Most often they appear in asymmetric modes, with short circuits to ground, etc. Asymmetric modes caused by incomplete-phase commutations and wire breaks on the overhead line, as well as wire breaks with subsequent disconnection of power transformers that can affect the voltage level on the VT have been considered. The possibility of VT magnetizing with a prolonged voltage rise in symmetric modes, namely, the manifestation of the Ferranti effect with various loads at substations up to complete switching-off and power transformers switching off has been investigated. The analysis of the measuring voltage transformer operating conditions has been based on materials provided by the "Kolenergo" services.

  6. Abnormal positioning of multiple abdominal organs with anomalous direct drainage of hepatic vein into the right atrium in a post operative omphalocele patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Cho, Bum Sang; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Seung Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik [Chungbuk National Univ. Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An omphalocele is a rare congenital anomaly in which the infant's intestines protrude through the navel. Additional anomalies that are associated with omphalocele remain present in as many as 50% of cases, and these anomalies vary greatly from patient to patient. However, the persistent anomalies or abnormal position of the abdominal organs in post operative omphalocele patients have not reported previously. Herein, we report the case of an omphalocele patient with abnormal positioning of the liver, spleen and both kidneys, as well as abnormal drainage of the hepatic vein into the right atrium, which was found during a routine, postoperative follow-up computed tomography scan.

  7. Restoring walking after spinal cord injury: operant conditioning of spinal reflexes can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of electromyographic activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  10. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  11. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...... provide a significant contribution towards obtaining such a general model. Therefore, the main aim of the paper is to highlight the essential characteristics of marine system dynamics so as to provide a background for practitioners who would attempt future application of system identification techniques...

  12. Vertex operators, virasoro conditions and string dynamics in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadia, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    String propagation in a background metric and dilation field are considered in the context of conformal invariant field theory. A perturbatively renormalized tachyon vertex in the presence of these background fields is presented. This generalises the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless construction. The equations of motion for the background fields and the wave equation for the vertex function emerge upon imposing the Virasoro gauge conditions on the vertex operator. This is equivalent to calculating the equation of motion Qvertical barpsi> = 0 in the BRST approach

  13. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    -average filter to detect the fundamental component of the measured voltages and currents (needed to control the SSC) while using a double vector control algorithm to improve the transient performance of the SSC. This is made in order to accurately control the fundamental voltage component at the load terminals...... in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...

  14. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2012), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi- Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  15. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  16. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    Roč. 55, č. 1 ( 2012 ), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi-Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  17. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency...... of the process itself. In order to implement the osmosis process on an industrial scale, process economy need to be taken into consideration, as well as the desired final product quality. Membrane performance can be evaluated based on the water permeability and the selectivity of the membrane. The permeability...

  18. Gender classification from video under challenging operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Schrock, Olga; Dong, Guozhu

    2014-06-01

    The literature is abundant with papers on gender classification research. However the majority of such research is based on the assumption that there is enough resolution so that the subject's face can be resolved. Hence the majority of the research is actually in the face recognition and facial feature area. A gap exists for gender classification under challenging operating conditions—different seasonal conditions, different clothing, etc.—and when the subject's face cannot be resolved due to lack of resolution. The Seasonal Weather and Gender (SWAG) Database is a novel database that contains subjects walking through a scene under operating conditions that span a calendar year. This paper exploits a subset of that database—the SWAG One dataset—using data mining techniques, traditional classifiers (ex. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, etc.) and traditional (canny edge detection, etc.) and non-traditional (height/width ratios, etc.) feature extractors to achieve high correct gender classification rates (greater than 85%). Another novelty includes exploiting frame differentials.

  19. Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica

    2015-08-08

    In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.

  20. Early Reticulocytosis and Anemia Are Associated with Abnormal and Conditional Transcranial Doppler Velocities in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Estrada, Monica; He, Jianping; Luban, Naomi L C; McCarter, Robert

    2016-02-01

    To improve prediction of sickle cell anemia severity at an early age, we evaluated whether absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) or hemoglobin (Hb) levels during early infancy (2-6 months of age) in patients with sickle cell anemia predict the risk of later developing an abnormal (abTCD) or conditional (cdTCD) Transcranial Doppler (TCD). We used chart review to identify 121 consecutive patients who underwent TCD screening and had steady state ARC and Hb levels recorded between 2 and 6 months of age. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ARC, Hb levels, and risk of developing cdTCD/abTCD over time. Mean ARC in early infancy was highest and mean Hb lowest in those children with abTCDs and cdTCDs. Cox regression analysis revealed that those subjects with an ARC ≥200 K/μL in early infancy had nearly 3 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD than the group with an ARC <200 K/μL, and patients with a Hb <8.5 g/dL had 2.7 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD. These data suggest that both elevated ARC and low baseline Hb during early infancy are associated with an increased risk of developing a cdTCD or abTCD later in childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  2. CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES JOINTS IN SIMULATED OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dodek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Joining of copper pipes used for liquid media transport are made as demountable and fixation joints. This work deals with corrosion behavior of the joints made by soft soldering, hard soldering and fitting. Corrosion properties of the joints were studied after 11 month exposition in conditions simulated the operating environment. The experiment was made in the 3% NaCl solution, at temperature 20° C for 16 hours and at 80° C for 8 hours per day, the solution was flowing 8 hours by the average rate 0,27 m.s-1. Evaluation of the joints corrosion attacks was made visually, by light and electron microscopy with chemical analyses of corrosion products.

  3. CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES JOINTS IN SIMULATED OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dodek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining of copper pipes used for liquid media transport are made as demountable and fixation joints. This work deals with corrosion behavior of the joints made by soft soldering, hard soldering and fitting. Corrosion properties of the joints were studied after 11 month exposition in conditions simulated the operating environment. The experiment was made in the 3% NaCl solution, at temperature 20° C for 16 hours and at 80° C for 8 hours per day, the solution was flowing 8 hours by the average rate 0,27 m.s-1. Evaluation of the joints corrosion attacks was made visually, by light and electron microscopy with chemical analyses of corrosion products.

  4. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  5. Effects of Operational Conditions on the Performance of Triethylamine Biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Torkian, H Keshavarzi Shirazi, A Azimi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen compounds such as triethylamine are odorants generally found in chemical plants and foundries in which cold-box cores are made. In this study, the efficiency of biofiltration of triethylamine (TEA vapor was evaluated. Experiments were conducted in two 6-L biofilters arranged in three stages and packed with inoculated compost - wood chips (40:60v/v as the filter medium. The seed inoculum was obtained from municipal activated sludge. Tests were made to compare effects of initial temperature (30±1°C, biofilter A and (23±2 °C, biofilter B on the performance of the biofilter. TEA elimination rate pattern was evaluated by changing loading rates (6-138 gm-3h-1 and hydraulic retention times (40-60 s while operating at constant temperature and humidity at 50-55%. Results showed that organic loading rates (OLR of up to 114.4 gm-3h-1 (biofilter A and 90.56 gm-3h-1 (biofilter B could be handled without any apparent indication of maximum elimination capacity and substrate inhibition. The elimination capacity of biofilters could reach up to 72 gm-3h-1 (biofilter A and 61.5 gm-3h-1(biofilter B. When the loading of TEA exceeded the critical values, substrate inhibition occurred and the elimination capacity decreased. However, the requirement of keeping the pressure drop below 4 cm water gauge per meter of bed height to avoid operational problems warranted lower than maximum capacity operation. The optimal OLR values of 90±14 gm-3h-1 are suggested for hydraulic retention time value of 48 s and temperature of 30±1°C. Under these conditions, elimination capacity of 71±3 gm-3h-1and removal efficiency of 81±14% was achieved.

  6. Personality traits neuroticism and openness as well as early abnormal eye conditions as predictors of the occurrence of eye problems in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the associations between psychological, biomedical and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the occurrence of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood. In total, 5706 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability accessed at age 11 years, abnormal eye conditions by the age of 16 years diagnosed by medical professionals, educational qualifications obtained at age 33 years, the Big Five Factor personality traits measured at age 50 years, current occupational levels and self-reported eye conditions at age 54 years were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the factors examined early abnormal eye conditions, traits neuroticism and openness as well as sex were the significant predictors of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood.

  7. Effect of circadian phase on memory acquisition and recall: operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine V Garren

    Full Text Available There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning.

  8. Conditional Reducibility of Certain Unbounded Nonnegative Hamiltonian Operator Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizov, T.Ya.; Dijksma, A.; Gridneva, I.V.

    Let and be operators on a Hilbert space which are both self-adjoint and unitary and satisfy . We consider an operator function on [0, 1] of the form , , where is a closed densely defined Hamiltonian ( -skew-self-adjoint) operator on with and is a function on [0, 1] whose values are bounded operators

  9. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  10. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitor simulating conditions of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, O.; Aponte, H.; Vera, E.; Pineda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Operating conditions at the head of oil wells are critical, in addition to injecting water to increase the pressure while maintaining production cause deterioration in the metallic structures that transport fluids. One way to maintain integrity is the injection of inhibitors which plays an important role in protecting the pipes. In this study a molecule N-PHENYL NITRONE was obtained, which was evaluated by electrochemical tests (LPR) and Tafel Polarization Curves in a reactor controlling environments containing different dosages, pressure values, temperatures and flow velocity using working electrodes tubing API N 80, the reactor was connected to a potentiostat to determine corrosion rates, allowing the analysis of the influence of each variable on the protective behaviour of the inhibitor, and its efficiency against the decrease of the deterioration of the pipes. Corrosion products are analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Photographic records of the surface verify the formation of iron carbonate (FeCO3). In addition, a mathematical analysis of the independent variables is performed to evaluate the effect that it has on the efficiency of corrosion inhibition.

  11. Summarizing metocean operating conditions as a climatology of marine hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heather; Finnis, Joel

    2018-03-01

    Marine occupations are plagued by some of the highest accident and mortality rates of any occupation, due in part to the variety and severity of environmental hazards presented by the ocean environment. In order to better study and communicate the potential impacts of these hazards on occupational health and safety, a semi-objective, hazard-focused climatology of a particularly dangerous marine environment (Northwestern Atlantic) has been developed. Specifically, climate has been summarized as the frequency with which responsible government agencies are expected to issue relevant warnings or watches, couching results in language relevant to marine stakeholders. Applying cluster analysis to warning/watch frequencies identified seven distinct `hazard climatologies', ranging from near-Arctic conditions to areas dominated by calm seas and warm waters. Spatial and temporal variability in these clusters reflects relevant annual cycles, such as the advance/retreat of sea ice and shifts in the Atlantic storm track; the clusters also highlight regions and seasons with comparable operational risks. Our approach is proposed as an effective means to summarize and communicate marine risk with stakeholders, and a potential framework for describing climate change impacts.

  12. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions. 113...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.73 Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions. A bond of a foreign trade zone operator shall contain the conditions listed in this section and...

  13. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  14. The new operating conditions of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six themes are examined: France's unique position in view of the size of its nuclear operating plant, the role of nuclear power in matching electricity supply to demand, the excellent flexibility provided by PWR facilities in operation, the approaches used in the field of automatic operational control systems, the systematic use of data processing for maintenance and generation and the gains in productivity that can be gained as a result of improving fuel use [fr

  15. Operant Conditioning: A Tool for Special Physical Educators in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John M.; French, Ron

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of operant conditioning for the special physical educator in managing behavior problems is pointed out, and steps to follow in applying operant conditioning techniques are outlined. (SB)

  16. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  17. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  18. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Nesmith, B.J.; Brukiewa, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted by the Energy Technology Engineering Center for NRC. Results indicate that the current relief valve capacity model tends to predict less capacity than actually obtains; however, no experimental verification at PWR ATWS conditions was found. Other project objectives were to establish the availability of methods for evaluating reaction forces and back pressure effects on relief valve capacity, and to determine if facilities exist which are capable of testing PWR relief valves at ATWS conditions

  19. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 23, or those for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly... for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly an airplane into known or...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.527 Operating in icing...

  20. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    2 Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology .... speed = 0.27) is in operation at the Tokke power plant,. Norway. A schematic of the test rig is presented in figure 1. Water from the basement was pumped to the overhead tank which flowed ...

  1. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific duties and responsibilities of each operational position or group responsible for getting the... and annual recurrent ground training and testing for flight crewmembers and qualification for all... inspection procedures; (vii) Techniques for recognizing contamination on the aircraft. (3) The certificate...

  2. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  3. Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...

  4. Use of neural networks to identify transient operating conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Guo, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings, which can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault or problem. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  6. Sleep Supports Inhibitory Operant Conditioning Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P. A.; Born, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and "Drosophila." Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in "Aplysia californica" with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three…

  7. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1) Under IFR into known or... authorized by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may authorize an airplane to take off and no pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

  8. Modal test results of a ship under operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowitz, Esben; Brandt, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Skibe er udsat for et komplekst vibration miljø, påvirket af havet, samt driftsforholdene. Især er det vanskeligt at anslå analytisk værdier for de hydrodynamiske påvirkninger. Eksperimentelle resultater er derfor vigtigt for at kontrollere de analytiske modeller. I den foreliggende artikel præse...... fokuserer på driftsforhold påvirkning af de modal parametre og viser en betydelig variation af modal dæmpning af skibet i drift, med cirka 400%, 200% og 400% forskel i de første tre globale lodrette bøjning modes, ved forskellige operations hastigheder....

  9. Positivity for equations involving polyharmonic operators with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunau, H.-Ch.; Sweers, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cranston, Fabes and Zhao ([26], [5]) established the uniform bound sup x; y 2 x 6= y R G1;n (x; z)G1;n (z; y) dz G1;n (x; y) M < 1; (1) where G1;n (x; y) is the Green function for the Laplacian - with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a Lipschitz domain - Rn with n 3 (see [27] for n = 2).

  10. Pellet reduction properties under different blast furnace operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Leimalm, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of modern blast furnace (BF) ironmaking is to reduce coke consumption. One way is to increase the injection of reduction agents, such as pulverized coal. An increase in pulverized coal injection rate (PCR) will affect the blast furnace process and the conditions for iron oxide reduction. Changes in PCR influence the composition of the ascending gases and the in-furnace temperature isotherms. The performed tests involve full-scale, pilot and laboratory investigations. Raw mater...

  11. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  12. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  13. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  14. Verification of design rules for EUROFER under TBM operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyk, R.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the activity presented in this work is, firstly, an evaluation of existing design rules considered for austenitic steels exhibiting cycle-by-cycle hardening, in contrast to the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM), which soften under cyclic loading. Secondly, we are aimed in a definition of the range of operating temperatures and loads for the current design of the test blanket module (TBM). Results of cycling tests of the EUROFER 97 have been thereby used to adjust material parameters needed for an ABAQUS-own combined non-linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model. Furthermore, a visco-plastic material model considering material damage and implemented recently as an ABAQUS user material (UMAT) has been also applied for simulations. Some important design rules within the elastic route have been evaluated and their predictions have been compared to results of cyclic simulations using the advanced material models mentioned above

  15. Pressure sores: an operant conditioning approach to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, I R; Dunn, M E; Davis, R

    1975-04-01

    A training system for the prevention of pressure sores has been designed to teach the paralytic person to relieve pressure intermittently from his ischium while sitting in a wheelchair. The system automates the training of wheelchair pushups, and conditions the person into exercising, based upon modified avoidance learning procedures. Results indicate that the paralytic person can be trained to pushup intermittently and efficiently using this system, thus reducing the incidence of pressure sore formation. Further long-term study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the training system as a preventative program for pressure sores.

  16. Long term performance of gas-insulated switchgear operating under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pharmatrisanti, A.

    2012-01-01

    For the past two decades, electricity utilities have struggled to provide high quality electrical power to their customers while keeping on spending effectively the expenses for operating and maintaining the power system. Unfortunately, under tropical conditions, operation circumstances affect the

  17. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    Operating conditions in off-grid renewable energy systems (RES) vary significantly in different applications and locations. To describe RES and the operating conditions of their components it is useful to define categories of similar operating conditions. Categories can also be used for lifetime...... considerations of RES components, for making recommendations and for analysing the properties and performance of a RES and its components. Categories support system designers and an economic analysis. This paper describes the process and the results of creating RES categories of similar operating conditions...... for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  18. Sleep supports inhibitory operant conditioning memory inAplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P A; Born, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and Drosophila. Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in Aplysia californica with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three times, at Training, Retrieval 1, and Retrieval 2, with 17-h intervals between tests. Compared with Wake animals, remaining awake between Training and Retrieval 1, Sleep animals with undisturbed post-training sleep, performed significantly better at Retrieval 1 and 2. Control experiments testing retrieval only after ∼34 h, confirmed the consolidating effect of sleep occurring within 17 h after training. © 2017 Vorster and Born; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  20. Thermal operations conditions in a national waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Some of the major technical questions associated with the burial of radioactive high-level wastes in geologic formations are related to the thermal environments generated by the waste and the impact of this dissipated heat on the surrounding environment. The design of a high level waste storage facility must be such that the temperature variations that occur do not adversely affect operating personnel and equipment. The objective of this investigation was to assist OWI by determining the thermal environment that would be experienced by personnel and equipment in a waste storage facility in salt. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the maximum floor and air temperatures with and without ventilation in the first 30 years after waste emplacement. The assumed facility design differs somewhat from those previously analyzed and reported, but many of the previous parametric surveys are useful for comparison. In this investigation a number of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulations of the heat flow in a repository have been performed on the HEATING5 and TRUMP heat transfer codes. The representative repository constructs used in the simulations are described, as well as the computational models and computer codes. Results of the simulations are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the recent results and those from previous analyses. Finally, a summary of study limitations, comparisons, and conclusions is given

  1. Determination of Pressure Fluctuations in Rotor Bundle of Centrifugal Compressor at Critical Conditions of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, V. A.; Lyubchenko, K. Yu

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the physical processes that occur in the stage flow part of the compressor while it is operating and can create conditions for the occurrence of forced vibrations, which in turn can lead to the destruction of the impellers. Critical conditions of compressor operation are determined. To understand that critical condition of operation is cause of the destruction of the impellers, transient CFD analysis was carried for test stage of compressor. The obtained pressure fluctuation amplitudes allow to evaluate the critical conditions of compressor operation.

  2. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail: dr.bassmahussain@gmail.com; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: ahmad.kamal@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: kamalhlatif@yahoo.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-08-15

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Baroreflex unimpaired by operant avoidance or classical aversive conditioning in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, R A; Denison, A L; Pfennig, T W; Hemker, D P; Stephenson, R B

    1988-06-01

    Previous studies showed that baroreflex control of heart rate is impaired during operant shock avoidance conditioning and classical aversive conditioning. However, the effects of such "emotionally stressful" paradigms on the ability of the baroreflex to control arterial pressure have not been directly assessed. We prepared the carotid sinus regions of dogs for reversible isolation from the systemic circulation, and we derived complete stimulus-response relations for the effects of carotid sinus pressure on both heart rate and arterial pressure. For any given carotid sinus pressure, arterial pressure and heart rate were higher during operant shock-avoidance conditioning and during classical aversive conditioning than in a neutral environment, which indicates an upward resetting of the baroreflex. However, threshold and saturation carotid sinus pressures were unaffected by operant conditioning or classical conditioning, which indicates that the baroreceptors themselves were not reset. The ranges over which the carotid baroreflex could vary arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly increased during both operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Baroreflex gain was unchanged during operant conditioning and was significantly increased during classical conditioning. We conclude that the baroreflex is not impaired during operant shock-avoidance conditioning or classical aversive conditioning in dogs. However, the baroreflex is reset and regulates blood pressure at an elevated level.

  5. A conditioned reinforcer did not help to maintain an operant conditioning in the absence of a primary reinforcer in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansade, Léa; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR). All horses underwent nine sessions of Pavlovian conditioning during which the word "good" was associated with food (32 associations/session). The horses then followed five sessions of operant conditioning (30 trials/session) during which they had to touch a cone signaled by an experimenter to receive a food reward. The last day, horses underwent one test session of the operant response: no reward was given, but the word "good" was said each time a CR horse touched the cone. Nothing was said in the NR group. CR horses did not achieve more correct trials than NR horses during the test. These findings again show that the conditioned reinforcement was ineffective when used instead of the primary reinforcement to maintain conditioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  7. Operant Conditioning Concepts in Introductory Psychology Textbooks and Their Companion Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2002-01-01

    Psychology instructors and textbook authors rate operant conditioning as one of the most essential concepts for students to learn, yet textbook writers, as well as students, can fall prey to misconceptions. This study is a content analysis of the presentation of operant conditioning in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion Web…

  8. The Establishment and Administration of Operant Conditioning Programs in a State Hospital for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Thomas S., Ed.

