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Sample records for abnormal normal weight

  1. The value of MR perfusion weighted imaging in normal and abnormal kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hao; Ding Hongyu; Duan Ruiping; Sun Yongping; Xing Yiyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and the clinical application of MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the normal kidneys and the renal diseases. Methods: Thirty-one subjects including 9 cases without urinary diseases, 14 cases with renal carcinoma, 6 cases with renal cyst and 2 cases with renal tuberculosis who had been examined with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and PWI were analyzed retrospectively. All the data were processed by a workstation to obtain time-signal intensity curves, color perfusion maps and relative perfusion value. The relative renal blood volume (RBV), relative renal blood flow (RBF), mean transition time (MTY) and the time to peak (TTP) in the normal renal cortex and medulla and the renal lesions were calculated. Comparisons between the right and the left normal kidneys, and between the cortex and the medulla of the normal kidneys were performed using t test, and comparisons between the normal and the abnormal kidneys were performed using q test. Results: Relative RBV and relative RBF of the cortex were 1.33±0.08 and 1.44±0.09 respectively, and for medulla were 0.58± 0.05 and 0.78±0.13 respectively (t=9.2241 and 5.0336, P 0.05). The values of relative RBF of the renal carcinoma (1.35±0.34) were significantly higher than that of the normal tissues (1.02±0.06) (q=3.0882, P< 0.01). Conclusion: PWI is able to demonstrate the hemodynamic change of the normal renal tissues and the renal lesions, and it maybe an ideal method for showing the functional changes of the kidney and for differentiating the renal diseases. (authors)

  2. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  3. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  4. Content difference between normal and abnormal obsessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Cougle, Jesse R; Muris, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Although it has long been thought that experiencing an obsession is a psychiatric symptom, more recent literature, has seen the normalisation of obsessions and other presumably clinical phenomena. That is, not only people suffering from psychiatric disorders experience obsessions but non-clinical individuals also do so. Furthermore, it has been argued that such normal obsessions are very similar to abnormal ones, in terms of content. However, in the present study, evidence was obtained indicating that normal and abnormal obsessions do differ in content. A sample of 133 healthy undergraduates was given a list of 70 obsessions, with some originating from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and others stemming from healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had ever experienced these obsessions. Participants endorsed significantly more normal than abnormal obsessions, suggesting that the two kinds of obsessions do differ from each other. In addition, the experience of clinical obsessions was more strongly associated with scores on a measure of OCD symptoms, than was the experience of normal obsessions.

  5. Abnormal and normal obsessions: a reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Muris, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Contemporary cognitive approaches to obsession assume that the content of clinical obsessions does not differ from non-clinical obsessive intrusions. This assumption goes back to a classic study by Rachman and De Silva [(1978). Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16, 233-248]. In the present paper, it is argued that Rachman and De Silva did not postulate a complete indifference between clinical and non-clinical obsessions. Study 1 is a simple statistical analysis of data presented by Rachman and De Silva. This analysis suggested that psychologists are able to discriminate clinical and non-clinical obsessions beyond chance level, merely by looking at the content of obsessions. In study 2, a list of 23 clinical and 47 non-clinical obsessions was presented to 11 psychotherapists and 90 psychology undergraduates. Both therapists and students were able to distinguish clinical and non-clinical obsession beyond chance level. It is concluded that some clinical obsessions can be identified as being evidently abnormal, and that additional theory and research is needed to identify the causes of these recognisable obsessions.

  6. Gender difference in association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and cardiometabolic abnormalities in normal-weight and obese adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV-3 and V-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehee

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relationships of appendicular muscle mass (ASM) with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) vary by gender or obesity. Data of 10 146 normal-weight and obese men and women aged 19 to 93 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed. In normal-weight men and women, unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of being MS and IR significantly increased with lower ASM/wt. After adjusting for lifestyle factors, these ORs were still significant in normal-weight men but not in women. After controlling for other covariates, lower ASM/wt was related to higher risk for IR but not to MS in obese men. In obese women, relationship of lower ASM/wt with higher risk for MS disappeared after adjusting for covariates. Association between skeletal muscle mass and cardiometabolic abnormalities is dependent on gender and obesity in Korean adults. © 2012 APJPH.

  7. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  8. Adenosine deaminase organic effect in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, A.M.; Samarai, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of the organic substances on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various concentrations of 2-mercaptopurine, Ame-tycine, Adenosine analogues (Guanine, Thymine) and ATP were tested to see their effect on ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF. ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF was remarkably decreased with the increasing of concentrations of substances tested. These effects may have important therapeutic implications. (author)

  9. Normal weight obesity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-02-01

    A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  11. Glycoconjugates in normal and abnormal secondary neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C M; Hsieh, T; Smith, C; Sanders, E J

    1995-11-01

    In chick embryos, the anterior greater portion of the neural tube develops by the folding, apposition, and fusion of the neuroectoderm. The smaller caudal portion that forms the secondary neural tube (lumbosacral and coccygeal regions) is derived from the tail bud, an aggregate of mesenchymal cells located at the caudal limit of the body. Tail bud mesenchyme, arranged in a solid cord, undergoes mesenchymal-epithelial transformation to form the secondary neural tube. Previous evidence suggests that this transformation is accompanied by modulation of cell surface glycoconjugates in the differentiating tissues. In this study, we show by lectin histochemistry and lectin blotting of proteins isolated by SDS-PAGE, that Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA) binds preferentially to differentiating tail bud cells. This lectin is specific for beta 1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine oligomers, such as the oligosaccharides of the poly-N-acetyllactosamine series that have been previously implicated in cell differentiation. Ultrastructural lectin cytochemistry indicates that at least some of the proteins binding DSA are localized extracellularly. The use of DSA as a teratogen resulted in embryos showing a variety of neural tube and notochord defects. We have also examined the binding of DSA to embryos that were treated with teratogenic doses of retinoic acid by sub-blastodermal injection, and find that the DSA-binding patterns are perturbed. Analysis of DSA-treated embryos using the TUNEL technique indicated that cell death was not a factor in DSA teratogenesis. This strongly suggests that the glycoconjugates of the cell surface have a role in the normal differentiation of tail bud mesenchyme into the neuroepithelium of the secondary neural tube. Perturbations of glycoconjugate activity results in defects of the secondary neural tube and associated tail bud derivatives.

  12. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  13. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome: the hidden normal or abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal or abnormal anatomy and the value of laparoscopy. Abdullah Alwabari, Lalit Parida and Ahmed H. Al-Salem. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare disorder of male sexual development. It is characterized by the presence of a uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina in an otherwise phenotypically ...

  14. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay; Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography of the trachea: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The trachea was investigated by means of computed tomography (CT) in 50 patients without tracheal or mediastinal abnormalities and in 39 patients with various diseases of the trachea. The variations in the normal CT appearance of the trachea and surrounding structures are described. CT did not provide additional information in the detection of characterization of tracheal stenosis beyond that obtained from more conventional studies, including tomography and positive-contrast tracheography. In patients with a saber-sheath trachea, CT demonstrated the abnormal configuration of the tracheal cartilages and abnormal collapse of the trachea on forced expiration. In patients with primary or secondary neoplasms involving the trachea, CT was most accurate in defining the intraluminal presence of tumor, the degree of airway compression, and the extratracheal extension of tumor. CT can be of value in determining the resectability of primary tracheal neoplasms and the planning of radiation therapy in metastatic lesions to the trachea and surrounding mediastinum

  16. Cineradiography in normal and abnormal pharyngo-esophageal deglutition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of high-speed cineradiography the pharyngeal stage of deglutition was examined among 150 volunteers without dysphagia in order to evaluate the radiographic pattern of normal deglutition. In order to evaluate the dignostic result of cineradiographic examinations of the pharyngeal stage of deglutition among dysphagial patients 250 such patients were consecutively examined with an identical technique as the volunteers. The result of the investigation has shown that high-speed cineradiography is a convenient radiologic method for studying normal and abnormal deglutition. In nondysphagial individuals the pharyngeal stage of deglutition is executed with precision, smoothness and obviously with efficiency. In a few individuals without swallowing complaints circumscribed functional aberrations can be registered. In the majority of patients with dysphagia high-speed cineradiography is able to detect functional abnormalities during deglutition. An examination of such patients with this techique is therefore indispensable in order to disclose a probable cause of their complaints. (Auth.)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal pulmonary hila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Stark, D.D.; Moore, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hila were reviewed in 25 normal subjects and 12 patients with unilateral or bilateral hilar masses. On spin echo MR images in normal patients, collections of soft tissue large enough to be confused with an abnormally enlarged lymph node were seen in three locations. In patients with a hilar mass, the mass was differentiated from hilar vasculature more easily using MR than contrast-enhanced CT. However, because the spatial resolution of MR is inferior to that of CT, bronchi were difficult to evaulate using MR. Electrocardiographic-gated images showed better resolution of hilar structures but may not be necessary for large masses

  18. Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol High blood pressure Metabolic syndrome If you're concerned about your body fat ... et al. Overfat and underfat: New terms and definitions long overdue. ... behavior and metabolic risk factors associated with normal weight obesity in ...

  19. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  20. Abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour in female Jewish adolescents. Teachersf awareness of these factors and their attitudes towards a school programme to address these were also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.

  1. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  2. Seminal plasma lactoferrin concentrations in normal and abnormal semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckett, W M; Luckas, M J; Gazvani, M R; Aird, I A; Lewis-Jones, D I

    1997-01-01

    Although the iron-chelating protein lactoferrin is secreted by the seminal vesicles, the precise role of lactoferrin in semen is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether there is any association between seminal lactoferrin concentrations and normal and abnormal semen samples with and without leucocytospermia. Lactoferrin concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion of semen samples from 368 men attending a regional andrology referral center. Routine seminal analysis, including the presence of leucocytospermia, was also performed. Results showed increased seminal lactoferrin in samples showing oligospermia (13.3 mg/100 ml) and oligoasthenospermia (13.4 mg/100 ml) compared to normospermic samples (11.2 mg/100 ml). There were no significant differences in seminal lactoferrin between normospermic samples and azoospermic samples or asthenospermic samples with normal sperm density. Although there was a trend toward increased lactoferrin concentration with leucocytospermia, this was not significant. Possible causes for raised lactoferrin in association with oligospermia are discussed.

  3. Mechanism of normal menstruation and abnormality associated with menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Pawitan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal menstruation involves endometrial tissue breakdown and bleeding, followed by hemostasis and repair. Abnormality of this process at any stage may result in changes in the quantity of menstrual blood loss. When menstrual blood loss is greater than 80 ml, it is called menorrhagia. This review discuss the mechanism of normal menstruation, and factors associated with menorrhagia. Those factors are the endometrial bleeding associated factor (ebaf, the role of various cells (migratory leucocytes, macrophages, and mast cells, the role of various substances (lysosomal enzymes, prostaglandins, endothelins, growth factors and its receptors, impairment of fibrinolysis and hemostatic proces, and changes in endometrial blood flow. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 121-6Keywords : ebaf, prostaglandin, endothelin, fibrinolysis

  4. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  5. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  6. Two abnormalities of hexosaminidase A in clinically normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, E E; Mansfield, D A; Raghavan, S S; Kolodny, E H; d'Azzo, A; Neufeld, E F; Jackson, L G

    1986-01-01

    Two abnormalities of beta-hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity are described. One, found in two unrelated Jewish children, was characterized by the complete absence of HEX A activity in serum, but low levels of activity in leukocytes and fibroblasts using artificial substrate. The other, found in a non-Jewish man, was characterized by uniformly low levels of HEX A activity in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and serum against artificial substrate. In all cases, the pH optimum of HEX A was normal, there was no increased lability at 37 degrees C, and no inhibitor was detected to account for the deficiency of activity. Cultured fibroblasts of these individuals were capable of synthesizing and processing alpha- and beta-subunits of HEX A and capable of cleaving GM2 ganglioside. The patients, ranging in age from 6 to 30 years, are clinically normal. They are probably genetic compounds carrying the classical Tay-Sachs gene and a differently mutated allele that imparts the anomalous phenotypic features observed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2939713

  7. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  8. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Stomata are small pores on the surfaces of leaves and generally comprised of ... plant's different parts attract more people's attention. ... further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials. Plants of B. spectabilis Willd were grown in the Jinan University.

  9. Weight reduction in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, O B; Musk, A A; Woodings, T; Atkin, K; Meecham, C; Bruce, S; Mina, L

    1981-03-07

    Weight loss of more than 2 kg under the guidance of a trained nurse was achieved over a 12-month period in 38% of overweight hospital and transport workers. Males over 50 were the subgroup most successful in losing weight. Weight loss achieved by older males with an "off-hand" as compared with an "energetic" approach was similar up until nine months, after which the "energetic" approach was more effective. Females on an "energetic" diet were successful up until nine months only. The "off-hand" approach is acceptable to more people and is less time-consuming. It should therefore be seriously considered by a public health authority which seeks to promote weight reduction in the general community.

  10. Tissue transglutaminase in normal and abnormal wound healing: review article

    OpenAIRE

    Verderio, EAM; Johnson, T; Griffin, M

    2004-01-01

    A complex series of events involving inflammation, cell migration and proliferation, ECM stabilisation and remodelling, neovascularisation and apoptosis are crucial to the tissue response to injury. Wound healing involves the dynamic interactions of multiple cells types with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors. Impaired wound healing as a consequence of aging, injury or disease may lead to serious disabilities and poor quality of life. Abnormal wound healing may al...

  11. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Li, Ru; Fu, Fang; Zhang, Yongling; Li, Dongzhi; Liao, Can

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and normal karyotype. Total of 296 fetuses with increased NT (≥3.0 mm) were tested by conventional karyotyping. When cytogenetic analysis showed normal chromosome, the pregnancies were then consulted for array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis and received subsequent morphology scan between 20 and 24 weeks gestation. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were assessed and compared between the fetuses with and without structural defects. Chromosomal abnormality was identified in 19.9% (59/296) fetuses. Two hundred and twenty samples were tested by array CGH. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9.1% (20/220) fetuses. For the fetuses with abnormal morphology scan, the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities was higher than those with normal morphology scan (26.9% versus 6.7%, p karyotype, especially when the structural defects were found at second or third trimester.

  12. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  13. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  14. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  15. Bulimia nervosa in overweight and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin; White, Marney A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (n = 1964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25) or normal weight (body mass index <25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal-weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs 7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n = 84) were classified as overweight BN and 36% (n = 47) as normal-weight BN. The overweight BN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities and reported significantly less restraint than the normal-weight BN group. Otherwise, the 2 groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal-weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Obstetric outcomes in pregnancies with normal nuchal translucency and abnormal ductus venosus Doppler in the first trimester ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, K D; Karslı, M F; Baser, E; Yeral, M I; Tasin, C; Ozgu Erdinc, A S; Danisman, N

    2016-05-01

    In the present case-control study, we evaluated obstetric outcomes of pregnancies with normal nuchal translucency (NT) and abnormal ductus venosus (DV) Doppler findings in the first trimester combined screening test for chromosomal abnormalities. All study patients underwent DV Doppler examination, concurrent with the combined screening test. DV Doppler revealed pathologic findings in 14 pregnant women despite normal NT after the elimination of lost to follow-up and foetal anomaly. Obstetric outcomes of the case patients were compared with a control group that were matched for mean gestational age, and Crown-rump length with normal NT and DV Doppler measurements was selected comprising 88 pregnant women. Regarding maternal outcomes, women with abnormal DV Doppler findings had a higher rate of placental abruption, delivered at an earlier mean gestational age (preterm delivery). Interestingly, a higher rate of spontaneous vaginal delivery rate was observed in these patients. From the foetal perspective, pregnancies with abnormal DV Doppler had lower birth weight and received lower Apgar scores. In conclusion, an abnormal DV Doppler test in the first trimester was associated with poor maternal and foetal obstetric outcomes. These findings should be elucidated in future studies.

  17. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  18. A tightrope walker over the abyss of normal abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zaleski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of a pervert and neurotic pattern of behavior that is displayed by both a narrator and a novel’s characters. In Ferdydurke one can find ideas which were popular in medicine and psychoanalysis at that time, i.e. such as that normality is a social construct. We value what is “normative” in our social milieu for the sake of self-preservation. The common belief that perversion is a sign of a pathological personality should be revised – perversion is only one of the many adaptive strategies that are used in the human world. If we accept Freud’s and Lacan’s belief that every sexual activity that serves a function other than reproduction is a perversion, then we can say that every language activity that serves a purpose other than communication is a perversion as well. Ferdydurke proves that we are all polymorphously perverse and neurotic creatures in our daily lives.

  19. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...... towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were...

  20. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  1. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  2. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  3. Comparison of Endolymphatic Duct Dimensions and Jugular Bulb Abnormalities Between Meniere Disease and a Normal Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Abdullah; Kocak, Ayhan; Cebi, Isil Taylan; Salviz, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Meniere disease (MD) has not been fully understood. According to the widely accepted theory, imbalances due to overproduction and/or impaired absorption of endolymph may cause endolymphatic hydrops, which is the hallmark pathological finding in MD. Some developmental temporal bone abnormalities may impair endolymph circulation and absorption, and these abnormalities could be a part of MD pathophysiology. However, structural features of the temporal bone cannot explain MD pathophysiology definitively. The authors aimed to determine the length and width of the endolymphatic duct (ED) along with jugular bulb (JB) abnormalities in MD patients and normal controls using high-resolution computed tomography, and to discuss the results supporting and opposing endolymphatic hydrops based on the data obtained. Thirty-six ears of 18 patients with unilateral MD and 34 ears of 17 normal subjects were enrolled. Jugular bulb abnormalities and ED dimensions were evaluated in 3 groups: affected and unaffected ears of MD patients, and healthy controls. The ED dimensions and JB abnormalities were evaluated with high-resolution computed tomography. The ED was found to be significantly shorter and narrower in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. In addition, more JB abnormalities were detected in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was no difference between the affected and unaffected ears of the MD patients. Structural ED abnormalities and JB abnormalities may be predisposing factors for the development of Meniere disease, but cannot fully explain MD pathophysiology.

  4. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography of the liver in normal-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Smita Sane; Youssfi, Mostafa; Patel, Mittun; Hu, Houchun H; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Towbin, Richard B

    2017-12-01

    Background The identification and subsequent management of liver diseases in children is challenging due to the lack of non-invasive imaging biomarkers. Ultrasound shear-wave elastography (US-SWE) is an emerging imaging technique which can quantitatively assess liver stiffness and may be useful as a tool in the management of liver disease in overweight and obese children. Purpose To evaluate US-SWE velocities of the liver in normal-weight and obese children, to correlate US-SWE findings with age and body-mass-index (BMI), and to compare US-SWE values with qualitative assessment (i.e. normal versus abnormal echogenicity) of the liver by conventional US. Material and Methods A cohort of 300 children (mean age, 9.9 ± 5.3 years; age range, 0.06-18.9 years) were studied, comprising 176 normal-weight and 124 obese participants. In each patient, both US-SWE and conventional US of the liver were obtained. Three pediatric radiologists individually and in consensus determined whether liver parenchyma was of normal or abnormal echogenicity. Results US-SWE velocities differed between normal-weight and obese children (1.08 ± 0.14 versus 1.44 ± 0.39 m/s; P normal-weight children ( P normal-appearing livers (1.53 ± 0.38 vs. 1.17 ± 0.27). The difference was not significant in the normal-weight group. Conclusion US-SWE provides a useful quantitative imaging biomarker for evaluating liver stiffness in children.

  5. Effects of observing normal and abnormal goal-directed hand movements on somatosensory cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung

    2018-01-01

    Existing evidence indicates the importance of observing correct, normal actions on the motor cortical activities. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms, particularly in the somatosensory system, remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of observing normal and abnormal hand movements on the contralateral primary somatosensory (cSI), contralateral (cSII) and ipsilateral (iSII) secondary somatosensory activities. Experiment I was designed to investigate the effects of motor outputs on the somatosensory processing, in which subjects were instructed to relax or manipulate a small cube. Experiment II was tailored to examine the somatosensory responses to the observation of normal (Normal) and abnormal (Abnormal) hand movements. The subjects received electrical stimulation to right median nerve and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings during the whole experimental period. Regional cortical activation and functional connectivity were analyzed. Compared to the resting condition, a reduction in cSI and an enhancement of SII activation was found when subjects manipulated a cube, suggesting the motor outputs have an influence on the somatosensory responses. Further investigation of the effects of observing different hand movements showed that cSII activity was significantly stronger in the Normal than Abnormal condition. Moreover, compared with Abnormal condition, a higher cortical coherence of cSI-iSII at theta bands and cSII-iSII at beta bands was found in Normal condition. Conclusively, the present results suggest stronger activation and enhanced functional connectivity within the somatosensory system during the observation of normal than abnormal hand movements. These findings also highlight the importance of viewing normal, correct hands movements in the stroke rehabilitation. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Normal and Abnormal Scenario Modeling with GoldSim for Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) template program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for the radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases could be assessed has been carried out by utilizing a commercial development tool program, GoldSim. Scenarios associated with the various FEPs and involved in the performance of the proposed repository in view of nuclide transport and transfer both in the geosphere and biosphere has been also carried out. Selected normal and abnormal scenarios that could alter groundwater flow scheme and then nuclide transport are modeled with the template program. To this end in-depth system models for the normal and abnormal well and earthquake scenarios that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim TSPA template program are introduced with conceptual schemes for each repository system. Illustrative evaluations with data currently available are also shown

  7. Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

  8. Abnormal computerized dynamic posturography findings in dizzy patients with normal ENG results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataloff, Robert T; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Mandel, Heidi; Zwislewski, Amy B; Armour, Jonathan; Mandel, Steven

    2005-04-01

    The complexities of the balance system create difficulties for professionals interested in testing equilibrium function objectively. Traditionally, electronystagmography (ENG) has been used for this purpose, but it provides information on only a limited portion of the equilibrium system. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is less specific than ENG, but it provides more global insight into a patient's ability to maintain equilibrium under more challenging environmental circumstances. CD Palso appears to be valuable in obtaining objective confirmation of an abnormality in some dizzy patients whose ENG findings are normal. Our review of 33 patients with normal ENG results and abnormal CDP findings suggests that posturography is useful for confirming or quantifying a balance abnormality in some patients whose complaints cannot be confirmed by other tests frequently used by otologists.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author).

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi

    1994-01-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author)

  11. MATERNAL SERUM CA 125 LEVELS IN PREGNANCIES WITH CHROMOSOMALLY-NORMAL AND CHROMOSOMALLY-ABNORMAL FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; MANTINGH, A; DEBRUIJN, HWA; KLOOSTERMAN, MD; KANHAI, HHH; WOLF, H; EVERHARDT, E; CHRISTIAENS, GCML

    1993-01-01

    We measured the maternal serum cancer antigen 125 (MS-CA 125) levels in 98 nonpregnant women, 765 first- and second-trimester pregnancies with chromosomally-normal fetuses, and 54 chromosomally-abnormal pregnancies. To determine the MS-CA 125 concentration, we used a new automated microparticle

  12. Androgens in Women with Anorexia Nervosa and Normal-Weight Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. K.; Lawson, E. A.; Mathur, V.; Wexler, T. L.; Meenaghan, E.; Misra, M.; Herzog, D. B.; Klibanski, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Anorexia nervosa and normal-weight hypothalamic amenorrhea are characterized by hypogonadism and hypercortisolemia. However, it is not known whether these endocrine abnormalities result in reductions in adrenal and/or ovarian androgens or androgen precursors in such women, nor is it known whether relative androgen deficiency contributes to abnormalities in bone density and body composition in this population. Objective Our objective was to determine whether endogenous androgen and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels: 1) are reduced in women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight hypothalamic amenorrhea, 2) are reduced further by oral contraceptives in women with anorexia nervosa, and 3) are predictors of weight, body composition, or bone density in such women. Design and Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study at a general clinical research center. Study Participants A total of 217 women were studied: 137 women with anorexia nervosa not receiving oral contraceptives, 32 women with anorexia nervosa receiving oral contraceptives, 21 normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 27 healthy eumenorrheic controls. Main Outcome Measures Testosterone, free testosterone, DHEAS, bone density, fat-free mass, and fat mass were assessed. Results Endogenous total and free testosterone, but not DHEAS, were lower in women with anorexia nervosa than in controls. More marked reductions in both free testosterone and DHEAS were observed in women with anorexia nervosa receiving oral contraceptives. In contrast, normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea had normal androgen and DHEAS levels. Lower free testosterone, total testosterone, and DHEAS levels predicted lower bone density at most skeletal sites measured, and free testosterone was positively associated with fat-free mass. Conclusions Androgen levels are low, appear to be even further reduced by oral contraceptive use, and are predictors of bone density and fat-free mass in women with

  13. Brain changes in overweight/obese and normal-weight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sujung; Cho, Hanbyul; Kim, Jungyoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Geon Ha; Hong, Young Sun; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Shinwon; Lee, Sunho; Lee, Suji; Bae, Sujin; Simonson, Donald C; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity may significantly worsen glycaemic and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the effects of overweight and obesity on the brains of people with type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether the presence of overweight or obesity influences the brain and cognitive functions during early stage type 2 diabetes. This study attempted to uncouple the effects of overweight/obesity from those of type 2 diabetes on brain structures and cognition. Overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes had more severe and progressive abnormalities in their brain structures and cognition during early stage type 2 diabetes compared with participants with normal weight. Relationships between each of these measures and disease duration were also examined. Global mean cortical thickness was lower in the overweight/obese type 2 diabetes group than in the normal-weight type 2 diabetes group (z = -2.96, p for group effect = 0.003). A negative correlation was observed between disease duration and global mean white matter integrity (z = 2.42, p for interaction = 0.02) in the overweight/obese type 2 diabetes group, but not in the normal-weight type 2 diabetes group. Overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes showed a decrease in psychomotor speed performance related to disease duration (z = -2.12, p for interaction = 0.03), while normal-weight participants did not. The current study attempted to uncouple the effects of overweight/obesity from those of type 2 diabetes on brain structures and cognition. Overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes had more severe and progressive abnormalities in brain structures and cognition during early stage type 2 diabetes compared with normal-weight participants.

  14. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  15. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun [Seoul Foot and Ankle Center, Dubalo Orthopaedic Clinic, Seochogu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk [Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Ho [Hallym University, ChunCheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chuncheon, GangWon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  16. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  17. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  18. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  19. Normal-weight obesity syndrome: diagnosis, prevalence, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lana P; Morais, Carla C; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2016-09-01

    The growing concern about the impact of overweight on health has led to studies that shed light on types of obesity other than the classic model based on body mass index. Normal-weight obesity syndrome is characterized by excess body fat in individuals with adequate body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). This condition increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aims of this review are to define the diagnostic criteria for normal-weight obesity syndrome and to examine the risks associated with this condition in order to promote preventive measures and early treatment for affected individuals. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist.Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter.Conclusion:Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay.

  1. Normal, cohyponormal and normaloid weighted composition operators on the Hardy and weighted Bergman spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fatehi, Mahsa; Shaabani, Mahmood Haji

    2015-01-01

    If $\\psi$ is analytic on the open unit disk $\\mathbb{D}$ and $\\varphi$ is an analytic self-map of $\\mathbb{D}$, the weighted composition operator $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}$ is defined by $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}f(z)=\\psi(z)f (\\varphi (z))$, when $f$ is analytic on $\\mathbb{D}$. In this paper, we study normal, cohyponormal, hyponormal and normaloid weighted composition operators on the Hardy and weighted Bergman spaces. First, for some weighted Hardy spaces $H^{2}(\\beta)$, we prove that if $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}$...

  2. Signed Distance Computation using the Angle Weighted Pseudo-normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The normals of closed, smooth surfaces have long been used to determine whether a point is inside or outside such a surface. It is tempting also to use this method for polyhedra represented as triangle meshes. Unfortunately, this is not possible since at the vertices and edges of a triangle mesh...... that are inside and points that are outside a mesh, regardless of whether a mesh vertex, edge or face is the closest feature. This inside-outside information is usually represented as the sign in the signed distance to the mesh. In effect, our result shows that this sign can be computed as an integral part...... of the distance computation. Moreover, it provides an additional argument in favour of the angle weighted pseudo-normals being the natural extension of the face normals. Apart from the theoretical results, we also propose a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance to a closed \\$C\\^0\\$ mesh...

  3. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  4. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  5. Primary breast angiosarcoma associated with abnormalities in international normalized ratio platelet count and anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejva Soleymanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are rare malignancies with poor prognosis and could affect any organ in the body. Breast angiosarcomas mostly affect adolescent and young adult females. Here, we present the case of a 19-year-old female with low grade primary breast angiosarcoma associated with international normalized ratio (INR abnormalities, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Patient experienced severe bleeding on biopsy. INR and count of blood cells turned to normal levels after mastectomy. Patient refused chemotherapy. Three months later, computed tomography showed liver metastasis.

  6. Off ice Hysteroscopy in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Normal Transvaginal Sonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Barati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is one of the most common clinical problemsin gynecology. Transvaginal sonography (TVS and hysteroscopy are two diagnostic methods forpatients with AUB. For most of the patients with AUB, diagnostic hysteroscopy can be done inclinic with minimal discomfort and much lower expense than operative room.Materials and Methods: In our clinical trial study, from March 21, 2005 to March 20, 2007,patients with AUB in Ahwaz Imam Khomayni hospital, after history and physical examinationsunderwent TVS. Of those, 147 patients with normal TVS entered the study and were considered foroutpatient hysteroscopy. Patients with endometrial cavity lesion were scheduled for operation room,and those with empty endometrial cavity aspiration biopsy were done outpatiently. Specimens weresent to pathologist for examination.Results: All the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 or minority was under 30 yearsold (7 women, group 2 was 30-40 years, and group 3 or majority was over 40 years old (96women. 115 patients (78.2% had normal and 32 patients (21.8% had abnormal hysteroscopicresults. 116 patients (78.8% had normal and 31 patients (21.2% had abnormal pathologic results;moreover, cervical canal polyp was the most common lesion hysteroscopically and pathologicallyin all groups.Conclusion: Of 147 patients (100% with AUB and normal TVS, 32 patients (21.8% wereabnormal hysteroscopically. Cervical canal polyps may be missed by transvaginal sonography, butcan be diagnosed by hysteroscopy. In patients with AUB and normal TVS, hysteroscopy can beused as the second step.

  7. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    % accuracy in discriminating overweight from normal weight. In both brain signatures regions of the reward, salience, executive control and emotional arousal networks were associated with lower morphological values in overweight individuals compared to normal weight individuals, while the opposite pattern was seen for regions of the somatosensory network. 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects) is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  8. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    morphological features, achieved 69% accuracy in discriminating overweight from normal weight. In both brain signatures regions of the reward, salience, executive control and emotional arousal networks were associated with lower morphological values in overweight individuals compared to normal weight individuals, while the opposite pattern was seen for regions of the somatosensory network. Conclusions 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects) is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity. PMID:25737959

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  10. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  11. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  12. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Hou, Ya-Li; Li, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500

  13. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ping [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Hou, Ya-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Li, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China)

    2013-02-01

    Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500.

