WorldWideScience

Sample records for abnormal leaf development

  1. Heterologous expression of a ketohexokinase in potato plants leads to inhibited rates of photosynthesis, severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geigenberger, P.; Regierer, B.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    of ketohexokinase but did not accumulate fructose 1-phosphate. They were, however, characterised by a severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development. Studies of (14)CO(2) assimilation and metabolism, and of the levels of photosynthetic pigments, revealed that these lines exhibited restricted photosynthesis......-phosphoglycerate, and these lines were also characterised by an accumulation of glyceraldehyde. The transformants neither displayed consistent changes in the activities of Calvin cycle enzymes nor in enzymes of sucrose synthesis but displayed a metabolic profile partially reminiscent of that brought about by end...

  2. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Developing allometric equations for estimating leaf area and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) is important to understand plant physiological and carbon assimilation processes, and tree growth models. The aim of this study was to develop and compare allometric equations for predicting LA and LB of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. taking diameter at breast height ...

  4. Evolutionary and Environmental Forces Sculpting Leaf Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-04-04

    Leaf shape is spectacularly diverse. As a major component of plant architecture and an interface for light capture, gas exchange, and thermoregulation, the potential contributions of leaves to plant fitness are innumerable. Particularly because of their intimate association and interaction with the surrounding environment, both the plasticity of leaf shape during the lifetime of a plant and the evolution of leaf shape over geologic time are revealing with respect to leaf function. Leaf shapes arise within a developmental context that constrains both their evolution and environmental plasticity. Quantitative models capturing genetic diversity, developmental context, and environmental plasticity will be required to fully understand the evolution and development of leaf shape and its response to environmental pressures. In this review, we discuss recent literature demonstrating that distinct molecular pathways are modulated by specific environmental inputs, the output of which regulates leaf dissection. We propose a synthesis explaining both historical patterns in the paleorecord and conserved plastic responses in extant plants. Understanding the potential adaptive value of leaf shape, and how to molecularly manipulate it, will prove to be invaluable in designing crops optimized for future climates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maize leaf development under climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to simulate maize leaf development in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, considering symmetric and asymmetric increases in air temperature. The model of Wang & Engel for leaf appearance rate (LAR, with genotype-specific coefficients for the maize variety BRS Missões, was used to simulate tip and expanded leaf accumulated number from emergence to flag leaf appearance and expansion, for nine emergence dates from August 15 to April 15. LAR model was run for each emergence date in 100-year climate scenarios: current climate, and +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5°C increase in mean air temperature, with symmetric and asymmetric increase in daily minimum and maximum air temperature. Maize crop failure due to frost decreased in elevated temperature scenarios, in the very early and very late emergence dates, indicating a lengthening in the maize growing season in warmer climates. The leaf development period in maize was shorter in elevated temperature scenarios, with greater shortening in asymmetric temperature increases, indicating that warmer nights accelerate vegetative development in maize.

  6. YUCCA Genes Are Expressed in Response to Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Juxtaposition and Are Required for Leaf Margin Development1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Ben; Wang, Hua; Li, Jiqin; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    During leaf development, the formation of leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity at the primordium stage is crucial for subsequent leaf expansion. However, little is known about the genetic control from polarity establishment to blade outgrowth. The leaf margin, comprising elongated margin cells and hydathodes, is thought to affect leaf expansion. Here, we show that mutants with defective leaf polarity or with loss of function in the multiple auxin-biosynthetic YUCCA (YUC) genes exhibited a similar abnormal leaf margin and less-expanded leaves. Leaf margins of these mutants contained fewer hydathodes and an increased number of cell patches in which the patterns of epidermal cells resembled those of hydathodes. The previously characterized leaf-abaxialized asymmetric leaves2 (as2) revoluta (rev) and leaf-adaxialized kanadi1 (kan1) kan2 double mutants both produce finger-shaped, hydathode-like protrusions on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, respectively. YUCs are required for formation of the protrusions, as those produced by as2 rev and kan1 kan2 were absent in the yuc1 yuc2 yuc4 triple mutant background. Expressions of YUC1, YUC2, and YUC4 were spatially regulated in the leaf, being associated with hydathodes in wild-type leaves and protrusions on as2 rev and kan1 kan2 leaves. In addition, inhibition of auxin transport by treatment of seedlings with N-(1-naphtyl) phtalamic acid or disruption of the auxin gradient by transforming plants with the 35S:YUC1 construct also blocked leaf margin development. Collectively, our data show that expressions of YUCs in the leaf respond to the adaxial-abaxial juxtaposition, and that the activities of auxin mediate leaf margin development, which subsequently promotes blade outgrowth. PMID:22003085

  7. The shady side of leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Botterweg Paredes, Esther; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2017-01-01

    Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulat...... differentiation. The REV/KAN1 module directly and antagonistically regulates the expression of several genes involved in shade-induced growth and auxin biosynthetic enzymes....