    Seven articles treat the establishment of operant conditioning programs for the mentally retarded at Pacific State Hospital in California. Emphasis is on the administrative rather than the demonstration of research aspects of operant conditioning programs. Following an introduction and overview, the medical director's point of view on operant…

  9. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  10. Self-injurious behavior in Rett syndrome: interactions between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C; Murphy, G; Crayton, L; Corbett, J

    1993-03-01

    Operant and biological theories of the cause of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in people with a mental handicap are often viewed as mutually exclusive. In this single case study, interactions between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of SIB are examined. Functional analysis by analog methodology indicated different functions for two forms of SIB shown by the subject: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. It is suggested that features of Rett syndrome established conditions under which operant conditioning of self-injurious responding was maximized. The implications of this interaction between features of syndromes and operant conditioning for the conceptualization of the cause of SIB are discussed and it is proposed that the notion of a unitary cause of SIB is inappropriate. It is more productive to consider operant conditioning as the process that maintains responding against a background of predisposing and mediating factors which may be biologically determined.

  11. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  12. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  13. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Sakurai; Kichan Song

    2016-01-01

    The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant cond...

  14. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  15. Lifting simulation of an offshore supply vessel considering various operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Hoon Jeong; Myung-Il Roh; Seung-Ho Ham

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an offshore support vessel is being widely used to install an offshore structure such as a subsea equipment which is laid on its deck. The lifting operation which is one of the installation operations includes lifting off, lifting in the air, splash zone crossing, deep submerging, and finally landing of the structure with an offshore support vessel crane. There are some major considerations during this operation. Especially, when lifting off the structure, if operating conditions su...

  16. Indicators for monitoring of safety operation and condition of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, D.

    2001-01-01

    A common goal of all employees in the nuclear power field is safety operation of nuclear power stations. The evaluation and control of NPP safety operation are a part of the elements of safety management. The present report is related only to a part of the total assessment and control of the plant safety operation, namely - the indicator system for monitoring of Kozloduy NPP operation and condition. (author)

  17. Control of a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system operating under harmonically distorted unbalanced grid voltage along with nonsinusoidal rotor injection conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel control scheme for DFIG-based systems operating under three abnormal conditions. • Exact harmonic analysis of a DFIG operating under three abnormal conditions. • Implementation of the proposed hybrid controllers in the (dq) + and rotor (α r β r ) reference frames. - Abstract: In this study, novel hybrid proportional-integral-harmonic resonant (PI-R) controllers implemented in the both (dq) + and rotor (α r β r ) reference frames are presented to control a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power generation system operating simultaneously under the three conditions which are nonsinusoidal rotor voltage injection, harmonically distorted grid voltage, and unbalanced grid voltage. The contribution of this work is to present a novel control scheme implemented in the both (dq) + and rotor (α r β r ) reference frames by considering all the three mentioned conditions (no one or two of them). It will be shown that the proposed control scheme keeps the DFIG in an acceptable operation margin and furthermore, it eliminates all harmonics and pulsations components from the stator and the rotor circuits when the DFIG operates under harmonically distorted unbalanced grid voltage along with quasi-sine rotor injection conditions. The proposed control scheme is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and simulated results are presented to validate the theoretical results. Although this work is carried out under the three mentioned conditions and other related works have been reported under only one condition, comparison between the results of this work and other works is performed to prove the excellent performances of the proposed control scheme

  18. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  19. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  20. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition

  1. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  2. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  3. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  4. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  5. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  6. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  7. Relative Effectiveness of Operant Conditioning and Play Therapy in Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Philip G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study designed to examine the relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in improving the communication and social functioning of psychotic children was presented and discussed. (Author)

  8. Operant Conditioning Principles in the Treatment of Learning and Behavior Problems with Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Richard L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study on operant conditioning showed that both groups showed significant improvement in reading skills from pretest to posttest, but that the reinforced group showed significantly more improvement than the nonreinforced group. (Author)

  9. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Y.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi-Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings.

  10. Availability assessment of oil and gas processing plants operating under dynamic Arctic weather conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Masoud; Baraldi, Piero; Compare, Michele; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We consider the assessment of the availability of oil and gas processing facilities operating under Arctic conditions. The novelty of the work lies in modelling the time-dependent effects of environmental conditions on the components failure and repair rates. This is done by introducing weather-dependent multiplicative factors, which can be estimated by expert judgements given the scarce data available from Arctic offshore operations. System availability is assessed considering the equivalent...

  11. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The GVFIB tests were intended primarily to determine the behavior of motor-operated gate valves under the temperature, pressure, and flow conditions expected to be experienced by isolation valves in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) during a high energy line break (blowdown) outside of containment. In addition, the tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operational readiness of the MOVs under those accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position data on two test MOVs during various times of the GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing signature analysis techniques. 1 ref.; 16 figs

  12. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and...-operated switch three-eighths inch or more, or hand-operated switch is not locked where facing point lock with circuit controller is used, the resultant restrictive condition of an automatic train stop or...

  13. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  14. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk Olga G; Kots Iryna I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, t...

  15. Pre-Swirl Stator and Propeller Design for Varying Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saettone, Simone; Regener, Pelle Bo; Andersen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    blades ahead of the propeller.This paper describes the hydrodynamic design of apre-swirl stator with radially variable pitch, paired with aconventional propeller. The aim is to achieve the highest possible effciency in various operating conditions, and to avoid effciency penalties in off-design operation.......To investigate the propeller and stator designs and configurations in different operating conditions, the computationally inexpensive vortex-lattice method is used a sa first step to optimize the geometry in an initial parameter study. Then the flow over hull, stator and propelleris simulated in a CFD...

  16. Mapping of optimum operating condition for LiBr–water refrigeration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These optimum condition maps will be useful to choose optimum operating conditions while designing LiBr–water cycle for desired applications. ... Second law analysis shows that when a higher temperature heat source is available, double-effect cycles are more effective over single effect as they have higher coefficient of ...

  17. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  18. Non-negativity of conditional von Neumann entropy and global unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Subhasree; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Ganguly, Nirman

    2017-12-01

    Conditional von Neumann entropy is an intriguing concept in quantum information theory. In the present work, we examine the effect of global unitary operations on the conditional entropy of the system. We start with a set containing states with a non-negative conditional entropy and find that some states preserve the non-negativity under unitary operations on the composite system. We call this class of states the absolute conditional von Neumann entropy non-negative (ACVENN) class. We characterize such states for 2 ⊗2 -dimensional systems. From a different perspective the characterization accentuates the detection of states whose conditional entropy becomes negative after the global unitary action. Interestingly, we show that this ACVENN class of states forms a set which is convex and compact. This feature enables the existence of Hermitian witness operators. With these we can distinguish the unknown states which will have a negative conditional entropy after the global unitary operation. We also show that this has immediate application to superdense coding and state merging, as the negativity of the conditional entropy plays a key role in both these information processing tasks. Some illustrations followed by analysis are also provided to probe the connection of such states with absolutely separable states and absolutely local states.

  19. Determination of Initial Conditions for the Safety Analysis by Random Sampling of Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae-Yong; Park, Moon-Ghu

    2015-01-01

    In most existing evaluation methodologies, which follow a conservative approach, the most conservative initial conditions are searched for each transient scenario through tremendous assessment for wide operating windows or limiting conditions for operation (LCO) allowed by the operating guidelines. In this procedure, a user effect could be involved and a remarkable time and human resources are consumed. In the present study, we investigated a more effective statistical method for the selection of the most conservative initial condition by the use of random sampling of operating parameters affecting the initial conditions. A method for the determination of initial conditions based on random sampling of plant design parameters is proposed. This method is expected to be applied for the selection of the most conservative initial plant conditions in the safety analysis using a conservative evaluation methodology. In the method, it is suggested that the initial conditions of reactor coolant flow rate, pressurizer level, pressurizer pressure, and SG level are adjusted by controlling the pump rated flow, setpoints of PLCS, PPCS, and FWCS, respectively. The proposed technique is expected to contribute to eliminate the human factors introduced in the conventional safety analysis procedure and also to reduce the human resources invested in the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

  20. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  1. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  2. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Barszcz, T; Jabłoński, A

    2015-01-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine. (paper)

  3. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  4. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  5. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers.

  6. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, their difference from the operations with customerfurnished raw materials has been allocated, substance and characteristics of tolling operations has been conceptually grounded, motives of their implementation for both the customer and the provider has been systematized. It is proved that implementation of tolling operations will address the pivotal financial, production and staffing problems of domestic enterprises and ensure their progressive development in conditions of the European integration. Prospect of further research is developing a conceptual framework for management of tolling operations, which will provide targeted exposure of management system on the controlled system, which is directly involved in the implementation of tolling operations, with a view to enhancing the efficiency of tolling process

  7. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to baseline signatures. Results indicate that in practice, civil structures should be monitored for at least one full cycle of in-service environmental changes before establishing baselines for condition monitoring or calibrating finite-element models. Boundary conditions deserve special attention.

  8. Towards artificial intelligence based diesel engine performance control under varying operating conditions using support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naradasu Kumar Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine designers are constantly on the look-out for performance enhancement through efficient control of operating parameters. In this paper, the concept of an intelligent engine control system is proposed that seeks to ensure optimized performance under varying operating conditions. The concept is based on arriving at the optimum engine operating parameters to ensure the desired output in terms of efficiency. In addition, a Support Vector Machines based prediction model has been developed to predict the engine performance under varying operating conditions. Experiments were carried out at varying loads, compression ratios and amounts of exhaust gas recirculation using a variable compression ratio diesel engine for data acquisition. It was observed that the SVM model was able to predict the engine performance accurately.

  9. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  10. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Zio, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  11. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  12. Effects of cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of air-blowing PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Lee, Yongtaek; Woo, Ahyoung; Kim, Yongchan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cathode channel size on the air-blowing PEMFC is analyzed. • Performance and EIS tests of air-blowing PEMFCs are conducted. • Test conditions include the operating temperature, fan voltage, and anode humidity. • Flooding is a limiting factor for decreasing channel size at low temperature. • Water management is investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. - Abstract: Air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been developed as a potential new power source for portable electronic devices. However, air-blowing PEMFCs show lower performance than compressed-air PEMFCs because of their adverse operating conditions. In this study, the effects of the cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC were analyzed. At the normal operating temperature, the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC improved with the decrease in the cathode channel size. However, at a low operating temperature and low fan voltage, massive flooding limits the decrease in the cathode channel size. In addition, water management in the air-blowing PEMFC was investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. The transition current density between the humidification and the flooding region decreased with decreasing cathode channel size and operating temperature

  13. Lifting simulation of an offshore supply vessel considering various operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Jeong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an offshore support vessel is being widely used to install an offshore structure such as a subsea equipment which is laid on its deck. The lifting operation which is one of the installation operations includes lifting off, lifting in the air, splash zone crossing, deep submerging, and finally landing of the structure with an offshore support vessel crane. There are some major considerations during this operation. Especially, when lifting off the structure, if operating conditions such as ocean environmental loads and hoisting (or lowering speed are bad, the excess of tension of wire ropes of the crane and the collision between the offshore support vessel and the structure can be occurred due to the relative motion between them. To solve this problem, this study performs the lifting simulation while the offshore support vessel installs the structure. The simulation includes the calculation of dynamic responses of the offshore support vessel and the equipment, including the wire tension and the collision detection. To check the applicability of the simulation, it is applied to some lifting steps by varying operating conditions. As a result, it is confirmed that the conditions affect the operability of those steps.

  14. THE IMPACT OF PROGRESSIVE GEAR GEOMETRY ON THE BRAKING DISTANCE LENGTH UNDER CHANGEABLE OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lonkwic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents independent tests results focused on the geometry impact of progressive gear used in a short distance transportation devices on the braking distance length both under changeable operating conditions as well as changeable loading. Variable operating conditions were obtained with the use of various lubricating agents. Five types of gears such as ASG100, PP16, PR2000, KB160 and a new solution CHP2000 were used for the tests. The tests were conducted with a free fall method application. The method gave a chance to evaluate reliability of tested gears systems and to compare the existing solutions with the proposed gear of CHP2000 type.

  15. New oil condition monitoring system, Wearsens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. The presented sensor system effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps, result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination of the oil. For additivated lubricants, the stage of degradation of the additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of an alteration in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the wind turbine, industrial gearbox and test stands, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor unit. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid inspection intervals.

  16. Methodology for selection of attributes and operating conditions for SVM-Based fault locator's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Johan Arredondo Arteaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Energy distribution companies must employ strategies to meet their timely and high quality service, and fault-locating techniques represent and agile alternative for restoring the electric service in the power distribution due to the size of distribution services (generally large and the usual interruptions in the service. However, these techniques are not robust enough and present some limitations in both computational cost and the mathematical description of the models they use. Method: This paper performs an analysis based on a Support Vector Machine for the evaluation of the proper conditions to adjust and validate a fault locator for distribution systems; so that it is possible to determine the minimum number of operating conditions that allow to achieve a good performance with a low computational effort. Results: We tested the proposed methodology in a prototypical distribution circuit, located in a rural area of Colombia. This circuit has a voltage of 34.5 KV and is subdivided in 20 zones. Additionally, the characteristics of the circuit allowed us to obtain a database of 630.000 records of single-phase faults and different operating conditions. As a result, we could determine that the locator showed a performance above 98% with 200 suitable selected operating conditions. Conclusions: It is possible to improve the performance of fault locators based on Support Vector Machine. Specifically, these improvements are achieved by properly selecting optimal operating conditions and attributes, since they directly affect the performance in terms of efficiency and the computational cost.

  17. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  18. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  19. Operational optimization of networks of compressors considering condition-based maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Xenos, DP; Kopanos, GM; Cicciotti, M; Thornhill, NF

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model which deals with the optimal operation and maintenance of networks of compressors of chemical plants. This optimization model considers condition-based maintenance which involves the degradation of the condition of the compressors. The paper focuses on online and offline washing, two different cleaning procedures which reduce the extra power used by the compressors due to fouling. The state-of-the-art has demonstrated the optimal sch...

  20. Exploration of robust operating conditions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, John W.; Pomares, Mario; Alvarez-Prieto, Manuel; Cole, Amanda; Ying Hai; Salin, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    'Robust' conditions, as defined by Mermet and co-workers for inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry, minimize matrix effects on analyte signals, and are obtained by increasing power and reducing nebulizer gas flow. In ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), it is known that reduced nebulizer gas flow usually leads to more robust conditions such that matrix effects are reduced. In this work, robust conditions for ICP-MS have been determined by optimizing for accuracy in the determination of analytes in a multi-element solution with various interferents (Al, Ba, Cs, K, Na), by varying power, nebulizer gas flow, sample introduction rate and ion lens voltage. The goal of the work was to determine which operating parameters were the most important in reducing matrix effects, and whether different interferents yielded the same robust conditions. Reduction in nebulizer gas flow and in sample input rate led to a significantly decreased interference, while an increase in power seemed to have a lesser effect. Once the other parameters had been adjusted to their robust values, there was no additional improvement in accuracy attainable by adjusting the ion lens voltage. The robust conditions were universal, since, for all the interferents and analytes studied, the optimum was found at the same operating conditions. One drawback to the use of robust conditions was the slightly reduced sensitivity; however, in the context of 'intelligent' instruments, the concept of 'robust conditions' is useful in many cases

  1. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  2. Characterization of a thermoelectric cooler based thermal management system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, M.K.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based thermal management system for an electronic packaging design that operates under a range of ambient conditions and system loads is examined using a standard model for the TEC and a thermal resistance network for the other components. Experiments were performed and it was found that the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An operating envelope is developed to characterize the TEC based thermal management system for peak and off peak operating conditions. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the number of TEC module(s) in the system, geometric factor of the thermo-elements and the cold to hot side thermal resistances on the system performance. The results showed that there is a tradeoff between the extent of off peak heat fluxes and ambient temperatures when the system can be operated at a low power penalty region and the maximum capacity of the system. - Highlights: ► A model was developed for thermal management systems using thermoelectric coolers. ► Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental results. ► An operating envelope was developed for peak and off peak conditions. ► The effect of the number of thermoelectric coolers on the system was determined.

  3. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  4. Evaluation of Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. A. Harvego

    2006-04-01

    This report summarizes results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the operating conditions for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) that will transfer heat from the reactor primary system to the demonstration hydrogen production plant(s). The Department of Energy is currently investigating two primary options for the production of hydrogen using a high temperature reactor as the power source. These options are the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) and Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen production processes. However, since the SI process relies entirely on process heat from the reactor, while the HTE process relies primarily on electrical energy with only a small amount of process heat required, the design of the IHX is dictated by the SI process heat requirements. Therefore, the IHX operating conditions were defined assuming 50 MWt is available for the production of hydrogen using the SI process. Three configurations for the intermediate loop were evaluated, including configurations for both direct and indirect power conversion systems. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to perform sensitivity studies to determine the influence of reactor outlet temperatures, intermediate loop working fluids (helium and molten salt), intermediate loop pressures, and intermediate loop piping lengths on NGNP performance and IHX operating conditions. The evaluation of NGNP performance included assessments of overall electric power conversion efficiency and estimated hydrogen production efficiency. Based on these evaluations, recommended IHX operating conditions are defined.

  5. Wind tunnel testing of the DeepWind demonstrator in design and tilted operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistia, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    was installed on a high precision test bench, whose axis was suitable to be inclined up to 15° with respect to the design (i.e. upright) operating condition. The experiments were performed at the large scale, high speed wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), using a “free jet” (open channel...

  6. Modelling the Cost Performance of a Given Logistics Network Operating Under Regular and Irregular Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for the assessment of the cost performance of a given logistics network operating under regular and irregular (disruptive) conditions. In addition, the paper aims to carry out a sensitivity analysis of this cost with respect to changes of the most influencing

  7. [Working conditions and professional risk for operational personnel of energy facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, N Kh; Ilyukhin, N E; Rusin, M N; Krasnoshchekova, V N

    2013-01-01

    Features of working conditions and a state of health of operation personnel of the network companies of power industry were studied for the purpose of justification and introduction of preventive actions for the decrease in influence of factors of professional risk.

  8. Effect of operating conditions on thin layers of titanium posed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of operating conditions on thin layers of titanium posed on steel 100C6 substrates with PVD method. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... reaction between the two parts of the system which results the formation of carbides of Ti due to the diffusion of carbon from the substrate towards deposited layers.

  9. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...

  10. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterhagen, L.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF

  11. Self-Injurious Behavior in Rett Syndrome: Interactions between Features of Rett Syndrome and Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, interactions were examined between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Analysis suggested different functions for two forms of SIB: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. Features of Rett syndrome tended to maximize the…

  12. Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Battaglia, F.P.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioral screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD) mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between

  13. 42 CFR 433.130 - Waiver of conditions of initial operation and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.130 Waiver of conditions of initial operation... system will not significantly improve the efficiency of the administration of the State plan. (c) If CMS... waiver, that a system would significantly improve the administration of the State Medicaid program, CMS...

  14. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  15. Analysis of critical operating conditions for LV distribution networks with microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehir, M. A.; Batman, A.; Sonmez, M. A.; Font, A.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Kollatou, T.; Bagriyanik, M.; Ozdemir, A.; Dialynas, E.

    2016-11-01

    Increase in the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution networks, raises the risk of voltage limit violations while contributing to line losses. Especially in low voltage (LV) distribution networks (secondary distribution networks), impacts of active power flows on the bus voltages and on the network losses are more dominant. As network operators must meet regulatory limitations, they have to take into account the most critical operating conditions in their systems. In this study, it is aimed to present the impact of the worst operation cases of LV distribution networks comprising microgrids. Simulation studies are performed on a field data-based virtual test-bed. The simulations are repeated for several cases consisting different microgrid points of connection with different network loading and microgrid supply/demand conditions.

  16. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....... has the capacity to retain the uncertainties of met-ocean condition forecasting and transfer them into uncertainties of probability of operation failure. In addition to that, improvements to the failure function, used to define operation failure are presented. The failure function is modified...

  17. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McGreevy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

  18. Experimental and simulational study of the operation conditions for a high transmission mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayesh, A. I.; Lassesson, A.; Brown, S. A.; Dunbar, A. D. F.; Kaufmann, M.; Partridge, J. G.; Reichel, R.; Lith, J. van

    2007-01-01

    The operation conditions of a double pulsed field mass filter were studied using both experiment and simulation. The mass filter consists of two pairs of parallel plates and operates on the time-of-flight principle. The study showed that the ions' beam deflection angle is a critical factor in optimizing the mass filter transmission efficiency. This angle is dependent on the accelerating voltage, ion mass, and horizontal velocity of the ions. The optimum operating conditions for the mass filter were found and used to study the mass distribution of palladium ions produced by a magnetron sputtering source. The study shows that this mass filter is suitable for technological applications because of its high transmission and wide mass range

  19. Predators in training: operant conditioning of novel behavior in wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Sherri A; Mora, Cordula V; Harvey, Mark T; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) to approach and depress an illuminated push button in order to gain access to a food reward. Results show that these large, wild snakes can be trained to accept extremely small food items, associate a stimulus with such rewards via operant conditioning and perform a contingent operant response to gain access to a food reward. The shaping procedure produced robust responses and provides a mechanism for investigating complex behavioral phenomena in massive snakes that are rarely studied in learning research.