  14. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal spermatozoa via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. F.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, G. N.; Chen, J. H.; Wang, J.; Lin, J. Q.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the percentage of spermatozoa with aberrant sperm head morphologies has been correlated with a rise in male infertility. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy using a new substrate was utilized to characterize and differentiate the morphologically normal and abnormal human sperm cells based on their different biochemical components by showing their different specific Raman spectra. A detailed classification based on the PCA-LDA method was performed showing a diagnostic sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91%, with 80% classification accuracy. Our results suggest that micro-Raman spectroscopy can serve as a reliable and non-invasive tool for detection and differentiation of human spermatozoa.

  15. Normal or abnormal isospin-fractionation as a qualitative probe of nuclear symmetry energy at supradensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenmei; Yong, Gaochan; Wang, Yongjia; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongfei; Zuo, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Within two different frameworks of isospin-dependent transport model, effect of nuclear symmetry energy at supradensities on the isospin-fractionation (IsoF) was investigated. With positive/negative symmetry potential at supradensities (i.e., values of symmetry energy increase/decrease with density above saturation density), for energetic nucleons, the value of neutron to proton ratio of free nucleons is larger/smaller than that of bound nucleon fragments. Compared with extensively studied quantitative observables of nuclear symmetry energy, the normal or abnormal isospin-fractionation of energetic nucleons can be a qualitative probe of nuclear symmetry energy at supradensities

  16. Experimental loop for fast neutron fuels under normal, abnormal, transient and emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, M.; Colomez, G.; Marfaing, R.J.; Mourain, M.

    1976-01-01

    Within the scope of safety experiments on power reactor fuels, an experimental loop is described which can, by reduction of the flow, flush the sodium joint of vented mixed carbide fuel elements and allow the study of the resulting phenomena. With the help of the annex laboratories at OSIRIS, the control test can be analyzed and followed, with special attention to the study of the migration of fission products inside and outside the fuel. This apparatus can, of course, also be used for testing the fuels under normal and abnormal working conditions [fr

  17. Quantitative evaluation of normal and abnormal grain growth of cemented carbides during liquid phase sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabretou, V.; Lavergne, O.; Missiaen, J.-M.; Allibert, C. H.

    1999-04-01

    The liquid-phase sintering (LPS) of cemented carbides prepared from submicronic powders induces a micro-structural evolution generally ascribed to normal and abnormal grain growth. Such phenomena can be prevented by small additions of inhibitors (Cr, V). Presently, the mechanisms controlling either the grain growth or its inhibition are not strictly identified. In the present work, the effects of major parameters on grain growth (initial WC grain size, liquid composition, liquid fraction) are studied by image analysis of specimens sintered at 1450°C up to 8h.The evolution of the mean intercept and intercept distribution of WC grains is analysed in terms of the possible mechanisms involved.

  18. Classifying Normal and Abnormal Status Based on Video Recordings of Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on video recordings of the movement of the patients with epilepsy, this paper proposed a human action recognition scheme to detect distinct motion patterns and to distinguish the normal status from the abnormal status of epileptic patients. The scheme first extracts local features and holistic features, which are complementary to each other. Afterwards, a support vector machine is applied to classification. Based on the experimental results, this scheme obtains a satisfactory classification result and provides a fundamental analysis towards the human-robot interaction with socially assistive robots in caring the patients with epilepsy (or other patients with brain disorders in order to protect them from injury.

  19. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical Description with Fractals Dimensions of Normal Cells and Cytological Abnormality's of Uterine Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fractal geometry has shownto be adapted in the mathematical description ofirregular objects; this measurement has denominatedfractal dimension. The application of thefractal analysis to measure the contours of thenormal cells as well as those that present sometype of abnormality, has shown the possibility of mathematical characterization of itsirregularity. Objectives. To measure, from thefractal geometry cells of the squamous epitheliumof uterine neck classified like normal,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASC-US and Low Grade IntraepitelialLesion (L-SIL, diagnosed by means of microscopicobservation, in search of mathematicalmeasurements that distinguish them. Methodology.This is an exploratory descriptive studyin which the fractal dimensions were calculated,with the simplified and the conventional boxcounting method, of the cellular and nuclearcontours of 13 normal and with abnormalitiescells of the scaly epithelium of uterine neck likeASC-US and L-SIL, from digital photographiesof 7 normal cells, 2 ASC-US and 4 L-SIL diagnosedwith cytomorphologic criteria by meansof microscopic conventional observation. Results.There developed a quantitative, objective and reproduciblemeasurement of the degree of irregularityin the cells of the scaly epithelium of uterineneck identified microscopically like normal, ASCUSy LEI BG. Conclusions an fractal organizationwas demonstrated in the cellular normal architecture,as well as in cells ASC-US and the injuriesintraepiteliales of low degree L-SIL. They did notfind differences between the cellular studied types.

  1. I Vivo Characterization of Ultrasonic Backscattering from Normal and Abnormal Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farhad

    The primary goal of this project has been to characterize the lung tissue in its in vivo ultrasonic backscattering properties in normal human subjects, and study the changes in the lung echo characteristics under various pathological conditions. Such a characterization procedure is used to estimate the potential of ultrasound for providing useful diagnostic information about the superficial region of the lung. The results of this study may be divided into three categories: (1) This work has resulted in the ultrasonic characterization of lung tissue, in vivo, and has investigated the various statistical features of the lung echo properties in normal human subjects. The echo properties of the lungs are characterized with respect to the mean echo amplitude relative to a perfect reflector and the mean autocorrelation of normalized echo signals. (2) A theoretical model is developed to simulate the ultrasonic backscattering properties of the lung under normal and various simulated abnormal conditions. This model has been tested on various phantoms simulating the strong acoustic interactions of the lung. When applied to the lung this model has shown excellent agreement to experimental data gathered on a population of normal human subjects. By varying a few of the model parameters, the effect of changes in the lung structural parameters on the detected ultrasonic echoes is investigated. It is found that alveoli size changes of about 50 percent and concentration changes of 40 percent may produce spectral changes exceeding the variability exhibited by normal lungs. (3) Ultrasonic echoes from the lungs of 4 groups of patients were studied. The groups included patients with edema, emphysema, pneumothorax, and patients undergoing radiation therapy for treatment of lung cancer. Significant deviations from normal lung echo characteristics is observed in more than 80 percent of the patients studied. These deviations are intercompared and some qualitative associations between the

  2. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  3. The Impact of Weight Labels on Body Image, Internalized Weight Stigma, Affect, Perceived Health, and Intended Weight Loss Behaviors in Normal-Weight and Overweight College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essayli, Jamal H; Murakami, Jessica M; Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D

    2017-11-01

    To explore the psychological impact of weight labels. A double-blind experiment that randomly informed participants that they were "normal weight" or "overweight." Public university in Honolulu, Hawai'i. Normal-weight and overweight female undergraduates (N = 113). The Body Image States Scale, Stunkard Rating Scale, Weight Bias Internalization Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, General Health question from the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, modified version of the Weight Loss Methods Scale, and a manipulation check. A 2 × 2 between-subjects analysis of variance explored the main effects of the assigned weight label and actual weight and interactions between assigned weight label and actual weight. Significant main effects of the assigned weight label emerged on measures of body dissatisfaction, F(1, 109) = 12.40, p = .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.10, internalized weight stigma, F(1, 108) = 4.35, p = .039, [Formula: see text] = .04, and negative affect, F(1, 108) = 9.22, p = .003, [Formula: see text] = .08. Significant assigned weight label × actual weight interactions were found on measures of perceived body image, F(1, 109) = 6.29, p = .014, [Formula: see text] = .06, and perceived health, F(1, 109) = 4.18, p = .043, [Formula: see text] = .04. A weight label of "overweight" may have negative psychological consequences, particularly for overweight women.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  5. Glucoregulation in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated by first generation antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schizophrenia patients are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. The metabolic complications in patients are associated with several risk factors: family history of DM, lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, physical inactivity, but also with antipsychotic medication. In literature, most publications have been focused on the effects of the second generation antipsychotics (SGA on glucose metabolism. However, less attention has been paid to abnormality in glucoregulation, patients with schizophrenia treated with the first generation antipsychotics (FGA. Objective The present study evaluated glucose metabolism in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated with FGA. METHOD The cross-sectional study included 18 patients (FGA treated and 20 healthy controls with neither group differences in sex distribution, age, nor in BMI. Inclusion criteria were normal BMI (20-25 kg/m2. The glucose levels, insulin levels and growth hormone levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between groups. Groups differed in OGTT glucose and insulin peak and area under curve (AUC, level of significance p<0.05 (patients vs. controls: glucose peak 8.3±0.4 vs.6.9±0.5 mmol/l, glucose AUC 758±28 vs. 640±36 mU/l/120 min; insulin peak in patients 92.7±15.6 mU/l; insulin AUC 6060±1016 mU/l/120 min, insulin peak in controls 47.9±6.5 mU/l; insulin AUC 2597±256 mU/l/120 min. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia, although with normal body mass index, are at high risk of abnormal glucose regulation. Not only SGA increase the risk of impaired glucoregulation and metabolic syndrome, but this may also be due to FGA or schizophrenia per se. .

  6. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  7. Abnormal X : autosome ratio, but normal X chromosome inactivation in human triploid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwood Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation (XCI is that aspect of mammalian dosage compensation that brings about equivalence of X-linked gene expression between females and males by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes (Xi in normal female cells, leaving them with a single active X (Xa as in male cells. In cells with more than two X's, but a diploid autosomal complement, all X's but one, Xa, are inactivated. This phenomenon is commonly thought to suggest 1 that normal development requires a ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set, and 2 that an early event in XCI is the marking of one X to be active, with remaining X's becoming inactivated by default. Results Triploids provide a test of these ideas because the ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set cannot be achieved, yet this abnormal ratio should not necessarily affect the one-Xa choice mechanism for XCI. Previous studies of XCI patterns in murine triploids support the single-Xa model, but human triploids mostly have two-Xa cells, whether they are XXX or XXY. The XCI patterns we observe in fibroblast cultures from different XXX human triploids suggest that the two-Xa pattern of XCI is selected for, and may have resulted from rare segregation errors or Xi reactivation. Conclusion The initial X inactivation pattern in human triploids, therefore, is likely to resemble the pattern that predominates in murine triploids, i.e., a single Xa, with the remaining X's inactive. Furthermore, our studies of XIST RNA accumulation and promoter methylation suggest that the basic features of XCI are normal in triploids despite the abnormal X:autosome ratio.

  8. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

    OpenAIRE

    Kapustin, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a) I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human bein...

  9. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic and intellectual disability with normal karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pratte-Santos, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Katyanne Heringer; Santos, Thainá Altoe; Cintra, Terezinha Sarquis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with normal conventional karyotype. Methods Retrospective study, carried out from January 2012 to February 2014, analyzing the CGH-array results of 39 patients. Results Twenty-six (66.7%) patients had normal results and 13 (33.3%) showed abnormal results - in that, 6 (15.4%) had pathogenic variants, 6 (15.4%) variants designated as uncertain and 1 (2....

  10. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  11. Brain structural correlates of reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adolescents with normal and excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroscience evidence suggests that adolescent obesity is linked to brain dysfunctions associated with enhanced reward and somatosensory processing and reduced impulse control during food processing. Comparatively less is known about the role of more stable brain structural measures and their link to personality traits and neuropsychological factors on the presentation of adolescent obesity. Here we aimed to investigate regional brain anatomy in adolescents with excess weight vs. lean controls. We also aimed to contrast the associations between brain structure and personality and cognitive measures in both groups. METHODS: Fifty-two adolescents (16 with normal weight and 36 with excess weight were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, the UPPS-P scale, and the Stroop task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess possible between-group differences in regional gray matter (GM and to measure the putative differences in the way reward and punishment sensitivity, impulsivity and inhibitory control relate to regional GM volumes, which were analyzed using both region of interest (ROI and whole brain analyses. The ROIs included areas involved in reward/somatosensory processing (striatum, somatosensory cortices and motivation/impulse control (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Excess weight adolescents showed increased GM volume in the right hippocampus. Voxel-wise volumes of the second somatosensory cortex (SII were correlated with reward sensitivity and positive urgency in lean controls, but this association was missed in excess weight adolescents. Moreover, Stroop performance correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes in controls but not in excess weight adolescents. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with excess weight have structural abnormalities in brain regions associated with somatosensory processing and motivation.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the osseous structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and can be used to evaluate the size, location, stability, and viability of the osteochondritis dissecans fragment. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early stress injury to the proximal ulna in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect radiographically occult fractures of the elbow in both children and adults. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in children to further evaluate elbow fractures which are detected on plain-film radiographs. (orig.)

  13. Positron emission tomography studies in the normal and abnormal ageing of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Baron, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently, the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of normal and abnormal ageing of the human brain was limited by methodological constraints, as the technics available provided only a few parameters (e.g. electroencephalograms, cerebral blood flow) monitored in superficial brain structures in a grossly regional and poorly quantitative way. Lately several non invasive techniques have been developed which allow to investigate in vivo both quantitatively and on local basis a number of previously inaccessible important aspects of brain function. Among these techniques, such as single photon emission tomography imaging of computerized electric events, nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography stands out as the most powerful and promising method since it allows the in vivo measurement of biochemical and pharmacological parameters

  14. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: the Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Costa, Paul T

    2012-12-01

    It is evident that the conceptualization, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorder (PD) is shifting toward a dimensional model. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Personality is to indicate how the Five-Factor Model (FFM) can provide a useful and meaningful basis for an integration of the description and classification of both normal and abnormal personality functioning. This introductory article discusses its empirical support and the potential advantages of understanding personality disorders, including those included within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and likely future PDs from the dimensional perspective of the FFM. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A hierarchical model of normal and abnormal personality up to seven factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Fernando; Vall, Gemma; Peri, Josep M; Gárriz, Miguel; Garrido, Juan Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Despite general support for dimensional models of personality disorder, it is currently unclear which, and how many, dimensions a taxonomy of this kind should include. In an attempt to obtain an empirically-based, comprehensive, and usable structure of personality, three instruments - The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) - were administered to 960 outpatients and their scales factor-analyzed following a bass ackwards approach. The resulting hierarchical structure was interpretable and replicable across gender and methods up to seven factors. This structure highlights coincidences among current dimensional models and clarifies their apparent divergences, and thus helps to delineate the unified taxonomy of normal and abnormal personality that the field requires. © 2014.

  16. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  17. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  18. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  19. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Normal-weight and Overweight Preadolescent Children in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoja Kumar; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam; Gupta, Abha; Gopalan, Sarath; Sardana, Raman; Sahni, Reeti; Roy, Ankur; Arora, Narendra K

    2017-12-15

    To document the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters among normal-weight and overweight schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen private schools in urban Faridabad, Haryana. 961 school children aged 5-10 years. Ultrasound testing was done, and 215 with fatty liver on ultrasound underwent further clinical, biochemical and virological testing. Prevalence of fatty liver on ultrasound, and NAFLD and its association with biochemical abnormalities and demographic risk factors. On ultrasound, 215 (22.4%) children had fatty liver; 18.9% in normal-weight and 45.6% in overweight category. Presence and severity of fatty liver disease increased with body mass index (BMI) and age. Among the children with NAFLD, elevated SGOT and SGPT was observed in 21.5% and 10.4% children, respectively. Liver enzyme derangement was significantly higher in overweight children (27% vs 19.4% in normal-weight) and severity of fatty liver (28% vs 20% in mild fatty liver cases). Eleven (8.1%) children with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. Higher BMI (OR 35.9), severe fatty liver disease (OR 1.7) and female sex (OR 1.9) had strong association with metabolic syndrome. 22.4% of normal-weight and overweight children aged 5-10 years had fatty liver. A high proportion (18.9%) of normal-weight children with fatty liver on ultrasound indicates the silent burden in the population.

  1. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  2. Assessment of Subclinical Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetic Children with Normal LDL Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham M. Wagdy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are at risk for accelerated atherosclerotic changes and cardiac abnormalities rather than non-diabetics. However, little is known about cardiovascular changes for diabetic children with normal low-density lipoprotein. Here, we assessed atherosclerotic changes and cardiac function by sonography for patients with normal low-density lipoprotein. Methods: A prospective case control study included 38 type 1 Diabetes Mellitus children (aged 8 to 14 years was performed with same number of matched children as controls. Blood pressure, body mass indices (BMI, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, complete lipid profile, intimal medial wall thickness measurements for carotid arteries (cIMT and abdominal aorta (aIMT with data of left ventricular function by echocardiography were determined for both groups. Results: We found aIMT (mean of 1.2 ± 0.4 and cIMT (mean of 0.52 ± 0.12 were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Although, aIMT was positively correlated to HbA1c (7.48 ± 0.76%, P<0.001 and negatively correlated to high density lipoprotein, no significant difference between aIMT or cIMT and age, duration of disease, BMI, and blood pressure. Moreover, no significant difference in LV systolic or diastolic function among the studied groups, however the Z score of end systolic dimensions and end diastolic dimensions were significantly changed for patient group ((P=0.012 and P=0.008 respectively. Conclusion: Subclinical atherosclerosis was detected among T1DM children with normal LDL and it was positively correlated to prolonged hyperglycemia and low level of HDL. However, subclinical cardiac function changes were minimal.

  3. Transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with mental retardation: pathogenic or normal variants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    Knowing the origin of cytogenetic abnormalities detected in individuals with mental retardation and dysmorphic features is essential to genetic counselling of affected families. To illustrate this, we report on six families with transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities and discuss the genotype...

  4. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  5. Reduced birth weight, cleft palate and preputial abnormalities in a cloned dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyun Wook; Choi, Min Cheol; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-03-26

    The aim of the present study was to report a novel developmental abnormality in a cloned dog. A fibroblast cell line was established from an 8-year-old male German shepherd dog. In vivo matured oocytes were retrieved from a large breed dog, and the nucleus was removed from each oocyte. A donor cell was injected into an enucleated oocyte, and the oocyte-cell couplet was fused electrically. After chemical activation, the resulting embryos were transferred into a naturally estrus-synchronized recipient dog, and two cloned pups were delivered by Cesarean section 60 days later. One cloned pup (Clone 1) was healthy, but the other (Clone 2) had a birth weight of only 320 g and cleft palate, failure of preputial closure at the ventral distal part, and persistent penile frenulum. Clone 2 was raised by stomach feeding until Day 40 after birth, where palatoplasty was performed. The abnormalities in external genitalia in Clone 2 resulted in persistent penile extrusion that was surgically corrected. This complex developmental abnormality has not been reported in dogs previously.

  6. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  7. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  8. Normal plantar weight distribution pattern and its variations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early osteoarthritic changes at the knee result in altered plantar weight distribution pattern during stand, minisquat, squat and one leg stand positions. To study and quantify these plantar weight distribution variations with changes in static functional position, a cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 202 subjects, ...

  9. The Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among normal weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These gave the prevalence of MS as 10.6%, 4.3% and 18.5% among all, male and female subjects respectively. MS was distributed evenly in the normal BMI range among the women while among the men more cases were found in the upper range of normal BMI. Prevalence increased with BMI. Conclusions. Individuals in ...

  10. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Profiling brain function: spatiotemporal characterization of normal and abnormal visual activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Vanessa L; Marchand, Yannick; Mazerolle, Erin L; D'Arcy, Ryan C N

    2010-06-30

    In clinical neuroscience, the utility of evoked and event-related potentials (EPs and ERPs) resides in the temporal information they provide. However, it is largely unknown whether valuable diagnostic information resides within the corresponding spatial patterns. To determine this, the first step involves testing whether "normal" versus "abnormal" EPs/ERPs can be differentiated based on spatial patterns. In the current study, we present a method that characterizes similarities across individual source maps, called the profile algorithm. The profile algorithm was evaluated in terms of its ability to detect spatial activation differences in myopic individuals with corrected and uncorrected vision. This experiment represents a critical test of the method before applying it to the assessment of perceptual/cognitive functions. Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from healthy subjects using checkerboard stimulation. The N75 and P100 were examined in individuals with corrected (20/20) and uncorrected vision (20/40 or worse). N75 and P100 amplitudes and latencies were modulated by vision condition. The profile algorithm differentiated successfully between corrected and uncorrected vision. Its discriminatory power outperformed a more traditional method based on ERP peak amplitude. Subsequent correlations revealed significant relationships between visual impairment and both the components and the spatial activation. Overall, the findings suggested that VEP spatial patterns were sensitive to manipulations of visual acuity. The findings demonstrate that EP/ERP spatial activation can be evaluated at the individual level and compared against normative data. Ultimately, the method may provide a valuable tool for assessing individual spatial activation changes in perceptual/cognitive functions. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  13. Maternal serum CA 125 levels in pregnancies with chromosomally-normal and -abnormal fetuses. Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, J. M.; Mantingh, A.; de Bruijn, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    We measured the maternal serum cancer antigen 125 (MS-CA 125) levels in 98 nonpregnant women, 765 first- and second-trimester pregnancies with chromosomally-normal fetuses, and 54 chromosomally-abnormal pregnancies. To determine the MS-CA 125 concentration, we used a new automated microparticle

  14. Spirometry and health status worsen with weight gain in obese smokers but improve in normal-weight smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2014-02-01

    The literature on the effect of obesity and weight gain on respiratory outcomes in smokers is contradictory. To examine the cross-sectional effect of body mass index (BMI) and the longitudinal effect of change in BMI upon spirometry and health status among smokers at risk for and with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort were followed for a median period of 6 years, 75% of whom were at risk and 25% of whom had COPD at baseline examination. BMI and gain in BMI were examined as continuous independent variables overall and after stratification into three categories (normal-weight, overweight, and obese) determined on the basis of baseline weight. Spirometry and health status (as assessed by St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total and subscale scores) were dependent variables. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking status. Cross-sectional analysis used linear and logistic regression; longitudinal analysis used a mixed model approach. In cross-sectional analyses, higher BMI was associated with worse health status among obese smokers but with better health status among normal-weight smokers. In longitudinal analyses, weight gain was associated with a decrease in FEV1 and health status among obese smokers and with an increase in these outcomes among normal-weight smokers. Weight gain affects respiratory outcomes differently between obese and normal-weight smokers. Whereas FEV1 and health status decrease with weight gain among obese smokers, they improve among normal-weight smokers. The nonlinear relationship between weight gain and respiratory outcomes suggests that this effect of excess weight is unlikely to be mechanical alone.

  15. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  16. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  17. The least weighted squares II. Consistency and asymptotic normality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2002), s. 1-28 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Grant - others:GA UK(CR) 255/2000/A EK /FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : robust regression * consistency * asymptotic normality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  19. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  20. Acute behavioral symptomatology at disappearance of epileptiform EEG abnormality. Paradoxical or "forced" normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P

    1991-01-01

    Paradoxical or "forced" normalization of the EEG of patients with epilepsy was first described by Landolt in 1953. It refers to conditions where disappearance of epileptiform discharge from the routine scalp EEG is accompanied by some kind of behavioral disorder. The best known of these is a paranoid psychotic state in clear consciousness, which is also known as "alternative" psychosis. Thus, the issue is related to much older observations which indicated a "biological antagonism" between productive psychotic symptomatology and epileptic seizures, which led to the therapy of psychoses with artificially induced convulsions. Apart from psychotic episodes, the clinical manifestations of PN comprise dysphoric states, hysterical and hypochondriacal syndromes, affective disorders, and miscellanea. PN can be observed in both generalized and localization-related epilepsies as a rare complication. A subset where it is more frequently seen are in adults with persistent absence seizures when the latter become finally controlled by succinimide therapy. These seem to be the drugs with the highest hazard of precipitation of PN, but all other AEDs have also been suspected. Sleep disturbance by succinimide treatment may play a crucial role, but a variety of other factors are also involved, including psychosocial factors. The pathogenesis of this condition has given rise to some debate but remains still unresolved. Eleven of the most important hypotheses have been discussed and seem to converge into a more comprehensive hypothesis which basically assumes that, during PN, the epilepsy is still active subcortically, perhaps with spread of discharge along unusual pathways. This activity is supposed to provide energy and, possibly, some of the symptoms included in the psychotic syndrome. A critical clinical condition results, usually with a dysphoric symptomatology, where a development towards psychosis is impending but still depends on the presence or absence of a variety of risk

  1. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  2. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  3. Binge Eating Disorder psychopathology in normal weight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; van Furth, Eric F

    2012-01-01

    Although Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and unstable weight and the diagnosis was originally predicated with the obese in mind, obesity is not a criterion for BED. In fact, BED is not uncommon in nonobese individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the psychopathology of obese (BMI >30) and nonobese individuals (BMI Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to assess eating disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms. The nonobese BED group was significantly younger and was less likely to receive treatment. The obese group had more concerns about weight and reported more objective binge eating episodes. No differences were found on any other subscales of the EDE or BDI. Our main finding was that there are more similarities than differences between the nonobese and obese individuals with BED. The severity of the psychopathology does not seem to be related to BMI. More awareness of the existence of nonobese individuals with BED is needed. Early detection and treatment may prevent the development of overweight and it's consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Amy, Nancy K

    2011-06-26

    Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less

  5. Genetic and anatomical analysis of normal and abnormal flowers of date palm cultivar barhy derived from offshoot and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, O.H.

    2016-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis between 6 normal flower producing offshoot derived and 6 abnormal multiple carpel, flower producing tissue culture (TC) derived trees of cultivar (cv.) Barhy, was performed with the objective to check genetic variation if any at DNA level. DNA samples were extracted from pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both sets of plants. Amplified RAPD products were clearly detected with 30 primers used in this experiment but only 3 gave a few polymorphic bands which shows low level of genetic variation among the offshoot and TC derived plants. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed close genomic similarity among the 12 DNA samples with the range of 0.486-0.904 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. The average similarity among the 12 DNA samples was more than 50%. Floral abnormalities in TC derived plants were also studied microscopically. Abnormalities like more than three carpel development, abnormal ovule development and deformities of style and stigma were observed. The results show that the composition and the abnormalities of flowers in TC derived plants of cultivar Barhy may be attributed to epigenetic changes that takes place at different stages of tissue culture and not due to major changes at DNA level. (author)

  6. Physical activity in normal-weight and overweight youth: associations with weight teasing and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losekam, Stefanie; Goetzky, Benjamin; Kraeling, Svenja; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

    2010-08-01

    To examine self-reported physical activity with regard to weight teasing and self-efficacy. Within a cross-sectional study, 321 overweight and normal-weight students, consisting of 51% girls (n = 161) and 49% boys (n = 160) at a mean age of 12.22 years (SD = 1.07), were sampled from German secondary schools. The Perception of Teasing Scale, the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Leipzig Lifestyle Questionnaire for Adolescents were used to assess experiences with weight-related teasing, self-efficacy, physical activity and social context variables. Self-efficacy, weight teasing and social context variables were related to physical activity within the full sample (R(2) = 0.433). More frequent weight teasing was associated with decreased physical activity in boys, but not in girls. Overweight participants reported more frequent weight teasing experiences and less self-efficacy than participants of normal weight (all p physical activity (p > 0.05).There were large correlations between self-efficacy and physical activity (r = 0.614, p physical activity (r = 0.298, p self-efficacy were negatively correlated (r = -0.190, p self-efficacy and an encouraging social context are beneficial to physical activity while weight teasing experiences are detrimental. Interventions against weight teasing in youth are needed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. New layout concepts in MW-scale IGBT modules for higher robustness during normal and abnormal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents six different layout designs for MW-level Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules. The aim is to optimize the normal switching and abnormal short circuit performances of IGBT modules in terms of stray inductance reduction and inductance coupling cancellation. Using...... the Finite-Element-Method AnSYS Q3D Extractor, electromagnetic simulations are conducted to extract the self and mutual inductance from the six different layouts. PSpice simulations are used to reveal that the stray parameters inside the module play an important role under normal and abnormal operations......, and thus the best performing layout strategies can be selected. The prototypes are fabricated to validate the results of the Q3D simulation analysis, in which the self-inductance is measured by using a high precision impedance analyzer....

  8. Recognition of normal-abnormal phonocardiographic signals using deep convolutional neural networks and mel-frequency spectral coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maknickas, Vykintas; Maknickas, Algirdas

    2017-07-31

    Intensive care unit patients are heavily monitored, and several clinically-relevant parameters are routinely extracted from high resolution signals. The goal of the 2016 PhysioNet/CinC Challenge was to encourage the creation of an intelligent system that fused information from different phonocardiographic signals to create a robust set of normal/abnormal signal detections. Deep convolutional neural networks and mel-frequency spectral coefficients were used for recognition of normal-abnormal phonocardiographic signals of the human heart. This technique was developed using the PhysioNet.org Heart Sound database and was submitted for scoring on the challenge test set. The current entry for the proposed approach obtained an overall score of 84.15% in the last phase of the challenge, which provided the sixth official score and differs from the best score of 86.02% by just 1.87%.