  8. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  9. [DNA methylation and development abnormalities in cloned animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Rong; Li, Xiang-Yun

    2007-09-01

    Most cloned animals by nuclear transfer were dead before their births, and only a few can develop to their late gestation or adulthood. Although some cloned offsprings can survive, they often have some development disfigurements and abnormal phenotypes in various degrees. DNA methylation is an important modifiable manner of epigenetic dominating the correct expression of gene. It is a main instrument of regulating genome function and plays a prominent part in the embryonic normal development. Through researching the pattern of DNA methylation, we found that there were many abnormal DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, which might be the primary reasons for inducing premature death of cloned embryos and development abnormalities of cloned animals. This article discusses the function of DNA methylation, the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, and the reasons of inducing abnormal DNA methylation in cloned animals.

  10. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, João Paulo; Albino, Ana Lúcia S.; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA) was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life s...

  11. Carbohydrate as a factor controlling leaf development in cocoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, R.C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Cocoa shows growth periodicity of the shoot apex where periods of active new leaf development (flushing) alternate with periods of dormancy (Interflush). This thesis presents the results of an investigation into the characteristics of leaf growth, and the production and translocation of photosynthate/carbohydrate between source and sink leaves aimed to investigate the possible role of plant carbohydrate status in the control of the intermittent leaf production. The photosynthetic capacity of mature leaves did not increase during the phase of major increase in carbohydrate consumption by developing leaves but rather decreased slightly. Translocation of assimilated /sup 14/carbon from mature leaves was however significantly increased during phase of rapid expansion of the new leaves. Compensatory changes in the /sup 14/carbon-export from a single remaining source leaf after defoliation showed that mature leaves normally operate much below both their maximum photosynthate loading capacity and export potential. Partial removal of developing leaves within one flush resulted in increased /sup 14/C-photosynthate import into the remaining leaf showing that a developing leaf has a greater import and unloading potential than that utilized during its development in one normal flush.

  12. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  13. Sperm abnormalities induced by pre-pubertal exposure to cyclophosphamide are effectively mitigated by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, G; Vadinkar, A; Nair, S; Kalthur, S G; D'Souza, A S; Shetty, P K; Mutalik, S; Shetty, M M; Kalthur, G; Adiga, S K

    2016-03-01

    Moringa oleifera L. is a medicinal plant with potential antioxidant property. This study was aimed at investigating the chemoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOE) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity. Two-week-old male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered saline, 50 mg kg(-1) of CP and 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE. In combination treatment, mice were injected with 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE 24 h prior to CP injection, 24 h prior and post-CP injection and 24 h post-CP injection for 5 consecutive days (10 mg kg(-1) ). Six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to assess epididymal sperm parameters. MOE alone did not have any significant effect on sperm parameters. However, acute injection of CP resulted in significant decline in motility (P < 0.001), increase in head abnormality (P < 0.01) and DNA damage (P < 0.05). Combining MOE with CP increased the sperm density, motility and reduced head defect and DNA damage, irrespective of the schedule and dosage of MOE. Administration of MOE prior to CP significantly elevated the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. In conclusion, MOE may have potential benefit in reducing the loss of male gonadal function following chemotherapy. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the tomato leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Higher Institute of Animation for Youth and Culture, University of Tunis, 2055 Bir El Bey, Tunisia. [Bettaibi A., Mezghani-Khemakhem M., Soltani Z., Makni H. and Makni M. 2013 Development of polymorphic microsatel- lite loci for the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Genet. 92, e110–e112.