  20. You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal operant conditioning in fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Jansen, Rebecca; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2018-04-01

    Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. In particular, interpersonal operant conditioning may strengthen and perpetuate fatigue complaints. In this experiment, individuals (N = 44) repeatedly rated their currently experienced fatigue while engaging in cognitive effort (working memory task). Subtle social reward was given when fatigue increased relative to the previous rating; or disapproval when fatigue decreased. In the control condition, only neutral feedback was given. Although all participants became more fatigued during cognitive effort, interpersonal operant conditioning led to increased fatigue reporting relative to neutral feedback. This effect occurred independently of conscious awareness. Interestingly, the experimental condition also performed worse on the working memory task. Results suggest that fatigue complaints (and cognitive performance) may become controlled by their consequences such as social reward, and not exclusively by their antecedents such as effort. Results have implications for treatment development and suggest that interpersonal operant conditioning may contribute to fatigue becoming a chronic symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  3. Cocaine self-administration in social dyads using custom-built operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2014-10-30

    Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A knowledge based operator support system for emergency conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh Babu, C.; Subramanium, K.

    1992-01-01

    The control centres of the operating Indian nuclear power plants contain a large number of indicators and controls spread over many panels. In the event of onset of an emergency condition, there results a profusion of information, both numeric and symbolic. The operator may succumb to an information and cognitive overload that may be compounded by a lack of knowledge. The failure to apply knowledge and reasoning to solve an operational problem can lead to human error, which has been a major contributing factor in nuclear accidents. From the viewpoint of Artificial Intelligence, human error occurs if the operational problem requires computing resources that exceed human capabilities. The application of Artificial Intelligence, particularly expert systems, to nuclear power plant control room activities has considerable potential to reduce operator error and improve safety and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an investigative study of the feasibility of developing an operator support system incorporating Artificial Intelligence techniques. An information processing model of such a system, herein designated as Knowledge Based Operator Support System - KBOSS, employing expert systems technology, has been developed. The features of this system are described, and issues involved in its development are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. The IDA cognitive model for the analysis of nuclear power plant operator response under accident conditions. Part I: problem solving and decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, C.; Shen, S.H.; Mosleh, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of papers describing IDA which is a cognitive model for analysing the behaviour of nuclear power plant operators under accident conditions. The domain of applicability of the model is a relatively constrained environment where behaviour is significantly influenced by high levels of training and explicit requirement to follow written procedures. IDA consists of a model for individual operator behaviour and a model for control room operating crew expanded from the individual model. The model and its derivatives such as an error taxonomy and data collection approach has been designed with ultimate objective of becoming a quantitative method for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The present paper gives a description of the main components of IDA such as memory structure, goals, and problem solving and decision making strategies. It also identifies factors that are at the origin of transitions between goals or between strategies. These factors cover the effects of external conditions and psychological state of the operator. The description is generic at first and then made specific to the nuclear power plant environment and more precisely to abnormal conditions

  6. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  7. On conditions for invertibility of difference and differential operators in weight spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichegkuev, Mairbek S [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-31

    We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of the difference operator D{sub E}:D(D{sub E}) subset of l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}{yields}l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}, (D{sub E} x)(n)=x(n+1)-Bx(n), n element of Z{sub +}, whose domain D(D{sub E}) is given by the condition x(0) element of E, where l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}=l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}(Z{sub +},X), p element of [1,{infinity}], is the Banach space of sequences (of vectors in a Banach space X) summable with weight {alpha}:Z{sub +}{yields}(0,{infinity}) for p element of [1,{infinity}) and bounded with respect to {alpha} for p={infinity}, B:X{yields}X is a bounded linear operator, and E is a closed B-invariant subspace of X. We give applications to the invertibility of differential operators with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous operator semigroup) in weight spaces of functions.

  8. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: leonardo_paredes@icloud.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  9. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  10. Online condition monitoring to enable extended operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ryan Michael; Bond, Leonard John; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption of online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components. (author)

  11. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  12. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There

  13. EFFECT OF OPERATION CONDITIONS ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krivoshapov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of analytical determination of the efficiency of the entire vehicle and individual units are stated. The dependences of change of the efficiency depending on the speed and load modes of vehicle operation are specified. The mathematical model takes into account the real characteristics of the road and transport machines operating conditions. The results of calculation of the indicator and the mechanical efficiency of the engine, transmission and the wheel efficiency, total efficiency of the car, depending on the category of roads, weight and the speed of the machine on example of GAZ-3307 truck are presented.

  14. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  15. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  16. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  17. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert-Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  18. Investigation of degradation effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells under automotive-related operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enz, S.; Dao, T. A.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scholta, J.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of artificial starvation effects during automotive-related operating conditions is investigated within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) using non-dispersive infrared sensors and a current scan shunt. Driving cycles (DC) and single load change experiments are performed with specific fuel and oxidant starvation conditions. Within the DC experiments, a maximal CO2 amount of 4.67 μmol per cycle is detected in the cathode and 0.97 μmol per cycle in the anode exhaust without reaching fuel starvation conditions during the DC. Massive cell reversal conditions occur within the single load change experiments as a result of anodic fuel starvation. As soon as a fuel starvation appears, the emitted CO2 increases exponentially in the anode and cathode exhaust. A maximal CO2 amount of 143.8 μmol CO2 on the anode side and 5.8 μmol CO2 on the cathode side is detected in the exhaust gases. The critical cell reversal conditions only occur by using hydrogen reformate as anode reactant. The influence of the starvation effects on the PEFC performance is investigated via polarization curves, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEFC performance is reduced by 47% as a consequence of the dynamic operation.

  19. Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site...

  20. REMINDER - Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site ...

  1. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades

  2. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes...... of interlinking converter with DC-link capacitor or energy storage, which will devote to the proper power sharing between AC and DC sub-microgrids to maintain AC and DC side voltage stable, is reviewed. Combining the specific control methods developed for AC and DC sub-microgrids with interlinking converter......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  3. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  4. Operational experience at RCD and FCD laboratories during various ventilation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Thanamani, M.; Rath, D.P.; Sapkal, J.A.; Raman, Anand

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry and Fuel Chemistry wing of Radiological Laboratory facility has various radio-chemical operations on isotopes of plutonium and trans-plutonium elements, carried out under containment and safe operational conditions. The ventilation provided to the facility is a Once - through system. The ventilation system is designed with separate headers for laboratory and glove box exhausts. There is scheduled periodic shut down of ventilation system for maintenance during non-occupancy hours/week ends. The buildup of natural α - emitters activity due to ventilation shut down, observed to be prevailing on stack air sample filter papers after the ventilation startup, is studied. The paper describes the operational experience gained over a period during ventilation shut down and suggests the course of remedial action for reducing the internal exposure due to build up of natural α - emitters and their progenies. (author)

  5. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  6. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  7. Transformer operating conditions under introduction of PV and EVs in an eco-district

    OpenAIRE

    Dang , Xuan-Linh; Petit , Marc; Codani , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —An analysis of the operating conditions of a power transformer with the introduction of photovoltaic (PV) panels and Electric Vehicles (EV) in an eco-district is conducted. The study focuses on: (a) determining the optimal transformer sizing when there is neither PV nor EV; and (b) characterizing the overloading periods of the transformer induced by the penetration of PV sources and EVs in the district. We compare two EV integration strategies: they are either conside...

  8. Monitoring concept to detect engine oil condition degradations to support a reliable drive operation

    OpenAIRE

    Rigol, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical part of this research work summarised all the known potential lubricant\\ud degradation effects during engine operation and in particular with regard to the use of\\ud the current generation of biofuels. A qualitative risk assessment was conducted which outlined biodiesel as potentially the most critical fuel. A ‘black box’ model was used to outline the challenge of oil condition monitoring based on summative sensor measurement methods. The theoretical considerations were suppor...

  9. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....

  10. Fuel consumption in an air blower for agricultural use under different operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Robson L. da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of fuel consumption in internal combustion engines (ICE) of agricultural machinery and equipment is important in determining the performance under various operating conditions, especially when using biofuels. This study consisted of experimental evaluation of the gasoline (petrol)/ethanol consumption in a two-stroke 1-cylinder ICE, Otto cycle, functioning as an air blower for agriculture and related applications. A methodology for tests of non-automotive ICE, based on ABNT...

  11. Remote Sensing of In-Flight Icing Conditions: Operational, Meteorological, and Technological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Remote-sensing systems that map aircraft icing conditions in the flight path from airports or aircraft would allow icing to be avoided and exited. Icing remote-sensing system development requires consideration of the operational environment, the meteorological environment, and the technology available. Operationally, pilots need unambiguous cockpit icing displays for risk management decision-making. Human factors, aircraft integration, integration of remotely sensed icing information into the weather system infrastructures, and avoid-and-exit issues need resolution. Cost, maintenance, power, weight, and space concern manufacturers, operators, and regulators. An icing remote-sensing system detects cloud and precipitation liquid water, drop size, and temperature. An algorithm is needed to convert these conditions into icing potential estimates for cockpit display. Specification development requires that magnitudes of cloud microphysical conditions and their spatial and temporal variability be understood at multiple scales. The core of an icing remote-sensing system is the technology that senses icing microphysical conditions. Radar and microwave radiometers penetrate clouds and can estimate liquid water and drop size. Retrieval development is needed; differential attenuation and neural network assessment of multiple-band radar returns are most promising to date. Airport-based radar or radiometers are the most viable near-term technologies. A radiometer that profiles cloud liquid water, and experimental techniques to use radiometers horizontally, are promising. The most critical operational research needs are to assess cockpit and aircraft system integration, develop avoid-and-exit protocols, assess human factors, and integrate remote-sensing information into weather and air traffic control infrastructures. Improved spatial characterization of cloud and precipitation liquid-water content, drop-size spectra, and temperature are needed, as well as an algorithm to

  12. Safer operating conditions and optimal scaling-up process for cyclohexanone peroxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Na; Qian, Xin-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal hazard of cyclohexanone peroxide reaction was measured by experimental techniques. • Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was adopted to evaluate kinetic parameters. • Safer operating conditions at laboratory scale were acquired by BDs and TDs. • The verified safer operating conditions were used to obtain the optimal scale-up parameters applied in industrial plants. - Abstract: The cyclohexanone peroxide reaction process, one of the eighteen hazardous chemical processes identified in China, is performed in indirectly cooled semibatch reactors. The peroxide reaction is added to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which form heterogeneous liquid–liquid systems. A simple and general procedure for building boundary and temperature diagrams of peroxide process is given here to account for the overall kinetic expressions. Such a procedure has been validated by comparison with experimental data. Thermally safer operating parameters were obtained at laboratory scale, and the scaled-up procedure was performed to give the minimum dosing time in an industrial plant, which is in favor of maximizing industrial reactor productivity. The results are of great significance for governing the peroxide reaction process apart from the thermal runaway region. It also greatly aids in determining optimization on operating parameters in industrial plants.

  13. Impacts of operating conditions and solution chemistry on osmotic membrane structure and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Mavis C.Y.

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we report on changes in the performance of a commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, imparted by varied operating conditions and solution chemistries. Changes to feed and draw solution flow rate did not significantly alter the CTA membrane\\'s water permeability, salt permeability, or membrane structural parameter when operated with the membrane skin layer facing the draw solution (PRO-mode). However, water and salt permeability increased with increasing feed or draw solution temperature, while the membrane structural parameter decreased with increasing draw solution, possibly due to changes in polymer intermolecular interactions. High ionic strength draw solutions may de-swell the CTA membrane via charge neutralization, which resulted in lower water permeability, higher salt permeability, and lower structural parameter. This observed trend was further exacerbated by the presence of divalent cations which tends to swell the polymer to a greater extent. Finally, the calculated CTA membrane\\'s structural parameter was lower and less sensitive to external factors when operated in PRO-mode, but highly sensitive to the same factors when the skin layer faced the feed solution (FO-mode), presumably due to swelling/de-swelling of the saturated porous substructure by the draw solution. This is a first attempt aimed at systematically evaluating the changes in performance of the CTA membrane due to operating conditions and solution chemistry, shedding new insight into the possible advantages and disadvantages of this material in certain applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Mathematical Model and Its Application for Hydro Power Units under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of hydro power units, especially the governor system model for different operating conditions, based on the basic version of the software TOPSYS. The mathematical model consists of eight turbine equations, one generator equation, and one governor equation, which are solved for ten unknown variables. The generator and governor equations, which are different under various operating conditions, are presented and discussed in detail. All the essential non-linear factors in the governor system (dead-zone, saturation, rate limiting, and backlash are also considered. Case studies are conducted based on one Swedish hydro power plant (HPP and three Chinese plants. The simulation and on-site measurements are compared for start-up, no-load operation, normal operation, and load rejection in different control modes (frequency, opening, and power feedback. The main error in each simulation is also discussed in detail. As a result, the model application is proved trustworthy for simulating different physical quantities of the unit (e.g., guide vane opening, active power, rotation speed, and pressures at volute and draft tube. The model has already been applied effectively in consultant analyses and scientific studies.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  16. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  18. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  19. A novel attention training paradigm based on operant conditioning of eye gaze: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Greven, Inez M; Siegle, Greg J; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative mood in refractory clinical populations (e.g., clinical depression) through, for example, more active, adaptive learning processes. In addition, a focus on individual difference variables predicting intervention outcome may improve the ability to provide such targeted interventions efficiently. To provide preliminary proof-of-principle, we tested a novel paradigm using operant conditioning to train eye gaze patterns toward happy faces. Thirty-two healthy undergraduates were randomized to receive operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces (train-happy) or neutral faces (train-neutral). At the group level, the train-happy condition attenuated sad mood increases following a stressful task, in comparison to train-neutral. In individual differences analysis, greater physiological reactivity (pupil dilation) in response to happy faces (during an emotional face-search task at baseline) predicted decreased mood reactivity after stress. These Preliminary results suggest that operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces buffers against stress-induced effects on mood, particularly in individuals who show sufficient baseline neural engagement with happy faces. Eye gaze patterns to emotional face arrays may have a causal relationship with mood reactivity. Personalized medicine research in depression may benefit from novel cognitive training paradigms that shape eye gaze patterns through feedback. Baseline neural function (pupil dilation) may be a key mechanism, aiding in iterative refinement of this approach. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. 75 FR 70090 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc. Model CL-600-2E25 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Airplane, Operation Without Normal Electrical Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... without normal electrical power,'' requires safe operation in VFR conditions for at least five minutes with inoperative normal electrical power. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain...

  1. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-10

    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Performance analysis of air conditioning system and airflow simulation in an operating theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Muhammad Idrus; Budihardjo, Rahmat

    2018-02-01

    The importance of maintaining performance of a hospital operating theater is to establish an adequate circulation of clean air within the room. The parameter of air distribution in a space should be based on Air Changes per Hour (ACH) to maintain a positive room pressure. The dispersion of airborne particles in the operating theater was governed by regulating the air distribution so that the operating theater meets clean room standards ie ISO 14664 and ASHRAE 170. Here, we introduced several input parameters in a simulation environment to observe the pressure distribution in the room. Input parameters were air temperature, air velocity and volumetric flow rate entering and leaving room for existing and designed condition. In the existing operating theatre, several observations were found. It was found that the outlet air velocity at the HEPA filter above the operating table was too high thus causing a turbulent airflow pattern. Moreover, the setting temperature at 19°C was found to be too low. The supply of air into the room was observed at lower than 20 ACH which is under the standard requirement. Our simulation using FloVent 8.2™ program showed that not only airflow turbulence could be reduced but also the amount of particle contamination could also be minimized.

  3. Operant conditioning of neural activity in freely behaving monkeys with intracranial reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Ryan W; Libey, Tyler; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2017-03-01

    Operant conditioning of neural activity has typically been performed under controlled behavioral conditions using food reinforcement. This has limited the duration and behavioral context for neural conditioning. To reward cell activity in unconstrained primates, we sought sites in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whose stimulation reinforced operant responding. In three monkeys, NAc stimulation sustained performance of a manual target-tracking task, with response rates that increased monotonically with increasing NAc stimulation. We recorded activity of single motor cortex neurons and documented their modulation with wrist force. We conditioned increased firing rates with the monkey seated in the training booth and during free behavior in the cage using an autonomous head-fixed recording and stimulating system. Spikes occurring above baseline rates triggered single or multiple electrical pulses to the reinforcement site. Such rate-contingent, unit-triggered stimulation was made available for periods of 1-3 min separated by 3-10 min time-out periods. Feedback was presented as event-triggered clicks both in-cage and in-booth, and visual cues were provided in many in-booth sessions. In-booth conditioning produced increases in single neuron firing probability with intracranial reinforcement in 48 of 58 cells. Reinforced cell activity could rise more than five times that of non-reinforced activity. In-cage conditioning produced significant increases in 21 of 33 sessions. In-cage rate changes peaked later and lasted longer than in-booth changes, but were often comparatively smaller, between 13 and 18% above non-reinforced activity. Thus intracranial stimulation reinforced volitional increases in cortical firing rates during both free behavior and a controlled environment, although changes in the latter were more robust. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Closed-loop brain-computer interfaces (BCI) were used to operantly condition increases in muscle and neural activity in monkeys by delivering

  4. Condition monitoring of a motor-operated valve using estimated motor torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jangbom; Kang, Shinchul; Park, Sungkeun; Hong, Sungyull; Lim, Chanwoo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of data analysis methods to be used in on-line monitoring and diagnosis of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) effectively and accurately. The technique to be utilized includes the electrical measurements and signal processing to estimate electric torque of induction motors, which are attached to most of MOV systems. The estimated torque of an induction motor is compared with the directly measured torque using a torque cell in various loading conditions including the degraded voltage conditions to validate the estimating scheme. The accuracy of the estimating scheme is presented. The advantages of the estimated torque signatures are reviewed over the currently used ones such as the current signature and the power signature in several respects: accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and so on. Additionally, the estimated torque methods are suggested as a good way to monitor the conditions of MOVs with higher accuracy. (author)

  5. The refined analytic torsion and a well-posed boundary condition for the odd signature operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rung-Tzung; Lee, Yoonweon

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the refined analytic torsion on an odd dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold with boundary under some assumption. For this purpose we introduce two boundary conditions which are complementary to each other and well-posed for the odd signature operator B in the sense of Seeley. We then show that the zeta-determinants of B2 and eta-invariants of B subject to these boundary conditions are well defined by using the method of the asymptotic expansions of the traces of the heat kernels. We use these facts to define the refined analytic torsion on a compact manifold with boundary and show that it is invariant on the change of metrics in the interior of the manifold. We finally describe the refined analytic torsion under these boundary conditions as an element of the determinant line.

  6. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning.

  7. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic.

  8. Improvement of lung abnormality detection in computed radiography using multi-objective frequency processing: Evaluation by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagashira, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Murase, Kenya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been shown to have relatively low sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules. This poor sensitivity precludes its use as a screening modality despite the low cost, low dose and wide distribution of devices. The purpose of this study was to apply multi-objective frequency processing (MFP) to CR images and to evaluate its usefulness for diagnosing subtle lung abnormalities. Fifty CR images with simulated subtle lung abnormalities were obtained from 50 volunteers. Each image was processed with MFP. We cut chest images. The chest image was divided into two rights and left. A total of 200 half-chest images (100 MFP-processed images and 100 MFP-unprocessed images) were prepared. Five radiologists participated in this study. ROC analyses demonstrated that the detection rate of simulated subtle lung abnormalities on the CR images was significantly better with MFP (Az = 0.8508) than without MFP (Az = 0.7925). The CR images processed with MFP could be useful for diagnosing subtle lung abnormalities. In conclusion, MFP appears to be useful for increasing the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of pulmonary nodules, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and reticular shadow

  9. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.): The Cap Pushing Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Dinges, Christopher W; Wells, Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates. This may be due to the availability of a suitable response requirement. In this manuscript we offer a new method to explore operant conditioning in honey bees: the cap pushing response (CPR). We used the CPR to test for difference in learning curves between novel auto-shaping and more traditional explicit-shaping. The CPR protocol requires bees to exhibit a novel behavior by pushing a cap to uncover a food source. Using the CPR protocol we tested the effects of both explicit-shaping and auto-shaping techniques on operant conditioning. The goodness of fit and lack of fit of these data to the Rescorla-Wagner learning-curve model, widely used in classical conditioning studies, was tested. The model fit well to both control and explicit-shaping results, but only for a limited number of trials. Learning ceased rather than continuing to asymptotically approach the physiological most accurate possible. Rate of learning differed between shaped and control bee treatments. Learning rate was about 3 times faster for shaped bees, but for all measures of proficiency control and shaped bees reached the same level. Auto-shaped bees showed one-trial learning rather than the asymptotic approach to a maximal efficiency. However, in terms of return-time, the auto-shaped bees' learning did not carry over to the covered-well test treatments.