  9. A normal colposcopy examination fails to provide psychological reassurance for women who have had low-grade abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Little, J; Gray, N M; Walker, L G; Whynes, D K; Cruickshank, M E

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, each year, large numbers of women are referred for colposcopy following low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. Many have no visible abnormality on examination. The risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) in these women is low. It is unknown whether, for women, a normal colposcopy resolves the anxiety which often follows the receipt of an abnormal cytology result. We investigated the prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes over 30 months following a normal colposcopy. This cohort study was nested within the UK TOMBOLA randomized controlled trial. Women aged 20-59 years, with recent low-grade cytology, who had a satisfactory colposcopy examination and normal transformation zone, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Process Outcome Specific Measure (POSM) at recruitment and during follow-up (12, 18, 24 and 30 months post-recruitment). Outcomes included percentages reporting significant anxiety (HADS anxiety subscale score ≥11), significant depression (HADS depression subscale score ≥8) or worries about the result of the next cytology test, cervical cancer, having sex, future fertility and general health at each time point (point prevalence) and during follow-up (cumulative prevalence). The study included 727 women. All psychological measures (except depression) had high prevalence at recruitment, falling substantially by 12 months. During follow-up, the cumulative prevalence of significant anxiety was 27% and significant depression was 21%. The most frequently reported worry was that the next cytology test would be abnormal (cumulative prevalence of 71%; point prevalence of ≥50% at 12 and 18 months). The cumulative prevalence values of worries about cervical cancer, having sex and future fertility were 33%, 20% and 16%, respectively. For some women who have low-grade cytology, a normal colposcopy does not appear to provide psychological reassurance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sample comprised 29,633 Korean adolescent girls who are normal weight and underweight. Chi-square tests and correlations were used to assess bivariate relationships between the variables. To assess the mediating effect of body image distortion on the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile and weight loss efforts, a 3-step regression analysis was used. There was a significant correlation between body mass index-for-age percentiles and body image distortion, and both significantly correlated with weight loss efforts. In addition, a distorted perception of being overweight or obese was a significant mediating variable. School-based health education and intervention programs are needed to promote the formation of a positive body image, not only for obese adolescents, but also for normal-weight and underweight adolescent girls. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  11. Toward a unified description of dark energy and dark matter from the abnormally weighting energy hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuezfa, A.; Alimi, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The abnormally weighting energy hypothesis consists of assuming that the dark sector of cosmology violates the weak equivalence principle (WEP) on cosmological scales, which implies a violation of the strong equivalence principle for ordinary matter. In this paper, dark energy is shown to result from the violation of WEP by pressureless (dark) matter. This allows us to build a new cosmological framework in which general relativity is satisfied at low scales, as WEP violation depends on the ratio of the ordinary matter over dark matter densities, but at large scales, we obtain a general relativity-like theory with a different value of the gravitational coupling. This explanation is formulated in terms of a tensor-scalar theory of gravitation without WEP for which there exists a revisited convergence mechanism toward general relativity. The consequent dark energy mechanism build upon the anomalous gravity of dark matter (i) does not require any violation of the strong energy condition p 2 /3, (ii) offers a natural way out of the coincidence problem thanks to the nonminimal couplings to gravitation, (iii) accounts fairly for supernovae data from various simple couplings and with density parameters very close to the ones of the concordance model ΛCDM, and therefore suggests an explanation to its remarkable adequacy. Finally, (iv) this mechanism ends up in the future with an Einstein-de Sitter expansion regime once the attractor is reached

  12. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse as a theoretical framework for educators studying student radiographers' interpretation of normality vs. abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Peter D.; Linehan, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To acknowledge the tacit rules underpinning academic practice of undergraduate radiographers in determining normality vs. abnormality when appraising skeletal images. Methodology: Twelve students were interviewed (individually) using in-depth semi-structured questions. Interviews were mediated through a PowerPoint presentation containing two digital X-ray images. Each image was based on a level of expertise; the elementary (Case 1) and the complicated (Case 2). The questions were based on regular ‘frames’ created from observing tutor–student contact in class, and then validated through a group interview. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse was then utilised as a data analysis instrument to determine how third year diagnostic radiography students interpreted X-ray images, in relation to the ‘recognition’ and ‘realisation’ rules of the Educational Theoretical Framework. Conclusion: Bernstein's framework has made it possible to specify, in detail, how issues and difficulties are formed at the level of the acquirer during interpretation. The recognition rules enabled students to meaningfully recognise what trauma characteristics can be associated with the image and the demands of a detailed scrutiny so as to enact a competent interpretation. Realisation rules, made it possible for students to establish their own systematic approach and realise legitimate meanings of normality and abnormality. Whereas obvious or visible trauma generated realisation rules (represented via homogenous terminology), latent trauma authorised students to deviate from legitimate meanings. The latter rule, in this context, has directed attention to the student issue of visioning abnormality when images are normal

  13. Probability of an Obese Person Attaining Normal Body Weight: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; Charlton, Judith; Rudisill, Caroline; Littlejohns, Peter; Prevost, A Toby; Gulliford, Martin C

    2015-09-01

    We examined the probability of an obese person attaining normal body weight. We drew a sample of individuals aged 20 years and older from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed data for 76,704 obese men and 99,791 obese women. We excluded participants who received bariatric surgery. We estimated the probability of attaining normal weight or 5% reduction in body weight. During a maximum of 9 years' follow-up, 1283 men and 2245 women attained normal body weight. In simple obesity (body mass index = 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), the annual probability of attaining normal weight was 1 in 210 for men and 1 in 124 for women, increasing to 1 in 1290 for men and 1 in 677 for women with morbid obesity (body mass index = 40.0-44.9 kg/m(2)). The annual probability of achieving a 5% weight reduction was 1 in 8 for men and 1 in 7 for women with morbid obesity. The probability of attaining normal weight or maintaining weight loss is low. Obesity treatment frameworks grounded in community-based weight management programs may be ineffective.

  14. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After con...

  15. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  16. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  17. Spectrum of Cytogenomic Abnormalities Revealed by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Products of Conception Culture Failure and Normal Karyotype Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Shen-Yin; Amato, Katherine; DiAdamo, Autumn; Li, Peining

    2016-03-20

    Approximately 30% of pregnancies after implantation end up in spontaneous abortions, and 50% of them are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. However, the spectrum of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in products of conception (POC) and the underlying gene-dosage-sensitive mechanisms causing spontaneous abortions remain largely unknown. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed as a salvage procedure for 128 POC culture failure (POC-CF) samples and as a supplemental procedure for 106 POC normal karyotype (POC-NK) samples. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 10% of POC-CF and pathogenic CNVs were detected in 3.9% of POC-CF and 5.7% of POC-NK samples. Compiled results from this study and relevant case series through a literature review demonstrated an abnormality detection rate (ADR) of 35% for chromosomal abnormalities in POC-CF samples, 3.7% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-CF samples, and 4.6% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-NK samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed on the genes from pathogenic CNVs found in POC samples. The denoted primary gene networks suggested that apoptosis and cell proliferation pathways are involved in miscarriage. In summary, a similar spectrum of cytogenomic abnormalities was observed in POC culture success and POC-CF samples. A threshold effect correlating the number of dosage-sensitive genes in a chromosome with the observed frequency of autosomal trisomy is proposed. A rationalized approach using firstly fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing with probes of chromosomes X/Y/18, 13/21, and 15/16/22 for common aneuploidies and polyploidies and secondly aCGH for other cytogenomic abnormalities is recommended for POC-CF samples. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  19. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin, Sergey A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients a person toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and necessitates a search for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, onesided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the second article (Kapustin, 2015b I showed that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more specific cases. In the current work I prove that this criterion is also present in the personality theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers, where it is implicitly stated in a more specific way. In the final article I will show that this criterion

  20. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  1. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ(2)(2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.......024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight...

  2. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation index in normal and abnormal gallbladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamote, J; Willems, G

    1997-09-15

    The observation of mitotic figures in the epithelium of the normal gallbladder is exceptional because cell renewal is occurring at a very slow rate. It is only after using 3H-thymidine and autoradiography to observe the cells in DNA synthesis that evidence of a significant epithelial cell replication has been provided. Because numerous mitotic figures and increased 3H-thymidine uptake have been observed after intraluminal introduction of foreign bodies or after ligation of the common bile duct in animals, mechanical distension has been supposed to represent an important trigger factor of cell proliferation in this hollow organ. An increased epithelial cell renewal was also observed in human gallbladders of patients with a complete obstruction of the common bile duct causing the distension. However, the absence of correlation between the degree of gallbladder distension and the proliferative response was suggesting that factors other than distension could be involved. In studies on experimental lithiasis cell proliferation appeared to be enhanced in the gallbladder epithelium of mice fed on a cholesterol-cholic acid-rich lithogenic diet. The fact that the increase in proliferative activity was preceding the formation of gallstones was another indication that factors other than mechanical stimulation by stretching or by the stones may stimulate cell renewal in this organ. Factors in the bile of animals receiving a lithogenic diet could be involved which might cause cellular death and, hence, a regenerative reaction. Direct mitogenic effect of an unknown factor in the bile of these animals is an alternative possibility. On the other hand the stimulating effect of postprandial hormones on gallbladder cell renewal suggested by the observation of a DNA synthesis peak after feeding has been established. Synthetic cholecystokinin analogues have been shown to increase the proliferative activity and to induce epithelial hyperplasia in this organ. In one recent study using

  3. Differences in dietary patterns between overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the differences in the dietary patterns of Polish overweight and normal weight adolescents. The study was carried out on a group of 1906 pupils from gymnasium (lower secondary school) aged 13-15 years, of whom 953 were overweight and 953 had normal body mass. The sample was taken from a representative group of 8386 pupils. Their height and body weight were measured, and their BMI was calculated. Overweight was defined as BMI ł85 percentile for gender and age. Using the method of "selection in pairs", each overweight pupil was paired with a pupil with normal body weight. The research tool was a self-reported questionnaire, containing questions regarding how often selected food products were usually consumed during the week, how regularly basic meals (breakfast, lunch, supper) were eaten, and data on snacking. Overweight adolescents consumed unhealthy products such as sweets and crisps significantly less often than their peers with appropriate body mass. Overweight girls ate dark bread significantly more often, and consumed soft drinks less often than their peers with normal weight. Overweight adolescents had more irregular meals than those with normal weight: only 44% overweight adolescents had breakfast every day, significantly less than adolescents with normal weight. Nevertheless, overweight teenagers snacked significantly less often than young people with normal body mass. The overweight teenagers also less often chose snacks with high fat content, sugar and salt, and more often vegetables, fruits, as well as yoghurt and kefir. 1. Our study shows that compliance of low energy diet alone does not ensure the maintenance of normal body weight. Irregularity of meals and breakfast skipping play an important role in developing overweight and obesity in adolescents. 2. In future studies on dietary patterns in a larger sample of adolescents, emphasis should be placed on adding questions about portion size, food preparation and meal time. Eating

  4. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  6. Factors Related with Adiponectinemia in Obese and Normal-Weight Women and with Its Variation in Weight Loss Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silva-Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess different factors influencing adiponectinemia in obese and normal-weight women; to identify factors associated with the variation (Δ in adiponectinemia in obese women following a 6-month weight loss program, according to surgical/non-surgical interventions. Methods: We studied 100 normal-weight women and 112 obese premenopausal women; none of them was on any medical treatment. Women were characterized for anthropometrics, daily macronutrient intake, smoking status, contraceptives use, adiponectin as well as IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations. Results: Adiponectinemia was lower in obese women (p 2 = 0.436. After weight loss interventions, a significant modification in macronutrient intake occurs followed by anthropometrics decrease (chiefly after bariatric procedures and adiponectinemia increase (similar after surgical and non-surgical interventions. After bariatric intervention, Δ adiponectinemia was inversely correlated to Δ waist circumference and Δ carbohydrate intake (r2 = 0.706. Conclusion: Anthropometrics, diet, smoking, and TNF-α levels all influence adiponectinemia in normal-weight women, although explaining less than 50% of it. In obese women, anthropometrics modestly explain adiponectinemia. Opposite to non-surgical interventions, after bariatric surgery adiponectinemia increase is largely explained by diet composition and anthropometric changes.

  7. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident ...

  8. Neural processing of healthy foods in normal-weight and overweight children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, Anne-Floor

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem almost everywhere in the world. The chance for an overweight child to become an overweight adult is much larger than for a normal-weight child, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. Weight gain, and thus overweight and obesity, is largely caused by

  9. Effects of nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Sagae, Toyoaki; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Sugai, Takuro; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yutaro; Ozeki, Yuji; Okamoto, Kurefu; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than the general population. Minimizing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in a population with an already high prevalence of obesity is of clinical and social importance. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of monthly nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. From July 2014 to December 2014, we recruited 265 obese patients who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to a standard care (A), doctor's weight loss advice (B), or an individual nutritional education group (C) for 12 months. The prevalence of MetS and body weight were measured at baseline and 12 months. After the 12-month treatment, 189 patients were evaluated, and the prevalence of MetS based on the ATP III-A definition in groups A, B, and C was 68.9%, 67.2%, and 47.5%, respectively. Group C showed increased weight loss (3.2 ± 4.5 kg) over the 12-month study period, and the change in weight differed significantly from that of group A; additionally, 26.2% of the participants in group C lost 7% or more of their initial weight, compared with 8.2% of those in group A. Individual nutrition education provided by a dietitian was highly successful in reducing obesity in patients with schizophrenia and could be the first choice to address both weight gain and metabolic abnormalities induced by antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Huertas, Jose; Livingstone, Kristina; Banach, Alayna; Klentrou, Panagiota; O'Leary, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

  11. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-04-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.

  12. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  13. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2013-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity. PMID:21331066

  14. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Ultrasound demonstration of distal biceps tendon bifurcation: normal and abnormal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Capaccio, Enrico; Derchi, Lorenzo E.; Martinoli, Carlo; Michaud, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the US appearance of the distal biceps tendon bifurcation in normal cadavers and volunteers and in those affected by various disease processes. Three cadaveric specimens, 30 normal volunteers, and 75 patients were evaluated by means of US. Correlative MR imaging was obtained in normal volunteers and patients. In all cases US demonstrated the distal biceps tendon shaped by two separate tendons belonging to the short and long head of the biceps brachii muscle. Four patients had a complete rupture of the distal insertion of the biceps with retraction of the muscle belly. Four patients had partial tear of the distal biceps tendon with different US appearance. In two patients the partial tear involved the short head of the biceps brachii tendon, while in the other two patients, the long head was involved. Correlative MR imaging is also presented both in normal volunteers and patients. US changed the therapeutic management in the patients with partial tears involving the LH of the biceps. This is the first report in which ultrasound considers the distal biceps tendon bifurcation in detail. Isolated tears of one of these components can be identified by US. Knowledge of the distal biceps tendon bifurcation ultrasonographic anatomy and pathology has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  16. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  17. Ultrasound demonstration of distal biceps tendon bifurcation: normal and abnormal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Michaud, Johan; Capaccio, Enrico; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Martinoli, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the US appearance of the distal biceps tendon bifurcation in normal cadavers and volunteers and in those affected by various disease processes. Three cadaveric specimens, 30 normal volunteers, and 75 patients were evaluated by means of US. Correlative MR imaging was obtained in normal volunteers and patients. In all cases US demonstrated the distal biceps tendon shaped by two separate tendons belonging to the short and long head of the biceps brachii muscle. Four patients had a complete rupture of the distal insertion of the biceps with retraction of the muscle belly. Four patients had partial tear of the distal biceps tendon with different US appearance. In two patients the partial tear involved the short head of the biceps brachii tendon, while in the other two patients, the long head was involved. Correlative MR imaging is also presented both in normal volunteers and patients. US changed the therapeutic management in the patients with partial tears involving the LH of the biceps. This is the first report in which ultrasound considers the distal biceps tendon bifurcation in detail. Isolated tears of one of these components can be identified by US. Knowledge of the distal biceps tendon bifurcation ultrasonographic anatomy and pathology has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  18. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora

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    Thirupathaiah Yeruva

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  19. Physical self-concept of normal-weight and overweight adolescents: Gender specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have described the relation between physical self-concept and body mass in adolescents, but those relationships have not been clearly specified by gender. The purpose of this study is to explore physical self-concepts of normal-weight and over-weight Serbian adolescents with respect to gender. The sample consisted of 417 primary school students (229 boys and 188 girls with the average age 13.6 (SD=0.73 years who were divided into normal-weight and overweight groups according to body mass index. To assess the multidimensional physical self-concept, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ was administered. Results showed that overweight adolescents had significantly lower scores than normal-weight on all PSDQ scales except Health and Strength. Differences were greater among girls than boys. Discriminant analysis showed that the scales Body Fat, Endurance and Sports Competence best differentiated normal-weight boys from other students. Also, discriminant analysis showed that, besides the scale Body Fat, scales Flexibility, Self-Esteem, and Coordination best differentiated normal-weight girls from other students. Results indicate that for better understanding of the relationship between adolescent’s physical self-concept and body mass one must take gender into account. Results are potentially valuable for preventing overweight through physical education.

  20. Association of insulin resistance with chronic kidney disease in non-diabetic subjects with normal weight.

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    Shanying Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To the best of our knowledge, the association of insulin resistance (IR with chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been well studied in normal-weight individuals. The aim of this study is to examine whether IR is associated with CKD in non-diabetic subjects with normal weight. We also examine whether the presence of obesity modifies the association of IR with CKD. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in China. Both estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio were used as markers of CKD. Logistic regression models and the quartiles of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were used to explore the associations of IR with CKD in entire cohort, normal-weight and overweight/obese subpopulations. RESULTS: In normal-weight subpopulation, the prevalence of IR and metabolic syndrome were 11.11% and 8.99%, respectively. In the entire cohort, the highest quartile HOMA-insulin resistance had a 70% increased risk for CKD (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07, 2.71, P=0.03, comparing the highest to the lowest quartile. However, when adding obesity to the model, the association was abolished. IR was associated with CKD in overweight/obese subpopulation but not in normal-weight subpopulation. CONCLUSION: IR and MetS in normal-weight individuals is common in the Chinese population. IR is associated with CKD in overweight/obese subpopulation but not in normal-weight subpopulation and the presence of obesity modifies the association of IR with CKD.

  1. The effect of normal childbirth on eyes with abnormalities predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D; Seelenfreund, M H; Tadmor, O; Silverstone, B Z; Diamant, Y

    1995-09-01

    Pregnant women who have high myopia, a history of retinal detachment or retinal holes, or have known lattice degeneration are frequently referred to an ophthalmologist for advice concerning the management of pregnancy and labor, i.e. whether a spontaneous vaginal delivery can be allowed and whether prophylaxis for high-risk retinal pathology is indicated. Many obstetricians still believe that pregnant women with ocular abnormalities predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment should have an instrumental delivery, and a few even advocate cesarian section. Very little has been written about the management of pregnant women with high-risk retinal pathology, and opinions differ considerably. Patient data on this subject are scarce. We studied 10 women who had 19 deliveries (10 prospective and 9 retrospective) and who had a history of retinal detachment, had been diagnosed as having extensive lattice degeneration, or had been treated for symptomatic retinal holes or breaks. The women were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy through labor and delivery into the postpartum period, looking for changes in the retinal status. We found no changes in the retinal status in the postpartum examination. We conclude that prenatal treatment of asymptomatic retinal pathology is not indicated and that spontaneous vaginal delivery may be allowed to take place in women with high-risk retinal pathology.

  2. [FEATURES OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED BODY WEIGHT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu; Vesnina, L; Kaydashev, I

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-RI8), we defined the peculiarities of eating behavior and their impact on quality of life in young people aged 18-25 years. All participants were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI). The control group included 41 persons with normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The group of young adults with increased body weight (BMI over 25 kg/M2) consisted of 27 persons. We found eating behavior disorders in 85,19 % of overweight people and in 41,46 % of persons with normal weight. The restrictive eating behaviors as well as a significant percentage of violations by external type had predominated in overweight individuals by the structure of disorders. The external and restrictive types of eating behavior disorders were predominated in persons with normal weight. Investigation of quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed a significantly decline in the physical role functioning and pain. Index of general physical health component, being not high enough in both groups, was significantly lower in overweight people with 52.70 points against 56.11. We concluded that the eating behavior disorders in persons with normal weight and in overweight people required an individual approach to forming healthy lifestyle and fixing broken food stereotype. It will counteract the further increase of body weight and contribute to improving the quality of life.

  3. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  5. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M.; Schoeneman, Samantha E.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Josefson, Jami L.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  6. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  7. Colour vision abnormality as the only manifestation of normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Martín-Prieto, A

    2018-01-01

    The case is presented of a 73-year-old male patient who referred to having black and white vision. Computed tomography showed normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Magnetic resonance imaging was not performed because the patient refused to undergo further examinations. Achromatopsia may be the first or only NPH symptom. It may be prudent to ask patients with NPH regarding colour vision. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Echo planar imaging of normal and abnormal connections of the heart and great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrispin, A.; Small, P.; Rutter, N.; Coupland, R.E.; Doyle, M.; Chapman, B.; Coxon, R.; Guilfoyle, D.; Cawley, M.; Mansfield, P.

    1986-05-01

    Echo planar imaging (EPI) is that form of magnetic resonance imaging which provides very short image acquisition times. EPI also provides very rapid sequential imaging. The EPI method is ideal for imaging the heart and thoracic content because images are devoid of cardio-respiratory motion artefact. Previously an analysis of transectional images has been presented. This paper is concerned with the study of the heart by the use of EPI contsructions in the sagittal and coronal planes. Defining connections between ventricle and great artery is of cardinal importance in paediatric cardiology. EPI contsructions in the normal heart, transposition, truncus arteriosus and right heart hypoplasia are presented and discussed.

  9. Echo planar imaging of normal and abnormal connections of the heart and great arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrispin, A.; Small, P.; Rutter, N.; Coupland, R.E.; Doyle, M.; Chapman, B.; Coxon, R.; Guilfoyle, D.; Cawley, M.; Mansfield, P.

    1986-01-01

    Echo planar imaging (EPI) is that form of magnetic resonance imaging which provides very short image acquisition times. EPI also provides very rapid sequential imaging. The EPI method is ideal for imaging the heart and thoracic content because images are devoid of cardio-respiratory motion artefact. Previously an analysis of transectional images has been presented. This paper is concerned with the study of the heart by the use of EPI contsructions in the sagittal and coronal planes. Defining connections between ventricle and great artery is of cardinal importance in paediatric cardiology. EPI contsructions in the normal heart, transposition, truncus arteriosus and right heart hypoplasia are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  10. LEAN DIABETICS AND MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN COMPARISON WITH NORMAL WEIGHT AND OBESE TYPE 2 DIABETICS

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    Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder showing an alarming increase in developing countries, particularly in India. In contrast to developed countries, we find that the clinical profile of diabetes mellitus is different in India. Most of the patients are not obese. Hence it is worth comparing the clinical profile of lean diabetics with normal and obese type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: To screen the occurrence and pattern of micro vascular complications in lean type 2 diabetic patients compared to normal weight and obese diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS : An observational study of 1070 patients was conducted in our hospital between June 2011 to July 2013. We have selected patient ’ s aged 30 years and older diabetics from outpatient and inpatient medicine department of our hospital and compared the urine protein creatinine ratio (PCR, monofilament testing and ophthalmoscopy findings in three groups (Lean, Normal weight and obese diabetics. RESULTS : Among the micro vascular complications, nephropathy was observed in 52.2% of lean diabetics compared to 44.5% and 39.2% of normal weight and obese diab etics respectively (p value - 0.035. Neuropathy was observed in 46% of lean diabetics compared to 29.8% and 34.1% in normal weight and obese diabetics respectively (p value - 0.003. Retinopathy was observed in 45.1% of lean diabetics compared to 32.3 % and 30.8% of normal weight and obese diabetics respectively . (p value - 0.014. CONCLUSION: Among diabetic patients who were screened for micro vascular complications in outpatient and inpatient medicine departments, lean diabetics were more prone for micro vascular complications when compared with normal weight and obese diabetics.

  11. Schizophrenia and Category-Selectivity in the Brain: Normal for Faces but Abnormal for Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kronbichler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Face processing is regularly found to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ, thus suggesting that social malfunctioning might be caused by dysfunctional face processing. Most studies focused on emotional face processes, whereas non-emotional face processing received less attention. While current reports on abnormal face processing in SZ are mixed, examinations of non-emotional face processing compared to adequate control stimuli may clarify whether SZ is characterized by a face-processing deficit. Patients with SZ (n = 28 and healthy controls (n = 30 engaged in an fMRI scan where images of non-emotional faces and houses were presented. A simple inverted-picture detection task warranted the participants’ attention. Region of interest (ROI analyses were conducted on face-sensitive regions including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area, and the superior temporal sulcus. Scene-sensitivity was assessed in the parahippocampal place area (PPA and served as control condition. Patients did not show aberrant face-related neural processes in face-sensitive regions. This finding was also evident when analyses were done on individually defined ROIs or on in-house-localizer ROIs. Patients revealed a decreased specificity toward house stimuli as reflected in decreased neural response toward houses in the PPA. Again, this result was supported by supplementary analyses. Neural activation toward neutral faces was not found to be impaired in SZ, therefore speaking against an overall face-processing deficit. Aberrant activation in scene-sensitive PPA is also found in assessments of memory processes in SZ. It is up to future studies to show how impairments in PPA relate to functional outcome in SZ.

  12. Echocardiography derived three-dimensional printing of normal and abnormal mitral annuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of using echocardiographic data to generate three-dimensional models of normal and pathologic mitral valve annuli before and after repair procedures. Materials and Methods: High-resolution transesophageal echocardiographic data from five patients was analyzed to delineate and track the mitral annulus (MA using Tom Tec Image-Arena software. Coordinates representing the annulus were imported into Solidworks software for constructing solid models. These solid models were converted to stereolithographic (STL file format and three-dimensionally printed by a commercially available Maker Bot Replicator 2 three-dimensional printer. Total time from image acquisition to printing was approximately 30 min. Results: Models created were highly reflective of known geometry, shape and size of normal and pathologic mitral annuli. Post-repair models also closely resembled shapes of the rings they were implanted with. Compared to echocardiographic images of annuli seen on a computer screen, physical models were able to convey clinical information more comprehensively, making them helpful in appreciating pathology, as well as post-repair changes. Conclusions: Three-dimensional printing of the MA is possible and clinically feasible using routinely obtained echocardiographic images. Given the short turn-around time and the lack of need for additional imaging, a technique we describe here has the potential for rapid integration into clinical practice to assist with surgical education, planning and decision-making.

  13. MR imaging of upper abdomen following cholecystectomy: normal and abnormal findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, K. [Kalmar Hospital, (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Haakansson, H.O. [Kalmar Hospital, (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery

    2001-03-01

    To describe the normal MR appearance after cholecystectomy and the findings in patients with postoperative complications using fast pulse sequences in abdominal MR imaging. Material and methods: In a prospective study of 119 patients, 64 were examined with MR after cholecystectomy. In total, 56 patients with uncomplicated cholecystectomy were examined with MR 1-5 days (mean 1.6 days) after cholecystectomy. Nine patients had an abdominal postoperative complication and 8 of these were examined with MR after the complication commenced 1-12 days after the cholecystectomy. Results: Oedema in the gallbladder fossa was the only finding in 39 patients (61%), all with uneventful recovery. Small fluid collections in an area consistent with the gallbladder fossa were seen in 9/64 (14%) patients, of which 3 had surgical complications: 1 bleeding and 2 bile duct leakage. Twenty-two (34%) patients had small locally situated fluid collections adjacent to the liver, 14 were uneventful and 8 showed postoperative surgical complications. Seven patients had fluid in the rest of the abdomen of which 5 had surgical complications; 4 due to bile duct leakage and 1 acute pancreatitis. One patient had a postoperative bleeding not seen on MR images. Conclusion: MR is very sensitive in detecting fluid collections. Early MR findings following cholecystectomy are normally only subtle changes, mainly in the gallbladder fossa. Fluid collections diagnosed elsewhere than in the gallbladder fossa usually indicate a surgical complication and a surgical complication is unlikely if MR fails to show a fluid collection.

  14. COMPARISON OF OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS AND OXYGEN DEFICIT IN SEVERELY OVERWEIGHT AND NORMAL WEIGHT ADOLESCENT FEMALES

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    Mark Loftin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in oxygen uptake kinetics and oxygen deficit existed between normal weight and severely overweight adolescent girls. Subjects included 10 normal weight and 8 severely overweight girls. The participants performed a leg cycling VO2 peak test and a constant load leg cycling test at 80% of the ventilatory threshold (T-vent. In the constant workload test O2 kinetics as indicated by Phase I (VO2 L at 20 sec and Phase II time constants (t were determined. Also, the O2 deficit (VO2 L was measured. As expected significant differences were noted in body composition and VO2 peak relative to mass with normal weight body mass averaging 55.3 ± 7.0 kg, severely overweight 90.5 ± 18.0 kg, % fat normal weight 27.3 ± 3.9%, severely overweight 49.7 ± 4.9% and VO2 peak (ml·kg-1·min-1 normal weight 32.0 ± 2.7 and severely overweight 22.0 ± 5.3. VO2 peak (l·min-1 and T-vent (%VO2 max were similar between groups. Results revealed similar O2 kinetic responses between groups; phase I kinetics normal weight 0.72 ± 0.15 L; severely overweight 0.75 ± 0.13L, phase II (t normal weight 41.5 ± 21.3 sec; severely overweight 33.9 ± 22.7 sec. However, the O2 deficit was significantly higher in the severely overweight (0.75 ± 0.15L when compared to the normal weight group (0.34 ± 0.13L. Correlations ranged from r = -0.15 to 0.51 between VO2 peak (L·min-1 or fat weight and phase I, t and O2 deficit. These data generally support previous research concerning the independence of O2 uptake response and body size

  15. Abnormal explicit but normal implicit sequence learning in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne A; Wilkinson, Leonora; Bhatia, Kailash P; Henley, Susie M D; Rothwell, John C; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2010-07-30

    Learning may occur with or without awareness, as explicit (intentional) or implicit (incidental) learning. The caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are affected early in Huntington's disease (HD), are thought to be essential for motor sequence learning. However, the results of existing studies are inconsistent concerning presence/absence of deficits in implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in HD. We assessed implicit and explicit motor sequence learning using sequences of equivalent structure in 15 individuals with a positive HD genetic test (7 premanifest; 8 early stage disease) and 11 matched controls. The HD group showed evidence of normal implicit motor sequence learning, whereas explicit motor sequence learning was impaired in manifest and premanifest HD gene carriers, with progressive decline with progressive disease. Explicit sequence learning may be a useful cognitive biomarker for HD progression. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill

    2000-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...... in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic...... light stimulation could be demonstrated in all technically acceptable data sets from children with a post-menstrual age (PMA) of > 41 weeks, but not in younger infants. Children children...

  17. Dynamic lymph flow scintigraphy in lymphoedema: Description of a new procedure and normal and abnormal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, K.; Hamad, M.M.; Sadek, S.; Awdeh, M.; Eklof, B.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic study of lymphatic flow was performed in 23 patients complaining of lymphoedema of the lower limbs. All were injected intradermally with 1 mCi (37 MBq) of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in the medial web on the dorsum of each foot. Image acquisition for the lower pelvis and both thighs was started within 5 min. A GE 500A gamma camera with an extra-large field of view and a low energy, all purpose collimator interfaced with a GE Star computer was used. Images were acquired in the dynamic mode with a 128x128 matrix every minute up to 40 min. Delayed images for the same region and for both legs were taken at 90 min. Time-activity curves for equal regions of interest over the inguinal regions on both sides were generated. Three patterns were recognized. (1) Normal flow (12 patients) with symmetrical or slightly increased or decreased flow on one side compared with the other, characterized by early appearance of medial bands and inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes in the early and delayed images. (2) An obstructed pattern (5 patients) characterized by subcutaneous pooling, absent medial bands in the dynamic part of the study, a flat curve on the affected side representing background activity, and absent inguinal and pelvic nodes in the delayed images. Occasionally the obstruction was incomplete and there was a delayed appearance of the nodes, which were less in number and smaller in size than on the normal side. (3) An enhanced pattern (6 patients) characterized by fast flow of lymph through the dilated lymphatics, occasionally subcutaneous pooling and an increase in the number and size of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes on the affected side. The authors conclude that intradermal injection of 99 Tcsup(m)-HSA can be used to study the pathophysiology of lymphatic flow in the most difficult group of patients suffering from chronic lymphoedema of the lower limbs

  18. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  19. A non-parametric conditional bivariate reference region with an application to height/weight measurements on normal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third (conditioning) variable may influence the bivariate...... response. The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves. The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two......-dimensional response. An example that will serve to motivate and illustrate the reference is the study of the height/weight distribution of 7-8-year-old Danish school girls born in 1930, 1950, or 1970....