  15. Phenotype abnormality: 48 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u554i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named vascular leaf during process named organ development ... vascular leaf ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  16. Nonsyndromic Craniosynostosis and Associated Abnormal Speech and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naran, Sanjay; Miller, Matthew; Shakir, Sameer; Ware, Benjamin; Camison, Liliana; Ford, Matthew; Goldstein, Jesse; Losee, Joseph E

    2017-07-01

    Although many metrics for neurodevelopment in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis have been analyzed, few have directly examined early language acquisition and speech development. The authors characterized language acquisition and speech development in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The authors' institutional database was queried for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis from 2000 to 2014. Patients with an identified syndrome were excluded. Specific data elements included age, gender, velopharyngeal adequacy by means of the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scale, evaluation for anatomical motor delay, language acquisition delay/disorder, articulation or speech sound production delays/disorders, and whether speech therapy was recommended. Diagnosis of a submucous cleft palate was noted. One hundred one patients met inclusion criteria, of which 57.4 percent were male. Average age at the time of the most recent speech evaluation was 6.1 years (range, 2.31 to 17.95 years); 43.6 percent had normal speech/language metrics and 56.4 percent had one or more abnormalities, including anatomical motor delay/disorder (29.7 percent), language acquisition delay/disorder (21.8 percent), articulation or speech production delay/disorder (4.0 percent), hypernasality (15.8 percent), and velopharyngeal insufficiency or borderline competency (23.8 percent). Average Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scale score was 1.3 (range, 0 to 5), and 29.7 percent (n = 30) of patients were recommended to have speech therapy. In addition, 25.8 percent of patients were diagnosed with a submucous cleft palate. One in four patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis carried a diagnosis of submucous cleft palate. The authors found that abnormal speech and language development occurs in one in 1.7 patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, and that speech therapy for such abnormal development is warranted in one in 3.4 of them-a prevalence two to five times higher compared with the general pediatric

  17. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  18. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm 2 .day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  19. Indomethacin elicits proteasomal dysfunctions develops apoptosis through mitochondrial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Mishra, Ribhav; Upadhyay, Arun; Reddy, Pothula P; Das, Ranabir; Mishra, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs that are mainly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever via cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. There are abundant findings that uncover the hidden critical chemotherapeutics potential of NSAIDs in cancer treatment. However, still the precise mechanism by which NSAIDs could be used as an effective anti-tumor agent in the prevention of carcinogenesis is not well understood. Here, we show that indomethacin, a well-known NSAID, induces proteasomal dysfunction that results in accumulation of unwanted proteins, mitochondrial abnormalities, and successively stimulate apoptosis in cells. We observed the interaction of indomethacin with proteasome and noticed the massive accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-positive proteins, which might be due to the suppression of proteasome activities. Furthermore, we also found that exposure of indomethacin causes the accumulation of critical proteasomal substrates that consequently generate severe mitochondrial abnormalities and prompt up key apoptotic events in cells. Our results demonstrate how indomethacin affects normal proteasomal functions and induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cells. These findings also improve our current understanding of how NSAIDs can exhibit crucial anti-proliferative effects in cells. In near future, our findings may suggest a new possible strategy for the development of specific proteasome inhibitors in conjunction with other chemo-preventive anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  1. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) flag leaf transcriptomes reveal molecular signatures of leaf development, senescence, and mineral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first comprehensive transcriptomic inspection of switchgrass flag leaf development. Flag leaves were collected from field grown switchgrass plants at five plant developmental stages: heading, anthesis, early and late seed development, and at physiological maturity and analyzed by RNA...