  10. Damages and resource of locomotive wheels used under the north operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grigorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In operating railway equipment, in particular the elements, such as a wheel and a rail there is damage accumulation of any kind, causing a premature equipment failure. Thus, an analysis of the mechanisms and modeling of damage accumulation and fracture both on the surface and in the bulk material remain a challenge.Data on the defective wheel sets to be subjected to facing has been collected and analyzed to assess the locomotive wheel sets damage of the locomotive fleet company of AK «Yakutia Railways», city of Aldan, The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. For this purpose, three main locomotives have been examined.The object of research carried out in this paper, is a locomotive wheels tire, which is subjected to cyclic impact (dynamic loads during operation. In this regard, the need arises to determine both the strength of material in response to such shock loads and the quantitative calculation of damage accumulated therein.The accumulated fatigue damage has been attributed to one radial cross section of the wheel coming into contact with the rail once per revolution of the wheel. Consequently, in one revolution a wheel is under one loading cycle. As stated, the average mileage of locomotives to have the unacceptable damages formed on the tread surface is 12 thousand km.Test results establish that along with the high-cycle loading the shock-contact action on rail joints significantly affects the accumulation of damage in the locomotive wheels tire. The number of cycles to failure due to the formation of unacceptable damage in the locomotive wheels tire is N = 2,4×106 and 6×105 cycles, respectively, for fatigue and shock-contact loading.In general, we can say that the problem of higher intensity to form the surface damage is directly related to the operation of the locomotive wheel tire under abnormally low climatic temperatures. With decreasing ambient temperature, this element material rapidly looses its plastic properties, thereby accelerating

  11. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  12. Application-Ready Expedited MODIS Data for Operational Land Surface Monitoring of Vegetation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesslyn F. Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1, the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra or afternoon (Aqua orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  13. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Neumann, Martin; Bieberle, André; Hampel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  14. Application-ready expedited MODIS data for operational land surface monitoring of vegetation condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jesslyn; Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Friesz, Aaron M.; Ji, Lei; Gacke, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1), the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra) or afternoon (Aqua) orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  15. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schaefer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Neumann, Martin [Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany); Bieberle, André [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  16. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  17. Fan Efficiency Improvement via Changing Guide Blade Shape Under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zamolodchikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the influence of sweep and tangential blade lean the guide vanes (GV on the pressure losses in the blade row, and development of an approach to creating the GV with a rationally-shaped blades to ensure increased efficiency in the partial operating conditions.A numerical simulation method was used for research. As an object to be studied, was used an axial fan comprising an impeller and a GV, which were profiled to have constant circulation of velocity in radius. Verification of numerical simulation was based on the experimental data of fan. It comprised a GV with a straight blade and a circular-arc blade, with an impeller remained stationary in both cases. Among the turbulence models under consideration, preference is given to k-ω, as under operating conditions close to design ones, its result falls within the confidence span of the experimental characteristics, and at much higher and lower discharge coefficients a discrepancy is 4% at most.  In addition to the characteristics, the fields of pressure losses in GV have been analyzed. Numerical modeling allowed us to have a well-reproduced structure of losses in the stationary blade row.Analysis of pressure loss fields has shown that in the original GV near the hub, on the blade back, under design conditions a flow breakdown takes off. In view of the research, was designed a new GV with a modified blade geometry. The GV blade axis near the hub was bent in the circumferential direction by 0.1 length of the blade. In the near-hub cross-sections the blade chord was increased by 10%.The results of numerical simulation have shown that, with the flow less than the designed one, a change of just the GV blade tip sections leads to reduced break-down zone near the hub by about 40% under both operating conditions without raising profile losses and to improved fan efficiency, which reduces fan drive power consumption under typical operating conditions in the propulsion

  18. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  19. A review of skin conditions in modern warfare and peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Ari B; Norton, Scott A; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the most exposed organ of the body, and military personnel face many external skin threats. As a result, skin disease is an important source of morbidity among military personnel deployed on combat or peacekeeping operations. This article reviews the most common conditions seen by deployed military dermatologists. A PubMed search was used to identify articles in English, written between 1965 and 2014, using medical subject headings "military medicine" AND "skin disease" or "military personnel" AND "skin disease." The five most common reasons for physician consultation for skin conditions in wartime since the Vietnam War were warts (10.7%), fungal infections (10.4%), acne (9.0%), nonspecific eczematous conditions (7.1%), and sexually transmitted diseases (6.1%). There was a significant difference in the skin conditions seen in the hot and humid climates of Vietnam and East Timor, where bacterial and fungal infections were more common reasons for consultation, and the dry climates of Bosnia and Iraq, where eczematous conditions made up a larger part of the dermatologic caseload. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  1. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  2. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  3. Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Kim, Mingu; Nakhla, George

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using kinetic models. During the 4-month operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) and influent ammonia concentration were selected as operating variables to evaluate nitrite accumulation. Stable partial nitrification was observed with two conditions, influent ammonia concentration of 190 mg N/L and a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg/L as well as influent ammonia concentration of 100 mg N/L and a DO of 0.15-2.0 mg/L with intermittent aeration. At a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg O 2 /L and influent ammonia concentration of 90 mg N/L, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria growth was not suppressed. Kinetic parameters were determined or estimated with batch tests and model simulation. The kinetic model predicted the SBR performance well.

  4. Operating experience with the 50 MeV 10kA ATA power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.; Lee, F.D.; Newton, M.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.E.

    1984-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) has been operational for over one year and has achieved full parameters in the power conditioning system. The pulsed power system has been previously described, however, during the past year of operation a considerable amount of statistical data has been accumulated on the 211 gas blown spark gaps that perform the main switching function in the ATA. These spark gaps were designed for 250kV, 40 kA and 70ns pulse. The parameter that made this spark gap somewhat unique was the requirement that it be able to provide a burst of ten pulses at one kilohertz with an average repetition rate of 5Hz. 2 references, 7 figures

  5. Wear behavior of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Sup; Hong, Jin-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Ki-Sang

    2003-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding wear tests were performed on steam generator tubes materials at steam generator operating temperature. The material surfaces react with oxygen to form oxides. The oxide properties such as formation rate and mechanical properties are varied with the test temperature and alloy composition. So, it is important to investigate the wear properties of each steam generator tube materials in steam generator operating condition. The tests results indicated that the wear coefficient in work rate model of alloy 690 was faster than that of alloy 800. From the scanning electron microscopy observation, the wear scars were similar each other and worn surfaces were covered with oxide layers. It seemed that the oxide layers were formed by wear debris sintering or cold welding and these layer properties affected the wear rate of steam generator tube materials. (author)

  6. Influence of the condition of the airfield pavement structures on the operation safety of aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesołowski Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the airfield pavement is a set of layers, whose task is to take over and transfer loads from moving aircraft to a ground subsoil in a safety manner. Airfield pavements are designed for a specific period of operation, assuming the forecasted intensity and the structure of the air traffic. The safety of air operations executed by the aircraft on airfield pavements depends primarily on the condition of their structure’s load capacity. In order to assess the load capacity of airfield pavements, the method ACN-PCN, which was introduced by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO and according to which the load capacity of the airfield pavement is expressed with the PCN index, is applied.

  7. [Effect of injection of enkephalin and bestatin in caudate-putamen on operant conditioning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Y P; Zhang, M L; Qi, H X; Wang, B

    1992-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were trained in a Skinner-box, 30 trials per day in a dark room to establish operant defence conditioning. Training started with a light (15 s), then combined with footshock for further 8 s. When the rats learned to press the key to avoid footshock within 15 s, conditioned response was considered established. After the rats reached a conditioning rate (CR) above 80% for 5 days, cannulae were implanted into caudate-putamen. Two to three days later, Met-enkephalin (MEK) or bestatin (an aminopeptidase inhibitor) was injected bilaterally into caudate-putamen. 30 min, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h after injection, conditioning tests were conducted, with each session consisting of 30 trials. Control experiments were done when 0.9% NaCl (NS) was injected. After injection of NS, CR maintained above 80% in all 4 test sessions. MEK (60 ng/rat) or bestatin (10 micrograms/rat) significantly lowered the CR during the 30 min and 2 h test session. In the latter case, the latency (L) was also prolonged. However both CR and L returned to the control level in the 24 h and 48 h test sessions. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the conditioning-depression effect of bestatin. No significant alteration was seen in locomotor activity after MEK or bestatin injection. The results suggest that enkephalin in caudate-putamen may be involved in the regulation of retrieval of conditioning. Bestatin mimics the effect of MEK on conditioning reflex probably by increasing production of endogenous enkephalin.

  8. Adaptation of continuous biogas reactors operating under wet fermentation conditions to dry conditions with corn stover as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuk, Balázs; Kovács, Kornél L; Szuhaj, Márk; Rákhely, Gábor; Bagi, Zoltán

    2017-08-01

    Corn stover (CS) is the agricultural by-product of maize cultivation. Due to its high abundance and high energy content it is a promising substrate for the bioenergy sector. However, it is currently neglected in industrial scale biogas plants, because of its slow decomposition and hydrophobic character. To assess the maximum biomethane potential of CS, long-term batch fermentations were carried out with various substrate concentrations and particle sizes for 72 days. In separate experiments we adapted the biogas producing microbial community in wet fermentation arrangement first to the lignocellulosic substrate, in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), then subsequently, by continuously elevating the feed-in concentration, to dry conditions in solid state fermenters (SS-AD). In the batch tests, the produce 90% of the total biomethane yield than the amount of substrate added to the fermentation lowered the specific methane yield. In the CSTR experiment, the daily substrate loading was gradually increased from 1 to 2 g vs /L/day until the system produced signs of overloading. Then the biomass was transferred to SS-AD reactors and the adaptation process was studied. Although the specific methane yields were lower in the SS-AD arrangement (177 mL CH 4 /g vs in CSTR vs. 105 mL in SS-AD), the benefits of process operational parameters, i.e. lower energy consumption, smaller reactor volume, digestate amount generated and simpler configuration, may compensate the somewhat lower yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The influences of operating conditions and design configurations on the performance of symmetric electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E

    2016-10-19

    The influence of different charging current densities, charging times and several structural designs on symmetric electrochemical capacitor (EC) performance, including capacitance, energy density and power density, has been investigated via modelling and simulation. Understanding the effects of different operating conditions and structural design variables on a capacitor's performance will guide in the optimal design and fabrication of high performance ECs. The operating conditions and design configurations examined were charging current density, charging times, electrode and electrolyte effective conductivity, electrode thickness and electrode porosity. The results reveal that ECs with low electrode and electrolyte effective conductivities can only be effectively charged at low current density for long times. ECs with a high concentration of impurity ions or redox species exhibit high self-discharge rates, and fast charging of the ECs greatly reduces the self-discharge rate, compared to slow charging, provided that the effective conductivities of the electrode and electrolyte are high enough. The simulation showed the typical electrode length scale over which the liquid potential drop occurs and electrode utilization can be employed as a design parameter to optimize electrode thickness (effective thickness) for ECs designed to operate under a specific current density range. The expression for electrode utilization (u) and the guidelines that can also be used to determine optimum electrode thickness/effective thickness (100% electrode utilization), optimum charging time and optimum current density in a cell of a given voltage and effective conductivity of electrode and electrolyte, were derived. The energy and power density of ECs were increased when the electrode thickness was reduced in the given charging conditions. The Ragone plots can be used to select optimum electrode dimensions to attain given energy and power density specifications.

  10. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  11. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  12. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  13. Integral criterion of mining machines technical condition level at their operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. L.; Shishkin, P. V.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays classification of systems of equipment maintenance and repair (M&R), in particular, mining machines, has a wide range. However, existing systems of maintenance and repair have their own disadvantages like resource-intensiveness and cost, lack of guarantees to prevent emergency failures. In order to reduce the costs for carrying out M&R, the service system CM&R (Conscientious Maintenance and Repair) was offered, which is focused on the tendency to achieve zero emergency failures, to reduce costs and to achieve the maximum possible effectiveness of the object functioning in actual operating conditions. A unified integrated indicator of the degree of object’s degradation has been offered.

  14. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Analysis of the influence of operating conditions on fouling rates in fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Fuentes, A.; Picón-Núñez, M.; Polley, G.T.; Méndez-Díaz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fouling due to chemical reaction in preheat trains for the processing of crude oil plays a key role in the operation and maintenance costs and on greenhouse emissions to atmosphere in crude processing plants. A preheat train consists of a set of heat transfer units that provide the crude oil stream the required amount of thermal energy to reach its target temperature either by heat recovery or by direct firing. Fired heaters supply external high temperature heating through the burning of fuel which result in complex heat transfer processes due to the large temperature and pressure changes and vaporization that takes place inside the unit. In this work, a thermo-hydraulic analysis of the performance of fired heaters is carried out through the application of commercial software to solve the mathematical models using finite difference methods; the analysis is applied to the crude side of a vertical fired heater in order to evaluate the impact of process conditions such as throughput and crude inlet temperature (CIT) on the fouling that take place at the early stages of operation. Using a fouling rate model based on thermo-hydraulic parameters, fouling rates are predicted assuming steady state operation and clean conditions. Although variations in process conditions are known to influence fouling rates, little work has been done on the subject. In this work excess air and steam injection are studied as a means to mitigate fouling. Results show that throughput reduction brings about a marked increase in the fouling rates. A decrease in CIT affects only the convection zone and it is found that this effect is negligible. In terms of excess air, it is found that although it affects negatively the heater efficiency it can be used to balance heat transfer between the convection and radiation zone in a way that fouling rates are reduced; however this strategy should be considered right from the design stage. Finally it is observed that steam injection is an effective method

  16. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is described for the study of structural breakdown of coke by thermochemical action of alkali and alkaline-earth metal vapors under blast furnace operating conditions. Bench-scale test facilities are described in which a pair of coke samples are exposed to the metal vapors then subjected to gasification. Structural strength tests were performed before and after each experiment. Coke samples were obtained in either moist or thermally prepared condition. The value of thermal charge preparation (heat treatment of the coal at 150/sup 0/C in a fluidized bed) was established, since it shifts the pore size distribution to the smaller size, thereby retarding adsorption of the metal vapors. 16 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Characterizing (rating) the performance of large photovoltaic arrays for all operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert, P.E. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A new method has been developed for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic arrays. The method provides both a ``rating`` at standard reporting conditions and a rigorous yet straightforward model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the performance model handles the influences of irradiance, module temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of-incidence, and temperature coefficients, in a practical way. Validity of the procedure was confirmed during field testing of a 25-kW array recently installed by Arizona Public Service Co. on Carol Spring Mountain (which powers microwave, ceullular phone, and TV communictions equipment). This paper describes the characterization procedure, measured array performance, and the predictive model.

  18. Effects of cutting conditions on forces and force coefficients in plunge milling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rafanelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of milling forces is a crucial issue to understand milling processes. In the literature, many force models and experiments to identify force coefficients are found. The objective of this article is to develop a new approach, based on the traditional average force method, able to measure and compute the cutting coefficients for end mills used in plunging operations. This model has been used to evaluate the effect of the radial engagement on the cutting coefficients themselves, proposing a new strategy to update these values for different cutting parameters. This dependency of the cutting coefficient is particularly important for the determination of the stability lobe diagrams, used to predict the chatter conditions. In this article, the method to assess the cutting coefficients, the results of the experimental tests, and the effect of condition-dependent cutting coefficients on process stability are presented.

  19. Effect of catalyst properties and operating conditions on hydroprocessing high metals feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Saluzar-Gullen, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing of high metals heavy oils, containing over 480 ppm Ni + V, was carried out in trickle bed pilot units. The analyses of the used catalysts (coke, metals content, and vanadium distribution) were correlated with the deactivation runs. The deactivation by coke is very much dependent on the catalyst physical properties (mean pore diameter), rather than on the chemical properties, and on the nature of the feed. As metals removal is a diffusion-controlled reaction, catalysts and operating conditions that increase the Thiele modulus, e.g., high activity and small pore catalysts, high hydrogen pressures and temperatures, show a stronger deactivation by feed metals. In this case, most of the vanadium was deposited in the outer edge of the catalyst particle. Unconventional vanadium profiles along the reactor length were obtained under certain conditions. Based on these data, a kinetic model was proposed which considers that demetallization is a complex reaction that occurs through a series of consecutive and parallel reactions.

  20. Determination of materials and cutting conditions in a CNC lathe turning operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista Hernández-Granados

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of machining can be described as the achievement of a predefined product quality with given working conditions. The turning operation on Sistemas Integrados de Manufactura (SIMTEC Laboratory has been stu-died with diffe-rent cutting conditions (feed, depth of cut, rpm and material type (Aluminum 6061, Steel 1020 to identify the combination and level factors that improve the surface roughness in a work piece. Using three of Design of Experiments techniques (DOE, such as factorial design, multiple linear regression and response surface methodo-logy (RSM we identified the factors and levels that reduce the surface roughness and these are the feed rate = 50 mm/min, rpm = 1200 and aluminum material. A first-order model has been established between the cutting parameters and surface roughness which can be used together with the RMS graph to predict an average roughness value.

  1. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  2. Activity of the RA Reactor Physics group in 1980 - Definition of the Operation conditions for future safe and economical RA reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.

    1980-01-01

    During 1980. the RA reactor was not in operation. That is why this period was devoted to definition of operating conditions for further reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel. The fuel elements which were in the core at the moment of shutdown in March 1979will not be used again (388 80% enriched fuel elements, and 511 2% enriched fuel elements). The reactor will be operated only with 80% enriched fuel, staring with initiat core configuration with 440 elements on the borders gradually changing to equi;librium core with 720 fuel elements. The analyses were concerned with safety issues of future operation [sr

  3. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  4. Efficacy of a prehospital self-expanding polyurethane foam for noncompressible hemorrhage under extreme operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Adam P; Larentzakis, Andreas; Marini, John; Picard, Abby; Duggan, Michael J; Busold, Rany; Helmick, Marc; Zugates, Greg; Beagle, John; Sharma, Upma; King, David R

    2015-02-01

    Noncompressible abdominal hemorrhage is a significant cause of battlefield and civilian mortality. We developed a self-expanding polyurethane foam intended to provide temporary hemorrhage control and enable evacuation to a definitive surgical capability, for casualties who would otherwise die. We hypothesized that foam treatment would be efficacious over a wide range of out-of-hospital operational conditions. The foam was tested in an established lethal, closed-cavity hepatoportal injury model in four groups as follows. Group 1 involved baseline conditions, wherein foam was deployed from a pneumatically driven, first-generation delivery device at room temperature (n = 6). Group 2 involved foam deployment from a field-relevant, handheld delivery prototype (n = 12). Group 3 involved foam components that were conditioned to simulate 1-year shelf-life (n = 6). Group 4 involved foam that was conditioned to a range of temperatures (10 °C and 50 °C; n = 6 per group). In all studies, survival was monitored for up to 180 minutes and compared with an ongoing and accumulating control group with no intervention (n = 14). In Group 1 with a first-generation delivery system, foam treatment resulted in a significant survival advantage relative to the control group (p foam groups was significantly lower than in the control group (p foam treatment resulted in a survival advantage relative to the control group. This supports the feasibility of foam treatment as a prehospital hemostatic bridge to surgery for severely bleeding causalities.

  5. 47 CFR 90.1432 - Conditions for waiver to allow limited and temporary wideband operations in the 700 MHz public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wideband operations, public safety entities may request a waiver to operate in the upper 1.25 megahertz of... that rejected responses to the required broadband network RFP were more costly, provided less coverage... spectrum will be subject to the following conditions: (i) All devices operating on the wideband system must...

  6. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  7. Aerodynamic performance of a vibrating piezoelectric fan under varied operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, J; Jeffers, N

    2014-01-01

    This paper experimentally examines the bulk aerodynamic performance of a vibrating fan operating in the first mode of vibration. The influence of operating condition on the local velocity field has also been investigated to understand the flow distribution at the exit region and determine the stalling condition for vibrating fans. Fan motion has been generated and controlled using a piezoelectric ceramic attached to a stainless steel cantilever. The frequency and amplitude at resonance were 109.4 Hz and 12.5 mm, respectively. A test facility has been developed to measure the pressure-flow characteristics of the vibrating fan and simultaneously conduct local velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. The results demonstrate the impact of system characteristics on the local velocity field. High momentum regions generated due to the oscillating motion exist with a component direction that is tangent to the blade at maximum displacement. These high velocity zones are significantly affected by increasing impedance while flow reversal is a dominant feature at maximum pressure rise. The findings outlined provide useful information for design of thermal management solutions that may incorporate this air cooling approach.