  20. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael; Møller, Per; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight with a mean age of 11.6 years (range 6-18 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 2.71 (range 1.29-4.60). The 37 normal weight children had a mean age of 13.0 years (range 6-19 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 0.16 (range -1.71 to 1.24). All children completed a half-hour long meal test consisting of alternation between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ 2 (2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight children in terms of sensory-specific satiety, hunger, or satiety. However, overweight children had lower intake paces and appeared to differ from normal weight children regarding foods with a fatty taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SUBSTITUENTS AND OF SOLVENT ON THE REACTIVITY OF THE NORMAL AND ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF UNSYMMETRICAL ORGANIC EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    alpha -methyl group reduces the rate of normal attack slightly and that of abnormal attack considerably, and the o-methyl group has surprisingly little effect of the rate of attack at either position. ( Author )...supported the similarity between the mechanisms for the normal and abnormal reactions. A kinetic study of the reactions of alpha -methyl-, trans-beta-methyl...reactions of 6 substituted styrene oxides with benzylamine were made in ethanol

  2. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  3. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  4. The neuro-radiological anatomy of the normal and abnormal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.; Doller, P.; Voigt, K.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo and post mortem techniques for the radiological examination of normal brains have been developed, using 66 white adult rats. Aortic arch injections for survey angiograms (10 animals), selective catheterisation of the internal carotid artery (16 animals) and ventriculography by percutaneous needle puncture (20 animals) were performed in vivo; the animals survived and the examinations could be repeated. The techniques proved useful and accurate methods for the radiological demonstration of the topography and morphology of cerebral vessels and chambers; they also provided information on the function of the cerebral circulation and C.S.F. dynamics. The findings were checked and correlated by post mortem studies (20 animals) using contact radiography, micro-angiography and casts of the ventricles. As a result, extensive topographic and anatomic information concerning the cerebral vessels in the rat was obtained, including some microscopic-radiological findings. The combined use of these methods provided a basis for studying the growth of experimentally induced brain tumours and the effect of various types of treatment. (orig.) [de

  5. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: The key role of body image inflexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, C.; Trindade, Inês A.; Martinho, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ferreira, C., Trindade, I.A., & Martinho, A. (2016). Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 21(1), 49–56. doi: 10.1007/s40519-015-0188-x. Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in Western societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one’s body and unfavora...

  7. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-11-01

    Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years with BMI 22.1±1.7; NW n=80, 95.0% women aged 46.1±11.5 years with BMI 21.1±1.4; OW n=81, 53.1% women aged 51.4±9.0 years with BMI 34.2±4.1) with plausible intakes. Participant-defined meals and snacks were ≥50 kcal and separated by more than 1 hour. Self-reported physical activity was highest in WLM followed by NW, and then OW (3,097±2,572 kcal/week, 2,062±1,286 kcal/week, and 785±901 kcal/week, respectively; Pmeals consumed (2.7±0.4 meals/day). Eating frequency, particularly in regard to a pattern of three meals and two snacks per day, may be important in weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2004-09-01

    Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.

  9. Near-Infrared Visual Differentiation in Normal and Abnormal Breast Using Hemoglobin Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Khorram, Sirous; Zakerhamidi, Mohammad Sadegh; Fahima, Farhood

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is a non-ionizing modality that is emerging as a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breast cancer according to NIR differentiation of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Methods: The transmission values of LED-sourced light at 625 nm were measured by power meter to evaluate the optical properties of Hb in breast phantom containing major and minor vessels. For the simulation of blood variations in cancerous breast condition, we prepared 2 concentrations of pre-menopausal Hb and 4 concentrations of post-menopausal Hb and, for comparison with normal tissue, one concentration of Hb injected inside the phantom's vessels. Imaging procedure on the phantom was also conducted by LED source and CCD camera. The images from the experiments were compared with the results obtained from the images analyzed by MATLAB software. Finally, mammography of phantom including various concentration of Hb was prepared. Results: The transmitting intensities of NIR in blood containing 1, 2 and 4 concentrations of Hb in the major vessels were 52.83±2.85, 43.00±3.11 and 31.17±2.27 µW, respectively, and in minor vessels containing similar Hb concentrations were 73.50±2.43, 60.08±5.09 and 42.42±4.86 µW, respectively. The gray-scale levels on the major vessel were about 96, 124, 162 and on the minor vessel about 72, 100, 130 measured for 1, 2 and 4 Hb concentrations, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NIR imaging differentiation were 97.4% and 91.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Significant differences in transmitting intensity, optical imaging as well as software analysis of images were observed for 1, 2 and 4 concentrations of Hb in major and minor breast phantom vessels. Differentiation capability of minor vessels was higher than major vessels for Hb concentrations. Despite a good detection for location of vessels by mammography, it could not show differences between vessels with various concentrations. However, NIR optical imaging

  10. Cascaded discrimination of normal, abnormal, and confounder classes in histopathology: Gleason grading of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Scott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated classification of histopathology involves identification of multiple classes, including benign, cancerous, and confounder categories. The confounder tissue classes can often mimic and share attributes with both the diseased and normal tissue classes, and can be particularly difficult to identify, both manually and by automated classifiers. In the case of prostate cancer, they may be several confounding tissue types present in a biopsy sample, posing as major sources of diagnostic error for pathologists. Two common multi-class approaches are one-shot classification (OSC, where all classes are identified simultaneously, and one-versus-all (OVA, where a “target” class is distinguished from all “non-target” classes. OSC is typically unable to handle discrimination of classes of varying similarity (e.g. with images of prostate atrophy and high grade cancer, while OVA forces several heterogeneous classes into a single “non-target” class. In this work, we present a cascaded (CAS approach to classifying prostate biopsy tissue samples, where images from different classes are grouped to maximize intra-group homogeneity while maximizing inter-group heterogeneity. Results We apply the CAS approach to categorize 2000 tissue samples taken from 214 patient studies into seven classes: epithelium, stroma, atrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and prostate cancer Gleason grades 3, 4, and 5. A series of increasingly granular binary classifiers are used to split the different tissue classes until the images have been categorized into a single unique class. Our automatically-extracted image feature set includes architectural features based on location of the nuclei within the tissue sample as well as texture features extracted on a per-pixel level. The CAS strategy yields a positive predictive value (PPV of 0.86 in classifying the 2000 tissue images into one of 7 classes, compared with the OVA (0.77 PPV and OSC

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lira, E; Jacinto, A H V L; Silva, L M; Napoleão, P F R; Barbosa-Filho, R A A; Cruz, G J S; Astolfi-Filho, S; Borborema-Santos, C M

    2017-04-28

    Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.

  12. Oscillometric blood pressure percentiles for Polish normal-weight school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to construct blood pressure (BP) references with the use of a validated oscillometric device for normal-weight, school-aged children and adolescents and to study BP predictors. BP was measured in 14 266 randomly selected, normal-weight Polish children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who were free of chronic disease, using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. BP percentiles were constructed for age and height simultaneously with the use of a polynomial regression model. The normative values of BP were compared with the US normal-weight reference, German oscillometric reference, and Polish auscultatory reference. Reference BP percentiles by sex, age and height are presented. At median height, the age-specific differences in the 90th BP percentiles compared with German oscillometric reference ranged in the case of boys from -3 to 2  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively, and in the case of girls from 0 to 3  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively. As compared to weight, waist circumference was stronger SBP predictor in low birth weight boys. The study provides BP references for oscillmetric device, based on a current, nationally representative sample of normal-weight Polish children and adolescents. The normative values of BP were compared taking into consideration the height and BMI differences, the pubertal spurt, the methods of BP measurement and percentile construction.

  13. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  14. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    Human fetal brain development is a complex process which is vulnerable to disruption at many stages. Although histogenesis is well-documented, only a few studies have quantified cell numbers across normal human fetal brain growth. Due to the present lack of normative data it is difficult to gauge...... abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...... are unreliable due to unpredictable shrinking artifacts, and the fragility of the fetal brain requires particular care in handling and processing. The optical fractionator design offers a direct and robust estimate of total cell numbers in the fetal brain with a minimum of handling of the tissue. Bearing...

  15. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  16. Normal Stresses in a Granular Material Under Falling Weight Deflectometer loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Askegaar, Vagn; Sjølin, Finn Ole

    1996-01-01

    The vertical normal stress under a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was measured in a sand. The material had more than 90 percent falling within the sand fraction from 60 micrometer to 2 mm. The stress was measured with three different transducers. All transducers were installed at a depth of 2...

  17. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital in ...

  18. Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Huntjens, L.; Gemert, L.J. van; Graaf, C. de; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat

  19. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving no...

  20. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  1. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children...

  2. Recovery of Normal Body Weight in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: The Nurses’ Perspective on Effective Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie van Elburg; prof Berno van Meijel; Esther Meerwijk; Laura Beukers; Joyce van Ommen; René Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about effective nursing interventions for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study was to discover which aspects of nursing care are most effective, according to nurses, in recovery of normal body weight in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: A qualitative

  3. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  4. Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David; Wilson, Kate

    2017-01-01

    On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…

  5. The effect of serum from obese and normal weight men on glucose metabolism in leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myking, O.; Kjoesen, B.; Bassoee, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pooled serum from either obese or normal weight males on glucose metabolism in human leucocytes has been studied. Leucocytes from normal weight males were incubated with 10-90% pooled serum and either [U- 14 C], or [1- 14 C]glucose. Compared to serum from the normal weight males, serum from the obese group had a more stimulating effect on the 14 CO 2 and [ 14 C]lactate production from [U- 14 C]glucose and on the 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]glucose. The two serum pools had the same stimulating effect on the Embden-Meyerhof pathway as indicated by the formation of [ 14 C]lactate from [l- 14 C]glucose. Calculations revealed that the activity in the pentose phosphate pathway was stimulated more by serum from obese, than from normal weight males. It is a possibility that increased stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway may contribute to the development of overweight. (author)

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Differences between Normal-Weight, Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Romaine F; Mitchell Md, Ron B

    2016-05-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children determines perioperative management and is an indication for postoperative polysomnography. The relationship between increasing weight and sleep apnea severity in children remains unclear. To compare demographic, clinical, and polysomnography parameters in normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children, as well as identify demographic factors that predict sleep apnea severity. Case series with chart review. Academic children's hospital. A retrospective chart review of 290 children aged 2 to 18 years who underwent polysomnography at an academic children's hospital was performed. Demographics, clinical findings, and polysomnographic parameters were recorded. Children were categorized as normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Differences were assessed using linear and logistical regression models. Significance was set at P preterm), or tonsil size between normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children. Sleep efficiency and percentage of time in rapid eye movement were decreased in morbidly obese compared with other children (P apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with increasing body mass index z score only as a function of increasing age (P apnea severity is correlated with a combination of increasing age and weight but not with either variable independently. This study suggests that obese and morbidly obese older children are most likely to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  7. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging in cerebral air embolism complicating angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, T.; Inamura, T.; Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Mitani, M.; Yagi, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Yagi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cerebral air embolism resulting from accidental air infection during cerebral angiography. A 60-year-old man was accidentally injected with air via the left subclavian artery. Angiography demonstrated air within the basilar artery. The patient showed signs of posterior circulation ischaemia (confusion, blindness, gaze palsy and hemiparesis). However, MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, showed no abnormality 4 h later. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen within 5 h of the embolism. All symptoms and signs resolved completely within a week. (orig.)

  8. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always normal weight individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies and use of fat and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always normal weight group (NW). Subjects WLM (N = 172) had maintained ≥ 10% weight loss for 11.5 yr, and had a BMI of 22.0 kg/m2. NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3 kg/m2 and no history of overweight. Three, 24-h recalls on random, non-consecutive days were used to assess dietary intake. Results WLM reported consuming a diet that was lower in fat (28.7% vs. 32.6%, p artificially sweetened soft drinks (0.91 vs. 0.37; p = .003), significantly fewer daily servings of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (0.07 vs. 0.16; p =.03), and more daily servings of water (4.72 vs 3.48; p=.002) than NW. Conclusions These findings suggests that WLM use more dietary strategies to accomplish their weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction of fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Ways to promote the use of fat-modified foods and artificial sweeteners merits further research in both prevention and treatment controlled trials. PMID:19636318

  9. TWNFI--a transductive neuro-fuzzy inference system with weighted data normalization for personalized modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qun; Kasabov, Nikola

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel transductive neuro-fuzzy inference model with weighted data normalization (TWNFI). In transductive systems a local model is developed for every new input vector, based on a certain number of data that are selected from the training data set and the closest to this vector. The weighted data normalization method (WDN) optimizes the data normalization ranges of the input variables for the model. A steepest descent algorithm is used for training the TWNFI models. The TWNFI is compared with some other widely used connectionist systems on two case study problems: Mackey-Glass time series prediction and a real medical decision support problem of estimating the level of renal function of a patient. The TWNFI method not only results in a "personalized" model with a better accuracy of prediction for a single new sample, but also depicts the most significant input variables (features) for the model that may be used for a personalized medicine.

  10. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  11. Body composition differences in normal weight, obese-overweight and anorexic adolescents: role of adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Kristin S; Hackney, Anthony C

    2010-01-01

    Adipocytokines are signaling molecules released by adipose tissue with numerous functions, including regulation of metabolism, inflammatory process, and body mass. They are particularly interesting in youth, considering the rising prevalence of overweight/obesity and the linkage of this condition to inflammation. This chapter examines the relationship between body composition and select adipocytokines: leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and resistin, in overweight, normal weight and anorexic youth. Leptin, which stimulates energy expenditure and promotes satiety, is highest in overweight youth, followed by normal weight and lastly anorexic youth. Adiponectin has similar functions to leptin but is negatively correlated with measures of body composition. Anorexic youth have the highest adiponectin per kg fat mass, followed by normal weight and overweight. Conversely, IL-6 is positively associated with body composition; however, research in anorexic youth is inconclusive. It has some pro-inflammatory effects and promotes glucose and fat use, therefore beneficial for maintenance of normal weight status. TNF-α is also a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine thought to be somewhat protective against cancer. TNF-α is highest in overweight, followed by normal weight and anorexic youth, similar to leptin. Finally, resistin is also involved in the pro-inflammatory response and the development of insulin resistance. However, far less research exists on this adipocytokine and its relation to body composition in overweight or anorexic youth is equivocal. In conclusion, several consistent relationships exist regarding adipocytokines and body composition; however, there is a need for additional research on these relationships in youth especially at extremes of adiposity such as overweight and anorexics. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants (CIs) and children with normal hearing (NH), and asked if strategies are explained solely by degraded spectral representations, or if diminished language experience accounts for some of the effect. Relationships between weighting strategies and other language skills were examined. One hundred 8-year-olds (49 with NH and 51 with CIs) were tested on four measures: (1) labeling of cop-cob and sa-sha stimuli; (2) discrimination of the acoustic cues to the cop-cob decision; (3) phonemic awareness; and (4) word recognition. No differences in weighting of cues to the cop-cob decision were observed between children with CIs and NH, suggesting that language experience was sufficient for the children with CIs. Differences in weighting of cues to the sa-sha decision were found, but were not entirely explained by auditory sensitivity. Weighting strategies were related to phonemic awareness and word recognition. More salient cues facilitate stronger weighting of those cues. Nonetheless, individuals differ in how salient cues need to be to capture perceptual attention. Familiarity with stimuli also affects how reliably children attend to acoustic cues. Training should help children with CIs learn to categorize speech sounds with less-salient cues. After reading this article, the learner should be able to: (1) recognize methods and motivations for studying perceptual weighting strategies in speech perception; (2) explain how signal quality and language experience affect the development of weighting strategies for children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; and (3) summarize the importance of perceptual weighting strategies for other aspects of language functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of leukocyte count and hsCRP with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (CURES - 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, K; Deepa, R; Sampathkumar, R; Balasubramanyam, M; Mohan, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of leukocyte count and high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) (n = 865) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES]. Standard methods were used for assessing hsCRP [Nephelometry, in a subset] and leukocytes [Flowcytometry, Sysmex SF-3000]. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Assessment model (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA IR and hsCRP increased significantly with increasing tertiles of leukocyte count [p for trend leukocyte count and hsCRP showed a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Leukocyte count showed a positive correlation with hsCRP [p = 0.008]. Both mean leukocyte count [p leukocyte count [p leukocyte count and hsCRP] and MS/cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians even among non-diabetic subjects.

  14. Perinatal factors and regional brain volume abnormalities at term in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate diverse clinical antecedents of total and regional brain volume abnormalities and white matter hyperintensity volume on term MRI in extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g survivors. A consecutive cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 122 and a control group of 16 healthy term newborns underwent brain MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were measured using semi-automated and manual segmentation methods. Using multivariable linear regression, clinical antecedents were correlated with volumes of total brain tissue, white matter hyperintensities, and regional tissues/structures, adjusted for age at MRI, total cranial volume, and total tissue volume. Regional brain volumes were markedly reduced in extremely low birth weight infants as compared to term newborns (relative difference range: -11.0%, -35.9%. Significant adverse clinical associations for total brain tissue volume included: small for gestational age, seizures, caffeine therapy/apnea of prematurity, duration of parenteral nutrition, pulmonary hemorrhage, and white matter injury (p<0.01 for each; relative difference range: -1.4% to -15.0%. Surgery for retinopathy of prematurity and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were significantly associated with increasing volume of white matter hyperintensities. Regional brain volumes are sensitive to multiple perinatal factors and neonatal morbidities or interventions. Brain growth measurements in extremely low birth weight infants can advance our understanding of perinatal brain injury and development.

  15. Taste assessment in normal weight and overweight individuals with co-occurring Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Jean M; Smutzer, Gregory S; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-06-01

    Taste perception influences food choice, and may contribute to both weight status and disordered eating. Relatively little work has attempted to disentangle contributions of weight status and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) to human taste perception. We predicted weight status and BED would interact, showing difference in taste perception from non-eating disorder matched groups. The four study groups included: normal weight BED (NW BED), normal weight healthy controls (NW HC), overweight BED (OW BED), and overweight healthy controls (OW HC) (N = 60). Groups were matched for age (±5 years), ethnicity, and weight status. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Eating Disorder Examination Version 16.0, and the NIH Toolbox Gustatory Assessment with additional taste solutions and taste stimulus delivered with edible taste strips. Interactions were found between weight status and diagnosis on measures of regional taste intensity for quinine hydrochloride (CI 95% [44.61, 56.31], p = 0.018), sucrose (CI 95% [46.79, 56.45], p = 0.003), and 6-n-propylthiouracil (CI 95% [25.557, 39.269], p = 0.015). OW BED participants perceived these taste stimuli significantly less intensely than OW HC and NW BED. Whole mouth taste intensity tests at suprathreshold amounts did not reveal group differences. All four groups reported similar hedonic response to taste stimuli. Edible taste strips had medium to large significant correlations with NIH Gustatory Assessment taste stimuli. There were significant differences in the taste perception of OW BED relative to the other three groups. These findings may provide partial explanation as to why previous studies correlating taste and weight status have mixed results. Replication in larger samples assessed longitudinally is needed to extend this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of neostigmine induced reversal of vecuronium in normal weight, overweight and obese female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bhimasen Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Obese patients are more vulnerable to residual neuromuscular block (NMB and its associated complications in the post-operative period. This study was carried out to compare neostigmine induced reversal of vecuronium in normal weight, overweight and obese female patients, objectively using neuromuscular (NM monitoring. Methods: Twenty female patients each belonging to normal weight, overweight and obese, based on body mass index, requiring general anaesthesia were recruited for this prospective cross sectional study. NMB was induced with vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg dose based on patient′s real body weight (RBW and monitored using acceleromyographic train of four (TOF. All patients received neostigmine 40 μg/kg and glycopyrrolate 10 μg/kg at 25% of spontaneous recovery of first twitch height (T1 of TOF (DUR 25% and were allowed to recover to TOF ratio of 0.9. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test. Results: Recovery of TOF ratio to 0.5 was comparable in all three groups. Recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 was delayed in obese (9.82 ± 3.21 min compared with normal weight group (7.50 ± 2.52 min. Recovery of TOF to 0.9 was significantly delayed in both overweight (12.18 ± 4.29 min and obese patients (13.78 ± 4.30 min. DUR 25% was significantly longer in overweight (mean, standard deviation [range]; 30.10 [19-40 min] and obese (28.8 [12-45 min] compared with normal weight patients (22.75 [16-30 min]. Conclusion: In overweight and obese patients, when vecuronium induction dose is based on RBW, neostigmine induced recovery of NMB is delayed in late phases (TOF 0.7-0.9, which may result in vulnerability for associated complications of incomplete recovery. Ensuring safe recovery thus requires objective NM monitoring.

  17. Normal weight obesity among young adults in Trinidad and Tobago: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, Cherrita; Maharaj, Rohan G

    2017-04-01

    Patients with normal weight obesity (NWO) have a normal body mass index (BMI) but elevated body fat percentage (BF%), thereby increasing their risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of NWO and its associated factors in a sample of young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). A cross sectional study involving a convenience non-voluntary sample of participants with a normal BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 was conducted. The following information was collected: history, basic anthropometric measurements, including BF% via the Tanita Ironman Body Composition Analyzer (BC554), physical examination and basic blood investigations. Participants were divided into two groups; normal BF% (young adult population was found to have NWO. Long-term studies are recommended to study the full implications of these findings.

  18. Effects of different artificial insemination techniques and sperm doses on fertility of normal mares and mares with abnormal reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Bonk, A; Hamann, H; Klug, E; Katila, T

    2004-09-01

    The effects of different artificial insemination (AI) techniques and sperm doses on pregnancy rates of normal Hanoverian breed mares and mares with a history of barrenness or pregnancy failure using fresh or frozen-thawed sperm were investigated. The material included 187 normal mares (148 foaling and 39 young maiden mares) and 85 problem mares with abnormal reproductive history. Mares were randomly allotted into groups with respect to AI technique (routine AI into the uterine body, transrectally controlled deep intracornual AI ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle, or hysteroscopic AI onto the uterotubal junction ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle), storage method of semen (fresh, frozen-thawed), AI volume (0.5, 2, 12 ml), and sperm dose (50 x 10(6) or 300 x 10(6) progressively motile sperm (pms) for fresh semen and 100 or 800 x 10(6) frozen-thawed sperm with >35% post-thaw motility). The mares were inseminated once per cycle, 24 h after hCG administration when fresh semen was used, or 30 h for frozen-thawed semen. Differences in pregnancy rates between treatment groups were analyzed by Chi-squared test, and for most relevant factors (insemination technique, mare, semen, and stallion) expectation values and confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic models. Neither insemination technique, volume, sperm dose, nor mare or stallion had significant effects (P > 0.05) on fertility. Type of semen, breeding mares during foal heat, and an interaction between insemination technique, semen parameters, and mares did have significant effects (P insemination into the uterine body appears to be superior to hysteroscopic insemination and in normal mares, the highest pregnancy rates can be expected by hysteroscopic insemination.

  19. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  1. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Log-Normal Distribution in a Growing System with Weighted and Multiplicatively Interacting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya

    2018-03-01

    A growing system with weighted and multiplicatively interacting particles is investigated. Each particle has a quantity that changes multiplicatively after a binary interaction, with its growth rate controlled by a weight parameter in a homogeneous symmetric kernel. We consider the system using moment inequalities and analytically derive the log-normal-type tail in the probability distribution function of quantities when the parameter is negative, which is different from the result for single-body multiplicative processes. We also find that the system approaches a winner-take-all state when the parameter is positive.

  3. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  4. Evidence of genetic predisposition for metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically obese normal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Loos, Ruth JF; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2018-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease. However, many obese individuals, often called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), seem to be protected from these cardiometabolic complications. Conversely, there is a group of individuals who suffer from cardiometabolic complications despite being of normal weight; a condition termed...... metabolically obese normal weight (MONW). Recent large-scale genomic studies have provided evidence that a number of genetic variants show an association with increased adiposity but a favorable cardiometabolic profile, an indicator for the genetic basis of the MHO and MONW phenotypes. Many of these loci...... are located in or near genes that implicate pathways involved in adipogenesis, fat distribution, insulin signaling, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that a threshold for subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability may be at play in the manifestation of MHO and MONW, where expiry of adipose tissue...

  5. [Analysis on influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Haijun; Sun, Lili; Yang, Yide; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiangkun; Wang, Zhenghe; Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight. The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender. The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ² values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P body image dissatisfaction among students with normal weight was high, and the concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between themselves and their parents was low. Guiding students to have the correct cognitive attitude on less drinking sugary beverages, having breakfast per day, and less eating high

  6. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-06-01

    Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level-dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. The least weighted squares I. The asymptotic linearity of normal equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2002), s. 31-58 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 255/2002/A EK /FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : the least weighted squares * robust regression * asymptotic normality and representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  9. Health Behavior and Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Normal Weight Obesity in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL peers.A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females.Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76 were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46 male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001. NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9 when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019.High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI.

  10. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three......, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8–11 year old Danish children. Subjects/methods The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011–2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated......). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test...

  11. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor problems than overweight and obese

  12. A new fuzzy framework for the optimal placement of phasor measurement units under normal and abnormal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab A. El-Sehiemy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new procedure for finding the optimal placement of the phasor measurement units (PMUs in modern power grids to achieve full network observability under normal operating conditions, and also abnormal operating conditions such as a single line or PMU outage, while considering the availability of PMU measuring channels. The proposed modeling framework is implemented using the fuzzy binary linear programming (FBLP technique. Linear fuzzy models are proposed for the objective function and constraints alike. The proposed procedure is applied to five benchmark systems such as the IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus, 39-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of finding a fine-tuned optimal solution with a simple model and acceptable solution characteristics compared with early works in the literature. Besides, four evaluation indices are introduced to assure the various criteria under study such as the observability depth, measurement redundancy, and robustness of the method under contingencies. The results show that full network observability can be met under normal conditions using 20% PMUs penetration; however, under contingencies, approximately 50% PMUs penetration is required. The novelty of the proposed procedure has proven the capability of the proposed linear fuzzy models to find better optimal number of PMUs with lower number of channels compared to other algorithms under various operating conditions. Hence, the proposed work represents a potential tool to monitor power systems, and it will help the operators in a smart grid environment. Keywords: Binary linear programming, Fuzzy models, Observability, Optimization, Phasor measurement unit, Smart grids

  13. Relation between Protein Intrinsic Normal Mode Weights and Pre-Existing Conformer Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Beytullah; Ozdemir, E Sila; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2017-04-20

    Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium toward the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed. The correlation between the normalized mode weight ratios and the kinetic rate ratios is around 83% on a set of 11 non-enzyme proteins and around 59% on a set of 17 enzymes. The results are suggestive that mode motions carry intrinsic relations with thermodynamics and kinetics of the proteins.

  14. Importance of renal abnormalities first identified in the third trimester after normal findings on a detailed second-trimester structural fetal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Thomas D; Nguyen, Hiep T; Bromley, Bryann; Lyons, Jennifer G; Benacerraf, Beryl R

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of renal abnormalities first identified in the third trimester of pregnancy after normal findings on a detailed second-trimester structural fetal survey. Between March 1, 2007, and August 1, 2009, all patients having a sonographic examination in the third trimester who previously had normal findings on a second-trimester detailed structural fetal survey were retrospectively identified. Fetal renal abnormalities first detected in the third trimester and not seen during the second-trimester survey were tabulated. Neonatal follow-up was obtained for those with sonographic abnormalities. Overall, 4170 patients had third-trimester scans after normal findings on a detailed second-trimester survey. A new renal abnormality was detected in 77 (1.8%) of these third-trimester scans. Detailed postnatal imaging follow-up was available in 49 of 77 (63.6%), of which 44 (89.8%) had prenatal hydronephosis. Of these, 9 of 44 (20.5%) had reflux; 14 of 44 (31.8%) had normal findings or had hydronephosis that resolved on follow-up sonography after birth; and the rest had hydronephosis (13 of 44 [29.5%]), ureterovesical junction obstruction (3 of 44 [6.8%]), or ureteropelvic junction obstruction (5 of 44 [11.4%]). The other 5 fetuses with nonhydronephrotic renal abnormalities had pelvic kidneys (3) and unilateral renal agenesis (2). Two of those with reflux (22.2%) required surgery, and 1 of those with ureterovesical junction obstruction (33.3%) required surgery. Most renal abnormalities first identified in the third trimester after normal findings on a detailed second-trimester structural fetal survey were hydronephrosis, of which approximately one-third resolved after birth. Among the remaining neonates with persistent hydronephrosis, almost one-third had reflux that was not detected on the second-trimester anatomy scan.

  15. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Increased hepatic inflammation in a normal-weight mouse after long-term high-fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Riki; Kawano, Takahito; Fujita, Satoshi; Murata, Masaharu; Kang, Jeong-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Among five C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, one mouse showed a body weight (BW) similar to normal diet (ND)-fed mice. We compared obesity-related parameters of three groups (ND-fed mice, one HFD-fed normal-weight mouse, and HFD-fed overweight mice), including visceral fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and aminotransferases (AST and ALT), adipocyte size, percentage of crown-like structures, severity of hepatic steatosis, and number of inflammatory foci. Compared to ND-fed mice, the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse exhibited a similar visceral fat weight, similar serum levels of glucose and aminotransferases, and a similar percentage of crown-like structures. On the other hand, the serum TC level, adipocyte size, and hepatic steatosis severity of the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse were intermediate between those of ND-fed mice and HFD-fed overweight mice. Interestingly, the number of hepatic inflammatory foci in the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse was remarkably increased compared with those in HFD-fed overweight mice. These results suggest that having BW or serum ALT levels within normal ranges may not guarantee absence of hepatic inflammation and that the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse can be used as an animal model for the study of liver inflammation, particularly in patients with normal BWs and/or serum ALT values.

  17. Evaluating Coincident Relationships Between Obesity Incidence and Normal Weight Incidence From Birth Through Kindergarten for US Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton, William H; Shah, Megha K; Moss, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    We examine the concurrent relationship between obesity incidence and normal weight status incidence and prevalence in children between 9 months and kindergarten. Multistage, probability sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort. United States. Representative sample of US preschool children (n = 9950) followed from birth through kindergarten. From direct, anthropometric measures, we reported prevalence and incidence rates across 4 follow-up periods. In addition to prevalence and incidence rates, we reported risk ratios based on multiple definitions and estimated predicted probabilities of obesity and normal weight status using clinically meaningful body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentiles. Obesity prevalence (13%-20%) was much smaller than normal weight status prevalence (66%-70%). Lower socioeconomic status, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black children had greater risk of obesity. During 9 months to kindergarten, obesity incidence decreased two-thirds (15.6%), while normal weight status incidence decreased almost one-half (44.6%). Coincidently, normal weight status incidence (ranged from 23% to 45%) was consistently and substantially higher than obesity incidence (ranged from 5% to 15%). During 4 years to kindergarten, the obesity risk for overweight children was 13 times higher than that for normal weight status children. Overall rates of obese and normal weight incidence were substantial at 9 months, trended lower, but remained high through kindergarten. At 4 years to kindergarten, children with relatively high initial BMI were very likely to become obese but far less likely to achieve normal weight status.