  2. Cytomegalovirus induces abnormal chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during embryonic mandibular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringas Pablo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clinical studies and mouse models clearly demonstrate that cytomegalovirus (CMV disrupts normal organ and tissue development. Although CMV is one of the most common causes of major birth defects in humans, little is presently known about the mechanism(s underlying CMV-induced congenital malformations. Our prior studies have demonstrated that CMV infection of first branchial arch derivatives (salivary glands and teeth induced severely abnormal phenotypes and that CMV has a particular tropism for neural crest-derived mesenchyme (NCM. Since early embryos are barely susceptible to CMV infection, and the extant evidence suggests that the differentiation program needs to be well underway for embryonic tissues to be susceptible to viral infection and viral-induced pathology, the aim of this study was to determine if first branchial arch NCM cells are susceptible to mCMV infection prior to differentiation of NCM derivatives. Results E11 mouse mandibular processes (MANs were infected with mouse CMV (mCMV for up to 16 days in vitro. mCMV infection of undifferentiated embryonic mouse MANs induced micrognathia consequent to decreased Meckel's cartilage chondrogenesis and mandibular osteogenesis. Specifically, mCMV infection resulted in aberrant stromal cellularity, a smaller, misshapen Meckel's cartilage, and mandibular bone and condylar dysmorphogenesis. Analysis of viral distribution indicates that mCMV primarily infects NCM cells and derivatives. Initial localization studies indicate that mCMV infection changed the cell-specific expression of FN, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, and Shh and Smad7 proteins. Conclusion Our results indicate that mCMV dysregulation of key signaling pathways in primarily NCM cells and their derivatives severely disrupts mandibular morphogenesis and skeletogenesis. The pathogenesis appears to be centered around the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways, and there is unusual juxtaposition of abnormal stromal

  3. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene Brassica rapa KIP-related protein2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; Brassica rapa Erecta_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; Brassica rapa Longifolia1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, Brassica rapa flowering locus C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa.

  4. Genetic Dissection of Leaf Development in Brassica rapa Using a Genetical Genomics Approach1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

  5. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life span (LLS after fire compared with published data for evergreens in cerrado areas without fire. On the other hand, Kielmeyera variabilis, a deciduous species, showed intense branching and produced two orders of shoots in one growing season. Fires promote rapid leaf and shoot growth in evergreens owing to reserve accumulations that allow survivorship after disturbances. However, the leaves produced by evergreens after fire had high SLAs and were discarded before the next rainy season (short LLS. This leaf cohort was produced with less carbon per leaf, and the decreased LLS prevented herbivory and water loss during the dry season. Fire is an important factor of cerrado environments, influencing leaf production and shoot architecture in cerrado trees.

  6. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre including abnormal dental development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørberg, M; Lauesen, S R; Daugaard-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (SCS) is a rare skin condition, where dense collagen is deposited in a localised groove of the head and neck area resembling the stroke of a sabre. The SCS may involve the oral cavity, but the severity and relation to this skin abnormality is unknown...

  7. Critical PO2 of developing Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. Juvenile bees develop inside brood cells constructed out of leaf pieces. During development inside the brood cell, pre-pupae may experience hypoxic conditions from both the cavity nesting behavior and brood cell ...

  8. Leaf anatomy during leaf development of photoautotrophically in vitro -grown tobacco plants as affected by growth irradiance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radochová, Barbora; Tichá, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 21-27 ISSN 0006-3134 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 100/1998; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 96/1998; EC(XE) ERBCIPACT930115; Volkswagen-Stiftung(DE) I/68918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : in vitro * leaf development * chloroplast Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2009

  9. Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Sigatoka leaf spot (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach) disease is a limiting factor in banana production in. India and other places. Breeding for resistance is the most effective method to control Musa diseases. However, Musa improvement using conventional methods has been hampered due to lack of ...

  10. A Conserved Molecular Framework for Compound Leaf Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blein, Thomas; Pulido, Amada; Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie

    2008-01-01

      Diversity in leaf shape is produced by alterations of the margin: for example, deep dissection leads to leaflet formation and less-pronounced incision results in serrations or lobes. By combining gene silencing and mutant analyses in four distantly related eudicot species, we show that reducing...

  11. Development of a cucumber leaf picing device for greenhouse production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ota, T.; Bontsema, J.; Hayashi, S.; Kubota, K.; Henten, van E.J.; Os, van E.A.; Ajiki, K.

    2007-01-01

    A leaf picking device for cucumbers was designed and evaluated. The picking device is manually operated but can be used as a picking tool for a robot. The device consisted of a picking rotor composed from knives and brushes, a motor and a vacuum cleaner. The performance of removal, cutting, torque

  12. REVOLUTA and WRKY53 connect early and late leaf development in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yakun; Huhn, Kerstin; Brandt, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have to continuously adjust growth and development to ever-changing environmental conditions. At the end of the growing season, annual plants induce leaf senescence to reallocate nutrients and energy-rich substances from the leaves to the maturing seeds. Thus, leaf se...... of WRKY53 in response to oxidative stress, and mutations in HD-ZIPIII genes strongly delay the onset of senescence. Thus, a crosstalk between early and late stages of leaf development appears to contribute to reproductive success....