  8. Slide Valves for Single-Screw Expanders Working Under Varied Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper fully describes the working principle of slide valves in single-screw expanders (SSEs. A geometric analysis of suction and volume ratio slide valves is presented to determine the relations between volume ratio, suction closure volume, discharge opening volume and slide valves displacement. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC thermodynamic model with SSE integrated with slide valves is developed to analyze the power output of SSE and the net power output of ORC system and variation law of slide valves displacement. Analysis of a typical ORC system under changing operating conditions shows that the power output of the expander and the net output power of the ORC system with slide valves are much better than those without slide valves. When the condensing temperature is 40 °C and the waste availability is 80 kW, the increase in output power and net output power are approximately 3.4 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The presented geometric analysis of slide valves and the thermodynamic model integrated with slide valves can be used to provide a theoretical and technical basis for designing the slide valves of SSEs and the control strategies of slide valves under varied operating conditions.

  9. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  10. Coexistence of reward and unsupervised learning during the operant conditioning of neural firing rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Kerr

    Full Text Available A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to understand how cognitive processes, such as operant conditioning, are performed by the brain. Typical and well studied examples of operant conditioning, in which the firing rates of individual cortical neurons in monkeys are increased using rewards, provide an opportunity for insight into this. Studies of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity (RSTDP, and of other models such as R-max, have reproduced this learning behavior, but they have assumed that no unsupervised learning is present (i.e., no learning occurs without, or independent of, rewards. We show that these models cannot elicit firing rate reinforcement while exhibiting both reward learning and ongoing, stable unsupervised learning. To fix this issue, we propose a new RSTDP model of synaptic plasticity based upon the observed effects that dopamine has on long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We show, both analytically and through simulations, that our new model can exhibit unsupervised learning and lead to firing rate reinforcement. This requires that the strengthening of LTP by the reward signal is greater than the strengthening of LTD and that the reinforced neuron exhibits irregular firing. We show the robustness of our findings to spike-timing correlations, to the synaptic weight dependence that is assumed, and to changes in the mean reward. We also consider our model in the differential reinforcement of two nearby neurons. Our model aligns more strongly with experimental studies than previous models and makes testable predictions for future experiments.

  11. Extreme Production Conditions of Photovoltaic Power Plant Operated in Distribution Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants are sources of electrical energy that are very dependent on weather conditions. This paper interests in description of stochastic production of power in photovoltaic power plants and subsequently its impact on the distribution power grid. Stochastic production of power from these sources is considerable and hardly predictable. The aim of this survey is to assess the influence of photovoltaic power plants operation on the daily load diagram with regard to output change difference of active power at the relevant substation. Evaluation is based on real-time synchronous data measuring both on-site photovoltaic power plant operation and on-site electric power line output from the substation. This measurement is used for suggestion of a general calculation methodology for the assessment of the difference of active power at a particular node of the grid under various power changes from the photovoltaic power plant. Statistical methods have been employed to process a methodology in order establish extreme conditions of production power for photovoltaic power plant.

  12. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  13. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  14. The study of operating an air conditioning system using Maisotsenko-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Tahan, Sami; Toufic El-Achkar, Mohamad; Abou Jamus, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    The project aims to design and build an air conditioning system that runs on the Maisotsenko cycle. The system is required to condition and cool down ambient air for a small residential space with the reduction in the use of electricity and eliminating the use of commercial refrigerants. This project can operate at its optimum performance in remote areas like oil diggers and other projects that run in the desert or any site that would not have a very high relative humidity level. The Maisotsenko cycle is known as the thermodynamic concept that captures energy from the air by using the psychometric renewable energy available in the latent heat in water evaporating in air. The heat and mass exchanger design was based on choosing a material that would-be water resistant and breathable, which was found to be layers of cardboard placed on top of each other and thus creating channels for air to pass through. Aiming for this design eliminates any high power electrical equipment such as compressors, condensers and evaporators that would be used in an AC system with the exception of a 600 W blower and a 10 W fan, thus making it a more environmentally friendly project. Moreover, the project is limited by the ambient temperature and humidity, as the model operates at an optimum when the relative humidity is lower.

  15. Computer Simulation of Complex Power System Faults under various Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Tanuj; Bowman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A power system is normally treated as a balanced symmetrical three-phase network. When a fault occurs, the symmetry is normally upset, resulting in unbalanced currents and voltages appearing in the network. For the correct application of protection equipment, it is essential to know the fault current distribution throughout the system and the voltages in different parts of the system due to the fault. There may be situations where protection engineers have to analyze faults that are more complex than simple shunt faults. One type of complex fault is an open phase condition that can result from a fallen conductor or failure of a breaker pole. In the former case, the condition is often accompanied by a fault detectable with normal relaying. In the latter case, the condition may be undetected by standard line relaying. The effect on a generator is dependent on the location of the open phase and the load level. If an open phase occurs between the generator terminals and the high-voltage side of the GSU in the switchyard, and the generator is at full load, damaging negative sequence current can be generated. However, for the same operating condition, an open conductor at the incoming transmission lines located in the switchyard can result in minimal negative sequence current. In 2012, a nuclear power generating station (NPGS) suffered series or open phase fault due to insulator mechanical failure in the 345 kV switchyard. This resulted in both reactor units tripping offline in two separate incidents. Series fault on one of the phases resulted in voltage imbalance that was not detected by the degraded voltage relays. These under-voltage relays did not initiate a start signal to the emergency diesel generators (EDG) because they sensed adequate voltage on the remaining phases exposing a design vulnerability. This paper is intended to help protection engineers calculate complex circuit faults like open phase condition using computer program. The impact of this type of

  16. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  17. Advanced development and operating experience with a canned motor pump under pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, H.; Reymann, A.; Seibig, B.; Reinecker, H.

    1988-01-01

    At the research reactor FRG-2, Geesthacht, an irradiation device is in operation for testing defective light-water-reactor (LWR) test fuel rods under pressurized water reactor conditions (320 0 C, 160 bar). The requirements to the canned motor pump for cooling water circulation: medium: Demineralized water, operating temperature 320 0 C, operating pressure 155 bar, radiation field of the reactor, integration in the irradiation capsule, helium leak rate -6 mbar.dm 3 .s -1 , minimum working life 3000 hours, were high and caused difficulties in the acquisition of this component. First test runs with supplied pumps showed that the desired working life could not be achieved. The results of the development steps, the test runs, and the performance in service show that for our range of applications, the best combination of materials for the radial bearings is silicon-infiltrated SiC (8% free Si) against the same material. These bearings allowed a good working life for the pump to be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  18. The pulse tube engine: A numerical and experimental approach on its design, performance, and operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldenhauer, Stefan; Stark, Tilman; Holtmann, Christoph; Thess, André

    2013-01-01

    The pulse tube engine is a simple heat engine based on the pulse tube process. Due to its simplicity it has a high potential to be applicable in waste heat usage and energy harvesting purposes. In this work, mathematical and experimental design tools are developed to study a pressurized laboratory scale pulse tube engine. The mathematical model is based on the transient numerical solution of the governing differential equations for mass, momentum and energy. The Modelica environment of SimulationX is used to solve the equations numerically and the model is employed to design the experimental test engine with helium as working fluid. The transient behavior of the pulse tube engine's underlying thermodynamic properties is studied numerically and experimentally under different design parameters as well as for different heat input temperatures, filling pressures and operating frequencies. The measured engine characteristics are compared with the calculated predictions. Internal and external power losses are quantified. Design studies for a further development of the pulse tube engine are performed experimentally. The developed numerical tool provides a rational framework for up-scaling the current laboratory model to industrial scale. - Highlights: • We developed a mathematical model and an experimental test engine to study the pulse tube engine. • The experimental test engine is able to operate with pressurized helium of up to 12 bar filling pressure. • We characterized and compared the engine's behavior under different design features and operating conditions. • Design studies for a further development of the pulse tube engine are performed experimentally

  19. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  20. Efficiency Evaluation of Open-Loop GHPS Operation Under Various Hydrogeological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Geothermal heat pump system (GHPS) can be cost-effective renewable energy sources. In order to develop the GHPS which has certain hydrogeological characteristics, understanding the thermohydraulic process of an aquifer is necessary for effective usage of open-loop GHPS. Experimental and numerical tests are performed for two concepts of open-loop GHPS: simple open-loop and energy storage concept. In simple open-loop sets, tests were performed fixing the locations of pumping and injection wells. In contrast, tests in energy storage sets were conducted by changing the locations of wells in a seasonal cycle. Experimental test using sand tank was performed only for the simple open-loop concept, while numerical tests were performed for the both concepts. Numerical modeling results using FEFLOW were compatible with the experimental results. In the simple open-loop sets, the temporal temperature change in a pumping well was measured. Effective operation conditions are obtained with high hydraulic conductivity (3X10-3 m/s) and long distance (60 cm) between wells on hydraulic gradient 0.025 because the effect of injected water temperature must be minimized. In the energy storage sets, thermal recovery factors (R) under various conditions were calculated to evaluate the efficiency. Low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s), hydraulic gradient 0.0 and long well distance (more than 20 m) are the best conditions for operation efficiency (R=37.92) because faster groundwater flow lead to advection or down-gradient `drift' of stored energy beyond potential recovery regions. In the case of two-layered aquifer, the porosity and groundwater flow characteristics of each layer sensitively affected the migration of thermal plume. Two-layered aquifer with the top-layer of low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s) and porosity (0.2) is profitable for the effective open-loop GHPS operation under hydraulic gradient 0.0 and well distance (20 m). The results from experimental and numerical tests

  1. Conditional Monthly Weather Resampling Procedure for Operational Seasonal Water Resources Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Weerts, A.; Tijdeman, E.; Welles, E.; McManamon, A.

    2013-12-01

    To provide reliable and accurate seasonal streamflow forecasts for water resources management several operational hydrologic agencies and hydropower companies around the world use the Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) procedure. The ESP in its original implementation does not accommodate for any additional information that the forecaster may have about expected deviations from climatology in the near future. Several attempts have been conducted to improve the skill of the ESP forecast, especially for areas which are affected by teleconnetions (e,g. ENSO, PDO) via selection (Hamlet and Lettenmaier, 1999) or weighting schemes (Werner et al., 2004; Wood and Lettenmaier, 2006; Najafi et al., 2012). A disadvantage of such schemes is that they lead to a reduction of the signal to noise ratio of the probabilistic forecast. To overcome this, we propose a resampling method conditional on climate indices to generate meteorological time series to be used in the ESP. The method can be used to generate a large number of meteorological ensemble members in order to improve the statistical properties of the ensemble. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated in a real-time operational hydrologic seasonal forecasts system for the Columbia River basin operated by the Bonneville Power Administration. The forecast skill of the k-nn resampler was tested against the original ESP for three basins at the long-range seasonal time scale. The BSS and CRPSS were used to compare the results to those of the original ESP method. Positive forecast skill scores were found for the resampler method conditioned on different indices for the prediction of spring peak flows in the Dworshak and Hungry Horse basin. For the Libby Dam basin however, no improvement of skill was found. The proposed resampling method is a promising practical approach that can add skill to ESP forecasts at the seasonal time scale. Further improvement is possible by fine tuning the method and selecting the most

  2. Abnormal vibration of turbine due to oil whip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Raeyang; Hwang, Jae Hyeon

    2001-01-01

    Almost all rotating machinery has bearings. Bearing is one of the most important part of rotating machinery. Vibration of rotating machinery depend on its bearing conditions. Bearing conditions are following; oil gap, bearing type, bearing temperature, bearing oil condition. Especially, bearing oil condition influences on rotating machinery vibration directly. In this paper we have discussed the abnormal vibration of turbine due to oil condition. Oil whip problem was occurred in the certain power plant and we had solved this problem through the control of operating values and alignment

  3. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viganó Davide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  4. Effect of operation conditions on ammonia evolution in isothermal composting of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-07-01

    In the isothermal composting of sewage sludge, influences of operation conditions on NH 3 evolution were studied to obtain informations on the sludge deodorization during composting. The pattern of CO 2 evolution from the sludge was not affected by the aeration rate or the bulking agent. On the other hand, the pattern of NH 3 evolution was affected by the fermentation condition and the overall weight ratios of C in CO 2 to N in NH 3 , CO 2 -C/NH 3 -N in the total gas evolved varied with fermentation time. The ratios approached to almost constant values ranging from 5 to 7 in earlier stages at higher aeration rate or temperature. These facts mean that the change of NH 3 evolution pattern with fermentation conditions is due to NH 3 absorption by the sludge and the bulking agent, and actually, the NH 3 generation is a simultaneous process with CO 2 generation. Therefore, deodorization by composting can be completed at the end of fermentation. (author)

  5. First experience in operating the population of the condition database for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Gruttola, M; Futyan, David; Glege, Frank; Govi, Giacomo; Innocente, Vincenzo; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Pierro, Antonio; Schlatter, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Reliable population of the condition database is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to populate the database and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The system, designed for high flexibility to cope with very different data sources, uses POOL-ORA technology in order to store data in an object format that best matches the object oriented paradigm for C++ programming language used in the CMS offline software. In order to ensure consistency among the various subdetectors, a dedicated package, PopCon (Populator of Condition Objects), is used to store data online. The data are then automatically streamed to the offline database hence immediately accessible offline worldwide. This mechanism was intensively used during 2008 in the test-runs with cosmic rays. The experience of this first mont...

  6. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on the flow reduction of forced flow superconducting magnet and its stable operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The forced flow superconducting coil especially made from a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) is applied for large-scale devices such as fusion magnets and superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) because it has high mechanical and electrical performance potential. The flow reduction phenomena caused by AC loss generation due to the pulsed operation was found based on the experimental results of three forced flow superconducting coils. And relation between the AC loss generation and flow reduction was defined from viewpoint of the engineering design and operation of the coils. Also the mechanism of flow reduction was investigated and stable operation condition under the flow reduction was clarified for forced flow superconducting coils. First, experiments of three different large-scale superconducting coils were carried out and experimental database of the flow reduction by AC loss generation was established. It was found experimentally that the flow reduction depends on the AC loss generation (W/m{sup 3}) in all of coils. It means the stable operation condition is defined not only the electro magnetism of superconducting coil but also flow condition. Mechanism of the flow reduction was investigated based on the experimental database. Hydraulics was applied to supercritical helium as a coolant. Also performances of the cryogenic pump by which coolant are supplied to the coil and friction of the superconductor as cooling path is considered for hydraulic estimation. The flow reduction of the coil is clarified and predictable by the equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance. Also total mass flow rate of coolant was discussed. The estimation method in the design phase was developed for total mass flow rate which are required under the flow reduction by AC losses. The friction of the superconductor and performance of cryogenic pump should be required for precise prediction of flow reduction. These values were obtained by the experiment data of coil and

  8. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  9. Topic Correlation Analysis for Bearing Fault Diagnosis Under Variable Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shen, Fei; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a Topic Correlation Analysis (TCA) based approach for bearing fault diagnosis. In TCA, Joint Mixture Model (JMM), a model which adapts Probability Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), is constructed first. Then, JMM models the shared and domain-specific topics using “fault vocabulary” . After that, the correlations between two kinds of topics are computed and used to build a mapping matrix. Furthermore, a new shared space spanned by the shared and mapped domain-specific topics is set up where the distribution gap between different domains is reduced. Finally, a classifier is trained with mapped features which follow a different distribution and then the trained classifier is tested on target bearing data. Experimental results justify the superiority of the proposed approach over the stat-of-the-art baselines and it can diagnose bearing fault efficiently and effectively under variable operating conditions.

  10. Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrameli, S.M.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The combined production of thermal power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle proposed by Goswami is under intensive investigation. In the cycle under consideration, simultaneous cooling output is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and subsequently heating the cool exhaust. When this mechanism for cooling production is considered in detail, it is apparent that the cooling comes at some expense to work production. To optimize this trade-off, a very specific coefficient-of-performance has been defined. In this paper, the simulation of the cycle was carried out in the process simulator ASPEN Plus. The optimum operating conditions have been found by using the Equation Oriented mode of the simulator and some of the results have been compared with the experimental data obtained from the cycle. The agreement between the two sets proves the accuracy of the optimization results

  11. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  12. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  13. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation of cortical microcircuits during optical single-neuron operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Riichiro; Ohkubo, Fuki; Masamizu, Yoshito; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Okada, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Masanori

    2014-11-24

    Animals rapidly adapt to environmental change. To reveal how cortical microcircuits are rapidly reorganized when an animal recognizes novel reward contingency, we conduct two-photon calcium imaging of layer 2/3 motor cortex neurons in mice and simultaneously reinforce the activity of a single cortical neuron with water delivery. Here we show that when the target neuron is not relevant to a pre-trained forelimb movement, the mouse increases the target neuron activity and the number of rewards delivered during 15-min operant conditioning without changing forelimb movement behaviour. The reinforcement bidirectionally modulates the activity of subsets of non-target neurons, independent of distance from the target neuron. The bidirectional modulation depends on the relative timing between the reward delivery and the neuronal activity, and is recreated by pairing reward delivery and photoactivation of a subset of neurons. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation may be one of the fundamental processes in microcircuit reorganization for rapid adaptation.

  14. Effect of plasma spray operating conditions on plasma jet characteristics and coating properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, S.; Heberlein, J.

    1993-12-01

    Using statistical design of experiments, the arc current, total gas flow rate, percent secondary gas (He), and powder feed rate have been varied to assess the torch behavior and establish its correlation to coating properties. The torch response includes arc voltage drop, torch efficiency, and plasma jet geometry. High-speed images of the luminous plasma jet for each operating condition have been acquired with a LaserStrobeℳ videocamera, and image analysis has been used to quantify the jet length and jet fluctuations as additional torch responses. Porosity and unmelted particles, which are determined using image analysis of a micrograph of a NiAl coating cross section, were selected as principal coating characteristics. These findings are expected to be useful for optimization of new spray processes and for evaluation of new torch designs.

  15. Tests of operating conditions for metrological application of HTS Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A; Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cerri, R; Klushin, A M

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of metrological properties of High Temperature Superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions, to assess their accuracy. A detailed analysis of measurement errors is presented, mainly based on a direct comparison of an HTS array against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the comparison, we were able to measure the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step at nanovolt level. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results provided by the usual, low sensitivity, techniques, confirming that the method we adopted is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current as well, providing some insights on the behaviour of the HTS array

  16. Study and operating conditions of HTS Josephson arrays for metrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A.; Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Cerri, R.; Klushin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study of metrological properties of high-temperature superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions. The work is mainly based on a direct comparison against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the measurements, we observed at nanovolt level the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results of low sensitivity techniques, confirming that our method is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was also applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current, providing insights on the behavior of the HTS array

  17. Continuous improvement of operation and maintenance conditions of French PWR nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    Improvement of nuclear island design to facilitate maintenance and working conditions during plant shutdown has been a subject of particular attention in the French PWR programme. Standardization and industrial concentration created an unusually favourable situation for approaching this objective. Progress efforts supported by the feedback of actual operating experience were pursued in areas of plant layout equipment installation, and on the design and technology of the components themselves. When compared with units of the three-loop series currently in operation, the evolution of the latest nuclear island designs covers such layout features as better segregation and separation between systems, easier access in special areas, installation of new cleaning systems, etc. Progress efforts on the design and technology of components were pursued along several paths including: (a) the increase in resistance of specific parts submitted to various forms of in-service degradation, for example, steam generator tubes, reactor coolant pump seals, reactor control cluster drive lines and some auxiliary equipment; (b) reduction of the extent and duration of work during plant outages (fuel handling, in-service inspection, maintenance) by facilitating disassembly, removal, handling and storage of equipment parts; (c) reduction of occupational radiation exposure, one of the most important axes of development, by the appropriate selection of less activity-releasing materials such as Inconel 690 for the steam generator tubes, implementation of more efficient decontamination systems and use of robots. (author)

  18. Decision Optimization for Power Grid Operating Conditions with High- and Low-Voltage Parallel Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of higher-voltage power grids, the high- and low-voltage parallel loops are emerging, which lead to energy losses and even threaten the security and stability of power systems. The multi-infeed high-voltage direct current (HVDC configurations widely appearing in AC/DC interconnected power systems make this situation even worse. Aimed at energy saving and system security, a decision optimization method for power grid operating conditions with high- and low-voltage parallel loops is proposed in this paper. Firstly, considering hub substation distribution and power grid structure, parallel loop opening schemes are generated with GN (Girvan-Newman algorithms. Then, candidate opening schemes are preliminarily selected from all these generated schemes based on a filtering index. Finally, with the influence on power system security, stability and operation economy in consideration, an evaluation model for candidate opening schemes is founded based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP. And a fuzzy evaluation algorithm is used to find the optimal scheme. Simulation results of a New England 39-bus system and an actual power system validate the effectiveness and superiority of this proposed method.