  18. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  19. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Lightweight and Normal Weight Concretes Reinforced with Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to conventional concrete, lightweight concrete is more brittle in nature however, in many situations its application is advantageous due to its lower weight. The associated brittleness issue can be, to some extent, addressed by incorporation of discrete fibers. It is now established that fibers modify some fresh and hardened concrete properties. However, evaluation of those properties for lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC against conventional/normal weight concrete of similar strength class has not been done before. Current study not only discusses the change in these properties for lightweight concrete after the addition of steel fibers, but also presents a comparison of these properties with conventional concrete with and without fibers. Both the lightweight and conventional concrete were reinforced with similar types and quantity of fibers. Hooked end steel fibers were added in the quantities of 0, 20, 40 and 60kg/m3. For similar compressive strength class, results indicate that compared to normal weight fiber-reinforced concrete (NWFC, lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC has better fresh concrete properties, but performs poorly when tested for hardened concrete properties.

  20. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University

  1. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85 Kr and 14 C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger- Mueller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test - for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14 C- 12 C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban ''soot''. The third, environmentally skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85 Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  2. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-04-01

    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  3. Differences in consumption of food items between obese and normal-weight people in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, A; Taylor, F C; Khurana, S; Tripathy, V; Khandpur, N; Bowen, L; Prabhakaran, D; Kinra, S; Reddy, K Srinath; Ebrahim, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising prevalence of obesity in India, and diet may be a major determinant of this. We aimed to assess differences in types and quantities of food items consumed by obese and normal-weight people in India. Cross-sectional data of 7067 factory workers and their families were used from the Indian Migration Study, conducted in four cities across northern, central and southern India. Food frequency questionnaire data were used to compare the quantities of consumption of 184 food items between 287 obese (body mass index>30 kg/m2) and 1871 normalweight (body mass index 18.50-22.99 kg/m2) individuals, using t tests and ANCOVAs. Individuals with diabetes,hypertension and cardio-vascular disease were excluded. SPSS 16.0 was used for analysis. After adjusting for age, sex, location and socioeconomic status, obese individuals were found to eat significantly larger quantities of 11 food items compared with normalweight individuals. These included phulkas, chapatis/parathas/naan, plain dosa, mutton/chicken pulao/biryani, chicken fried/grilled, rasam, mixed vegetable sagu, vegetable raitha, honey,beetroot and bottlegourd (p< 0.01). Consumption of plain milk was higher among normal-weight than among obese individuals (p< 0.05). Consumption of some of these food items was also found to increase by socioeconomic status, decrease by age, and be higher among men relative to women. Obese individuals were found to consume larger quantities of certain food items compared with normal weight individuals. Interventions should aim at limiting overall food consumption among obese individuals. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  4. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  5. Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  6. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-07-17

    We study a hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale-type model with time delay in communication and information processing, in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. The model consists of a pressureless Euler system with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally, we show the presence of a critical phenomenon for the Eulerian system posed in the spatially one-dimensional setting.

  8. Evidence of genetic predisposition for metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically obese normal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Loos, Ruth JF; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2018-01-01

    metabolically obese normal weight (MONW). Recent large-scale genomic studies have provided evidence that a number of genetic variants show an association with increased adiposity but a favorable cardiometabolic profile, an indicator for the genetic basis of the MHO and MONW phenotypes. Many of these loci...... storage capacity could lead to ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues such as liver, muscle, heart, and pancreatic beta cells. Understanding the genetic aspects of the mechanisms that underpin MHO and MONW is crucial to define appropriate public health action points and to develop effective...

  9. Grey matter abnormalities within cortico-limbic-striatal circuits in acute and weight-restored anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Walther, Stephan; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin; Thomann, Philipp; Zeigermann, Susanne; Katus, Tobias; Brunner, Romuald; Zastrow, Arne; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2012-01-16

    Functional disturbances within cortico-striatal control systems have been implicated in the psychobiology (i.e. impaired cognitive-behavioral flexibility, perfectionist personality) of anorexia nervosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphometry of brain regions within cortico-striatal networks in acute anorexia nervosa (AN) as well as long-term weight-restored anorexia nervosa (AN-WR) patients. A total of 39 participants: 12 AN, 13 AN-WR patients, and 14 healthy controls (HC) underwent high-resolution, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a cognitive-behavioral flexibility task, and a psychometric assessment. Group differences in local grey matter volume (GMV) were analyzed using whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and brain-atlas based automatic volumetry computation (IBASPM). Individual differences in total GMV were considered as a covariate in all analyses. In the regional brain morphometry, AN patients, as compared to HC, showed decreased GMVs (VBM and volumetry) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the supplementary motor area (SMA), and in subcortical regions (amygdala, putamen: VBM only). AN-WR compared to HC showed decreased GMV (VBM and volumetry) in the ACC and SMA, whereas GMV of the subcortical region showed no differences. The findings of the study suggest that structural abnormalities of the ACC and SMA were independent of the disease stage, whereas subcortical limbic-striatal changes were state dependent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  11. Being Normal Weight but Feeling Overweight in Adolescence May Affect Weight Development into Young Adulthood—An 11-Year Followup: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Cuypers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]. Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a “healthy” body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.

  12. Quality of life in overweight (obese and normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panico A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Panico,1 Giovanni Messina,2,3 Gelsy Arianna Lupoli,1 Roberta Lupoli,1 Marianna Cacciapuoti,1 Fiorenzo Moscatelli,2 Teresa Esposito,3 Ines Villano,3 Anna Valenzano,2 Vincenzo Monda,3 Antonietta Messina,3 Francesco Precenzano,4 Giuseppe Cibelli,2 Marcellino Monda,3 Giovanni Lupoli1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; 3Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 4Department of Mental and Physical Health, and Preventive Medicine, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and has a wide variety of consequences. Approximately half of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and their obesity may be a contributing factor to PCOS pathogenesis through different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PCOS alone affects the patients’ quality of life and to what extent obesity contributes to worsen this disease. Design: To evaluate the impact of PCOS on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL, 100 Mediterranean women with PCOS (group A, 50 with a body mass index (BMI >25 kg/m2 (group A1 and 50 with BMI <25 kg/m2 (group A2, were recruited. They were evaluated with a specific combination of standardized psychometric questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire. The patients were compared with a normal-weight healthy control group of 40 subjects (group B. Another control group of 40 obese healthy women (group C was used to make a comparison with PCOS obese patients (A1. Results: Our results showed a considerable worsening of HRQoL in PCOS patients (A compared with controls (B. In addition, patients with PCOS and BMI >25 (A1 showed a

  13. Perceived discrimination among men and women with normal weight and obesity. A population-based study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether men and women with obesity reported different types of discrimination to a greater extent than those with normal weight, and explored whether these associations were modified by socioeconomic position. National representative sample of men and women, with normal weight (n = 2,000), moderate obesity (n = 2,461) and severe obesity (n = 557). Participants were identified in a yearly population-based survey (1996-2006) and data on perceived discrimination and potential confounding factors were measured in 2008. Logistic regression models tested whether obesity was associated with perceived lifetime, workplace, healthcare and interpersonal discrimination. The overall response rate was 56%. For men, moderate obesity was associated with workplace discrimination, while severely obese women were more likely to report this sort of discrimination than normal weight women. Severely obese individuals were twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination than normal weight individuals. Women, regardless of weight status group, were in turn twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination as men. Women with severe obesity were significantly more likely to report interpersonal discrimination compared with normal weight women. Socioeconomic position modified the association between weight status and healthcare discrimination. Highly educated individuals with moderate and severe obesity were more likely to report healthcare discrimination than their normal weight counterparts, whereas low educated individuals with normal weight, moderate and severe obesity were equally likely to report discrimination. In this large, population-based study, discrimination was more likely to be reported by obese individuals compared with those of normal weight. The associations, however, varied according to gender and socioeconomic position.

  14. Evolution of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signal Abnormality in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, With Histopathological Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmenger, Laura; Porter, Marie-Claire; Carswell, Christopher J; Thompson, Andrew; Mead, Simon; Rudge, Peter; Collinge, John; Brandner, Sebastian; Jäger, Hans R; Hyare, Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases represent the archetype of brain diseases caused by protein misfolding, with the most common subtype being sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a rapidly progressive dementia. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has emerged as the most sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence for the diagnosis of sCJD, but few studies have assessed the evolution of MRI signal as the disease progresses. To assess the natural history of the MRI signal abnormalities on DWI in sCJD to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and to investigate the potential of DWI as a biomarker of disease progression, with histopathological correlation. Gray matter involvement on DWI was assessed among 37 patients with sCJD in 26 cortical and 5 subcortical subdivisions per hemisphere using a semiquantitative scoring system of 0 to 2 at baseline and follow-up. A total brain score was calculated as the summed scores in the individual regions. In 7 patients, serial mean diffusivity measurements were obtained. Age at baseline MRI, disease duration, atrophy, codon 129 methionine valine polymorphism, Medical Research Council Rating Scale score, and histopathological findings were documented. The study setting was the National Prion Clinic, London, England. All participants had a probable or definite diagnosis of sCJD and had at least 2 MRI studies performed during the course of their illness. The study dates were October 1, 2008 to April 1, 2012. The dates of our analysis were January 19 to April 20, 2012. Correlation of regional and total brain scores with disease duration. Among the 37 patients with sCJD in this study there was a significant increase in the number of regions demonstrating signal abnormality during the study period, with 59 of 62 regions showing increased signal intensity (SI) at follow-up, most substantially in the caudate and putamen (P disease duration (r = 0.47, P = .003 at baseline and r = 0.35, P = .03 at follow-up), and the left

  15. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraecken, Johan; Van de Heyning, Paul; De Backer, Wilfried; Van Gaal, Luc

    2006-04-01

    Values for body surface area (BSA) are commonly used in medicine, particularly to calculate doses of chemotherapeutic agents and index cardiac output. Various BSA formulas have been developed over the years. The DuBois and DuBois (Arch Intern Med 1916;17:863-71) BSA equation is the most widely used, although derived from only 9 subjects. More recently, Mosteller (N Engl J Med 1987;317:1098) produced a simple formula, [weight (kg) x height (cm)/3600](1/2), which could be easily remembered and evaluated on a pocket calculator, but validation data in adults are rare. The purpose of the present study was to examine the BSA based on Mosteller's formula in normal-weight (body mass index [BMI], 20-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI, >/=30 kg/m(2)) adults (>18 years old) in comparison with other empirically derived formulas (DuBois and DuBois, Boyd [The growth of the surface area of the human body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1935], Gehan and George [Cancer Chemother Rep 1970;54:225-35], US Environmental Protection Agency [Development of statistical distributions or ranges of standard factors used in exposure assessments Washington, EPA/600/8-85-010. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment; 1985), Haycock et al [J Pediatr 1978;93:62-6], Mattar [Crit Care Med 1989;17:846-7], Livingston and Scott [Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E586-91]) and with the new 3-dimensional-derived formula of Yu et al (Appl Ergon. 2003;34:273-8). One thousand eight hundred sixty-eight patients were evaluated (397 normal weight [BMI, 23 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 50 +/- 14 years; M/F, 289/108], 714 overweight [BMI, 27 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 52 +/- 11 years; M/F, 594/120], and 757 obese [BMI, 36 +/- 6 kg/m(2); age, 53 +/- 11 years; M/F, 543/215]). The overall BSA was 2.04 +/- 0.24 m(2): 1.81 +/- 0.19 m(2) in normal-weight, 1.99 +/- 0.16 m(2) in overweight, and 2.21 +/- 0.22 m(2) in obese subjects. These values were significantly higher in overweight

  16. The role of weight loss and exercise in correcting skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in obesity, diabetes and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Frederico G S; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2013-10-15

    Mitochondria within skeletal muscle have been implicated in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as impaired muscle function with normal aging. Evaluating the potential of interventions to improve mitochondria is clearly relevant to the prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases and age-related dysfunction. This review provides an overview and critical evaluation of the effects of weight loss and exercise interventions on skeletal muscle mitochondria, along with implications for insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. The available literature strongly suggests that the lower mitochondrial capacity associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging is not an irreversible lesion. However, weight loss does not appear to affect this response, even when the weight loss is extreme. In contrast, increasing physical activity improves mitochondrial content and perhaps the function of individual mitochondrion. Despite the consistent effect of exercise to improve mitochondrial capacity, studies mechanistically linking mitochondria to insulin resistance, reductions in intramyocellular lipid or improvement in muscle function remain inconclusive. In summary, studies of diet and exercise training have advanced our understanding of the link between mitochondrial oxidative capacity and insulin resistance in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. Nevertheless, additional inquiry is necessary to establish the significance and clinical relevance of those perturbations, which could lead to targeted therapies for a myriad of conditions and diseases involving mitochondria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reference ranges of HOMA-IR in normal-weight and obese young Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaj, Blegina; Luciano, Rosa; Contoli, Benedetta; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Spreghini, Maria Rita; Rustico, Carmela; Sforza, Rita Wietrzycowska; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Manco, Melania

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may develop very early in life being associated with occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Aim of the present study was to identify in young Caucasians normative values of IR as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cutoffs diagnostic of CMRFs. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were assessed in 2753 Caucasians (age 2-17.8 years; 1204 F). Reference ranges of HOMA-IR were defined for the whole population and for samples of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to find cutoffs of HOMA-IR accurately identifying individuals with any CMRF among total cholesterol and/or triglycerides higher than the 95th percentile and/or HDL cholesterol lower than the 5th for age and sex, impaired glucose tolerance, and alanine aminotransferase levels ≥40 U/l. Overweight/obese individuals had higher HOMA-IR levels compared with normal-weight peers (p HOMA-IR index rose progressively with age, plateaued between age 13 and 15 years and started decreasing afterward. HOMA-IR peaked at age 13 years in girls and at 15 years in boys. The 75th percentile of HOMA-IR in the whole population (3.02; AUROC = 0.73, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.75), in normal-weight (1.68; AUROC = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.79), and obese (3.42; AUROC = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.69-0.72) individuals identified the cutoffs best classifying individuals with any CMRF. Percentiles of HOMA-IR varied significantly in young Caucasians depending on sex, age, and BMI category. The 75th percentile may represent an accurate cutoff point to suspect the occurrence of one or more CMRFs among high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and ALT ≥ 40 UI/l.

  18. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  19. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

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    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  20. Electrocardiograms of Children and Adolescents Practicing Non-competitive Sports: Normal Limits and Abnormal Findings in a Large European Cohort Evaluated by Telecardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Biasco, Luigi; Squarcia, Sandro; Cristoforetti, Yvonne; Bennicelli, Riccardo; Del Vecchio, Cecilia; Viacava, Cecilia; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to derive normal electrocardiographic values and to report the abnormal findings in a large contemporary European cohort of physically active children and young adolescents. In a 3-month period, data derived from subjects aged between 3 and 14 years and referred to the Telecardiology Centre (Genoa, Italy) for electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation as pre-participation screening for non-competitive sports were analyzed. A total of 2060 ECGs were recorded. Of those, 1962 did not show any morphological abnormality and were used to derive normality ranges for heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval, and voltage of R wave as measured in V1 according to age and sex. Findings and clinical implications of the 98 ECGs with abnormal findings were also reported. Abnormal ECG findings were not as uncommon as expected in this population, being manifest in about 5 % of subjects. However, major ECG anomalies (diffuse negative T-waves, pre-excitation) were present in just ten subjects (0.5 %). Lower mean heart rate values (from 90-100 bpm at 3 years of age to 80-85 bpm at 14 years of age) and lower rates of the prevalence of negative T-waves in the V3 lead (from 55-60 % at 3 years of age to 8-10 % at 14 years of age) were observed with increasing age. This is the first work reporting derived normal limits and abnormal ECG findings in a large contemporary European cohort of children and adolescents aged 3-14 years practicing non-competitive sports. Clear pathological alterations are extremely uncommon, deserving, when encountered, additional examinations. Even in a physically active population, the common features of an adult athlete's ECG are absent.

  1. Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-03-06

    We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i.e., convergence to a common velocity vector. We also carry out a rigorous limit passage to the mean-field limit of the particle system as the number of particles tends to infinity. For the resulting Vlasov-type equation we prove the existence, stability and large-time behavior of measure-valued solutions. This is, to our best knowledge, the first such result for a Vlasov-type equation with time delay. We also present numerical simulations of the discrete system with few particles that provide further insights into the flocking and oscillatory behaviors of the particle velocities depending on the size of the time delay.

  2. Learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information for expression-robust 3D face recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for 3D face recognition by learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information. To comprehensively describe 3D facial surface, three components, in X, Y, and Z-plane respectively, of normal vector are encoded locally to their corresponding normal pattern histograms. They are finally fed to a sparse representation classifier enhanced by learning based spatial weights. Experimental results achieved on the FRGC v2.0 database prove that the proposed encoded normal information is much more discriminative than original normal information. Moreover, the patch based weights learned using the FRGC v1.0 and Bosphorus datasets also demonstrate the importance of each facial physical component for 3D face recognition. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in non-obese Taiwanese: new definition of metabolically obese, normal-weight individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-huang

    2009-11-05

    Not only the obese, but also the non-obese adults have the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the upper normal weight. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in non-obese adult Taiwanese (body mass index (BMI) metabolic syndrome, defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2005), were analyzed in the BMI category according to 2.0 unit increments, in individuals seeking a health examination. The higher the BMI categories, the more prevalent the metabolic syndrome was in women and in men (P metabolic syndrome in women were 1.3 (95%CI: 0.5 - 3.2) with BMI 21.0 - 22.9 kg/m(2), 3.0 (1.3 - 7.1) with BMI 23.0 - 24.9 kg/m(2), and 8.6 (3.6 - 20.8) for women with BMI 25.0 - 26.9 kg/m(2), after controlling for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, blood routine, biochemical data, hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus. The corresponding odds ratios in men were 1.6 (0.6 - 4.2), 3.7 (1.6 - 8.8), and 9.9 (4.2 - 23.2). Individuals in the upper normal weight and slightly overweight BMI range have relatively high prevalence and increased risk of having metabolic syndrome. Therefore, physicians should screen metabolic syndrome in not only obese but also non-obese individuals for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  6. Health Related Quality of Life and Weight Self-Efficacy of Life Style among Normal-Weight, Overweight and Obese Iranian Adolescents: A Case Control Study

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    Seyedeh Fatemeh Miri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying and investigating the factors influencing self-efficacy and eventually health related quality of life (HRQoL can be an important step toward the prevention and treatment of the obesity. The aim of the study was to compare weight self-efficacy and HRQoL among normal-weight, overweight and obese Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 118 obese and overweight adolescents (case group and 118 adolescents with normal weight (control group were recruited. Adolescent's anthropometric characteristics were measured. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL, pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0 and self-reported physical activity were completed by the adolescents. Results: Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for various confounders indicated that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to be physically active (adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.911, had lower ability to cope with social pressure (AOR= 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.93, involved in less positive activities (AOR= 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.75, and felt more negative emotions (AOR= 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36 than their normal-weight counterparts. Moreover, obese and overweight adolescents were more likely to report deteriorated quality of life in all PedsQL subscales than those with normal weight P

  7. Association between maternal periodontitis and preterm and/or low birth weight infants in normal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usin, María Matilde; Menso, Julieta; Rodríguez, Verónica Inés; González, Analía; Tabares, Sandra; Parodi, Ricardo; Sembaj, Adela

    2016-01-01

    To relate the periodontal condition with the presence of periodontal bacteria in pregnant that had babies with preterm delivery or/and low weight at birth (PTLBW). We recruited 134 pregnant women without systemic diseases attending at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Room, from Maternal Provincial Hospital, Córdoba, Argentine. Pregnant were grouped according to the International Classification for a System of Periodontal Disease. A sample from periodontal pocket was extracted to identify Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Agreggatibacter actinomycemcomitans (Aa). We identified 7 (5%) cases of children born underweight or preterm of mothers diagnosed with Gingivitis, 6 (4%) in Mild Periodontitis and 4 (3%) in Moderate Periodontitis. We estimated that when Pi and/or Aa were not detected in the periodontal pockets of mothers, the infants had more than 129% chance of having normal birth weights (OR 3.47 for Pi and OR and 2.29 for Aa). The average age of the mothers who has PTLBW was 21 ± 3.5. The age showed an association with PTLBW (p periodonto bacteria like Pi and Aa.

  8. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  9. Quality of life in overweight (obese) and normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Annalisa; Messina, Giovanni; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Lupoli, Roberta; Cacciapuoti, Marianna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Villano, Ines; Valenzano, Anna; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Precenzano, Francesco; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and has a wide variety of consequences. Approximately half of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and their obesity may be a contributing factor to PCOS pathogenesis through different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PCOS alone affects the patients' quality of life and to what extent obesity contributes to worsen this disease. To evaluate the impact of PCOS on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), 100 Mediterranean women with PCOS (group A), 50 with a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m 2 (group A 1 ) and 50 with BMI 25 (A 1 ) showed a significant and more marked reduction in scores, suggesting a lower quality of life, compared with controls (B) and with normal-weight PCOS patients (A 2 ). PCOS is a complex disease that alone determines a deterioration of HRQoL. The innovative use of these psychometric questionnaires in this study, in particular the PCOS questionnaire, has highlighted that obesity has a negative effect on HRQoL. It follows that a weight decrease is associated to phenotypic spectrum improvement and relative decrement in psychological distress.

  10. Overweight and obese children have lower cortisol levels than normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjölhede, E Allansson; Gustafsson, P E; Gustafsson, P A; Nelson, N

    2014-03-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is vital to survival, and a disturbed circadian rhythm can be deleterious to health. However, little is known about cortisol levels in healthy children. The aim of this study was to examine cortisol levels in relation to body mass index (BMI), age and sex. Salivary samples were collected in early morning, late morning and evening, on four consecutive days, from 342 children aged 6-12 years using Salivette(®) tubes. Samples were analysed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). School nurses measured the children's height and weight, and these measurements were used to calculate their BMI. The children displayed a circadian rhythm in cortisol secretion, with morning zeniths and evening nadirs. Average cortisol levels in early morning, late morning and evening were significantly lower in overweight and obese children than in their normal weight counterparts. Cortisol levels did not vary significantly with age or sex. Our findings may suggest cortisol suppression in overweight and obese children. We found no evidence that sex or age influences cortisol levels. These findings highlight the need for further research on the relationship between stress and obesity in children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of five equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in Chinese young, normal weight healthy adults

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    Rao Zhi-yong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most resting energy expenditure (REE predictive equations for adults were derived from research conducted in western populations; whether they can also be used in Chinese young people is still unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the best REE predictive equation in Chinese normal weight young adults. Methods Forty-three (21 male, 22 female healthy college students between the age of 18 and 25 years were recruited. REE was measured by the indirect calorimetry (IC method. Harris-Benedict, World Health Organization (WHO, Owen, Mifflin and Liu’s equations were used to predictREE (REEe. REEe that was within 10% of measured REE (REEm was defined as accurate. Student’s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, McNemar Test and the Bland-Altman method were used for data analysis. Results REEm was significantly lower (P P P  Conclusions Liu’s, Owen, and Mifflin equations are appropriate for the prediction of REE in young Chinese adults. However, the use of ideal body weight did not increase the accuracy of REEe.

  13. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  14. Dietary pattern and leisure time activity of overweight and normal weight children in Germany: sex-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Ina B; Ozel, Yelda; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2013-01-15

    Several studies indicate that dietary pattern and leisure time activities of adults not only differ between sexes but also between overweight and normal weight individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine if sex-specific differences in dietary pattern and leisure time activity already exist and are associated with weight status in young childhood. Nutritional intake, anthropometric parameters, leisure time activities and socio- demographical factors were assessed in 100 overweight and 51 normal weight children (81 girls and 70 boys), aged 5-8 years. In general, independent of body weight, boys ate more cheese while girls consumed more vegetables and spent more time with sedentary activities. Moreover, regardless of sex, total energy and macronutrient intake did not differ between normal weight and overweight children. Also, time spent with sportive activities did not differ between groups; however, overweight boys spent significantly more leisure time with sedentary activities than normal weight boys. Furthermore, BMI of mothers and time spent with sedentary activities were identified as independent risk factors for the development of overweight when performing multiple regression analyses. Taken together, results of our study suggest that already at young age sex influences dietary pattern independent of body weight. Furthermore, an increased time spent with sedentary activities and an elevated maternal BMI were found to be associated with an elevated body weight in children. ( NCT01306396).

  15. Dietary pattern and leisure time activity of overweight and normal weight children in Germany: sex-specific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Ina B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies indicate that dietary pattern and leisure time activities of adults not only differ between sexes but also between overweight and normal weight individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine if sex-specific differences in dietary pattern and leisure time activity already exist and are associated with weight status in young childhood. Methods Nutritional intake, anthropometric parameters, leisure time activities and socio- demographical factors were assessed in 100 overweight and 51 normal weight children (81 girls and 70 boys, aged 5–8 years. Results In general, independent of body weight, boys ate more cheese while girls consumed more vegetables and spent more time with sedentary activities. Moreover, regardless of sex, total energy and macronutrient intake did not differ between normal weight and overweight children. Also, time spent with sportive activities did not differ between groups; however, overweight boys spent significantly more leisure time with sedentary activities than normal weight boys. Furthermore, BMI of mothers and time spent with sedentary activities were identified as independent risk factors for the development of overweight when performing multiple regression analyses. Conclusions Taken together, results of our study suggest that already at young age sex influences dietary pattern independent of body weight. Furthermore, an increased time spent with sedentary activities and an elevated maternal BMI were found to be associated with an elevated body weight in children. (Trial registration: NCT01306396

  16. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher

  17. Overweight but unseen: a review of the underestimation of weight status and a visual normalization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E

    2017-10-01

    Although overweight and obesity are widespread across most of the developed world, a considerable body of research has now accumulated, which suggests that adiposity often goes undetected. A substantial proportion of individuals with overweight or obesity do not identify they are overweight, and large numbers of parents of children with overweight or obesity fail to identify their child as being overweight. Lay people and medical practitioners are also now poor at identifying overweight and obesity in others. A visual normalization theory of the under-detection of overweight and obesity is proposed. This theory is based on the notion that weight status is judged relative to visual body size norms. Because larger body sizes are now common, this has caused a recalibration to the range of body sizes that are perceived as being 'normal' and increased the visual threshold for what constitutes 'overweight'. Evidence is reviewed that indicates this process has played a significant role in the under-detection of overweight and obesity. The public health relevance of the under-detection of overweight and obesity is also discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  18. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A.

  19. Stretched alignment due to pairing correlation between the normal and abnormal parity orbits for the γ-soft nuclei in the light rare-earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.; Wu, L.

    1996-01-01

    For the γ-soft rotational motion, a two-parameter model is constructed considering the pair correlation between the normal and abnormal parity states based on the fermion dynamical symmetry model. The numerical calculation of this model shows that the data of ground bands of ten typical γ-soft rotational nuclei in the light rare-earth region are fitted in a very high quality. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estrogens play an important role in the regulation of placental function, and 17-beta-estradiol (E2 production rises eighty fold during human pregnancy. Although term placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens, cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha in trophoblast remains unclear. We used western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry with h-151 and ID5 monoclonal antibodies to determine the expression and cellular localization of ER-alpha protein in human placentae and cultured trophoblast cells. Western blot analysis revealed a ~65 kDa ER-alpha band in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells (positive control. A similar band was detected in five normal term placentae exhibiting strong expression of Thy-1 differentiation protein in the villous core. However, five other term placentae, which exhibited low or no Thy-1 expression (abnormal placentae, exhibited virtually no ER-alpha expression. In normal placentae, nuclear ER-alpha expression was confined to villous cytotrophoblast cells (CT, but syncytiotrophoblast (ST and extravillous trophoblast cells were unstained. In abnormal placentae no CT expressing ER-alpha were detected. Normal and abnormal placentae also showed ER-alpha expression in villous vascular pericytes and amniotic (but not villous fibroblasts; no staining was detected in amniotic epithelial cells or decidual cells. All cultured trophoblast cells derived from the same normal and abnormal placentae showed distinct ER-alpha expression in western blots, and the ER-alpha expression was confined to the differentiating CT, but not to the mature ST. Trophoblast cells from six additional placentae were cultured in normal medium with phenol red (a weak estrogen as above (PhR+, or plated in phenol red-free medium (PhR- without or with mid-pregnancy levels of E2 (20 nM. Culture in PhR- medium without E2 caused retardation of syncytium formation and PhR-medium with E2 caused acceleration of syncytium formation

  1. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von; Cooper, Lisa; Lowndes, Joshua; Melanson, Kathleen; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M; Reimers, Kristin

    2012-09-14

    Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women) ages 20-50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control), one cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal) popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining) was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P 0.05). Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  2. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Von

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. Methods This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women ages 20–50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m2 consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control, one cup (4 g, 15 kcal popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Results Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P  0.05. Conclusion Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  4. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) antigen in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, S; Martins, C; Kulseng, B

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell wall components have been used as one of the alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in the feed industry. Antibodies to cell wall mannan of this yeast (ASCA) have been traditionally used in the study of Crohn's disease (CD). We applied ASCA in relation to obesity. This study aims (i) to determine the concentration of ASCA (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and immunoglobulin G [IgG]) in obese compared with normal weight individuals and (ii) to determine if there is a correlation between ASCA concentrations, obesity indices and C-reactive protein. Forty obese individuals (body mass index [BMI] > 35 kg m(-2) ) and 18 healthy (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ) volunteers participated in this case-control study. Binding activity of serum IgA and IgG to the cell wall mannan of S. cerevisiae was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than one-third of the obese individual (35%) showed elevated titres of ASCA compared with the control group (5%). This antibody was positively associated with weight (P = 0.01), BMI (P = 0.02) and waist circumference (P = 0.02), but not with C-reactive protein. It seems that ASCA are not only specific for CD but are also associated with obesity. S. cerevisiae or a related antigen may play a role in the matrix of this complex condition. © 2014 World Obesity.