  13. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  14. High Concentration of Melatonin Regulates Leaf Development by Suppressing Cell Proliferation and Endoreduplication in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2017-05-05

    N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Melatonin), as a crucial messenger in plants, functions in adjusting biological rhythms, stress tolerance, plant growth and development. Several studies have shown the retardation effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on plant growth and development. However, the in vivo role of melatonin in regulating plant leaf growth and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we found that high concentration of melatonin suppressed leaf growth in Arabidopsis by reducing both cell size and cell number. Further kinetic analysis of the fifth leaves showed that melatonin remarkably inhibited cell division rate. Additionally, flow cytometic analysis indicated that melatonin negatively regulated endoreduplication during leaf development. Consistently, the expression analysis revealed that melatonin regulated the transcriptional levels of key genes of cell cycle and ribosome. Taken together, this study suggests that high concentration of melatonin negatively regulated the leaf growth and development in Arabidopsis , through modulation of endoreduplication and the transcripts of cell cycle and ribosomal key genes.

  15. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exchange during leaf development of the Amazonian deciduous tree species Hymenaea courbaril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Schebeske, G.; Oliva, S. T.; Tavares, T. M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    The effect of leaf age on the formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH 3CHO) exchange pattern of the deciduous Amazonian tree species Hymenaea courbaril was investigated under field conditions. Branch enclosure measurements on senescent, young, and mature leaves showed that leaf development had a pronounced impact on the aldehyde exchange behavior with respect to both the direction and the magnitude of the exchange. The emission activity of senescent leaves was associated with a negative CO 2 balance, even during daytime, indicative of a catabolic metabolism and decomposition processes leading to an increased aldehyde production within the leaf. The low exchange rates observed in young leaves were attributed to low stomatal conductance, while in mature leaves stomatal conductance and metabolic activities allowed efficient uptake. Within each leaf class the diurnal variations in the exchange of both aldehyde compounds were found to be mainly dependent on the respective ambient air concentrations. High ambient air concentrations resulted in decreased emission rates of senescent leaves and in enhanced uptake in young and mature leaves. CH 3CHO compensation points decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 ppb with leaf maturation. We provide evidence that leaf-age-dependent variations in the stomatal conductance can account for the major share of differences in the CH 3CHO deposition velocity. The results indicate that leaf surfaces of young and mature leaves may represent an effective additional non-stomatal sink for atmospheric aldehydes.

  16. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, William; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Sadowska, Mariola; Huso, David; Neal, Ashley; Ahearn, Aaron; Bryant, Joseph; Gallo, Robert C.; Lewis, George K.; Reitz, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4 + and CD8 + effector/memory (CD45RC - CD62L - ) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC + CD62L + ) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  17. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Watanabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world.

  18. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jingshi; Luo, Dexian; Xu, Deyang

    2015-01-01

    development is as yet poorly understood. By genetic screening and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in exit from cell proliferation, we show that the product of the CINNAMOYL CoA REDUCTASE (CCR1) gene, which is required for lignin biosynthesis, participates in the process of cell proliferation...... exit in leaves. CCR1 is expressed basipetally in the leaf, and ccr1 mutants exhibited multiple abnormalities, including increased cell proliferation. The ccr1 phenotypes are not due to the reduced lignin content, but instead are due to the dramatically increased level of ferulic acid (Fe......A), an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. FeA is known to have antioxidant activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 were markedly reduced. We also characterized another double mutant in CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (comt) and CAFFEOYL CoA 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (ccoaomt), in which the Fe...