  19. A study of operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of solid urban waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Femando Castillo M.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion as a technological option for organic solid-waste treatment in the city of Bucaramanga (Santander, Colombia. The inoculum was selected by evaluating three different anaerobic sludges. Sludge from UASB No. 2 digestor at the Waste Water Treatment Plant in Rio Frío (Girón, Santander was named [PTAR]. Sludge from the anaerobic biodigestor for pig manure treatment (Mesa de Los Santos, Santander was named [PIG] a 1:1 sludge mixture of [PTAR] and [PIG] sludges was named [MIX]. These sludges' methanisation behaviour was evaluated in three different 500 ml capacity CSTR digesters at mesophyllic and thermophyllic temperatures. 25,20 and 18 day retention times were studied in a 20 1 CSTR digester having a 131 reaction volume. The results showed that raising the temperature from 10 °C to 15 °C above normal reactor temperature increased methane production by 3 times. It was also seen that retention time had a strong influence on specific methane production since the best conversions were registered at the longest time recorded (25 days and it had a strong influence on DQO removal too. Another important condition for biodigestor optimal operation was agitation speed;this operation must be semi-continuous for maintaining methanisation process biological activity.

  20. Aeroacoustic Simulation for NASA CC3 Centrifugal Compressor Operating at off Design Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqaradawi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the characterization of the acoustic noise and the unsteady flow field of a high speed centrifugal compressor NASA CC3. In order to accurately predict the noise, all analyses are carried out through the use of Large Eddy Simulation and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings model for noise prediction. The relative effect of hub cavity on flow characteristics and sound levels is investigated, for a compressor stage with a total pressure ratio equal to 4, working from surge to near choke condition. In comparison with the experimental results from literature, the predicted compressor performance and flow field are predicted well. The hub cavity flow effect on the compressor aeroacoustic generated noise is shown in the paper. The unsteady static pressure and sound pressure levels are compared not only at different location but also for design and off design operating points. The internal flow results inside the hub cavity are presented at surge, design and near choke points. The conclusion is that the cavity effect of the centrifugal compressor cannot be ignored in the numerical prediction of aerodynamic generated noise. The impeller back plate of the rotor experiences a strong pressure fluctuation, which is maxima at the impeller outer radius for all operating point, but higher pressure values at the surge point.

  1. Risk assessment during operating self-propelled lifting jib cranes in conditions of insufficient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel structures. To conduct risk analysis of self-propelled jib cranes in case of insufficient information, proposed the method of expert estimations. It allows to assess the impact of potential defects on self-propelled jib cranes on the value of the economic damage of the crane and moving cargo and the value of the traumatic exposure on men. The proposed list of possible defects self-propelled lifting jib cranes and a checklist of questions about the degree of influence of these defects. Proposed calculated dependences to the approximate calculation of the magnitude of technical risk in the opera-tion of self-propelled jib cranes. The results of statistical analysis of expert estimations for each possible defect and per-formed their ranking in terms of impact on the magnitude of the economic damage of the crane and moving loads, the value of the traumatic exposure. Was calculated the value of technical risk for the surveyed taps.

  2. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhagen, Lasse; Breteler, Marinus; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF training on seizure occurrence have been described in epileptic patients. Little research has been done about differentiating NF effectiveness by type of epilepsy, particularly, whether idiopathic generalized seizures are susceptible to NF. In this experiment, seizures that manifest themselves as spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG were reinforced during 10 sessions in 6 rats of the WAG/Rij strain, an animal model for absence epilepsy. EEG's were recorded before and after the training sessions. Reinforcing SWDs let to decreased SWD occurrences during training; however, the changes during training were not persistent in the post-training sessions. Because behavioural states are known to have an influence on the occurrence of SWDs, it is proposed that the reinforcement situation increased arousal which resulted in fewer SWDs. Additional tests supported this hypothesis. The outcomes have implications for the possibility to train SWDs with operant learning techniques. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel’s calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  4. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Wagner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  5. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  6. Optimization of the operational conditions of a multichannel analyzer gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, H.

    1974-01-01

    For the optimization of the operational conditions of a multichannel analyser gamma spectrometer, with two 3'' x 3'' NaI (Tl) crystals in opposition, several parameters were studied, which are responsable for the best counting efficiency, in each type of sample to be analysed. Thus, electronic conditions, shielding, sample holding, resolution, geometry (or the sample positioning between the detectors), were investigated. Self-absorption, sample density and the effects of the shape of the containers were also tested. For solid samples, (usually ashed), the best container was found to be a plastic cylinder, with the sample pressed inside. For liquid samples, plastic cylindric flasks were also found to be the best ones. Environmental samples were measured with internal standards for 137 Cs and 40 K. Results were compared with those obtained by physical (atomic adsorption for K) and radiochemical methods (Cs precipitation by amonium phosphomolibdate). Results show good agreement with the spectrometric analysis. For comparison with environmental samples, standards were prepared, in such a way that they could simulated their physical caracteristics. The minimum detectable activity was determined for 137 Cs. Results show values of 0.01 pCi/g for the 1 Kg samples, and 0.004 pCi/g for the 300g ones. By the measurement of 40 K, we found this value to be 0.02 mgK/g, in both cases. (author) [pt

  7. Acetylcholine release in the hippocampus during the operant conditioned reflex and the footshock stimulus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Mao, Jianjun; Shangguan, Dihua; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Guoquan

    2004-10-14

    The activity of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway was investigated by measuring changes in the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the hippocampus, by means of microdialysis, during the operant conditioned reflex and the repeated footshock stimulus. Microdialysis samplings were conducted in a Skinner box where lights were delivered as conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with footshocks as unconditioned stimuli (US). Two groups of rats were used. Extracellular ACh and choline (Ch) in samples collected at 6min intervals were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The elevation of hippocampus ACh was observed in the two experimental groups. The increase in ACh during aversive stimulus (footshock) was significantly larger and was probably related to the number of footshocks. There might be moderate increase in the hippocampal ACh release during the retrieval of information. The concentration of choline showed no significant fluctuation in the two groups during the whole process. This experiment explored in more detail hippocampal cholinergic activity in relation to the two different procedures.

  8. Laccase-HBT bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp: influence of the operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Vidal, T

    2008-12-01

    Different operating conditions (viz. pulp consistency, oxygen pressure and treatment time) in the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp with the laccase-HBT system was tested in order to describe their effect and normalize a biobleaching protocol. A high O(2) pressure (0.6MPa) was found to result in improved laccase-assisted delignification of the pulp. Also, a high pulp consistency (10%) and a short treatment time (2h) proved the best choices with a view to obtaining good pulp properties (kappa number and ISO brightness) under essentially mild conditions. The laccase-HBT treatment was found to result in slight delignification (in the form of a 20-27% decrease in kappa number); however, an alkaline extraction stage raised delignification to 41-45%, a much higher level than those obtained in the control tests (16-23%). Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide in the extraction stage resulted in improved brightness (14-19%), but in scarcely improved delignification (4-7%). Treating the pulp with the laccase-HBT system reduced the amount of hydrogen peroxide required for subsequent alkaline bleaching by a factor of 3-4 relative to control tests.

  9. Development of Future Rule Curves for Multipurpose Reservoir Operation Using Conditional Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongrit Kangrang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal rule curves are necessary guidelines in the reservoir operation that have been used to assess performance of any reservoir to satisfy water supply, irrigation, industrial, hydropower, and environmental conservation requirements. This study applied the conditional genetic algorithm (CGA and the conditional tabu search algorithm (CTSA technique to connect with the reservoir simulation model in order to search optimal reservoir rule curves. The Ubolrat Reservoir located in the northeast region of Thailand was an illustrative application including historic monthly inflow, future inflow generated by the SWAT hydrological model using 50-year future climate data from the PRECIS regional climate model in case of B2 emission scenario by IPCC SRES, water demand, hydrologic data, and physical reservoir data. The future and synthetic inflow data of reservoirs were used to simulate reservoir system for evaluating water situation. The situations of water shortage and excess water were shown in terms of frequency magnitude and duration. The results have shown that the optimal rule curves from CGA and CTSA connected with the simulation model can mitigate drought and flood situations than the existing rule curves. The optimal future rule curves were more suitable for future situations than the other rule curves.

  10. Operational data and thermodynamic modeling of a Stirling-dish demonstration installation in desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Jamot, Jakob; Malm, Tommy

    2017-06-01

    To field test its Stirling-dish unit, Cleanergy AB of Sweden in Q1 2015 built a ten unit demo park in Dubai. The first STE (Solar Thermal Energy) generation of its Stirling genset, the C11S, had at its core an 11 kWel Stirling engine/generator combination. The genset was mated with a parabolic concentrator developed for the genset by a supplier. Local weather conditions in Dubai provide opportunities to test performance in an environment with high insolation and high ambient temperature. In addition, the conditions in Dubai are windy, salty, humid and dusty, historically challenging for solar technologies [1]. In Q1 2016 one of the C11S Stirling-dish units was replaced by the first prototype of Cleanergy's second generation Stirling genset, the Sunbox, and an in-house developed parabolic concentrator. Operational data from field testing during the spring of 2016 are presented and discussed and show the large performance improvement achieved with the Sunbox unit.

  11. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  12. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryan, P; Kotousov, A; Ng, C T; Wildy, S

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection. (paper)

  13. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  14. OPERANT CONDITIONING OF SPINAL REFLEXES:FROM BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko K. Thompson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970’s as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian CNS. The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs.

  15. Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-11-01

    Animal experiments provide evidence that learning to associate an auditory stimulus with a reward causes representational changes in auditory cortex. However, most studies did not investigate the temporal formation of learning-dependent plasticity during the task but rather compared auditory cortex receptive fields before and after conditioning. We here present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on learning-related plasticity in the human auditory cortex during operant appetitive conditioning. Participants had to learn to associate a specific category of frequency-modulated tones with a reward. Only participants who learned this association developed learning-dependent plasticity in left auditory cortex over the course of the experiment. No differential responses to reward predicting and nonreward predicting tones were found in auditory cortex in nonlearners. In addition, learners showed similar learning-induced differential responses to reward-predicting and nonreward-predicting tones in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two core regions of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. This may indicate a dopaminergic influence on the formation of learning-dependent plasticity in auditory cortex, as it has been suggested by previous animal studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ''Meteor 2'' programme for calculation of environment irradiation under nuclear power plant normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, R.; Kryuger, F.V.; Prior, Kh.

    1976-01-01

    A ''Meteor 2'' program developed for the BESM-6 electronic computer is described. The program permits to estimate radiation effect under nuclear power plant normal operation conditions. The calculations are carried out depending on the quantity and composition of the release activity, a ventilating pipe height, meteorological conditions as well as taking into account radioactive substance decay. The program permits to calculate the following values in the vicinity of radioactive product release point: a local distribution of a mean dose spread factor; a local distribution of a mean dose of inhalation irradiation for various human organs (the whole body, thyroid gland, bones, alimentary canal, lungs) and separate population groups; a local distribution of a mean dose of external beta radiation; a local distribution of a mean dose of external gamma radiation. The program includes the main ''Meteor'' program and 3 subprograms of DOBER, DABER and DABOR and is written in the FORTRAN language. The ''Meteor'' program organizes the data input and output of some separate subprograms. The DOBER subprogram determines the spread factor, the inhalation irradiation dose for separate organs and the external beta radiation dose. The DABER subprogram determines the external gamma radiation dose in the approximation of homogeneous distribution of a source in the vicinity of the calculation point. The DABOR subprogram is the second program for the calculating the external irradiation dose. The examples of using the ''Meteor'' program are given [ru

  17. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  18. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for

  19. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  20. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  1. Solar desiccant air-conditioning. Practical experience regarding operation and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A.; Trinkl, C.; Wittmann, R.; Zoerner, W. [Ingolstadt Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Solartechnik; Hanby, V. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (GB). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)

    2007-07-01

    The Kompetenzzentrum Solartechnik of Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences (Centre of Excellence for Solar Engineering) investigates the renewable-only based HVAC system of a multipurpose building. The 10.000 m{sup 2} gross floor area building is part of the biggest logistic-centre in the region serving the AUDI automobile production facilities. On the one hand, the investigation is supposed to demonstrate the potential of solar-assisted cooling, on the other hand, the monitoring, financed by the Bavarian Ministry of Environmental Affairs, focuses on the total energy balance of the building and the various innovative building technologies. Next to a ground source heat pump plant for base-load heating and cooling, the building is equipped with two arrays of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors (100 m{sup 2} of Conergy, Germany, and 180 m{sup 2} of Solahart, Australia) and a desiccant air-conditioning system (DEC, WOLF Anlagen-Technik, Germany). This consists of two plants with an air flow of 8.000 m{sup 3}/h and a nominal cooling capacity of 42 kW each. One of the two plants is monitored. The plant itself is considered a black box in a first approach, i.e. all incoming and outgoing energy flows and the air condition are measured. Apart from the investigation of the performance of the solar-assisted air-conditioning system, the feasibility of DEC-operation using flat-plate collectors available on the market is investigated. (orig.)

  2. A phase angle based diagnostic scheme to planetary gear faults diagnostics under non-stationary operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke; Wang, Kesheng; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.; Wei, Dongdong

    2017-11-01

    Planetary gearbox is a critical component for rotating machinery. It is widely used in wind turbines, aerospace and transmission systems in heavy industry. Thus, it is important to monitor planetary gearboxes, especially for fault diagnostics, during its operational conditions. However, in practice, operational conditions of planetary gearbox are often characterized by variations of rotational speeds and loads, which may bring difficulties for fault diagnosis through the measured vibrations. In this paper, phase angle data extracted from measured planetary gearbox vibrations is used for fault detection under non-stationary operational conditions. Together with sample entropy, fault diagnosis on planetary gearbox is implemented. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in both simulation and experimental studies. The scheme proves to be effective and features advantages on fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes under non-stationary operational conditions.

  3. A mathematical model for removal of human pathogenic viruses and bacteria by slow sand filtration under variable operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, J.F.; Berg, H.H.J.L. van den; Colin, M.; Dullemont, Y.; Hijnen, W.A.M.; Magic-Knezev, A.; Oorthuizen, W.A.; Wubbels, G.

    2013-01-01

    Slow sand filtration (SSF) in drinking water production removes pathogenic microorganisms, but detection limits and variable operational conditions complicate assessment of removal efficiency. Therefore, amodel was developed to predict removal ofhuman pathogenic viruses and bacteria as a function

  4. Different MK-801 administration schedules induce mild to severe learning impairments in an operant conditioning task: role of buspirone and risperidone in ameliorating these cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano

    2013-11-15

    Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801 produces behavioral abnormalities and alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. Due to the critical role of the PFC in operant conditioning task learning, we evaluated the effects of acute, repeated postnatal injections of MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) on learning performance. We injected Long-Evans rats i.p. with MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) using three different administration schedules: injection 40 min before beginning the task (during) (n=12); injection twice daily for six consecutive days prior to beginning the experimental procedures (prior) (n=12); or twice daily subcutaneous injections from postnatal day 7 to 11 (postnatal) (n=12). Next, we orally administered risperidone (serotonin receptor 2A and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist, 1mg/kg) or buspirone (serotonin receptor 1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg) to animals treated with the MK-801 schedule described above. The postnatal and prior administration schedules produced severe learning deficits, whereas injection of MK-801 just before training sessions had only mild effects on acquisition of an operant conditioning. Risperidone was able to reverse the detrimental effect of MK-801 in the animals that were treated with MK-801 during and prior training sessions. In contrast, buspirone was only effective at mitigating the cognitive deficits induced by MK-801 when administered during the training procedures. The data demonstrates that NMDA antagonism disrupts basic mechanisms of learning in a simple PFC-mediated operant conditioning task, and that buspirone and risperidone failed to attenuate the learning deficits when NMDA neurotransmission was blocked in the early stages of the postnatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A combination of Dirichlet to Neumann operators and perfectly matched layers as boundary conditions for optical finite element simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffer, Remco; Sopaheluwakan, A.; Hammer, Manfred; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2008-01-01

    By combining Dirichlet to Neumann (DtN) operators and Perfectly Matched Layers (PML’s) as boundary conditions on a rectangular domain on which the Helmholtz equation is solved, the disadvantages of both methods are greatly diminished. Due to the DtN operators, light may be accurately fluxed into the

  6. AN EVALUATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS MPPT TECHNIQUES UNDER THE CHARACTERISTICS OF OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Elzein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article an extended literature surveying review is launched on a set of comparative studies of maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques. Different MPPT methods are addressed with an ultimate aim of how to be maximizing the PV system output power by tracking Pmax in a set of different operational circumstances. In this paper maximum power point tracking, MPPT techniques are reviewed on basis of different parameters related to the design simplicity and/or complexity, implementation, hardware required, and other related aspects.he technology of solar systems has been booming for a while due to its ability to replace current fossil fuels like coal and gas for generation of electricity that produce air, water, and land pollution. In addition it decreased the issue of global warming and climate changes substantially due to being produced in a clean environmental manner and was proved to be an Eco-friendly resource of energy. The photovoltaic systems’ manufacturing process has been improving continuously over the last decade and photovoltaic systems have become an interesting solution. Precisely, PV systems are constituted from arrays of photovoltaic cells, choppers (mainly buck-boost or boost DC/DC converter, MPPT control systems and storage devices and/or grid connections. To improve the efficiency of such systems, various studies have been performed. The demand of PV generation systems seems to be increased for both standalone and grid-connected modes of PV systems. Therefore, an efficient maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique is necessary to initialize the process of tracking the maximum power point MPP at all environmental conditions and then force the PV system to operate at that MPP point.

  7. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  8. Hippocampal Homer1 levels influence motivational behavior in an operant conditioning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus V Wagner

    Full Text Available Loss of motivation and learning impairments are commonly accepted core symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Reward-motivated learning is dependent on the hippocampal formation but the molecular mechanisms that lead to functional incentive motivation in this brain region are still largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates neurotransmission via metabotropic glutamate receptors and Homer1, their interaction partner in the postsynaptic density, in drug addiction and motivational learning. As previous reports mainly focused on the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, we now investigated the role of hippocampal Homer1 in operant reward learning in the present study. We therefore tested either Homer1 knockout mice or mice that overexpress Homer1 in the hippocampus in an operant conditioning paradigm. Our results show that deletion of Homer1 leads to a diverging phenotype that either displays an inability to perform the task or outstanding hyperactivity in both learning and motivational sessions. Due to the apparent bimodal distribution of this phenotype, the overall effect of Homer1 deletion in this paradigm is not significantly altered. Overexpression of hippocampal Homer1 did not lead to a significantly altered learning performance in any stage of the testing paradigm, yet may subtly contribute to emerging motivational deficits. Our results indicate an involvement of Homer1-mediated signaling in the hippocampus in motivation-based learning tasks and encourage further investigations regarding the specific molecular underpinnings of the phenotypes observed in this study. We also suggest to cautiously interpret the results of this and other studies regarding the phenotype following Homer1 manipulations in animals, since their behavioral phenotype appears to be highly diverse. Future studies would benefit from larger group sizes that would allow splitting the experimental groups in responders and non-responders.

  9. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  10. Solar-assisted absorption air-conditioning systems in buildings: Control strategies and operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Pintaldi, Sergio; White, Stephen D.; Morrison, Graham L.; Rosengarten, Gary; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model of a solar driven absorption chiller is developed in detail. • Three control strategies were proposed in the solar loop of the plant. • Series and parallel auxiliary heater arrangements were investigated. • The results showed the auxiliary-heater in parallel outperformed the series one. • Solar fraction can be increased by 20% by implementing the proposed configuration. - Abstract: Solar-assisted cooling technology has enormous potential for air-conditioning applications since both solar energy supply and cooling energy demand are well correlated. Unfortunately, market uptake of solar cooling technologies has been slow due to the high capital cost and limited design/operational experience. In the present work, different designs and operational modes for solar heating and cooling (SHC) absorption chiller systems are investigated and compared in order to identify the preferred design strategies for these systems. Three control scenarios are proposed for the solar collector loop. The first uses a constant flow pump, while the second and third control schemes employ a variable speed pump, where the solar collector (SC) set-point temperature could be either fixed or adjusted to the required demand. Series and parallel arrangements, between the auxiliary heater and the storage tank, have been examined in detail from an energy efficiency perspective. A simulation model for different system layouts is developed in the transient system simulation environment (TRNSYS, Version 17). Simulation results revealed that the total solar fraction of the plant is increased by up to 11% when a variable speed solar loop pump is used to achieve a collector set-point temperature adjusted according to the building load demand. Another significant finding of this study is that a parallel configuration for the auxiliary heater out-performs a conventional series configuration. The yearly performance of an auxiliary heater in parallel with the storage

  11. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  12. Understanding Hydrothermal Dechlorination of PVC by Focusing on the Operating Conditions and Hydrochar Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes efficiently, the hydrothermal treatment (HT of PVC was investigated with a lower alkaline dosage in this work. Some typical operating conditions were investigated to find out the most important factor affecting the dechlorination efficiency (DE. The FTIR technique was employed to detect the functional groups in PVC and hydrochars generated to reveal the possible pathways for chlorine removal. The results show that the HT temperature was a key parameter to control the dechlorination reaction rate. At a HT temperature of 240 °C, about 94.3% of chlorine could be removed from the PVC with 1% NaOH. The usage of NaOH was helpful for chlorine removal, while a higher dosage might also hinder this process because of the surface poisoning and coverage of free sites. To some extent, the DE was increased with the residence time. At a residence time of 30 min, the DE reached a maximum of 76.74%. A longer residence time could promote the generation of pores in hydrochar which is responsible for the reduction in DE because of the re-absorption of water-soluble chlorine. According to the FTIR results, the peak intensities of both C=CH and C=C stretching vibrations in hydrochar were increased, while the peak at around 3300 cm−1 representing the –OH group was not obvious, indicating that the dehydrochlorination (elimination reaction was a main route for chlorine removal under these conditions studied in this work.