  5. Intramyocellular Lipid and Impaired Myofiber Contraction in Normal Weight and Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung J; Files, D Clark; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria L; Gregory, Heather; Stone, John; Lyles, Mary F; Dhar, Sanjay; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-04-01

    Evidence implicates the amount and location of fat in aging-related loss of muscle function; however, whether intramyocellular lipids affect muscle contractile capacity is unknown. We compared both in vivo knee extensor muscle strength, power, and quality and in vitro mechanical properties of vastus lateralis single-muscle fibers between normal weight (NW) and obese older adults and determined the relationship between muscle lipid content (both intramuscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids) and in vivo and in vitro muscle function in NW and obese individuals. The obese group had a greater percentage of type-I fibers compared to the NW group. The cross-sectional area of type-I fibers was greater in obese compared to NW; however, maximal shortening velocity of type-I fibers in the obese was slower compared to NW. Type-I and type-IIa fibers from obese group produced lower specific force than that of type-I and type-IIa fibers from the NW group. Normalized power was also substantially lower (~50%) in type-I fibers from obese adults. The intramyocellular lipids data showed that total lipid droplet area, number of lipid droplets, and area fraction were about twofold greater in type-I fibers from the obese compared to the NW group. Interestingly, a significant inverse relationship between average number of lipid droplets and single-fiber unloaded shortening velocity, maximal velocity, and specific power was observed in obese participants. Additionally, muscle echointensity correlated with single-fiber specific force. These data indicate that greater intramyocellular lipids are associated with slower myofiber contraction, force, and power development in obese older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Are Lean and Normal Weight Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Shahnaz Aali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined whether pregnant women with preeclampsia have an increased rateof pre-pregnancy polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study also evaluated whether theassociation, if any, was a result of preeclampsia and its relationship to PCOS or dependent uponconcurrent obesity.Materials and Methods: In this study, 75 preeclampsia cases and 225 normotensive pregnantcontrols, matched for age and gravidity, were enrolled. A confirmation of pre-pregnancy PCOSwas ascertained by recording medical history, along with a physical examination directed for signsand symptoms of PCOS, an ultrasound report of polycystic ovaries and laboratory tests whichconfirmed hyperandrogenism prior to pregnancy. Body mass index (BMI was calculated for eachpatient. Participants were classified into two categories: lean/normal and obese according to a BMI<25 or greater than 25.1, respectively. Chi-square, Student t test, Fisher-exact and Mann-Whitneytests were used to assess the differences between the groups in addition to the relationship betweenpreeclampsia and PCOS. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.Results: Age, gravidity and parity were not significantly different between cases and controls.However, a significant difference was found in gestational age and BMI between the groups.Additionally, preeclamptic patients more frequently suffered from pre-pregnancy PCOS thancontrols and a significant relationship was found between preeclampsia and previous PCOS, evenamongst lean/normal weight patients.Conclusion: This study provides convincing evidence that a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of PCOScould predispose the patient to preeclampsia, regardless of a concomitant obesity risk factor.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of sub-microscopic partial trisomy 10q using chromosomal microarray analysis in a phenotypically abnormal fetus with normal karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, P C; Adam, S; Badr, M; Brooks, C R; Edwards, J; Walker, P; Mohamed, S; Gregg, A R

    2016-05-17

    Partial trisomy of the 10q region was originally reported in 1979 [1]. For 25 years, the diagnosis was made microscopically based on large, visible insertions in the region identified by karyotype analysis. Previous case reports have included both unbalanced translocations and large duplications/insertions in the 10q region [2]. Probands with partial trisomy 10q syndrome often have an abnormal phenotype that may include developmental delay [3-5], craniofacial abnormalities [3, 5], talipes (clubfoot) [2], microcephaly [2-4], or congenital heart disease [2-6]. Prenatal diagnoses by karyotype have been made following ultrasound diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma [7], renal pyelectasis [3, 8-10], and other fetal abnormalities [4]. In this case, we report the first prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 10q (10q22.3-10q23.2) with a normal karyotype and an abnormal chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). This is the smallest copy number variant (CNV) (7.5 Mb) in the 10q22.3-10q23.2 regions yet reported.

  8. [{sup 123}]FP-CIT SPECT scans initially rated as normal became abnormal over time in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zande, J.J. van der; Scheltens, P.; Lemstra, A.W. [VU Medical Center Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raijmakers, P.G.H.M. [VU Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding on SPECT imaging is a strong biomarker for the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). There is still a lot of uncertainty about patients meeting the clinical criteria for probable DLB who have a normal DAT SPECT scan (DLB/S-). The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and imaging follow-up in these patients, and compare them to DLB patients with abnormal baseline scans (DLB/S+). DLB patients who underwent DAT imaging ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT) were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. All [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans were evaluated independently by two nuclear medicine physicians and in patients with normal scans follow-up imaging was obtained. We matched DLB/S- patients for age and disease duration to DLB/S+ patients and compared their clinical characteristics. Of 67 [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans, 7 (10.4 %) were rated as normal. In five DLB/S- patients, a second [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT was performed (after on average 1.5 years) and these scans were all abnormal. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were found at baseline. DLB/S- patients could be expected to have a better MMSE score after 1 year. This study was the first to investigate DLB patients with the initial [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scan rated as normal and subsequent scans during disease progression rated as abnormal. We hypothesize that DLB/S- scans could represent a relatively rare DLB subtype with possibly a different severity or spread of alpha-synuclein pathology (''neocortical predominant subtype''). In clinical practice, if an alternative diagnosis is not imminent in a DLB/S- patient, repeating [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT should be considered. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  10. Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  11. Cross-modal interactions for custard desserts differ in obese and normal weight Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Cristina; Laureati, Monica; Invitti, Cecilia; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2016-05-01

    The effects of variation in odors and thickening agents on sensory properties and acceptability of a model custard dessert were investigated in normal weight and obese women. Subjects rated their liking and the intensity of sensory properties (sweetness, vanilla and butter flavors, and creaminess) of 3 block samples (the first varied in vanilla aroma, the second varied in butter aroma and the third varied in xanthan gum). Significant differences were found in acceptability and intensity ratings in relation to body mass index. The addition of butter aroma in the custard was the most effective way to elicit odor-taste, odor-flavor and odor-texture interactions in obese women. In this group, butter aroma, signaling energy dense products, increased the perception of sweetness, vanilla flavor and creaminess, which are all desirable properties in a custard, while maintaining a high liking degree. Understanding cross-modal interactions in relation to nutritional status is interesting in order to develop new food products with reduced sugar and fat, that are still satisfying for the consumer. This could have important implications to reduce caloric intake and tackle the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of aggregate characteristics on the compressive strength of normal weight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.A.; Aslam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the properties of concrete have been performed around the globe and their correlation is interpreted in relevant design codes. The structural behavior of cement concrete significantly relies on the material resources, properties of the aggregates constituting the concrete and the local construction practice. These factors vary from place to place. Therefore, the compressive strength of concrete prepared from the aggregates available in one locality may not be directly applicable to the other areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Influence of locally available coarse aggregates on the compressive strength of normal weight concrete (NWC) prepared under local environmental conditions of district Khairpur Mir's, Sindh, Pakistan. The coarse aggregates were collected from five different quarries in the vicinity of Khairpur Mir's, Pakistan. In total; 180 cubes were tested. 10 different batches were formed in order to arrange individual characterization of concrete. Each batch was contained of 18 cubes and each quarry contains 2 batches making a total of 36 cube with four different ratios for each quarry. Dry density and compressive strength of concrete was calculated and a comparison is provided as a guideline for the future construction work in the local community. (author)

  13. Optimization of b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Ivan; Merisaari, Harri; Aronen, Hannu J; Järvinen, Jukka; Saunavaara, Jani; Kauko, Tommi; Borra, Ronald; Pesola, Marko

    2014-05-01

    To determine the optimal b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of normal prostate using both a computer modeling approach and in vivo measurements. Optimal b-value distributions for the fit of three parameters (fast diffusion Df, slow diffusion Ds, and fraction of fast diffusion f) were determined using Monte-Carlo simulations. The optimal b-value distribution was calculated using four individual optimization methods. Eight healthy volunteers underwent four repeated 3 Tesla prostate DWI scans using both 16 equally distributed b-values and an optimized b-value distribution obtained from the simulations. The b-value distributions were compared in terms of measurement reliability and repeatability using Shrout-Fleiss analysis. Using low noise levels, the optimal b-value distribution formed three separate clusters at low (0-400 s/mm2), mid-range (650-1200 s/mm2), and high b-values (1700-2000 s/mm2). Higher noise levels resulted into less pronounced clustering of b-values. The clustered optimized b-value distribution demonstrated better measurement reliability and repeatability in Shrout-Fleiss analysis compared with 16 equally distributed b-values. The optimal b-value distribution was found to be a clustered distribution with b-values concentrated in the low, mid, and high ranges and was shown to improve the estimation quality of biexponential DWI parameters of in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of acute maximal exercise on postexercise hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P  exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P  exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Growth monitoring in children with low and normal birth weight up to two years: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Danaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted aimed to compare the growth indices in 2 years old children with a history of low birth weight with normal birth weight children.Methods: Current retrospective cohort study on all two-year children with low birth weight and three times the normal weight children covered by health centers of Kahnooj, was conducted in 2015. Cares at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of age were studied and, child growth indices (weight, height, head circumference, along with some demographic variables were studied. Information were entered SPSS version 20 and the analysis was performed.Results: There were significant differences in children's growth of both groups in all periods of care. Despite the same slope, growth pattern in children showed a significant difference. Young mother, girl sex of baby and preterm birth are predictor factors of low birth weight.Conclusion: Trends and growth patterns of weight, height and head circumference in underweight children have significant difference with normal children and, despite the same slope, these children can not compensate for the backwardness of its growth to the age of two. So you need to plot separate growth curves for these children and, possible preventive measures should be taken to prevent bearing underweight baby.

  16. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging may show abnormalities in the normal-appearing cervical spinal cord from patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Miraldi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD.

  17. [Changes induced by parturition in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in obese and normal weight women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, W; Adoncecchi, L; Suraci, C; Pecora, P

    1983-07-30

    It is shown that total cholesterol levels in the blood before and immediately after delivery in obese and normal weighing women remain within normal values. Conversely blood triglycerides levels, higher than normal prior to delivery, are shown to drop back to normal values within three days (p 0.001). This is not thought to be attributable to labor stress.

  18. Abnormal Akt signalling in bladder epithelial cell explants from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome can be induced by antiproliferative factor treatment of normal bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Susan K; Zhang, Chen-Ou

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether protein kinase B (Akt) signalling and secretion of specific downstream effector proteins are abnormal in specific cell fractions of bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), as explanted bladder epithelial cells from patients with IC/BPS produce a frizzled 8-related glycopeptide antiproliferative factor (APF) that inhibits normal bladder epithelial cell proliferation and expression of several proteins known to be regulated by Akt signalling. A related secondary objective was to determine whether treatment of normal bladder epithelial cells with active synthetic asialo-antiproliferative factor (as-APF) induces similar changes in Akt signalling and specific downstream effector proteins/mRNAs. Cell proteins were extracted into four subcellular fractions from primary bladder epithelial explants of six patients who fulfilled modified National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) criteria for IC/BPS and six age- and gender-matched controls. Total and/or phosphorylated cellular Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and β-catenin; total cellular JunB; and secreted matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) levels were determined by Western blot. MMP2, JunB, p53, uroplakin 3 (UPK3), and β-actin mRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Akt activity was determined by nonradioactive assay. IC/BPS cells had lower Akt activity, along with lower Akt ser473- and GSK3β ser9-phosphorylation and higher β-catenin ser33,37/thr41-phosphorylation in specific fractions as compared with matched control cells. IC/BPS explants also had evidence of additional downstream abnormalities compared with control cells, including lower nuclear JunB; lower secreted MMP2 and HB-EGF; plus lower MMP2, JunB, and UPK3 mRNAs but higher p53 mRNA relative to β-actin. Each of these IC

  19. Towards an Explanation of Overeating Patterns Among Normal Weight College Women: Development and Validation of a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Christine Runyan II

    1998-01-01

    Although research describing relationships between psychosocial factors and various eating patterns is growing, a model which explains the mechanisms through which these factors may operate is lacking. A model to explain overeating patterns among normal weight college females was developed and tested. The model contained the following variables: global adjustment, eating and weight cognitions, emotional eating, and self-efficacy. Three hundred ninety-o...

  20. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and ‘normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. Results: 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p Conclusion: The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  1. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Natascha-Alexandra; Kersting, Anette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and 'normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p < 0.001; silhouette scales: d = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.57-2.25, p < 0.001). Meta-regression revealed a significant association of female gender and higher body dissatisfaction (b = 0.60, p = 0.007). The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Photogrammetry of fetal breathing movements during the third trimester of pregnancy: observations in normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Soto, V; Camacho, A; Moscoso, G; Navarrete, L

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate parameters of fetal breathing movements-displacement of the fetal abdominal wall during inspiration and expiration, time of inspiration and expiration and speed of inspiration and expiration-between 30 and 36 weeks' gestation in normal pregnancies, and in those complicated by gestational diabetes or maternal hypertension. Three categories of pregnancy were investigated: 49 were normal, 16 had pregnancy-induced diabetes and 10 were hypertensive. According to their gestational age, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A between 30 and 32 weeks' gestation and Group B between 33 and 36 weeks. Using photogrammetry and a computer-operated algorithm, six parameters of fetal breathing movements were investigated. There were significant differences in the various fetal parameters measured among the three categories of pregnant women. Up until 32 weeks of gestation, the displacements during inspiration and expiration were larger, the speeds of inspiration and expiration were higher, and the times for inspiration and expiration were shorter in the diabetic and hypertensive groups than in the normal group. In the later period, between 33 and 36 weeks, fetuses of pregnancy-induced diabetic patients showed the lowest inspiration and expiration times and the highest speeds of inspiration and expiration. Photogrammetry in conjunction with a computer-operated algorithm can be used to assess fetal breathing movements. There are significant differences in fetal breathing movements between normal pregnancies and those that are complicated by gestational diabetes or hypertension.

  3. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  4. Effects of propolis and gamma-cyclodextrin on intestinal neoplasia in normal weight and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjin; Gutierrez, Linda; Bordonaro, Michael; Russo, Daniel; Anzelmi, Frank; Hooven, Jayde T; Cerra, Carmine; Lazarova, Darina L

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). This effect might be attributed to adipokine-supported signaling. We have established that propolis suppresses survival signaling in CRC cells in vitro; therefore, we ascertained the ability of a propolis supplement to modulate intestinal neoplastic development in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+/J mice in the lean and obese state. To induce obesity, mice were fed with a Western diet containing 40% fat. Since the propolis supplement includes gamma-cyclodextrin, the interventions included diets supplemented with or without gamma-cyclodextrin. The animals were administered the following diets: (1) control diet, (2) control diet/gamma-cyclodextrin, (3) control diet/propolis, (4) Western diet, (5) Western diet/gamma-cyclodextrin, and (6) Western diet/propolis. Western diet, resulting in obesity, accelerated neoplastic progression, as evidenced by the larger size and higher grade dysplasia of the neoplasms. In the context of normal weight, gamma-cyclodextrin and propolis affected neoplastic progression, as determined by the size of the lesions and their grade of dysplasia. A statistically significant decrease in the number of adenomas was detected in mice fed a control diet with the propolis supplement (61.8 ± 10.6 vs. 35.3 ± 7.6, P = 0.008). Although there was no significant difference in the polyp numbers between the six groups, the mice with the lowest number and size of adenomas were those fed a Western diet with gamma-cyclodextrin. This unexpected outcome might be explained by the increased levels of apoptosis detected in the intestinal tissues of these obese mice. We posit that butyrate derived from the metabolism of gamma-cyclodextrin may contribute to the decreased neoplastic burden in the context of obesity; however, future studies are required to address this possibility. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kuebler

    Full Text Available Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve. Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  6. Body composition analysis by air displacement plethysmography in normal weight to extremely obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Anthony, Steven J; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-04-01

    To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m(2) ), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM, kg), fat mass (FM, kg), and body fat (BF, %) were analyzed with both technologies. All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.95, P < 0.001 for FFM, FM, and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P < 0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P < 0.001), and 37 and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P < 0.05 for all). Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  8. Fasting leptin and glucose in normal weight, over weight and obese men and women diabetes patients with and without clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Sheikh, Shehnaz; Fawad, Asher; Haleem, Muhammad A

    2017-06-01

    A large number of diabetes patients suffer from major depression and are at high risk of mortality. In view of a role of leptin in diabetes, depression and energy homeostasis, the present study concerns circulating levels of leptin in different BMI groups of un-depressed and depressed diabetes patients. Six hundred thirty male and female patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes were grouped according to BMI and with or without clinical symptoms of depression. Age matched healthy, normal weight male and female volunteers without clinical symptoms of depression or diabetes were taken as controls. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h. Serum was stored for the determination of leptin and glucose. We found that there were more female than male diabetes patients with comorbid depression. Fasting leptin was higher in normal weight non-diabetes women than men; but comparable in normal weight men and women diabetes patients. Fasting glucose levels were higher in diabetes than non diabetes groups; values were comparable in men and women. Depression was associated with a decrease and increase in leptin respectively in normal-overweight and obese men and women diabetes patients. Glucose levels were also higher in obese depressed than un-depressed diabetes patients. The results suggested that the female gender is at greater risk to comorbid diabetes with depression. Adipo-insular axis plays an important role in diabetes, associated depression and in the greater risk of the female gender to comorbid diabetes with depression.

  9. Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsdottir Inga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight. A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10. Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10, whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10 Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake.

  10. Annual research review: Growth connectomics--the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-03-01

    We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  12. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    .025) and decreased 30-min serum insulin levels (p = 0.047) after an oral glucose load. In glucose-tolerant individuals the same allele was associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentration (p = 0.019) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; p = 0.026). To study the complex...... interaction of WFS1 rs734312 on insulin release and insulin resistance we introduced Hotelling's T (2) test. Assuming bivariate normal distribution, we constructed standard error ellipses of the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR when stratified according to glucose tolerance status around the means of each WFS1...... rs734312 genotype level. The interaction term between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and abnormal glucose regulation on the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with the traits (p = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes-associated risk alleles of WFS1...

  13. Glucose tolerance study in low and normal birth weight young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the commonest congenital heart abnormality beyond the age of one year. Cases of Tetralogy of Fallot can present during pregnancy following successful surgical repair in childhood or occasionally as uncorrected TOF presenting for the first time during pregnancy, indeed the most frequently ...

  14. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  15. Do overweight workers profit by workplace health promotion, more than their normal-weight peers? Evaluation of a worksite intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Linnig, Stefan; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirco; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Worksite health promotion programs have been identified as strongly effective in decreasing body weight and increasing awareness and change in health behavior. Aim of this study is to determine the effects of a multi-component intervention in workplace health promotion. In a controlled study trail, 1,573 workers of a logistics company had the chance to participate in a one year worksite health promotion program. Main elements of the multi-component intervention were physical activity training in combination with nutrition counseling. Employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and then again after twelve month. Main outcome variables were changes in body weight and health behaviors. Secondary outcomes were subjective health indicators. Our results showed preliminary improvements in physical activity and eating behavior among normal weight and overweight/obesity weight groups. No significant weight reduction could be found, only a minimal reduction of BMI. The reduction was larger in the overweight group. Workers considered overweight or obese showed significantly greater body weight loss and changes in eating behavior than workers with a normal weight status. Workers with obesity/overweight scored their general health status significantly lower than their colleagues with normal weight status. No significant improvements were found for overall perception of health status between baseline and follow-up in the BMI-groups. This 12-month intervention-control study suggests that a well-implemented multi-component workplace health promotion program may support substantial change in health behavior (e.g. nutrition and physical activity). It is indicated that overweight employees may especially profit from such worksite health promotion. An investigation of long-term effects of this multi-component intervention is strongly recommended.

  16. Birth weight correlates with size but not shape of the normal human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussner, E; Schmitz, C; von Koch, F; Frank, H-G

    2013-07-01

    Studies on developmental programming rely on various measures of size and form of the human placenta. Size and form are not independent of each other and covariation patterns were not determined systematically. Twenty-two morphologic parameters were determined on 418 placentas from uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. We determined (i) placenta weight and birth weight, (ii) form parameters such as diameters, thickness, roundness, and eccentricity of cord insertion, and (iii) shape variability by geometric morphometry. Geometric morphometry analyzes shape variability independent of size. We define the technical terms form and shape according to the language of geometric morphometry. Placenta weight correlated with birth weight. The form parameters correlated variably with placenta weight and shape. Shape variability did not correlate with birth weight and placenta weight. The correlation of placenta weight with birth weight stays a cornerstone of prenatal programming. Shape analysis shows that form parameters are hybrids of size and shape. Shape variability can be interpreted as an outcome of adaptation of a placenta to maternal factors and the associated uterine habitat. Correlation analysis of the whole data array provides a rigorous statistical frame to interpret published data and plan new studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  18. Research surface resistance of copper normal and abnormal skin-effects depending on the frequency of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz

  19. Differences in brain functional connectivity at resting state in neonates born to healthy obese or normal-weight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Andres, A; Shankar, K; Pivik, R T; Glasier, C M; Ramakrishnaiah, R H; Zhang, Y; Badger, T M; Ou, X

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers. Two weeks after delivery, the infants underwent an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination during natural sleep, which included structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans. Independent component analysis was used to identify the prefrontal lobe network, and dual regression was used to compare functional connectivity between groups. Infants born to normal-weight mothers had higher recruiting (Pmaternal intelligence quotient, gestational weight gain and infant postmenstrual age, gender, birth weight/length, head circumference and neonatal diet. The functional connectivity strength in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex negatively correlated (Pmaternal fat mass percentage measured at early pregnancy. This preliminary study indicates that exposure to maternal obesity in utero may be associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity in the newborn offspring's brain.

  20. Comparison of normal and abnormal fertilization of in vitro-matured human oocyte according to insemination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose was to compare the normal fertilization rate, multi-pronuclei (PN) formation rate, and embryonic development of in vitro-matured oocytes between conventional insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 213 stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were selected, in which at least one immature oocyte was obtained (from 2010 to 2014). Immature oocytes were assigned to germinal vesicle (GV)-stage or metaphase I (MI)-stage oocyte groups. Cycles with obligatory ICSI due to male-factor infertility were excluded. Cycles were divided into two groups according to fertilization method: there were 97 cycles with conventional insemination and 116 cycles with ICSI. After in vitro maturation of 324 GV-stage oocytes and 341 MI-stage oocytes, the fertilization rate, multi-PN formation rate, and embryonic development were compared according to the fertilization method. The normal fertilization rate was similar in the conventional insemination and the ICSI both in GV-derived and MI-derived oocytes. Both fertilization methods resulted in a similar multi-PN formation rate in GV-derived oocytes; however, in MI-derived oocytes, the multi-PN formation rate was zero with ICSI and this was significantly lower than that with conventional insemination (9.6%, P = 0.001). In non-male-factor infertility, ICSI should be considered when MI oocytes are matured. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2015-05-30

    The results of several papers have confirmed the existence of correlations between an unhealthy diet and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, relationships between eating habits and metabolic obesity with normal weight have not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to determine which dietary patterns are present in individuals with a normal BMI and to find out whether those patterns were connected with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its features. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 2479 subjects with a normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), aged between 37-66. The study included the evaluation of eating habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests and the analysis of the collected fasting-blood samples, on the basis of which cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were determined. Dietary patterns were determined by means of factor analysis. In the group of individuals with a normal BMI, four dietary patterns were distinguished: "healthy", "fat, meat and alcohol", "prudent" and "coca cola, hard cheese and French fries". After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of prudent dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the metabolic obesity normal weight) (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.89; p cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.99; p cholesterol concentration and increased glucose concentration.

  2. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C Leone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha(-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  3. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  4. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  5. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  6. An exploration of salivation patterns in normal weight and obese children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen, Vandana A.; Stein, Richard I.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether children's changes in salivary habituation to food vary based on weight status and/or allocating attention to a task. Children (31 non-overweight and 26 obese, ages 9–12 year) were presented with nine trials of a food stimulus and either listened to an audiobook (attention-demanding) or white noise (no-attention control). The salivary pattern differed significantly by weight status but not by condition or a condition by weight status interaction. This is the first study of salivary habituation in obese children; findings dovetail with an emerging set of evidence that obese individuals display distinctive biological responses to food. PMID:22172456

  7. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy......Background: Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating...... Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured...

  8. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  9. Abnormal intracellular localization of Bax with a normal membrane anchor domain in human lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah-eldin, A; Inoue, S; Tsuda, M; Matsuura, A

    2000-12-01

    Proapoptotic Bax is a member of the Bcl-2 family proteins, which have a key role in regulating programmed cell death. The intracellular localization and redistribution of Bax are important in promoting apoptosis. Bax contains a BH3 domain heterodimerizing with Bcl-2 and a hydrophobic transmembrane segment to be inserted in specified organelle membranes. In this study, Bcl-2 showed cytoplasmic localization in all of ten human lung cancer cell lines tested. Interestingly, Bax was localized in the nucleus in 7 cell lines, although Bax lacks nuclear import signals. This may allow cancer cells to escape from apoptosis. Why Bax is able to exist in the nucleus is still unclear. We hypothesized that mutation in the BH3 domain and / or transmembrane segment of Bax possibly causes intracellular Bax distribution. We analyzed the sequence of the bax gene in these cell lines and found only a silent point mutation at codon 184 (TCG-->TCA) in the transmembrane segment in all cell lines. This finding indicates that changes in cellular localization of Bax in lung cancer cell lines do not depend on bax mutation and that Bax is possibly translocated into the nucleus without any mutation. This is the first report showing that Bax with the normal amino acid sequence can be localized in the nucleus in established lung cancer cell lines without any treatment of the cells.

  10. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  11. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpta Serra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: No long-term studies of renal function evolution in morbidly obese (MO patients after weight loss are available. The aim of our work was to ascertain the long-term influence of drastic weight reduction on renal function in MO patients with obesity-related glomerular lesions. Methods: 92 MO patients with normal renal function and biopsy evidence of mild obesity-related glomerulopathy underwent bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases. Linear mixed models were applied. Results: Blood pressure dropped early after BS and remained stable thereafter. Creatinine clearance and BMI fell in the first 2 years, rose slightly after 5 years and then remained stable. Serum creatinine and albuminuria decreased throughout the follow-up period. Renal function and albuminuria evolution showed non-significant differences in relation to the number of glomerular lesions. Conclusions: Drastic weight loss in BS-treated MO patients with pre-surgical normal renal function and mild obesity-related glomerular lesions is associated with short- and long-term maintenance of normal renal function and improvement in both arterial hypertension and albuminuria.

  12. Comparative evidence of the consumption from fast-food restaurants between normal-weight and obese Saudi schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Hmidan A; Brookes, Denise Sk; Davies, Peter Sw

    2018-04-06

    To provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between obesity and fast-food consumption by comparing urban obese and normal-weight Saudi Arabian children. A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. Participants were divided into two groups (normal weight and obese) and further stratified by sex. Groups were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. A self-paced questionnaire was used to collect data relating to food consumption. Weight height and waist circumference were measured and bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all children. Capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Children aged 9·00-11·99 years (n 1023). Compared with normal-weight groups, intake frequency of fast food/week was higher among the obese groups (Pfast-food consumption outside (Pfast-food meals together was a protective factor against obesity (OR; 95 % CI: 2·67; 1·44, 4·96, Pfast foods (P=0·021), child-friendly menu (P=0·020) and meal cost (Pfast-food restaurants; these data were replicated for parents with obese boys, but not girls. Development of effective interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren requires greater research-based evidence of fast-food consumption habits and practices associated with increased childhood obesity.

  13. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results: No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P...

  15. Study on the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal and those with abnormal glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and those with glucose metabolism dysfunction. Methods: Insulin resistance and β-cell function were studied with oral glucose tolerance test and the following parameters: 2h insulin/2h plasma glucose (2hIns/2hPG), insulin resistance index (IRI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and 30 min net increment of insulin/30min net increment of glucose (AI 30 /AG 30 ) were examined in 44 individuals with NGT, 45 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 66 recently diagnosed diabetics and 175 well-established diabetics. Results: The insulin resistance index (IRI) increased progressively from that in NGT individuals to that in recently diabetics (20 ± 1. 5→3.1 ± 1.6→4.1 ± 1.8), while the 2hIns/2hPG, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI decreased progressively with significant differences between those in successive groups (P 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI kept decreasing (values in patients with disease history less than 3 yrs vs those in patients with disease over 3yrs: 2.9 ± 3.2 vs 2.4 + 2.3, 30.2 + 1.1 vs 23.4 ± 2.3, P 30 /ΔG 30 were significantly correlated with ISI (F =96.3, 58.4 and 47.5 respectively). For principal component analysis display, the cumulative contribution rate of four parameters (2hIns/2hPG, ISI, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and 2h C-peptide) exceeded 85% (86.5%). Conclusion: As the dysfunction of glucose metabolism proceeded from IGT to well established diabetes, the IR increased first with decrease of β-cell secretion followed. The parameters 2hIns/2hPG, ISI, 2h C-peptide ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 were especially useful for the investigation . (authors)

  16. Expression of the IL-6 receptor alpha-chain (CD126) in normal and abnormal plasma cells in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Dalia Abdel-Raouf; Korde, Neha; Venzon, David J; Liewehr, David J; Maric, Irina; Calvo, Katherine R; Braylan, Raul; Tembhare, Prashant R; Yuan, Constance M; Landgren, Carl Ola; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2018-01-01

    IL-6 activity in normal plasma cells (nPCs) and abnormal plasma cells (aPCs) is CD126 (subunit of IL-6 receptor) dependent. We quantified CD126 expression on nPCs and aPCs in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM). CD126 was detected on all nPCs and aPCs indicating that CD126 does not have diagnostic utility. CD126 expression was higher in aPCs than in nPCs in 85% SMM but only 41% MGUS and there was evidence that CD126 was higher in aPCs than nPCs in the SMM (p = .048) but not MGUS (p = .96) patients. There is also a greater association between nPC and aPC CD126 expression in low risk MGUS than observed in high risk MGUS and SMM, suggesting normal regulation of CD126 decreases with disease progression. Future studies need to elucidate the role of bone marrow milieu versus escape from normal CD126 regulation in malignant transformation of clonal plasma cells.

  17. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  18. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  19. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An exploration of salivation patterns in normal weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen, Vandana A; Stein, Richard I; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether children's changes in salivary habituation to food vary based on weight status and/or allocating attention to a task. Children (31 non-overweight and 26 obese, ages 9-12 year) were presented with nine trials of a food stimulus and either listened to an audiobook (attention-demanding) or white noise (no-attention control). The salivary pattern differed significantly by weight status but not by condition or a condition by weight status interaction. This is the first study of salivary habituation in obese children; findings dovetail with an emerging set of evidence that obese individuals display distinctive biological responses to food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of green-leafy vegetable intake on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic responses and α-tocopherol concentration in normal weight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Kikuchi, Nahoko; Masuya, Yumiko; Hirota, Saki; Araki, Risa; Maruyama, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable consumption has been encouraged as a component of nutritional education for obese and insulin-resistant patients. However, the benefits of vegetable intake in a therapeutic diet on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic responses have not been clarified. We studied the effects of the intake of spinach, a green-leafy vegetable rich in dietary fiber and α-tocopherol, with a fat-rich meal on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic changes. Fourteen normal weight and 10 obese men consumed three test meals of bread, as a control, bread and butter, and bread and butter with boiled spinach. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after consuming the test meals. Compared with the bread meal, consumption of the bread and butter meal showed a reduced peak glucose response at 30 min in normal (pleafy vegetable intake with a fat-rich meal is effective for supplying postprandial α-tocopherol in obese subjects, but consumption of a regular-sized dish cannot be expected to improve abnormal postprandial hyperglycemic or hyperlipidemic responses.