  19. Leaf morphometric characteristics variability of different beech provenances in juvenile development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of beech from the Balkan Peninsula is not yet clearly defined. There is no agreement among different authors about the morphological characteristics discriminating between the Balkan and European and/or Eastern beech. For most characteristics, the mean values are different but the ranges of variation overlap considerably. Provenance trial of beech established in Serbia, at the locality Debeli Lug, has provided an opportunity for research of interprovenance variability at the level of leaf morphometric characteristics in juvenile development stage. Research included 10 provenances originating from the Western Balkans (Serbian provenance 36 and 38; Croatian provenance 24 and 25; Bosnian provenance 30 and 32 and from Central Europe (German provenance 47 and 49; Austrian provenance 56 and Hungarian provenance 42, where following morphometric characteristics were analyzed: leaf length (Ll, leaf width (Lw, petiole lenght (Pl, leaf base width on 1 cm (Blw, number of veins - left (Vl, number of veins - right (Vr, distance between 3rd and 4th vein - left (Dv 3-4. The results of this research show existence of clear differentiation among provenances from the Western Balkan and from Central Europe, from the point of leaf dimensions, number of veins and leaf base width. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  20. Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications in the past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The design and function of leaf venation are important to plant performance, with key implications for the distribution and productivity of ecosystems, and applications in paleobiology, agriculture and technology. We synthesize classical concepts and the recent literature on a wide range of aspects of leaf venation. We describe 10 major structural features that contribute to multiple key functions, and scale up to leaf and plant performance. We describe the development and plasticity of leaf venation and its adaptation across environments globally, and a new global data compilation indicating trends relating vein length per unit area to climate, growth form and habitat worldwide. We synthesize the evolution of vein traits in the major plant lineages throughout paleohistory, highlighting the multiple origins of individual traits. We summarize the strikingly diverse current applications of leaf vein research in multiple fields of science and industry. A unified core understanding will enable an increasing range of plant biologists to incorporate leaf venation into their research. © 2013 The Authors New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Increased nuchal translucency origins from abnormal lymphatic development and is independent of the presence of a cardiac defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Nicole B.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Kok, Evelien; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Martin, James F.; Shou, Weinian; Scambler, Peter J.; Lee, Youngsook; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Haak, Monique C.

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether cardiac failure, because of cardiac defects, and abnormal jugular lymphatic development are involved in nuchal edema (NE) - the morphological equivalent of increased nuchal translucency - in various euploid mutant mouse models. Mouse embryos with lymphatic abnormalities and NE

  2. Roles of miR319 and TCP Transcription Factors in Leaf Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sophisticated regulation of gene expression, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes, is required for leaf differentiation, growth, and senescence. The impact of miR319 and its target TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN BINDING FACTOR (TCP) genes on leaf development has been extensively investigated, but the redundancies of these gene families often interfere with the evaluation of their function and regulation in the developmental context. Here, we present the genetic evidence of the involvement of the MIR319 and TCP gene families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf development. Single mutations in MIR319A and MIR319B genes moderately inhibited the formation of leaf serrations, whereas double mutations increased the extent of this inhibition and resulted in the formation of smooth leaves. Mutations in MIR319 and gain-of-function mutations in the TCP4 gene conferred resistance against miR319 and impaired the cotyledon boundary and leaf serration formation. These mutations functionally associated with CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes, which regulate the cotyledon boundary and leaf serration formation. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in miR319-targeted and nontargeted TCP genes cooperatively induced the formation of serrated leaves in addition to changes in the levels of their downstream gene transcript. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the MIR319 and TCP gene families underlie robust and multilayer control of leaf development. This study also provides a framework toward future researches on redundant miRNAs and transcription factors in Arabidopsis and crop plants. PMID:28842549

  3. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  4. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  5. The range and prevalence of pathological abnormalities associated with lameness in working horses from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broster, C E; Burn, C C; Barr, A R S; Whay, H R

    2009-05-01

    Lameness is highly prevalent in working horses, but published reports on the associated pathological abnormalities are lacking. With over 42 million horses in developing countries and the majority used for work, lameness has major welfare implications. To describe the range and prevalence of pathological abnormalities associated with lameness in working horses. A standard lameness assessment was adapted for field use in working equids. Data on pathological abnormalities and pain responses in the feet, limbs and spine were collected through observation, palpation, manipulations and gait assessment in working horses from India (n = 110) and Pakistan (n = 117). Lameness at the walk was scored on a scale of 0-4 (sound-nonweightbearing). All horses examined were lame. Overall, 98% showed a gait abnormality in all 4 limbs and 87% had at least one limb scoring 3 or 4 on the lameness scale. Multiple pathological abnormalities within each limb were associated with lameness, with similar results in both countries. Chronic foot pathology was seen in every horse; 94% horses showed signs of chronic joint disease; 83% had digital flexor tendonitis in at least one limb. Lameness and pathological abnormalities were associated with specific pain responses in the feet, limbs and spine. The extremely high prevalence of multilimb lameness and its association with pain is of great concern. The multiple pathological abnormalities present in working horses makes lameness complex to address. The results of this detailed study of lameness should facilitate the identification of risk factors and the implementation of interventions to reduce the prevalence of lameness in working equids.