  13. Vitamin and Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Anaerobic Consortia Operating under Methanogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalek, Valerie; Buck, Moritz; Tan, BoonFei; Foght, Julia; Wendeberg, Annelie; Berry, David; Bertilsson, Stefan; Eiler, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Syntrophy among Archaea and Bacteria facilitates the anaerobic degradation of organic compounds to CH 4 and CO 2 . Particularly during aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mineralization, as in the case of crude oil reservoirs and petroleum-contaminated sediments, metabolic interactions between obligate mutualistic microbial partners are of central importance. Using micromanipulation combined with shotgun metagenomic approaches, we describe the genomes of complex consortia within short-chain alkane-degrading cultures operating under methanogenic conditions. Metabolic reconstruction revealed that only a small fraction of genes in the metagenome-assembled genomes encode the capacity for fermentation of alkanes facilitated by energy conservation linked to H 2 metabolism. Instead, the presence of inferred lifestyles based on scavenging anabolic products and intermediate fermentation products derived from detrital biomass was a common feature. Additionally, inferred auxotrophy for vitamins and amino acids suggests that the hydrocarbon-degrading microbial assemblages are structured and maintained by multiple interactions beyond the canonical H 2 -producing and syntrophic alkane degrader-methanogen partnership. Compared to previous work, our report points to a higher order of complexity in microbial consortia engaged in anaerobic hydrocarbon transformation. IMPORTANCE Microbial interactions between Archaea and Bacteria mediate many important chemical transformations in the biosphere from degrading abundant polymers to synthesis of toxic compounds. Two of the most pressing issues in microbial interactions are how consortia are established and how we can modulate these microbial communities to express desirable functions. Here, we propose that public goods (i.e., metabolites of high energy demand in biosynthesis) facilitate energy conservation for life under energy-limited conditions and determine the assembly and function of the consortia. Our report suggests that an

  14. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  15. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  16. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from phenol in an acclimated consortium: Batch study and impacts of operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wusiman, Apiredan; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2018-02-10

    Microbial intracellular biopolymer PHA was synthesized from toxic pollutant phenol by an acclimated consortium. Various operational conditions were experimented for their effects on biomass growth and PHA accumulation. Carbon to nitrogen ratios from 5 to 40 (w/w) showed little impact, as did the levels of Fe, Ca and Mg in a short term. Acidic pH inhibited both growth and PHA synthesis, and an optimal dissolved oxygen level of 1-4 mg L -1 was identified. Low temperature (7 °C) significantly slowed but did not totally repress microbial activities. A 2% NaCl shock retarded reactions and 4% NaCl caused irreversible damage. Various initial phenol (S0) and biomass concentrations (X0) were combined to study the effect of food to microbe (F/M) ratio. High S0 and F/M exerted toxicity, reducing reaction rates but generating higher ultimate PHA wt% in biomass. Increasing X0 alleviated phenol inhibition and improved productivity and carbon conversion from phenol. A pseudo-optimized F/M ratio of 0.2-0.4 and a maximum PHA% rate of 1.15% min -1 were identified under medium S0/high X0. This study is the first to systematically investigate the feasibility of toxic industrial waste as the carbon source for PHA production, and likely the only one indicating potential for scaling-up and industrialization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study is to evalu......Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  19. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of operating conditions on acid loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1 MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY conducted by NEDO, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, PAFC-TRA and PAFC manufacturers. The acid loss into exhaust gases is one of life limiting factors in PAFCs. To design the cells of long-life, it is important to estimate the phosphoric acid loss and to contrive ideas eliminating it. With the objective of obtaining basic data for simulating the acid loss in the large size cells, the effect of the operating conditions on the acid loss into exhaust gases has been studied experimentally by using a single cell with an active electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}.

  20. A probabilistic evaluation of temporarily extending the diesel generator limiting condition for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukielka, C.A.; Detamore, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is installing a fifth diesel generator at its Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. This new diesel generator will serve as a ''swing'' diesel generator, i.e., perform the function of any of the existing diesel generators. The addition of this diesel generator avoids a dual unit shutdown should a diesel generator outage for maintenance or repair exceed the three day Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO). It is estimated that up to fifteen days per diesel generator will be required to complete the tie-in. In accordance with the existing three day LCO, a dual unit shutdown would then result. To preclude such a shutdown, a one time temporary extension to the three day LCO was requested of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper presents a probabilistic evaluation that was used to estimate the increased risk due to extending the LCO to a cumulative sixty days to allow the tie-in of the fifth diesel generator

  1. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Rouilly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young’s Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations.

  2. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  3. Operant conditioning of rat navigation using electrical stimulation for directional cues and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Gayoung; Choi, Hyo-Soon; Jang, Hwan Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Suk, Kyoungho; Jang, Il-Sung; Choi, Byung-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Operant conditioning is often used to train a desired behavior in an animal. The contingency between a specific behavior and a reward is required for successful training. Here, we compared the effectiveness of two different mazes for training turning behaviors in response to directional cues in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty-three rats were implanted with electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and the left and right somatosensory cortices for reward and cues. Among them, thirteen rats discriminated between the left and right somatosensory stimulations to obtain rewards. They were trained to learn ipsilateral turning response to the stimulation of the left or right somatosensory cortex in either the T-maze (Group T) or the E| maze (Group W). Performance was measured by the navigation speed in the mazes. Performances of rats in Group T were enhanced faster than those in Group W. A significant correlation between performances during training and performance in final testing was observed in Group T starting with the fifth training session while such a correlation was not observed in Group W until the tenth training session. The training mazes did not however affect the performances in the final test. These results suggest that a simple maze is better than a complicated maze for training animals to learn directions and direct cortical stimulation can be used as a cue for direction training. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  6. Effect of operating conditions on energy efficiency for a small passive direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Deryn; Jiang Rongzhong

    2006-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiency was studied in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with an air-breathing cathode using Nafion 117 as electrolyte membrane. The effect of operating conditions, such as methanol concentration, discharge voltage and temperature, on Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies was analyzed under constant voltage discharge with quantitative amount of fuel. Both of Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies decrease significantly with increasing methanol concentration and environmental temperature. The Faradic conversion efficiency can be as high as 94.8%, and the energy conversion efficiency can be as high as 23.9% if the environmental temperature is low enough (10 deg. C) under constant voltage discharge at 0.6 V with 3 M methanol for a DMFC bi-cell. Although higher temperature and higher methanol concentration can achieve higher discharge power, it will result in considerable losses of Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies for using Nafion electrolyte membrane. Development of alternative highly conductive membranes with significantly lower methanol crossover is necessary to avoid loss of Faradic conversion efficiency with temperature and with fuel concentration

  7. Pressure retarded osmosis for energy production: membrane materials and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Choi, J-S; Lee, S

    2012-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a novel membrane process to produce energy. PRO has the potential to convert the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water (i.e. river water) and seawater to electricity. Moreover, it can recover energy from highly concentrated brine in seawater desalination. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been undertaken for fundamental understanding of the PRO process. In this study, the characteristics of the PRO process were examined using a proof-of-concept device. Forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were compared in terms of flux rate and concentration polarization ratio. The results indicated that the theoretical energy production by PRO depends on the membrane type as well as operating conditions (i.e. back pressure). The FO membrane had the highest energy efficiency while the NF membrane had the lowest efficiency. However, the energy production rate was low due to high internal concentration polarization (ICP) in the PRO membrane. This finding suggests that the control of the ICP is essential for practical application of PRO for energy production.

  8. An energy-based sparse representation of ultrasonic guided-waves for online damage detection of pipelines under varying environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybpoosh, Matineh; Berges, Mario; Noh, Hae Young

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the main challenges in real-world application of guided-waves for damage detection of pipelines, namely their complex nature and sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). Different propagation characteristics of the wave modes, their distinctive sensitivities to different types and ranges of EOCs, and to different damage scenarios, make the interpretation of diffuse-field guided-wave signals a challenging task. This paper proposes an unsupervised feature-extraction method for online damage detection of pipelines under varying EOCs. The objective is to simplify diffuse-field guided-wave signals to a sparse subset of the arrivals that contains the majority of the energy carried by the signal. We show that such a subset is less affected by EOCs compared to the complete time-traces of the signals. Moreover, it is shown that the effects of damage on the energy of this subset suppress those of EOCs. A set of signals from the undamaged state of a pipe are used as reference records. The reference dataset is used to extract the aforementioned sparse representation. During the monitoring stage, the sparse subset, representing the undamaged pipe, will not accurately reconstruct the energy of a signal from a damaged pipe. In other words, such a sparse representation of guided-waves is sensitive to occurrence of damage. Therefore, the energy estimation errors are used as damage-sensitive features for damage detection purposes. A diverse set of experimental analyses are conducted to verify the hypotheses of the proposed feature-extraction approach, and to validate the detection performance of the damage-sensitive features. The empirical validation of the proposed method includes (1) detecting a structural abnormality in an aluminum pipe, under varying temperature at different ranges, (2) detecting multiple small damages of different types, at different locations, in a steel pipe, under varying temperature, (3) detecting a structural

  9. [Application of operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicology: experimental studies on alcohol and abusable drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, S

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes some experiments that apply the operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicological research. These techniques may be useful in investigating the mechanisms of action, toxic symptoms, legal competence and drug metabolism associated with substance abuse such as abuse of alcohol, psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and organic solvents. 1) Genetic research on alcohol preference in rats. We applied operant conditioning to investigate alcohol preference in rats and constructed an apparatus for the measurement of discriminated operate responses for water or alcohol reinforcement in rat. This apparatus is a modified Skinner box with a one-lever two-liquid system. Fixed ratio-10 (FR-10) schedules of reinforcement are used to increase the work of the rat before it obtains the reinforcement. The voluntary choice of water or 10% ethanol by the rat can be assessed quantitatively by measuring the lever-pushing responses. It is an extremely useful method for measuring the real alcohol preference of rats. A rat was kept in a Skinner box overnight. The numbers of responses and reinforcement for water and ethanol and the volumes of the two liquids consumed were recorded. The ratio of ethanol reinforcement was defined as the number of ethanol reinforcement to the total number of ethanol and water reinforcement. The ratio of ethanol intake was defined as the volume of ethanol consumed to the volume of water and ethanol consumed. Ethanol consumption per g body weight was calculated from the volume of ethanol consumed by the rat. We used this apparatus to investigate alcohol preference of more than 300 Wistar Albino Rats, and divided them into a high alcohol preference (HAP) group and a low alcohol preference (LAP) group. Inbreeding between littermates was conducted in each of the HAP and LAP groups. The liver tissue of each offspring was obtained and the cytosol fraction was collected and subjected to isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide gel

  10. PWR Fuel licensing in France - from design to reprocessing: licensing of nuclear PWR fuel rod design to satisfy with criteria for normal and abnormal fuel operation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are presented: French regulatory context; Current fuel management methods; Request from the french operator EdF; Most recent actions of the french Nuclear safety authority; Fuel assemblies deformations (impact of high burn-up; investigations during reactor's exploitation; control rods drop off times)

  11. The effect of test configuration on the true operating conditions of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    The operating conditions of a single PEM fuel cell can be significantly affected by the configuration in which the fuel cell test is setup. This study investigates the effect on the gas dewpoint temperature of not insulating the inlet fittings to a PEM fuel cell and the effect of non-optimal stack control thermocouple placement on fuel cell stack operating temperature. Both of these setup configurations can significantly affect fuel cell membrane humidification conditions, especially in a single fuel cell as demonstrated through the sample test conditions presented in this paper. (author)

  12. 78 FR 73112 - Monitoring System Conditions-Transmission Operations Reliability Standards; Interconnection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... complement the TOP Standards, have the goal of ensuring that the bulk electric system is planned and operated... pertain to the coordinated efforts to operate the bulk electric system in a reliable manner during real... System Operating Limits (SOLs).\\5\\ The provisions in the proposed TOP Reliability Standards that require...

  13. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  16. The human factor in nuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1982-05-01

    The principal operating characteristics of nuclear power plants are summarized. A description of major hazards relating to operator fallibility in normal and abnormal operating conditions is followed by a specific analysis of control room hazards, shift organization and selection and training of management personnel

  17. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  18. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  19. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  20. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torelli, R.; Som, S.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problem was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to varied fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation was

  2. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  3. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  4. Operating Conditions of Coagulation-Flocculation Process for High Turbidity Ceramic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Al-Asheh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work attempted to determine the optimum conditions required for the coagulation and flocculation process as an essential stage of the ceramic wastewater treatment. Coagulation and flocculation is a very necessary step in industries as it lessens turbidity, color, and odor of wastewater. The experimental work was performed in several runs. The volume of wastewater used in each run was 200 mL and was kept at this value throughout. In certain runs, the speed of the mixer was varied while keeping the quantity of coagulant and flocculant constant in order to determine the optimum speed that resulted in the least turbidity. A speed of 5% was chosen as the ideal process speed according to the results obtained. Next, experiments were operated at this optimum speed while changing the dosage of coagulant and flocculant in order to decide the optimum dosage. Coagulant and flocculent amounts of 0.4 g (without booster and 0.2 g (with booster selected after the readings were taken. For all the readings, a turbidity meter was used providing results in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU. Lowest turbidity was achieved when using 5% speed with 0.4 grams of coagulant and 0.4 grams of flocculant, or 5% speed with 0.2 grams of coagulant, 0.2 grams of flocculant and 0.25 g/L of booster coagulant. According to factorial design analysis, such as parameters as impeller speed and dosage have an influential impact on the turbidity; while the booster has insignificant influence and other interactions between parameters are important.

  5. The improvement of the level of the operating conditions of road trains on a basis of a qualimetry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhno V.P.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualimetry model of the level of the operating conditions of road trains is considered. It establishes the nomenclature of quality indicators based on the analysis of the conclusions of experts about the impact of factors on the technical condition of the road train. The appropriate values of the complex index of the level of the operating condition is determined on the basis of simulation of the level of the operating condition of Volvo tractor, reserves of improvement of quality of the maintenance on the basis of correction, forecasting frequency maintenance and effort. It has been established that the basic operational properties of road trains (economy, agility, reliability systematically depend on the parameters of the interacting components. The assessment of the technical condition of road train level is not the composition of their individual performance properties of estimates and require a systematic reflection. The developed techniques adjustments periodicity maintenance and forecasting of the actual life of the basic parts of road trains introduced on the enterprise. It is possible to reduce the unit cost of operation for one car up to 15%.

  6. The effects of operator position, pallet orientation, and palletizing condition on low back loads in manual bag palletizing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R

    2015-05-01

    Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry. In many cases for workers loading small bags, compression forces exceed the NIOSH criterion of 3400 N. Orientation of the pallet has a significant impact on spinal compression, and positioning the pallet at the end of the conveyor reduces the estimated compressive loading on the lumbar spine by approximately 800 N.

  7. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-11

    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  8. Safety analysis on CANDU-6 nuclear power plant: changes in thermal hydraulic operational conditions concerning regional over power trip setpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Jong Hyun; Son, Hyung Min

    2009-01-01

    A CANDU-6 nuclear power plant has the variable of regional overpower trip (ROPT) to prevent regional overpower within the reactor core. ROPT setpoints are calculated on the basis of channel power where dryout starts to take place in each nuclear fuel channel (i.e. critical channel power; CCP), which is determined based on various core-physical configurations and thermal hydraulic boundary conditions that may be generated throughout the entire life of a nuclear reactor. Variables included in the thermal hydraulic boundary condition (i.e. temperature of the inlet header, pressure on the outlet header, and differential pressure between inlet and outlet headers) change gradually as the number of operational years increases. As for these three operational variables, their operational constraints in consideration of reactor safety are suggested in the operational technical specifications for nuclear power plants. This paper first uses NUCIRC, a code for analyzing thermal hydraulic power at the core of heavy water nuclear reactor, to examine the impacts of changes in these thermal hydraulic boundary condition variables on CCP. To analyze the impacts of changes in the variables for thermal hydraulic boundary conditions on the safety of nuclear reactors, safety analysis is then performed on three representative types of design basis accidents in heavy water reactors-small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA), loss of regulations (LOR), and loss of forced circulation-using CATHENA, a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code. By performing two types of thermal hydraulic analysis, the following additional operational margins are ensured against the current operating limits: +2.1 .deg. C for the temperature of the reactor inlet header; -60kPa for differential pressure between inlet and outlet headers; and -40kPa for pressure on the reactor outlet header. By revising the operating limits on this basis, it will be possible to prevent possible reactor power cutbacks caused by

  9. The effect of stressed economic conditions on operational risk loss distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'nel Esterhuysen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The depth and duration of the credit crisis has highlighted a number of problems in modern finance. Banks have been accused of excessive risk taking, rating agencies of severe conflicts of interest, central banks of neglecting the inflation of asset price bubbles and national supervisors of lax regulatory controls. Credit and market losses have been considerable. Operational losses have also surged as surviving corporates merge or acquire less fortunate ones without the requisite controls. Furthermore, as more jobs get made redundant it is believed that people are getting forced to play their hand to get involved in internal fraud as their sources of income has dried up drastically and stealing from the institution seems to be their last resort.. The main objective of this paper is to establish if there has been a changed in the nature of operational risk with regards to the number of operational losses as well as their impact pre and during the crisis. The way in which operational losses have been affected will be presented and a comparison will be made between operational loss characteristics pre and during the crisis. Some of the main findings of this paper were that operational losses shown little change in frequency, but shown a significant increase in severity, meaning that their financial impact has been more severe during the crisis.  Therefore it is quite safe to say that the financial crisis most defiantly had an impact on operational risk as the impact of operational losses became much more severe

  10. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai, E-mail: hekai@urban.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7 days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. - Highlights: • Soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity enhanced the removals of antibiotics in SAT. • A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days was sufficient for the removals of most PPCPs. • The removals of most selected PPCPs were similar under vadose and saturated conditions. • Vadose condition contributed to the

  11. Temporary prophylactic intravascular balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries before cesarean hysterectomy for controlling operative blood loss in abnormal placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Min Chou

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: With limited experience in this small series, we observed a statistically significant reduction in operative blood loss after the use of temporary prophylactic balloon occlusion of the CIA technique compared with historical controls of similar demographic characteristics previously published (1902.3 ± 578.8 mL, range 500–8000 mL vs. 4445.7 ± 996.48 mL, range 1040–15,000 mL, p = 0.0402. Additionally, two patients had arterial thrombosis. These preliminary findings are based on a small number of patients, and therefore further investigation is needed to determine the effectiveness and safety of this new technique.

  12. Operative temperature and thermal sensation assessments in non-air-conditioned multi-storey hostels in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, N.D. [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jones, P.J.; Alexander, D.K. [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, CF10 3NB (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    This study assessed the influences of operative temperature on occupants' perceptions of indoor thermal condition in three non-air-conditioned multi-storey hostels in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The thermal conditions of 24 measured rooms were recorded with and without an operating ceiling fan from May until July 2007. Measurements were made simultaneously at three different floor levels, namely, at the first, fifth and top floor of each of the case study hostels. A questionnaire survey was completed by 298 female student occupants of the same case study hostels. The results suggested that even though a significance above p < 0.01 was recorded between the operative temperatures with and without fan operation, the temperature difference remained small, i.e., from 0.5 K to 1 K. The findings of the questionnaire survey showed that the occupants perceived the thermal conditions in rooms that were shaded with a projected balcony (shading ratio of 0.9), a long roof overhang (shading ratio of 1.6) and an operable window-to-wall ratio of 0.3 to be thermally comfortable. (author)

  13. A series of abnormal climatic conditions caused the most severe outbreak of first-generation adults of the meadow moth ( Loxostege sticticalis L.) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zeng, Juan; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-06-01

    The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented.

  14. A series of abnormal climatic conditions caused the most severe outbreak of first-generation adults of the meadow moth (Loxostege sticticalis L.) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zeng, Juan; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-06-01

    The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented.