  2. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Felici, Elisa; Gagliardi, Cristina; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; De Robertis, Marco; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. 205 subjects at the age ≥ 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p obesity in the elderly.

  3. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William JA; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl LH; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Objective: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Design: Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Results: Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level–dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Conclusions: Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02041039. PMID:24695888

  4. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI

  6. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the

  7. Assessing Differences in Risk Perceptions About Obesity Among "Normal-Weight" and "Overweight" Adolescents--A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, SubbaRao M; Rao, K Mallikarjuna; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Avula, Laxmaiah

    2015-01-01

    To assess the differences in risk perceptions of overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents about obesity and associated risk factors. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs). Five randomly selected schools from the South Indian city of Hyderabad. Seventy-nine adolescents (ages 11-14 years) participated in 10 FGDs (5 each with overweight/obese and normal-weight groups). Whether obesity-related risk perceptions differ with actual weight status or not. FGDs were recorded, transcribed, and manually coded for thematic analysis. Results were presented according to 6 themes. At each stage of coding and analysis, reports were read independently by 2-3 researchers and the inter-coder reliability was high (ratio of number of agreements against the sum of agreements plus disagreements was over 90%). Adolescents across the groups had limited understanding of nutrition during adolescence as well as causes and consequences of obesity. The optimistic bias that they were less vulnerable compared to others to the risks of obesity was evident from perceptions of overweight groups. While overweight adolescents argued that obesity was hereditary, the normal-weight participants perceived "faulty food habits" and laziness as the reasons. Adolescents across the groups considered fruits and vegetables as healthy foods. There were clear differences in perceptions of adolescents of different weight status. Employing the risk perception analysis framework, this study identified the following adolescent traits: responsive, avoidance, and indifference, which may be useful for developing nutrition communication programs. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of subgingival red complex bacteria in obese and normal weight subjects with and without chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Mahendra, Jaideep; Kumar, Angabakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep; Singh, Gurdeep; Jayaraman, Selvaraj; Paul, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the systemic conditions which influence the onset and progression of periodontal disease and it is stated that the metabolic changes associated with obesity may contribute to alteration in subgingival microbial flora. Our study was aimed to quantify and compare the red complex microorganisms in obese or overweight and normal weight participants with and without chronic periodontitis to identify obesity as a risk for the presence of red complex bacteria. The study group consisted of 120 participants of age between 20 and 45 years of both the sexes. According to periodontal status, the participants were categorized into four groups as follows: thirty overweight or obese individuals with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group I), thirty normal weight individuals with chronic periodontitis (Group II), thirty overweight or obese individuals with healthy periodontium (Group III), and thirty normal weight individuals with healthy periodontium (Group IV). After the assessment of periodontal parameters, subgingival plaque sample collection was carried out to quantify the red complex bacteria by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Increase in red complex bacterial count was seen in group I compared to other groups. A positive correlation of red complex bacteria with body mass index and waist circumference was seen in Group I and III. In our study, obese individuals with periodontal disease harbored increased red complex bacteria. This states that the obesity could be a risk for the colonization of red complex microorganisms, which in turn may further lead to periodontal inflammation.

  9. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  10. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children’s...... Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre...... and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity....

  11. Insulin and leptin levels in overweight and normal-weight Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

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    Ehsan Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aim to compare insulin and leptin levels in adolescents with or without excess weight and in those with or without abdominal obesity. Materials and Methods : This case-control study was conducted among 486 samples. We randomly selected 243 overweight and an equal number of normal-weight adolescents from among participants of the third survey of a national surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non-communicable diseases study." Serum insulin and leptin were compared between two groups and their correlation was determined with other variables. Results: The mean age and body mass index (BMI of participants were 14.10 ± 2.82 years and 22.12 ± 6.49 kg/m 2 , respectively. Leptin and insulin levels were higher in overweight than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05. Leptin level was higher in children with abdominal obesity than in their other counterparts (P < 0.001. Leptin level was correlated with age, fasting blood glucose, BMI, and insulin level. Conclusion: Insulin and leptin levels were higher among overweight and obese children, which may reflect insulin and leptin-resistance. Given the complications of excess weight from early life, prevention and controlling childhood obesity should be considered as a health priority.

  12. Dietary restraint in normal weight and overweight children. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, C; Wydhooge, K

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the degree to which actual fatness and negative self-esteem might be linked to dietary restraint in childhood. Subjects were 426 boys and 319 girls, aged 10.6 y (+/- 1 y). Forty-nine children were overweight (> 30%) and 149 subjects were in the category 'moderately overweight' (10-30% overweight). Measures of self-esteem and dietary restraint were used in the analyses. Dietary restraint was observable in all weight groups and significantly more in girls. Boys and girls with an existing fatness problem showed more dietary restraint. Weight status, not self-esteem, turned out to be the best predictor of dietary restraint. Because there were good reasons to expect side-effects of the observed dietary restraint in obese children in the long term, valuable alternatives like changes in the life-style and interventions that enhance body image and self-esteem were recommended.

  13. Association of the components of the metabolic syndrome with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease among normal-weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents

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    Kelishadi Roya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, abnormalities of liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver, as well as the inter-related associations in normal weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 1107 students (56.1% girls, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. In addition to physical examination, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes were determined. Liver sonography was performed among 931 participants. These variables were compared among participants with different body mass index (BMI categories. Results From lower to higher BMI category, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure increased, and HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly. Elevated ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were documented in respectively 4.1%, 6.6% and 9.8% of normal weight group. The corresponding figure was 9.5%, 9.8% and 9.1% in overweight group, and 16.9%, 14.9% and 10.8% in obese group, respectively. In all BMI categories, ALT increased significantly by increasing the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Odds ratio for elevated liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver increased significantly with higher number of the components of the metabolic syndrome and higher BMI categories before and after adjustment for age. Conclusions Because of the interrelationship of biochemical and sonographic indexes of fatty liver with the components of the metabolic syndrome, and with increase in their number, it is suggested to determine the clinical impact of such association in future longitudinal studies.

  14. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

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    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  15. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-12-01

    Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task

  16. Association of meat and dairy consumption with normal weight metabolic obesity in men: the Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Sima; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdieh; Ziaee, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is not limited to obese individuals. Normal weight individuals may also be insulin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the association of lifestyle and diet patterns with IR in normal weight Iranian men. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 men with a body mass index lower than 25 kg/m(2) (aged 20-72 years old) between September 2010 and April 2011 in Qazvin, Iran. Metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) was defined as IR using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The optimal cut point to diagnose IR was the 80th percentile of HOMA-IR values in normal subjects. The HOMA-IR cut point was 2.48. Dietary pattern was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression and ANCOVA. Fat and meat consumption and energy intake in subjects with MONW were more than subjects without MONW. Each serving of meat consumption was associated with three times increased risk of MONW (OR: 3.06), while each serving of dairy consumption was associated with 56 % lower risk of MONW with borderline significance (OR: 0.64). Adjusted mean of HOMA-IR in the first tertile of dairy consumption was significantly higher than other tertiles. Adjusted HOMA-IR value in the third tertile of meat consumption was significantly higher than the second tertile. Higher meat consumption was associated with MONW in men. Higher meat consumption and lower dairy consumption were associated with higher means of HOMA-IR.

  17. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...

  18. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown.To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction.These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  20. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and normal weight in French youth from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Baudelet, Jean-Benoît; Fardy, Paul S; Béghin, Laurent; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in French youth from 2009 to 2013 and to determine if there are differences in weight categories according to socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study performed in different regions of France. Physical measures included weight, height and BMI. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points from the International Obesity Task Force. France. Children and adolescents (n 9670; 4836 boys, 4834 girls) from the French national BOUGE Program between 2009 and 2013. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls (P0·05) and remained unchanged in boys (7·1-7·3 %) between 2009 and 2013. Overweight and obesity were higher in low socio-economic families (Pobesity increased significantly. Changes in underweight, although not significant, were high in girls and merit further attention. Improving public health interventions, especially in high-risk low socio-economic populations, may help to modify the behaviour that contributes to underweight, overweight and obesity in young boys and girls.

  1. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  2. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.L.; Welman, C.J.; Celliers, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  3. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.

  4. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1 23 I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional 123 I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull's-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended 123 I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull's-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  5. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

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    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jiin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  7. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Choi, Jiin

    2015-01-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  8. Body Composition in Healthy Obese/Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects Compared to Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Yosaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous studies, patient with metabolic syndrome (MetS are different in terms of body composition from healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine the body composition of healthy obese/overweight patients and compared them with those having MetS. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on both men and women aged 20 to 55 years, who were selected using sequential sampling method, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, from those referred to an endocrinology and the diabetes clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and forty seven subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into three groups, including 49 with MetS, 49 obese/overweight subjects without MetS, and 49 were normal weight subjects. Body composition was measured for all subjects using bioelectrical impedance analysis. NCEP ATP III was the criterion for definition of Mets. Results: No significant differences were found between the study groups in terms of demographic variables. The mean of the waist circumference (WC was higher in MetS patients (P < 0.05 as compared with the control groups. Obese/overweight group had higher percentage of body fat and lower fat free mass than normal weight group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Obese/overweight patients with and without MetS had significantly higher fat mass and WC than normal weight controls, while only WC was higher in MetS group as compared with obese/overweight patients without MetS. Therefore, reduction in body fat and WC should be emphasized in patients with MetS.

  9. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The normalized weighting factor method: A novel technique for accelerating the convergence of high-resolution convective schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, M.D.; Moukalled, F. [American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    This article deals with the development of a new method for accelerating the solution of flow problems discretized using high-resolution convective schemes. The technique is based on the normalized variable and space formulation (NVSF) methodology and is denoted here by the normalized weighting-factor (NWF) method. In contrast with the well-known deferred-correction (DC) procedure, the NWF method is fully implicit and is derived by directly replacing the control-volume face values by their functional relationships in the discretized equation. The direct substitution is performed by the introduction of a variable, NWF, that accounts for the multiplicity of interpolation profiles in HR schemes. The new method is compared with the widely used DC procedure and is shown to be, on average, four times faster.

  11. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    /kg body wth) for 4.5 h. SUBJECTS: A total of 18 healthy, normal weight young subjects participated; eight women and 10 men. MEASUREMENTS: During the infusion, subjects recorded their appetite sensations every 30 min using visual analogue scales, and blood was sampled frequently. After 2 h of infusion...... meals, or energy intake were different on the two occasions. Glucose, GLP-1, insulin, and GIP responses were also unaffected by the infusion, whereas glucagon levels were higher during the GLP-2 treatment (P

  12. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  13. Comparative study of rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue on magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zimei; Wang Xizhen; Wang Bin; Liu Feng; Li Haiqing; Sun Yequan; Dong Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in evaluating the blood perfusion of tumor by analyzing the features and indexes of PWI on rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 carcinoma were established under direct surgical vision embedding tumor tissue. MR examination was performed at 21 days after the tumor implantation. The signal intensity -time curve of hepatic tumor and normal liver tissue were obtained. Mean time to enhance (MTE), negative enhancement integral (NEI), time to minimum (TM), maximum slope of decrease (MSD) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were measured. Results: MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the normal liver tissue were 208.341±2.226 ms, 78.334±8.152, 24.059±1.927 ms, 38.221±2.443, and 15.389±2.526, respectively. MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the tumor tissue were 175.437±4.182 ms, 123.203±19.455, 17.061±1.834 ms, 125.740±4.842, and 67.832±2.882, respectively. The MTE and TM of tumor were shorter than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). NEI, MSD, and MSI of tumor were higher than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: PWI can distinguish the normal liver tissue from the tumor tissue, which is helpful in evaluating blood perfusion of different hepatic tissues. (authors)

  14. Point-of-care testing for coagulation function: CoaguChek®XS System versus standard laboratory testing in pediatric patients with normal and abnormal coagulation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Hiromi; Raman, Vidya T; Tumin, Dmitry; Rice, Julie; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-06-01

    Intraoperative abnormalities of coagulation function may occur for various reasons. In most scenarios, treatment is directed by laboratory parameters. Unfortunately, standard laboratory testing may take 1-2 h. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a point-of-care testing device (CoaguChek ® XS System) in pediatric patients. Patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years, undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) or cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were eligible for inclusion. After CPB and/or the surgical procedure, 2.8 ml of blood was obtained and simultaneously tested on both the standard laboratory apparatus and the CoaguChek ® XS System. The study cohort consisted of 100 patients (50 PSF and 50 cardiac cases) with 13 cases excluded, leaving 87 patients (49 PSF and 38 cardiac cases) for analysis. In PSF cases, reference laboratory international normalized ratio (INR) ranged from 0.98 to 1.77 while CoaguChek ® XS INR ranged from 1.0 to 1.3. The correlation coefficient was 0.69. The results of the Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 0.09, precision of 0.1, and 95% limits of agreement ranging from -0.11 to 0.28. In cardiac cases, reference INR ranged from 1.68 to 14.19, while CoaguChek ® XS INR ranged from 1.4 to 7.9. The correlation coefficient was 0.35. The results of the Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -1.8, precision of 2.1, and 95% limits of agreement ranging from -6.0 to 2.4. INR values obtained from CoaguChek ® XS showed a moderate correlation with reference laboratory values within the normal range. However, in the presence of coagulopathy, the discrepancy was significantly greater, thereby making the CoaguChek ® XS clinically unreliable.

  15. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  16. Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance and eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis in normal weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Marja; Karlsson, Therese; Holmäng, Agneta; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has previously been shown to both overestimate and underestimate average fat mass (FM) in humans. Eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has previously been found biased as well as successfully validated. We report cross-sectional accuracy of QMR and eight-electrode BIA evaluated with air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as reference method. Fat mass and fat free mass (FFM) by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were evaluated against ADP as reference in 38 normal weight and 30 obese women. Total body water estimates by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were compared. Fat mass was overestimated by QMR (1 ± 2 kg, p obese women. Fat free mass biases were of similar magnitude but in opposite direction to FM biases. Total body water estimates were larger by eight-electrode BIA compared to QMR (1-10 kg). Fat mass and FFM by QMR were both biased but in opposite directions in both normal weight and obese women. Eight-electrode BIA FM and FFM estimates were imprecise and biased in obese women. Thus, QMR is more precise and more accurate than eight-electrode BIA for estimating body composition in women, but is not accurate enough to be used for individual single assessment of body composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  18. Impact of smoking cessation on incidence of diabetes mellitus among overweight or normal-weight Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Nishigaki, Yoshio; Maejima, Fumio; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-06-01

    To assess the impact of smoking cessation on incidence of diabetes among overweight or normal-weight Japanese men. This 9.2-year cohort study included 2070 men aged 40-69 years without diabetes. We classified them according to smoking status as non-smokers, past smokers (>9, 6-9, 3-5 and diabetes developed or the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random plasma glucose levels, HbA(1c) levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. During 18,963 person-years of follow-up, 246 of the participants developed diabetes. The risk for diabetes peaked within 3 years of quitting (HR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.38-6.27) and persisted at 5 years after quitting smoking (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18-5.26) among overweight individuals. Moreover, this study identified a high risk for diabetes among past smokers who had quit >9 years in both normal weight and overweight. Cigarette smoking predicts incidence of diabetes, but smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk in overweight and long-term risk in both. Preventing smoking is superior to smoking cessation, and is very important for avoiding diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: A mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Mara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cella, Stefania; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To investigate dysfunctional eating behaviors and psychological variables typically associated to eating disturbances such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, shame, perceived parental care and protectiveness in obese and normal weight adolescents and to examine how the main powerful eating disorder risk factors interact with each other which explains eating psychopathology vulnerability. 111 high school students (68 males; age range 13-19years) classified as obese and 111 age-, sex- and social status-homogeneous normal weight controls were included in the current study. All participants were asked to fill out self-report measures of parental behavior as perceived by the offspring, eating disturbance attitudes and behaviors, self-esteem, perfectionism and shame. Significant differences between the two groups in relation to dysfunctional eating behaviors emerged. Body shame had the strongest relationship to eating problems vulnerability and acted as a mediator in the relationship between low self-esteem and eating disorder risk among both obese and non-obese youngsters. These findings further our understanding of a potential underlying mechanism for eating pathology development in youngsters in general and in obese adolescents in particular, which is of great importance in terms of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

    2011-02-01

    There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Patients with Arthritis or Other Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizo, Justice; Okafor, Anthony; Sutton, Melanie A; Burkhart, Erica N; Stone, Leauna M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 50 million Americans have been diagnosed with arthritis and other musculoskeletal diseases. The purpose of the current study was to (1) estimate the prevalence of overall complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and (2) examine the role of body mass index (BMI) on CAM use among normal weight, overweight, and obese persons with chronic lower back pain, chronic neck pain, chronic/rheumatoid arthritis, or musculoskeletal diseases, while controlling for other covariates. Cross-sectional design using secondary data for 9724 adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted and analyzed by using Stata 12 for Windows (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression statistics were computed. The participants were randomly surveyed from U.S. households. CAM use was measured as reported use of any modality within the five National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health domains. CAM use was statistically significantly associated with female sex; race/ethnicity; having chronic neck pain, lower back pain, or chronic/rheumatoid arthritis; having limitations due to chronic disease; and geographic region (p CAM use included age 50-64 years, income categorized as "other/missing," and having musculoskeletal diseases. Stratification by body mass index suggested increased odds of CAM use among normal/underweight persons with chronic neck pain but decreased odds for those with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. For overweight patients, increased odds of CAM use were significant for chronic lower back pain, musculoskeletal diseases, and chronic/rheumatoid arthritis. Musculoskeletal diseases and arthritis represent important public health problems with economic implications for the well-being of individuals and society. Identifying CAM use trends by patient weight can be used to improve strategies to increase awareness and access to CAM

  3. Case report of a young stroke patient showing interim normalization of the MRI diffusion-weighted imaging lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Usnich, Tatiana; Nolte, Christian H.; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2015-01-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows hyperintensities and is considered to indicate irreversibly damaged tissue. We present the case of a young stroke patient with unusual variability in the development of signal intensities within the same vessel territory. A 35-year-old patient presented with symptoms of global aphasia and hypesthesia of the left hand. MRI demonstrated a scattered lesion in the MCA territory. After rtPA therapy the patient received further MRI examination, three times on day 1, and once on day 2, 3, 5 and 43. The posterior part of the lesion showed the usual pattern with increasing DWI hyperintensity and decreased ADC, as well as delayed FLAIR positivity. However, the anterior part of the lesion, which was clearly visible in the first examination completely normalized on the first day and only reappeared on day 2. This was accompanied by a normalization of the ADC as well as an even further delayed FLAIR positivity. We showed that interim normalization of DWI and ADC in the acute phase can not only be found in rodent models of stroke, but also in humans. We propose that DWI lesion development might be more variable during the first 24 h after stroke than previously assumed

  4. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  5. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, E; Deforche, B; Gentier, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Vaeyens, R; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) with motor skill and coordination is gaining due attention; however, longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. The dual purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the short-term evolution in the level of gross motor coordination according to children's weight status, and (2) to identify those factors predicting their gross motor coordination performance over a 2-year interval. Participants were 50 children with OW, including 8 with OB (aged 6-10 years at baseline, with 52% boys), and 50 with normal-weight (NW) matched for gender and age. Anthropometrics (body height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), %body fat) and level of gross motor coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder, KTK) were assessed in 2007 (baseline) and 2 years later in 2009 (follow-up). At baseline, participants completed a survey based on the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire (FPAQ) to obtain socio-demographic information and to determine physical activity levels in diverse domains. The evolution in the level of gross motor coordination over time was strongly related to children's weight status. Participants in the NW group showed more progress than their OW/OB peers, who demonstrated significantly poorer performances. Accordingly, between-group differences in KTK outcomes (that is, raw item scores and total motor quotient) became more evident over time. Multiple linear regression analysis further indicated that, in addition to BMI per se (negative predictor), participation in organized sports within a sports club (positive predictor) determines gross motor coordination performance(s) 2 years later. Our results provide conclusive evidence for an increasingly widening gap of OW/OB children's gross motor coordination relative to NW peers across developmental time in the absence of targeted initiatives. Special attention is thus needed for OW/OB children, especially for those not practicing sports in a club

  6. Evidence of Non-Linear Associations between Frustration-Related Prefrontal Cortex Activation and the Normal:Abnormal Spectrum of Irritability in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Adam S; Li, Yanwei; Barker, Jeff W; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Huppert, Theodore J; Perlman, Susan B

    2018-01-01

    Burgeoning interest in early childhood irritability has recently turned toward neuroimaging techniques to better understand normal versus abnormal irritability using dimensional methods. Current accounts largely assume a linear relationship between poor frustration management, an expression of irritability, and its underlying neural circuitry. However, the relationship between these constructs may not be linear (i.e., operate differently at varying points across the irritability spectrum), with implications for how early atypical irritability is identified and treated. Our goal was to examine how the association between frustration-related lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation and irritability differs across the dimensional spectrum of irritability by testing for non-linear associations. Children (N = 92; ages 3-7) ranging from virtually no irritability to the upper end of the clinical range completed a frustration induction task while we recorded LPFC hemoglobin levels using fNIRS. Children self-rated their emotions during the task and parents rated their child's level of irritability. Whereas a linear model showed no relationship between frustration-related LPFC activation and irritability, a quadratic model revealed frustration-related LPFC activation increased as parent-reported irritability scores increased within the normative range of irritability but decreased with increasing irritability in the severe range, with an apex at the 91st percentile. Complementarily, we found children's self-ratings of emotion during frustration related to concurrent LPFC activation as an inverted U function, such that children who reported mild distress had greater activation than peers reporting no or high distress. Results suggest children with relatively higher irritability who are unimpaired may possess well-developed LPFC support, a mechanism that drops out in the severe end of the irritability dimension. Findings suggest novel avenues for understanding the

  7. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has

  8. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in young adults from a middle-income country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene B Madeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based birth cohort study examined whether normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in young adults in a middle-income country undergoing rapid nutrition transition. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample involved 1,222 males and females from the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, aged 23-25 years. NWO was defined as body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2 and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds above the sex-specific 90th percentiles of the study sample. It was also defined as normal BMI and % BF (body fat >23% in men and >30% in women. Insulin resistance (IR, insulin sensitivity and secretion were based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA model. RESULTS: In logistic models, after adjusting for age, sex and skin colour, NWO was significantly associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS definition (Odds Ratio OR = 6.83; 95% Confidence Interval CI 2.84-16.47. NWO was also associated with HOMA2-IR (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.57-9.28, low insulin sensitivity (OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.39-6.33, and high insulin secretion (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.24-3.80. Significant associations between NWO and some components of the MS were also detected: high waist circumference (OR = 8.46; 95%CI 5.09-14.04, low High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11-2.47 and high triglyceride levels (OR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.02-3.64. Most estimates changed little after further adjustment for early and adult life variables. CONCLUSIONS: NWO was associated with MS and IR, suggesting that clinical assessment of excess body fat in normal-BMI individuals should begin early in life even in middle-income countries.

  10. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  11. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  12. Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic profile in Danish children and adolescents with normal weight, overweight, or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie T; Fonvig, Cilius E; Nielsen, Tenna R H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether the definitions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) differentially impact estimates of the metabolic profile and IFG-related comorbidities in Danish children and adolescents is unknown. METHODS......, and fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipids were measured. RESULTS: About 14.1% of participants with overweight or obesity exhibited IFG according to the ADA and 3.5% according to the WHO definition. Among individuals with normal weight, the corresponding....... Furthermore, IFG was associated with a higher risk for hypertension (OR = 1.66 [95%CI: 1.21; 2.28], P = .002) and dyslipidemia (OR = 1.90 [95%CI: 1.38; 2.56], P 

  13. Expanded Normal Weight Obesity and Insulin Resistance in US Adults of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilah E. Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to expand the evaluation of normal weight obesity (NWO and its association with insulin resistance using an NHANES (1999–2006 sample of US adults. A cross-sectional study including 5983 men and women (50.8% was conducted. Body fat percentage (BF% was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Expanded normal weight obesity (eNWO categories, pairings of BMI and body fat percentage classifications, were created using standard cut-points for BMI and sex-specific median for BF%. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR levels were used to index insulin resistance. Mean ± SE values were BMI: 27.9 ± 0.2 (women and 27.8 ± 0.1 (men; body fat percentage: 40.5 ± 0.2 (women and 27.8 ± 0.2 (men; and HOMA-IR: 2.04 ± 0.05 (women and 2.47 ± 0.09 (men. HOMA-IR differed systematically and in a dose-response fashion across all levels of the eNWO categories (F=291.3, P<0.0001. As BMI levels increased, HOMA-IR increased significantly, and within each BMI category, higher levels of body fat were associated with higher levels of HOMA-IR. Both high BMI and high BF% were strongly related to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance appears to increase incrementally according to BMI levels primarily and body fat levels secondarily. Including a precise measure of body fat with BMI adds little to the utility of BMI in the prediction of insulin resistance.

  14. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Olivia Santos; de Camargo, Vinicius Tadeu Nunes; Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  15. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  16. Increased urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in very-low-birth-weight infants with oliguria and normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Young; Ha, Ji Yong; Lee, Sang Lak; Lee, Won Mok; Park, Jae Hyun

    2017-06-01

    In infants, oliguria is defined as a urine output of serum cystatin C (CysC) levels in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) with a normal serum creatinine (Cr) level. Fifty-seven VLBWIs were enrolled in the study. Urinary NGAL, serum CysC and Cr levels and urinary NGAL/Cr ratios were measured. Infants with Apgar scores of >5 at 5 min and/or a serum Cr level of >1.5 mg/dL or those treated for patent ductus arteriosus were excluded. In case of antibiotic treatment, blood and urine samples were collected at ≥48 h after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. There was a significant difference in gestational age between infants with oliguric episodes during hospitalization and those without, but not in birth weight, perinatal or postnatal factors. Gestational age was negatively correlated with urinary NGAL and serum CysC levels and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (p serum Cr level and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (p serum CysC or serum Cr levels. The urinary NGAL level [area under the curve (AUC) 0.886, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.814-0.937] and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (AUC 0.853, 95% CI 0.775-0.911) showed significantly greater discrimination for oliguria than serum CysC (AUC 0.610, 95% CI: 0.515-0.699) or serum Cr (AUC 0.747, 95%CI 0.659-0.823) levels. Urinary NGAL level and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio were more sensitive markers for the presence of oliguria in VLBWIs with normal serum Cr levels than serum CysC level.

  17. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Santos Gondim

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,, Overweight Group (OVG and Obese Group (OBG. We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength, cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  18. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  19. Comparison of image quality and visibility of normal and abnormal findings at submillisievert chest CT using filtered back projection, iterative model reconstruction (IMR) and iDose{sup 4}™

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien, E-mail: a.laqmani@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Avanesov, Maxim; Butscheidt, Sebastian; Kurfürst, Maximilian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Derlin, Thorsten; Behzadi, Cyrus [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans D. [Science & Technology for Radiology, Fritz-Reuter-Weg 5f, 21244 Buchholz, Germany, (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To compare both image quality and visibility of normal and abnormal findings at submillisievert chest CT (smSv-CT) using filtered back projection (FBP) and the two different iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques iterative model reconstruction (IMR) and iDose{sup 4}™. Materials and methods: This institutional review board approved study was based on retrospective interpretation of clinically indicated acquired data. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. 81 patients with suspected pneumonia underwent smSv-CT (Brilliance iCT, Philips Healthcare; mean effective dose: 0.86 ± 0.2 mSv). Data were reconstructed using FBP and two different IR techniques iDose{sup 4}™ and IMR (Philips Healthcare) at various iteration levels. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. Two experienced readers independently assessed all images for image noise, image appearance and visibility of normal anatomic and abnormal findings. A random intercept model was used for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to FBP and iDose{sup 4}™, IMR reduced OIN up to 88% and 72%, respectively (p < 0.001). A mild blotchy image appearance was seen in IMR images, affecting diagnostic confidence. iDose{sup 4}™ images provided satisfactory to good image quality for visibility of normal and abnormal findings and were superior to FBP (p < 0.001). IMR images were significantly inferior for visibility of normal structures compared to iDose{sup 4}™, while being superior for visibility of abnormal findings except for reticular pattern (p < 0.001). Conclusion: IMR results for visibility of normal and abnormal lung findings are heterogeneous, indicating that IMR may not represent a priority technique for clinical routine. iDose{sup 4}™ represents a suitable method for evaluation of lung tissue at submillisievert chest CT.

  20. Comparison of image quality and visibility of normal and abnormal findings at submillisievert chest CT using filtered back projection, iterative model reconstruction (IMR) and iDose4™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqmani, Azien; Avanesov, Maxim; Butscheidt, Sebastian; Kurfürst, Maximilian; Sehner, Susanne; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Derlin, Thorsten; Behzadi, Cyrus; Nagel, Hans D; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-11-01

    To compare both image quality and visibility of normal and abnormal findings at submillisievert chest CT (smSv-CT) using filtered back projection (FBP) and the two different iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques iterative model reconstruction (IMR) and iDose 4 ™. This institutional review board approved study was based on retrospective interpretation of clinically indicated acquired data. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. 81 patients with suspected pneumonia underwent smSv-CT (Brilliance iCT, Philips Healthcare; mean effective dose: 0.86±0.2mSv). Data were reconstructed using FBP and two different IR techniques iDose 4 ™ and IMR (Philips Healthcare) at various iteration levels. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. Two experienced readers independently assessed all images for image noise, image appearance and visibility of normal anatomic and abnormal findings. A random intercept model was used for statistical analysis. Compared to FBP and iDose 4 ™, IMR reduced OIN up to 88% and 72%, respectively (p<0.001). A mild blotchy image appearance was seen in IMR images, affecting diagnostic confidence. iDose 4 ™ images provided satisfactory to good image quality for visibility of normal and abnormal findings and were superior to FBP (p<0.001). IMR images were significantly inferior for visibility of normal structures compared to iDose 4 ™, while being superior for visibility of abnormal findings except for reticular pattern (p<0.001). IMR results for visibility of normal and abnormal lung findings are heterogeneous, indicating that IMR may not represent a priority technique for clinical routine. iDose 4 ™ represents a suitable method for evaluation of lung tissue at submillisievert chest CT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (pRespiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (pfunction and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  2. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  4. GOCO05c: A New Combined Gravity Field Model Based on Full Normal Equations and Regionally Varying Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, T.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.

    2017-05-01

    GOCO05c is a gravity field model computed as a combined solution of a satellite-only model and a global data set of gravity anomalies. It is resolved up to degree and order 720. It is the first model applying regionally varying weighting. Since this causes strong correlations among all gravity field parameters, the resulting full normal equation system with a size of 2 TB had to be solved rigorously by applying high-performance computing. GOCO05c is the first combined gravity field model independent of EGM2008 that contains GOCE data of the whole mission period. The performance of GOCO05c is externally validated by GNSS-levelling comparisons, orbit tests, and computation of the mean dynamic topography, achieving at least the quality of existing high-resolution models. Results show that the additional GOCE information is highly beneficial in insufficiently observed areas, and that due to the weighting scheme of individual data the spectral and spatial consistency of the model is significantly improved. Due to usage of fill-in data in specific regions, the model cannot be used for physical interpretations in these regions.

  5. Cognitive performance of low- and normal-birth-weight piglets in a spatial hole-board discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Elise T; Park, Soon Y; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz J

    2012-01-01

    Learning impairments are often seen in children born with low birth weight (LBW). A model with translational value for long-term effects of LBW in humans is needed to further our understanding of how LBW and cognition are related. The similarities between development stages in human infants and piglets, and the high prevalence of LBW piglets make them a naturally occurring potential model in which to study cognitive impairment associated with LBW in humans. Although both groups learned the configurations and rapidly reduced the number of incorrect visits, the LBW piglets showed a transiently retarded acquisition of the first reversal. The results of the experiment support the hypothesis that LBW is related to (mild) subsequent cognitive impairments. In the future, piglets may be suitable models for testing the effects of putative therapeutics. To examine this potential model, we tested pairs of LBW and NBW (normal-birth-weight) piglets in a spatial hole-board (a matrix with 4 × 4 holes in the floor) task during one acquisition and two reversal phases in their own individual configurations of rewarded holes.

  6. An EMG-based feature extraction method using a normalized weight vertical visibility algorithm for myopathy and neuropathy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artameeyanant, Patcharin; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Chamnongthai, Kosin

    2016-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from healthy, myopathic, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects are nonlinear, non-stationary, and similar in the time domain and the frequency domain. Therefore, it is difficult to classify these various statuses. This study proposes an EMG-based feature extraction method based on a normalized weight vertical visibility algorithm (NWVVA) for myopathy and ALS detection. In this method, sampling points or nodes based on sampling theory are extracted, and features are derived based on relations among the vertical visibility nodes with their amplitude differences as weights. The features are calculated via selective statistical mechanics and measurements, and the obtained features are assembled into a feature matrix as classifier input. Finally, powerful classifiers, such as k -nearest neighbor, multilayer perceptron neural network, and support vector machine classifiers, are utilized to differentiate signals of healthy, myopathy, and ALS cases. Performance evaluation experiments are carried out, and the results revealed 98.36% accuracy, which corresponds to approximately a 2% improvement compared with conventional methods. An EMG-based feature extraction method using a NWVVA is proposed and implemented to detect healthy, ALS, and myopathy statuses.

  7. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  8. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jordan, Lori [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Khaykin, Elizabeth [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Izbudak, Izlem [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Jordan, Lori; Khaykin, Elizabeth; Izbudak, Izlem

    2009-01-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  11. Self-regulation of eating and physical activity is lower in obese female college students as compared to their normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Uscanga, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Romo-González, Tania

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is characterized, among other features, by overeating, reduced physical activity and an abnormal accumulation of body fat. These features are thought to result, at least in part, from the individual's inability to self-regulate their eating and physical activity behaviors (E&PaB). Self-regulation of the E&PaB is a three-step sequential process: self-observation, self-evaluation and self-reaction. However, it is yet unclear whether deficient self-regulation of E&PaB could predispose, facilitate and/or consolidate obesity. Unraveling this issue is fundamental in order to more precisely define the role of self-regulation of E&PaB in the management of obesity. This research was focused on the question of whether or not self-regulation of E&PaB is related to obesity in female undergraduate students. This population segment seems especially vulnerable to developing obesity since they undergo a significant shift of their E&PaB upon their university enrollment. To address this question, a cross-sectional study with 108 female undergraduate students with normal weight (n = 80) or obesity (n = 28) was performed, in which self-regulation of eating habits and physical activity was measured by two validated scales and a personal data questionnaire. Female undergraduate students displaying lower E&PaB self-reactions were consistently overweight or obese. In addition, a multivariate analysis identified high levels of self-reaction towards eating habits related to a minor presence of overweight issues or obesity. Self-regulation should be an essential component in the strategies for obesity prevention as an integral approach that must include orientation about healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. In addition, further studies on the effect of self-regulation in the treatment of the obesity are needed.

  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  13. The effect of palm oil, lard, and puff-pastry margarine on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J; Bysted, A; Dawids, S; Hermansen, K; Hølmer, G

    1999-12-01

    Only a few studies have been published on the postprandial effects of different fatty acids in obese subjects. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of three test meals containing palm oil (PO), lard (LD), or puff-pastry margarine (PPM), all normal dietary ingredients, on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women. The study was performed as a randomized, crossover design. The fats differed in the content of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and trans monounsaturated fatty acids allowing a dietary comparison of different 'solid' fatty acids. The obese women had significantly higher fasting concentrations and postprandial responses of plasma total triacylglycerol (TAG), chylomicron-TAG, and insulin compared with the normal-weight women but there was no significant difference in the postprandial responses between the three test meals. The obese women had fasting concentrations of leptin four times greater than the normal-weight women. There were no postprandial changes in the concentrations of leptin. The fasting concentrations of HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the obese women than in the normal-weight women, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol. These results provide evidence that obese women have exaggerated lipid and hormone responses compared with normal-weight women but the different contents of saturated and trans monounsaturated fatty acids provided by PO, LD, and PPM have no effect in either group.

  14. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Harvie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction (IER has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  15. Dystrophin diagnosis: comparison of dystrophin abnormalities by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses.

    OpenAIRE

    Arahata, K; Hoffman, E P; Kunkel, L M; Ishiura, S; Tsukahara, T; Ishihara, T; Sunohara, N; Nonaka, I; Ozawa, E; Sugita, H

    1989-01-01

    Immunoblot characterization and immunofluorescence localization of dystrophin are presented for 76 human patients with various neuromuscular diseases. Normal dystrophin (shown by immunoblotting) was invariably visualized as a continuous, peripheral membrane immunostaining of myofibers. Biochemical abnormalities of dystrophin (either lower or higher molecular weight dystrophin) resulted in patchy, discontinuous immunostaining, suggesting that the abnormal dystrophin proteins are not capable of...

  16. Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Echocardiographic Findings in Overweight Patients Compared to Normal-Weight Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight is currently considered as the main risk factor for various chronic disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases. Unexpected hypertension is the first reaction of heart to overburden imposed by obesity or overweight. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI and echocardiographic findings in overweight patients compared with normal-weight population. methods: This historical cohort study was conducted on 60 patients divided into two group of 30 based on their measured weights, group 1 with BMI of 20-25 kg/m2 as control and group 2 with 25

  17. Postprandial Lipid Response to High-Saturated and High-Monounsaturated Fat Meals in Normal-Weight or Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lílian L; Rocha, Daniela Mayumi U P; Silva, Alessandra da; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M

    2018-02-09

    We evaluated postprandial response of the lipid metabolism markers after the intake of a high-saturated fat (HSM) or high-monounsaturated fat meal (HMM). A randomized, controlled and acute intervention study included 63 women (age 26.9 ± 6.1 years): 35 normal weight (NW) and 28 overweight (OW) (total body fat [TBF] 24.7 ± 3.9% and 36.6 ± 3.9%, respectively). After 12 hours of fasting, each subject was given one of the two test meals standardized, including 2 muffins and water (HSM, 42.1% of saturated fat acid, or HMM, 34.5% of monounsaturated fat acid). Plasma fatty acid profile and concentrations of apolipoproteins A1 and B100, complement C3, and triacylglycerols were analyzed during fasting and at 2, 3, and 5 postprandial hours. Among the markers studied, the triacylglycerol (TAG) and complement C3 were significantly higher in the OW group, compared to NW. The increment in the C3 concentration was higher after HSM intake, compared with HMM (iAUC = 4365.5 ± 5477.4 vs. 1215.2 ± 882.4; p = 0.006), with no differences between groups. After 5 hours postprandial, plasma oleic acid values remained high compared with the fasting value in the NW group, but not in the OW group (26.0 ± 4.2 vs 23.7 ± 3.9%; p postprandial increment of C3 concentration, suggesting another mechanism for saturated fat metabolism. The postprandial response to HSM appears to be the mediated by baseline lipid profile of the individuals, while the response to HMM was correlated to the weight status.

  18. A weighted mean shift, normalized cuts initialized color gradient based geodesic active contour model: applications to histopathology image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Janowczyk, Andrew; Chandran, Sharat; Madabhushi, Anant

    2010-03-01

    While geodesic active contours (GAC) have become very popular tools for image segmentation, they are sensitive to model initialization. In order to get an accurate segmentation, the model typically needs to be initialized very close to the true object boundary. Apart from accuracy, automated initialization of the objects of interest is an important pre-requisite to being able to run the active contour model on very large images (such as those found in digitized histopathology). A second limitation of GAC model is that the edge detector function is based on gray scale gradients; color images typically being converted to gray scale prior to computing the gradient. For color images, however, the gray scale gradient results in broken edges and weak boundaries, since the other channels are not exploited for the gradient determination. In this paper we present a new geodesic active contour model that is driven by an accurate and rapid object initialization scheme-weighted mean shift normalized cuts (WNCut). WNCut draws its strength from the integration of two powerful segmentation strategies-mean shift clustering and normalized cuts. WNCut involves first defining a color swatch (typically a few pixels) from the object of interest. A multi-scale mean shift coupled normalized cuts algorithm then rapidly yields an initial accurate detection of all objects in the scene corresponding to the colors in the swatch. This detection result provides the initial boundary for GAC model. The edge-detector function of the GAC model employs a local structure tensor based color gradient, obtained by calculating the local min/max variations contributed from each color channel (e.g. R,G,B or H,S,V). Our color gradient based edge-detector function results in more prominent boundaries compared to classical gray scale gradient based function. We evaluate segmentation results of our new WNCut initialized color gradient based GAC (WNCut-CGAC) model against a popular region-based model (Chan

  19. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  20. Relationship between abdominal obesity and alcohol drinking pattern in normal-weight, middle-aged adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2017-08-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with obesity-related health risks regardless of body weight. The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol drinking pattern is associated with abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Normal-weight participants aged 40-69 years with BMI of 18·5-25·0 kg/m2 (n 11 289, 4491 men and 6798 women) were included. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men or ≥85 cm for women. Alcohol drinking pattern was assessed by self-report on questionnaires. Among 11 289 normal-weight participants, 7·9 % (n 379) of men and 7·6 % (n 609) of women had abdominal obesity. Both men and women who consumed a higher quantity of alcohol per drinking occasion had higher odds (OR; 95 % CI) for abdominal obesity compared with individuals who consumed fewer than 2 drinks (1·86; 1·04, 3·32 for ≥10 drinks/typical occasion in men; and 3·28; 1·13, 9·46 in women). Men who binge drink every day had higher odds for abdominal obesity (2·10; 1·21, 3·63). In both sexes, frequency of alcohol drinking was not associated with normal-weight abdominal obesity. Our study showed that the amount of alcohol drinking per occasion influenced abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged individuals that may have impacted obesity-related health risks. Healthy alcohol drinking habits need to be controlled for prevention of abdominal obesity even among persons with normal weight.

  1. Gut microbiota and body composition in anorexia nervosa inpatients in comparison to athletes, overweight, obese, and normal weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörkl, Sabrina; Lackner, Sonja; Müller, Wolfram; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kashofer, Karl; Oberascher, Andreas; Painold, Annamaria; Holl, Anna; Holzer, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas; Mangge, Harald; Holasek, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a heterogeneous eating disorder associated with alterations of body structure and the gut microbiome. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of a large female cohort including different BMI groups and activity levels along with body composition parameters. 106 female participants were included in this cross-sectional study: AN patients (n = 18), athletes (n = 20), normal weight (n = 26), overweight (n = 22), and obese women (n = 20). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subjected to 16S rRNA gene analysis. The software Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) was used to analyze data. Additionally, we performed anthropometric assessments, ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, bioimpedance analysis, administered depression inventories, and ascertained laboratory parameters and dietary intakes. Alpha diversity was particularly lower in AN patients and obese participants compared to other groups, while athletes showed highest alpha diversity. Several categories significantly associated with community structure were identified: body fat parameters, serum lipids, CRP, depression scales and smoking. Comparative analysis revealed Coriobacteriaceae as the only enriched phylotype in AN compared to other entities (LDA score >3.5). This study provides further evidence of intestinal dysbiosis in AN and sheds light on characteristics of the gut microbiome in different BMI and physical activity groups. These insights point to new modulation possibilities of the gut microbiota which could improve the standard therapy of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal-weight adults consume more fiber and fruit than their age- and height-matched overweight/obese counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Hodges, Valerie A; Gillham, M Beth

    2006-06-01

    To assess differences in dietary intake of overweight/obese subjects and sex-, age-, and height-matched controls and to identify dietary components associated with increased deposition of body fat. A convenience sample of 52 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight adults matched for sex, age (+/-1 year), and height (+/-1 inch) were recruited from the local area. Dietary intake was assessed with the Block 60-item food frequency questionnaire, physical activity was measured by the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and percent body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t tests compared between-group consumption of dietary components. The ability of dietary components to predict percent body fat before and after controlling for age-, sex-, and physical activity-related energy expenditure and other macronutrients was assessed with multiple regression analyses. Spearman correlation coefficients examined relationships among nutrients, Food Guide Pyramid servings, and percent body fat. Overweight/obese subjects consumed more total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol and less carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, and dietary fiber than control subjects. Reported intake of dietary fiber was inversely related to percent body fat without (R(2)=0.052, P=0.02) and with (R(2)=0.045, P=0.013) control for potential confounding factors. Servings of fruit per day were negatively related to percent body fat (r=-0.40, Pfiber and fruit intake, plays a role in the etiology of obesity.

  4. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  7. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind of information for 3D face recognition (FR), this paper proposes a novel highly discriminative facial shape descriptor, namely multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns (MSMC-LNP). Given a normalized facial range image, three components of normal vectors are first estimated, leading to three normal component images. Then, each normal component image is encoded locally to local normal patterns (LNP) on different scales. To utilize spatial information of facial shape, each normal component image is divided into several patches, and their LNP histograms are computed and concatenated according to the facial configuration. Finally, each original facial surface is represented by a set of LNP histograms including both global and local cues. Moreover, to make the proposed solution robust to the variations of facial expressions, we propose to learn the weight of each local patch on a given encoding scale and normal component image. Based on the learned weights and the weighted LNP histograms, we formulate a weighted sparse representation-based classifier (W-SRC). In contrast to the overwhelming majority of 3D FR approaches which were only benchmarked on the FRGC v2.0 database, we carried out extensive experiments on the FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, BU-3DFE and 3D-TEC databases, thus including 3D face data captured in different scenarios through various sensors and depicting in particular different challenges with respect to facial expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed approach consistently achieves competitive rank-one recognition rates on these databases despite their heterogeneous nature, and thereby demonstrates its effectiveness and its generalizability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre...... of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start......Background: There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective...

  9. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  10. Comparison of malnutrition inflammation score, anthropometry and biochemical parameters in assessing the difference in protein-energy wasting between normal weight and obese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Elham; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges S

    2017-07-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis. This case-control study investigated 52 normal weight (18.5 < body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 ) and 48 obese (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ) patients on regular haemodialysis. PEW was assessed based on anthropometric and biochemical factors, recent weight changes, appetite, anorexia, dietary intake and MIS. Obese patients had better MIS compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.001), although varying degrees of wasting were prevalent among this group too (75% mild and 25% moderate wasting). The obese group had less significant weight loss (4.2 vs 8%) and anorexia and better appetite. However, a considerable percentage of patients in both groups showed muscle (94.6% of normal weight and 19.5% of obese) and peripheral fat tissue (89.2% of normal weight and 31.7% of obese) losses compared to the 50th percentile. Biochemical parameters were not significantly different between groups except for triglyceride (P = 0.001), transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.028). MIS was significantly better in obese patients; however, both groups showed degrees of wasting based on MIS and other PEW parameters. Nutritional status of obese haemodialysis patients should be monitored regularly because of high risk of PEW like other BMI categories. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  11. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  12. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  13. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  14. Eating in the absence of hunger is related to loss-of-control eating, hedonic hunger, and short-term weight gain in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Emily H; Piers, Amani D; Kral, Tanja V E; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year. Participants consumed a mean 188 calories (±140) during the EAH test. Caloric intake during the EAH test was associated with hedonic hunger (p emotional eating, disinhibition, and longer-term weight change. Amount of the test meal eaten in a hungry state was unrelated to these variables. While EAH has mainly been examined in children, these results expand its utility to adults. EAH seems to reflect naturalistic eating behavior, as shown by its relationship with short-term weight gain, drive to overconsume foods, and loss of control over eating. EAH may be a useful test to identify young adults at risk for weight gain and/or disordered eating, and may be a target for intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Eyitayo Omolara; Ter Goon, Daniel; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2017-12-28

    Central obesity (CO) confers a significant threat on the cardio-metabolic health of individuals, independently of overall obesity. Disparities in the measures of fat distribution lead to misclassification of individuals who are at risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending selected healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa, assess their health risk and examine the association between central obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases among adults with normal weight, measured by body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional survey of 998 adults was carried out at the three largest outpatient clinics in BCMM. Overall and central obesity were assessed using BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR). The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured. Normal-weight central obesity was defined as CO among individuals with normal weight, as assessed by BMI. Health risk levels were assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) BMI-WC composite index. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the prevalence of CO, normal-weight central obesity and the predictors of CO. The mean age of participants was 42.6 (± 16.5) years. The prevalence of CO was 67.0, 58.0 and 71.0% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. The prevalence of normal-weight central obesity was 26.9, 36.9 and 29.5% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. About 41% of the participants had a very high health risk, 13% had increased risk or high risk and 33% had no health risk. Central obesity was significantly associated with hypertension but not associated with diabetes among those with normal weight (by BMI). Female sex, age over 30 years, marriage, secondary or tertiary level of education, non

  16. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in normal body weight and obese (classes I, II, and III) healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Julie Ann; Mayer, Stockton M; Pai, Manjunath P; Soriano, Melinda M; Danziger, Larry H; Novak, Richard M; Rodvold, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline has not been well characterized in obese adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in 32 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 50 years in the normal, overweight, and obese body size ranges. Subjects were evenly assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and total body weight (TBW) (ranges, 22.1 to 63.5 kg/m(2) and 50.1 to 179.5 kg, respectively). Subjects in the lower-TBW groups were matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and serum creatinine to the upper-BMI groups. Serial plasma and urine samples were collected over 12 h after the start of the infusion, and the concentrations of ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), ceftaroline, and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) were assayed. Noncompartmental and population pharmacokinetic analyses were used to evaluate the data. The mean plasma ceftaroline maximum concentration and area under the curve were ca. 30% lower in subjects with a BMI of ≥40 kg/m(2) compared to those ceftaroline. Estimated creatinine clearance (eCLCR) and TBW best explained ceftaroline clearance and volume of distribution, respectively. Although lower ceftaroline plasma concentrations were observed in obese subjects, Monte Carlo simulations suggest the probability of target attainment is ≥90% when the MIC is ≤1 μg/ml irrespective of TBW or eCLCR. No dosage adjustment for ceftaroline appears to be necessary based on TBW alone in adults with comparable eCLCR. Confirmation of these findings in infected obese patients is necessary to validate these findings in healthy volunteers. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01648127.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does the placental weight affect foetal outcome findings from central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placental weight has been shown to have some correlation with fetal outcome. However, this relationship has not been closely studied in our environment. Hence the aim of this study is to determine the mean placental weight and its ratio to birth weight in normal pregnancy, and to determine whether abnormal placental ...

  20. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  1. [Adiponectin levels in breast milk of overweight/obese and normal weight mothers in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Gómez, Abelardo; Flores Scheufler, Pamela; Quevedo Escobar, Yamile; González Magaña, Regina; Rodríguez De Ita, Julieta

    Given the current epidemic of childhood obesity, it has become increasingly important to understand the risks and protective factors associated with this disease. Breastfeeding has been identified as a protective factor; however, the mechanism responsible has not been elucidated. One of the current theories analyzes the role of hormones in breast milk, with special emphasis on adiponectin. This study aims to compare adiponectin levels in breast milk of mothers with normal weight with those in breast milk of overweight/obese mothers as well as to correlate these levels with the infant's weight gain. Forty samples of breast milk were analyzed for adiponectin levels using ELISA, 20 from mothers with normal weight and 20 from overweight/obese mothers. Adiponectin levels were lower in breast milk obtained from overweight/obese mothers than in breast milk from mothers with normal weight (p <0.05). When comparing infant weight gain, those fed with breast milk containing higher concentrations of adiponectin had a lower weight gain than those fed with breast milk containing low levels of the hormone (p <0.05). There is a strong negative correlation between mothers' BMI and adiponectin levels in breast milk. Mothers with a higher BMI had lower adiponectin levels in their breast milk. There is also a negative relationship between adiponectin levels in breast milk and weight gain of breastfed infants. Infants breast fed with adiponectin-rich breast milk had a lower weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of periodontal treatment on serum C-reactive protein level in obese and normal-weight women affected with chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Zahrani, M.S.; Alghamdi, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of conventional periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and periodontal status in obese and normal-weight chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This is a controlled clinical trial conducted at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of

  3. The Efficiency and Safety of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Abbrevo Procedure Versus TVT Exact in the Normal Weight and Overweight Patients Affected by Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Luo, Deyi; Yang, Lu; Wei, Xin; Tang, Cai; Chen, Mei; Shen, Hong; Wei, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    To compare the efficacy between 2 different slings in normal weight and overweight women. Of 426 women, 220 (119 normal weight and 101 overweight) accepted the tension-free vaginal tape Abbrevo (TVT-A) and 206 (114 normal weight and 92 overweight) accepted the TVT Exact (TVT-E) procedure. Data collected contained the subjective efficiency, objective efficiency International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (PFIQ-7), Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-Short Form (PISQ)-12 at 36 months after surgery. In the normal weight patients, the subjectively and objectively cured rates were all high in both TVT-A and TVE-E (94.12% and 95.61% in objective result; 92.44% and 94.74% in subjective result). In addition, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 have significantly changed (P TVT-E than TVT-A. Moreover, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 of overweight women have significantly changed only in the TVT-E (P TVT-A and TVT-E, respectively). The TVT-E might be a better choice for the overweight patient than TVT-A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal-weight Mexican school-age children and its association with metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Contreras, B E; Morán-Ramos, S; Villarruel-Vázquez, R; Macías-Kauffer, L; Villamil-Ramírez, H; León-Mimila, P; Vega-Badillo, J; Sánchez-Muñoz, F; Llanos-Moreno, L E; Canizalez-Román, A; Del Río-Navarro, B; Ibarra-González, I; Vela-Amieva, M; Villarreal-Molina, T; Ochoa-Leyva, A; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Canizales-Quinteros, S

    2017-12-05

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem in Mexico. Adult gut microbiota composition has been linked to obesity, but few studies have addressed the role of gut microbiota in childhood obesity. The aim of this study is to compare gut microbiota composition in obese and normal-weight children and to associate gut microbiota profiles with amino acid serum levels and obesity-related metabolic traits. Microbial taxa relative abundance was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing in 67 normal-weight and 71 obese children aged 6-12 years. Serum amino acid levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Associations between microbiota composition, metabolic parameters and amino acid serum levels were tested. No significant differences in phyla abundances or Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios were observed between normal-weight and obese children. However, Bacteroides eggerthii abundance was significantly higher in obese children and correlated positively with body fat percentage and negatively with insoluble fibre intake. Additionally, Bacteroides plebeius and unclassified Christensenellaceae abundances were significantly higher in normal-weight children. Abundance of both these species correlated negatively with phenylalanine serum levels, a metabolite also found to be associated with obesity in Mexican children. The study identified bacterial species associated with obesity, metabolic complications and amino acid serum levels in Mexican children. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content. Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. Materials and Methods: The study...

  6. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yieh-Loong Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2nd trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth.

  7. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of the trans-obturator TVT-Abbrevo device in normal weight compared to overweight patients affected by stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Napolitano, Valerio; Di Carlo, Costantino; Formisano, Carmen; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine

    2016-02-01

    To investigate if TVT-Abbrevo has similar outcomes in normal weight and overweight patients. Retrospective evaluation of 205 (105 normal weight women and 100 overweight women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) undergone TVT-Abbrevo positioning with 12 month follow-up. Primary outcomes were objective cure rate (defined as no leakage during CST) and subjective cure rate ("very much improved"/"much improved" at PGI-I), secondary outcomes were intra-operative and post-operative complications. Objective cure rates in the normal and overweight groups were 96.2% and 94%, respectively (p=.47). Subjective cure rates in the normal and overweight groups were 90.5% and 88%, respectively (p=.57). ICIQ-SF, I-QoL and PGI-S scores significantly improved in both groups with no differences between the two groups. No serious intra- or post-operative complications were observed. No differences were observed in pain VAS scores and number of analgesic vials administered. TVT-Abbrevo seems to have similar efficacy and safety in normal weight and overweight women. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this device in frankly obese women and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pincreased after food intake (Pobese than in normal-weight females. This difference was independent of food intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  10. Comparison of energy expenditure, economy, and pedometer counts between normal weight and overweight or obese women during a walking and jogging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Heden, Timothy; Smith, John; Covington, N Kay

    2009-07-01

    This study compared energy expenditure (EE), economy of movement, and pedometer counts between normal weight and overweight or obese women during a treadmill walking and jogging activity. Participants were 13 normal weight (BMI 22.2 +/- 2.0 kg m(-2)) and 13 overweight or obese (BMI 27.2 +/- 2.1 kg m(-2)) women and all were non-smokers, not regularly active, and able to run 1.609 km continuously at 2.23 m s(-1). Each participant reported to the laboratory on three separate days within a 1-week period. During the first visit, tests for resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry, anthropometric measures, and VO(2)max were completed. On the subsequent two visits, participants were randomized to perform either a 1.609-km walk at 1.34 m s(-1) or a 1.609-km jog at 2.23 m s(-1). During each physical activity trial, all participants wore a pedometer to assess steps taken. EE during the 1.609-km walk was 280 +/- 29 kJ for the normal weight and 356 +/- 42 kJ for the overweight/obese women and during the 1.609-km jog was 393 +/- 46 kJ for the normal weight and 490 +/- 59 kJ for the overweight/obese women. In both trials, EE was statistically greater in the overweight/obese women. Economy of movement was not statistically different between the normal weight and overweight/obese women during the walk or jog. In both groups, pedometer counts were lower during the jog than the walk (P jogging activity.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Prenatal examination of the area and morphology of the atrioventricular valves using four-dimensional ultrasound in normal and abnormal hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, B.M.E.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Tromp, C.H.N.; Schaefer, S.S.; Heymans, M.W.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the feasibility to examine the morphology and area of the atrioventricular (AV) valves in normal fetuses and fetuses with cardiac defects using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). Methods: Atrioventricular valves were analyzed longitudinally in STIC volumes of

  13. Prenatal examination of the area and morphology of the atrioventricular valves using four-dimensional ultrasound in normal and abnormal hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, B.M.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Tromp, C.H.; Schaefer, S.S.; Heymans, M.W.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to evaluate the feasibility to examine the morphology and area of the atrioventricular (AV) valves in normal fetuses and fetuses with cardiac defects using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). METHODS: Atrioventricular valves were analyzed longitudinally in STIC volumes of

  14. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight (N = 18) or obese (N = 16) based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/− 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/− 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight. PMID:29259826

  15. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  16. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hadrévi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight (N=18 or obese (N=16 based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/− 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/− 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight.

  17. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrévi, Jenny; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight ( N = 18) or obese ( N = 16) based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/- 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/- 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight.

  18. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  19. Prévalence de la population de poids normal, métaboliquement obèse, chez l'adolescent [Prevalence of metabolically obese normal weight population in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina GHEDADA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown that a subgroup of individuals with normal weight have metabolic characteristics usually associated with obesity and would be also at increased risk of cardiovascular complications, as well as the obese individual. This syndrome is described as metabolically normal-weight obese (MONW syndrome. Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of MONW topics in a young population aged 16- 19 years. Population and Methods. Nine hundred adolescents (565 girls/335 boys, aged 16-19 years without history of diabetes or high blood pressure, enrolled in two schools of Bir Khadem city, were detected after informed parental consent. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels were determined. Criteria and Ruderman score were used to define MONW topics. Results. 37 patients (30 girls and 7 boys were MONW with a score ≥ 7. In these subjects, diabetes history seemed to be the predominant criteria for boys, and high waistline predominated in girls. Conclusion. MONW syndrome differs from the metabolic syndrome by the BMI criteria which is normal here. Concerning the pathophysiology and associated complications, they remain the same in the both cases.

  20. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  1. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  2. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is normal and unrelated to insulin action in young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    in 20 young, lean men with LBW and 26 matched controls. On a separate day, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with excision of muscle biopsies and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed. Muscle gene expression of selected OXPHOS genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR......, as was the expression of OXPHOS genes. CONCLUSIONS: These data support and expand previous findings of abnormal glucose metabolism in young men with LBW. In addition, we found that the young, healthy men with LBW exhibited hepatic insulin resistance. However, the study does not support the hypothesis that muscle...

  3. ABNORMAL LEVELS OF MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AND ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN THE 2ND-TRIMESTER - RELATION TO FETAL WEIGHT AND PRETERM DELIVERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORSSINK, LP; KORNMAN, LH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical significance of abnormal maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised 8892 women with a singleton pregnancy,

  4. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  5. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  6. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......). The only association involving blood glucose was the multivariate IPD analysis showing an inverse association between blood glucose and El in ALL (P=0 center dot 032). Our results suggest that insulin, but not glucose, is associated with short-term appetite regulation in healthy participants...

  7. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrévi, Jenny; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-f...

  9. Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Asle Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Afrasiabi, Saleh; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased in Iranian adolescents in recent years. However, few studies have examined the impact of intervention programs on this health issue. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) levels among obese and normal-weight male adolescents. Thirty obese and 30 normal-weight subjects were assigned to the ET, HIIT, or control group for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, body weight, BMI, VO2max, and blood pressures were measured. SPSS (Version 21) was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at p HIIT (from 517 ± 72 ng/ml to 374 ± 50 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 1689 ± 119 ng/ml to 1282 ± 63 ng/ml). Similarly, normal weight participants significantly (p HIIT (from 289 ± 22 ng/ml to 202 ± 12 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1