  15. A study for the optimal operating conditions of the gas turbine based combined cycle cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Bin; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Ro, Sung Tack

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the existence of optimal operation conditions for minimum fuel consumption of the gas turbine based combined cycle cogeneration power plant. Optimal operational condition means the optimal distribution of the power generated by each gas turbine and the heat generated by each HRSG. Total fuel consumption is calculated by the sum of the fuels for gas turbines and supplementary boiler. Fuel consumption is calculated by numerical methods of energy equations which contain the power generated from gas and steam turbines, the heat generated by HRSG and the heat extracted from high pressure steam turbine

  16. Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Gummalla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initial performance and decay trends of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC cathodes with Pt3Co catalysts of three mean particle sizes (4.9 nm, 8.1 nm, and 14.8 nm with identical Pt loadings are compared. Even though the cathode based on 4.9 nm catalyst exhibited the highest initial electrochemical surface area (ECA and mass activity, the cathode based on 8.1 nm catalyst showed better initial performance at high currents. Owing to the low mass activity of the large particles, the initial performance of the 14.8 nm Pt3Co-based electrode was the lowest. The performance decay rate of the electrodes with the smallest Pt3Co particle size was the highest and that of the largest Pt3Co particle size was lowest. Interestingly, with increasing number of decay cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 50 mV/s, the relative improvement in performance of the cathode based on 8.1 nm Pt3Co over the 4.9 nm Pt3Co increased, owing to better stability of the 8.1 nm catalyst. The electron microprobe analysis (EMPA of the decayed membrane-electrode assembly (MEA showed that the amount of Co in the membrane was lower for the larger particles, and the platinum loss into the membrane also decreased with increasing particle size. This suggests that the higher initial performance at high currents with 8.1 nm Pt3Co could be due to lower contamination of the ionomer in the electrode. Furthermore, lower loss of Co from the catalyst with increased particle size could be one of the factors contributing to the stability of ECA and mass activity of electrodes with larger cathode catalyst particles. To delineate the impact of particle size and alloy effects, these results are compared with prior work from our research group on size effects of pure platinum catalysts. The impact of PEMFC operating conditions, including upper potential, relative humidity, and temperature on the alloy catalyst decay trends, along with the EMPA analysis of the decayed MEAs, are reported.

  17. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  18. Numerical Modeling of MILD Combustion at High Pressure to Predict the Optimal Operating Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2017-02-01

    This Chapter presents numerical simulation on MILD combustion operating at high pressure. Influence of preheat and dilution of oxidizer and operating pressure on stabilization of MILD combustion are presented. Three different preheat temperatures (1100, 1300 and 1500 K) and three different dilution levels (3, 6 and 9% O2) are simulated over an operating pressure variation from 1 atm to 16 atm. A classical jet in hot coflow burner is considered for this study. Total of 45 cases are simulated and analyzed. Essential characteristics of MILD combustion, i.e., maximum temperature (Tmax), temperature rise (ΔT) and temperature distributions, are analyzed. The distribution of emissions OH and CO are also studied and presented. Well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all cases except for two cases with high preheated (1500 K). Peak temperature is observed to decrease with increasing operating pressure for a given level of preheat and dilution. OH mass faction is reduced with increasing pressure. The CO emissions show little sensitivity to operating pressure. However, CO mass fraction is slightly higher at 1 atm operating pressure as compared to 4 to 16 atm. Since the residence time of reactants increases as the operating pressure increases, well-stabilized MILD combustion is observed for all highly diluted and low temperature preheat cases (3% O2 and 1100 K).

  19. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study on 18 full-scale centralized biogas plants was carried out in order to find significant operational factors influencing productivity and stability of the plants. It was found that the most plants were operating relatively stable with volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration below 1.5 g....../l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...

  20. Compensating Operator and Weak Convergence of Semi-Markov Process to the Diffusion Process without Balance Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Malyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak convergence of semi-Markov processes in the diffusive approximation scheme is studied in the paper. This problem is not new and it is studied in many papers, using convergence of random processes. Unlike other studies, we used in this paper concept of the compensating operator. It enables getting sufficient conditions of weak convergence under the conditions on the local characteristics of output semi-Markov process.

  1. Detection of Partial Demagnetization Fault in PMSMs Operating under Nonstationary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Delgado Prieto, Miguel; Romeral, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Demagnetization fault detection of in-service Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) is a challenging task because most PMSMs operate under nonstationary circumstances in industrial applications. A novel approach based on tracking characteristic orders of stator current using Vold...

  2. Calculation of the thermal mode in semiconductor devices in conditions of their operation in semiconductor apparatuses

    OpenAIRE

    Сосков, Анатолій Георгійович; Глєбова, Марина Леонідівна; Сабалаєва, Наталія Олегівна; Форкун, Яна Борисівна

    2014-01-01

    The study of the temperature field of power semiconductor devices, operating in semiconductor apparatuses, either non-contact or hybrid was carried out in the paper.It was also shown that the main mode of the current load of power semiconductor devices, operating in semiconductor apparatuses is a pulse mode.Analytical method for calculating the values of the temperature rise in the structure of power semiconductor devices when subjected to a current pulse of arbitrary shape based on a model t...

  3. 1,3-Propanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca NRRL-B199 from glycerol. Medium composition and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wojtusik

    2015-06-01

    Under the best operating conditions, i.e., a programmed variable stirring rate ranging from 50 to 100 rpm and a temperature of 37 °C, a final concentration of 13.5 g/L of 1,3-propanediol with a selectivity of 86% with respect to the glycerol consumed was obtained.

  4. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  5. Investigation of the operating conditions to morphology evolution of β-L-glutamic acid during seeded cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Huo, Yan; Guan, Runduo; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the effects of operating conditions including cooling rate, initial supersaturation, and seeding temperature were investigated on the morphology evolution of β-L-glutamic acid (β-LGA) during seeded cooling crystallization. Based on the results of in-situ image acquisition of the crystal morphology evolution during the crystallization process, it was found that the crystal products tend to be plate-like or short rod-like under a slow cooling rate, low initial supersaturation, and low seeding temperature. In the opposite, the operating conditions of a faster cooling rate, higher initial supersaturation, and higher seeding temperature tend to produce long rod-like or needle-like crystals, and meanwhile, the length and width of crystal products will be increased together with a wider crystal size distribution (CSD). The aspect ratio of crystals, defined by the crystal length over width measured from in-situ or sample images, was taken as a shape index to analyze the crystal morphologies. Based on comparative analysis of the experimental results, guidelines on these operating conditions were given for obtaining the desired crystal shapes, along with the strategies for obtaining a narrower CSD for better product quality. Experimental verifications were performed to illustrate the proposed guidelines on the operating conditions for seeded cooling crystallization of LGA solution.

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  7. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation? 310.20 Section 310.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM)...

  8. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  9. KONTEC 2009. Report about the 9th International Symposium on ''Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning wastes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    ''Kontec 2009'' was organized in Dresden on April 15-17, 2009. For the 8 th time, this established international meeting covered the subjects of ''Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Wastes'' and ''Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities'' and the R and D Status Report delivered by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research on this key topic. Some 790 participants from 13 countries heard and discussed the contributions to the three-day meeting. The program of the symposium comprised plenary sessions dealing with these 4 key subjects: Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes, Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). The sessions were supplemented by poster sessions and selected short presentations under the heading of ''Kontec Direct.'' (orig.)

  10. Treatment and conditioning of low-level radioactive waste in Belgium: initial operating results of the Cilva facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsch, O.; Renard, C.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Belgian National Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Material Agency (ONDRAF), which is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste in Belgium, recently decided to commission the CILVA facility. Operation of this facility, which comprises a number of units for the treatment of low-level radwaste, has been contracted to ONDRAF's Belgoprocess subsidiary based at the Dessel site. A consortium comprising SGN and Fabricom was in charge of building the CILVA facility's waste preparation and conditioning (concrete solidification) units. The concrete solidification processes, which were devised and developed by SGN, have been qualified to secure ONDRAF certification of the process and the facility. This enabled active commissioning of the waste conditioning unit in mid-August 1994. Active commissioning of the waste preparation unit was carried out in several stages up to the beginning of 1995 in accordance with operating requirements. Initial operating results of the two units are presented. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy through operant conditioning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewon, Matthew; Peters, Christina M; Van Ry, Pam M; Burkin, Dean J; Hunter, Kenneth W; Hayes, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice. Conversely, WT outperformed mdx in an escape/avoidance learning task. These results suggest motivational differences between the strains and demonstrate the potential utility of operant conditioning procedures in the assessment of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Operation of Dokan Reservoir under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, G. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  13. Dokan Hydropower Reservoir Operation under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izat Rashed, Ghamgeen

    2018-03-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  14. Corrosion Behavior and Oxide Film Formation of T91 Steel under Different Water Chemistry Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. Q.; Shi, C.; Li, J.; Gao, L. X. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai (China); Lee, K. Y. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2017-02-15

    The corrosion behavior of a ferritic/martensitic steel T91 exposed to an aqueous solution containing chloride and sulfate ions is investigated depending on the stimulated all-volatile treatment (AVT) and under oxygenated treatment (OT) conditions. The corrosion of T91 steel under OT condition is severe, while the corrosion under AVT condition is not. The co-existence of chloride and sulfate ions has antagonistic effect on the corrosion of T91 steel in both AVT and OT conditions. Unlike to corrosion resistance in the aqueous solution, OT pretreatment provides T91 steel lower oxidation-resistance than VAT pretreatment. From scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the lower corrosion resistance in the aqueous solution by VAT conditions possibly is due to the formation of pits. In addition, the lower oxidation resistance of T91 steel pretreated by OT conditions is explained as follows: the cracks formed during the immersion under OT conditions accelerated peeling-off rate of the oxide film.

  15. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  16. Developments in the preparation of operating procedures for emergency conditions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    In recent years a substantial effort has been devoted by the nuclear community to extend Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) to cover all conceivable events and to develop procedure formats that transmit the essential guidance to operators in an optimum way. The information given in this report is based upon the most recent developments in formulating and applying EOPs. It should therefore provide guidance to those involved in preparing or reviewing EOPs on the scope, technical basis, organization and format of such procedures. It also outlines the actions required to validate the adequacy and applicability of these procedures so that the correct operator actions are achieved. Examples are given to illustrate the developments in some Member States

  17. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics in a pump-turbine at off-design operating conditions in turbine mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J P; Seidel, U; Koutnik, J

    2012-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a reduced-scaled model of a radial pump-turbine is investigated under off-design operating conditions, involving runaway and 'S-shape' turbine brake curve at low positive discharge. It is a low specific speed pump-turbine machine of Francis type with 9 impeller blades and 20 stay vanes as well as 20 guide vanes. The computational domain includes the entire water passage from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. Completely structured hexahedral meshes generated by the commercial software ANSYS-ICEM are employed. The unsteady incompressible simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS-CFX13. For turbulence modeling the standard k-ε model is applied. The numerical results at different operating points are compared to the experimental results. The predicted pressure amplitude is in good agreement with the experimental data and the amplitude of normal force on impeller is in reasonable range. The detailed analysis reveals the onset of the flow instabilities when the machine is brought from a regular operating condition to runaway and turbine break mode. Furthermore, the rotating stall phenomena are well captured at runaway condition as well as low discharge operating condition with one stall cell rotating inside and around the impeller with about 70% of its frequency. Moreover, the rotating stall is found to be the effect of rotating flow separations developed in several consecutive impeller channels which lead to their blockage. The reliable simulation of S-curve characteristics in pump-turbines is a basic requirement for design and optimization at off-design operating conditions.

  18. Electrochemical measurements and modeling predictions in boiling water reactors under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indig, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    One important issue for providing life extension to operating boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs) is the control of stress corrosion cracking in all sections of the primary coolant circuit. This paper links experimental and theoretical methods that provide understanding and measurements of the critical parameter, the electrochemical potential (ECP), and its application to determining crack growth rate among and within the family of BWRs. Measurement of in-core ECP required the development of a new family of radiation-resistant sensors. With these sensors, ECPs were measured in the core and piping of two operating BWRs. Concurrent crack growth measurements were used to benchmark a crack growth prediction algorithm with measured ECPs

  19. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CONDITIONS OF AN EXISTING CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION OF STATE SPECIAL TRANSPORT SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stepanenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the analysis of functioning conditions of existing management system of Derzhspetstranssluzhba (State Special Service of Transport is conducted with the purpose of improvement of its functioning efficiency.

  1. Methods of monitoring the technical condition of the braking system of an autonomous vehicle during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, A.; Dygalo, V.; Boyko, G.; Lyaschenko, M.; Dygalo, L.

    2018-02-01

    Possibilities of diagnosing of a technical condition of braking system of the autonomous vehicles with automated modules while in service are considered. The concept of sharing of onboard means and stands for diagnosing is presented.

  2. Enhancement of single mode operation in coaxial optical waveguide using DB boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohia, Pooja; Prajapati, Y.; Saini, J. P.; Rai, B. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a competent numerical strategy to compute the dispersion of optical waveguides is presented and propagation of electromagnetic waves in a coaxial optical waveguide with DB boundary conditions is instigated. For this intend, cylindrical coordinates are here being used to derive the DB boundary conditions and to obtain field components for the modes. The propagation constant for the waveguide to be studied is determined by solving the Bessel and the modified Bessel functions. The cutoff frequencies for various lower order modes have been calculated and their dispersion characteristics are plotted correspondingly. The behavior of the coaxial optical waveguide under DB boundary conditions is shown to be significantly different from that of coaxial optical waveguide and conventional optical waveguide under traditional or tangential boundary conditions. Finally, the effect of waveguide dimensions on the mode cutoff frequencies and fabrication issues are also addressed.

  3. Real Hypersurfaces of Nonflat Complex Projective Planes Whose Jacobi Structure Operator Satisfies a Generalized Commutative Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Theofanidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real hypersurfaces satisfying the condition ϕl=lϕ(l=R(·,ξξ have been studied by many authors under at least one more condition, since the class of these hypersurfaces is quite tough to be classified. The aim of the present paper is the classification of real hypersurfaces in complex projective plane CP2 satisfying a generalization of ϕl=lϕ under an additional restriction on a specific function.

  4. A simulation model to analyze the impact of crisis conditions on the performance of port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We consider the supply chain for containerized items that arrive at a port in the U.S. whose final destination is also in the U.S. Ports are important entities in global supply chains. As such, when a port cannot operate because of : a crisis, such a...

  5. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  6. Prolonged silicon carbide integrated circuit operation in Venus surface atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Neudeck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged operation of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs needed for long-duration exploration of the surface of Venus has proven insurmountably challenging to date due to the ∼ 460 °C, ∼ 9.4 MPa caustic environment. Past and planned Venus landers have been limited to a few hours of surface operation, even when IC electronics needed for basic lander operation are protected with heavily cumbersome pressure vessels and cooling measures. Here we demonstrate vastly longer (weeks electrical operation of two silicon carbide (4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET ring oscillator ICs tested with chips directly exposed (no cooling and no protective chip packaging to a high-fidelity physical and chemical reproduction of Venus’ surface atmosphere. This represents more than 100-fold extension of demonstrated Venus environment electronics durability. With further technology maturation, such SiC IC electronics could drastically improve Venus lander designs and mission concepts, fundamentally enabling long-duration enhanced missions to the surface of Venus.

  7. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  8. An approach for quantitative evaluation of operator performance in emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Kubota, Ryuji; Kawano, Ryutaro.

    1992-01-01

    To understand expert behavior and define what constitutes good performance, human performance quantification was tried from viewpoints of not only error, but also various cognitive, psychological, and behavioral characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative indexes of human performance are proposed for both operator individual and crew points of view, among which cognitive and behavioral aspects are the most important. (author)

  9. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  10. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  11. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines...

  12. Operation of grid-connected DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Bauer, P.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pierik, J.

    2009-01-01

    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) still shares a large part in today's wind power market. It provides the benefits of variable speed operation cost-effectively, and can control its active and reactive power independently. Crowbar protection is often adopted to protect the rotor-side voltage

  13. Performance Availability Assessment of Combined Multi Power Source Traction Drive Considering Real Operational Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel Ilia; Bolvashenkov Igor; Herzog Hans-Georg; Khvatskin Lev

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with the vehicle’s traction electric drive, consisting of several various electric power sources. One of the main requirements for such systems are the safety and sustainable operations, achieved largely the implementation of an uninterrupted supply of the vehicle’s propulsion system with an electric power.

  14. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be

  15. Changes in operating time of modern domestic EKG exсavators in dependence of their functioning conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Л. Иванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestically produced opencast excavators are shown to be serious competition for foreign hydraulic machinery. It is suggested to estimate the potential of an opencast excavator via its basic operation effectiveness factor equal to the ratio of the scoop payload to the nominal cost of excavator operations under its normal operational conditions. Comparing the theoretical values of standard operations of hydraulic excavators of the third type-and-size group during coal mining with domestically produced EKG-18R on their operation effectiveness factor shows that the excavator exceeds foreign hydraulic models from that group 2.7-3.3 times. Theoretical foundation is provided for a complex of factors that affect the operating time of single scoop open- cast excavators, a structure is offered for the model of comprehensive assessment of operating time for opencast excavators. Complex indicators are substantiated and proposed for supporting operational effectiveness of such excavators. Assessment is offered of operational effectiveness of EKG-18R excavators following the criterion of energy consumption per excavation of a unit of rock mass. Generalization analysis is given of a set of factors that affect the value of operating time for EKG-18R excavators. Proposals are put forward on upgrading the regulations for technical maintenance and repairs of EKG-18R excavators. The task of assessing the technical state of machinery calls for using integral criteria that would enable one to identify the current technical state and the residual resource of machine aggregates, their failure potentially resulting in emergency situations accompanied by considerable property damage. It is feasible to use an integrated indicator of the degree of degradation of s machinery item for such an integrated indicator, retrieved in the course of assessing the current technical state of that item during diagnostic procedures. In its turn, such and integral indicator of the state

  16. Effects of soft control in the nuclear power plants emergency operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Shirouzu, Shigenori; Katayama, Sotetsu; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of touch screen, known as ESCM, which is a soft control, on emergency operation of nuclear plants. ► Experiments clearly show the occurrence of more human errors in ESCM task groups. ► Physiological measures (ECG, EEG, nose temperature) were analyzed. ► Higher stress levels were consistently observed in ESCM task groups. - Abstract: In addition to the evolution from buttons and switches to the computer-based consoles, the operator may interact with the plant via soft controls. Soft controls are input interfaces connected with control and display systems that are mediated by software, rather than by direct physical connections. However use of soft control may cause unknown difficulties of operation and provide new opportunities of human errors. This study is to investigate the effect of the new interface to human errors in the emergency operation. Based on the emergency operation procedure, the human error modes were identified by using systematic human error reduction and prediction approach. Experiments with 21 graduate students in main control room mockup in the nuclear engineering departments of universities in UAE and Korea were conducted to observe the operators’ behavior resulted from the use of new input interface (Emergency safety feature-component control system Soft Control Module, ESCM). Physiological parameters such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and skin temperature were measured to assess the stress level of the subjects. The experimental results showed more human errors during ESCM tasks than non-ESCM tasks. The analysis of the physiological measurements also demonstrated that subjects were in high stress level during the ESCM tasks in comparison with non-ESCM tasks. It is notable that this study was performed with graduate students without consideration of their expertise levels. Different behaviors of the novice and the expert groups were also discussed

  17. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  18. The provement of the conditions of end mill operation in external panels of the aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Grubyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The external panels from the aluminum alloys are widely spread as components in aeronautical and rocket-and-space equipment. Due to their function, these components have their own design features. In case, the external panels can be of overall sizes and can contain the large amount of pockets for weight-saving. These pockets’ processing is held on multiaxes machines with the help of all-in-one hardmetal or assemblage end-milling cutters. The deformation of the pockets bottom and sides may happen within the high-speed of the external panels mill operation. So the different technological procedures for reducing deformation are being suggested and processed. These procedures include the force cutting control in the process of mill operation and it is also set the connection between the mill operation force, tool durability and processing final figures.The purpose of our research is the development of the calculation procedure that is aimed at theoretical definition of forces, contact pressures, that has an effect from the tooth tool on the processing pocket side surface and bottom with the following evaluation of strained state and deformation using the finite element analysis.As a research method, it has been accepted to simulate the cutting process of the aluminum alloy component with end-milling cutter. The created techniques and recommendations have been tested in manufacturing environment while mill operating the rocket-and-space components from the aluminum alloys.The main results are the created techniques as a consequence of interconnected formulas and the calculation program and also the correlations that characterize forces and contact pressures as mill operation functions, the aluminum alloy make, cutting angle and other characteristics.This article is an essential addition to the earliest papers on the force calculation techniques in mill operation. The fundamental difference of this calculation technique is the absence in carrying

  19. Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

  20. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)