  6. Leaf development and demography explain photosynthetic seasonality in Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Albert, Lauren; Lopes, Aline; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Hayek, Matthew; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Guan, Kaiyu; Stark, Scott C.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Prohaska, Neill; Tavares, Julia V.; Marostica, Suelen; Kobayashi, Hideki; Ferreira, Maurocio L.; Campos, Kleber Silva; da Silva, Rodrigo; Brando, Paulo M.; Dye, Dennis G.; Huxman, Travis E.; Huete, Alfredo; Nelson, Bruce; Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen tropical forests, the extent, magnitude, and controls on photosynthetic seasonality are poorly resolved and inadequately represented in Earth system models. Combining camera observations with ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes at forests across rainfall gradients in Amazônia, we show that aggregate canopy phenology, not seasonality of climate drivers, is the primary cause of photosynthetic seasonality in these forests. Specifically, synchronization of new leaf growth with dry season litterfall shifts canopy composition toward younger, more light-use efficient leaves, explaining large seasonal increases (~27%) in ecosystem photosynthesis. Coordinated leaf development and demography thus reconcile seemingly disparate observations at different scales and indicate that accounting for leaf-level phenology is critical for accurately simulating ecosystem-scale responses to climate change.

  7. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  8. The development and significance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours in tethered sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development and performance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours (stereotypies) by tethered sows were studied in order to investigate the consequences of the behaviours for animal welfare and sow productivity.

    In Chapter 2, the behaviour of 36 tethered sows in a commercial herd

  9. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Semina, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5) splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition) helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5) morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5) morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  10. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  11. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  12. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  13. The KnownLeaf literature curation system captures knowledge about Arabidopsis leaf growth and development and facilitates integrated data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szakonyi, D.; Landeghem, van S.; Baerenfaller, K.; Baeyens, L.; Blomme, J.; Casanova-Saéz, R.; Bodt, De S.; Esteve-Bruna, D.; Fiorani, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Grønlund, J.; Immink, R.G.H.; Jover-Gil, S.; Kuwabara, A.; Muñoz-Nortes, T.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Wilson-Sánchez, D.; Buchanan-Wollaston, V.; Angenent, G.C.; Peer, Van de Y.; Inzé, D.; Micol, J.L.; Gruissem, W.; Walsh, S.; Hilson, P.

    2015-01-01

    The information that connects genotypes and phenotypes is essentially embedded in research articles written in natural language. To facilitate access to this knowledge, we constructed a framework for the curation of the scientific literature studying the molecular mechanisms that control leaf growth

  14. Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated kinase 1 (OsI-BAK1) is associated with grain filling and leaf development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khew, Choy-Yuen; Teo, Chin-Jit; Chan, Wai-Sun; Wong, Hann-Ling; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-06-15

    Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1 (BRI1)-Associated Kinase I (BAK1) has been reported to interact with BRI1 for brassinosteroid (BR) perception and signal transduction that regulate plant growth and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of a rice OsBAK1 homologue, designated as OsI-BAK1, which is highly expressed after heading. Silencing of OsI-BAK1 in rice plants produced a high number of undeveloped green and unfilled grains compared to the untransformed plants. Histological analyses demonstrated that embryos were either absent or retarded in their development in these unfilled rice grains of OsI-BAK1 RNAi plants. Down regulation of OsI-BAK1 caused a reduction in cell number and enlargement in leaf bulliform cells. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsI-BAK1 were demonstrated to have corrugated and twisted leaves probably due to increased cell number that caused abnormal bulliform cell structure which were enlarged and plugged deep into leaf epidermis. The current findings suggest that OsI-BAK1 may play an important role in the developmental processes of rice grain filling and leaf cell including the bulliform cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, J M

    1998-01-01

    Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

  16. Development of an induction motor abnormality monitoring system(IMAMS) using power line signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Cheon

    1997-02-01

    An induction motor abnormality monitoring system using power line signal analysis is developed in this work. Various studies have focused their attention on the detection of particular harmonic frequencies produced from each defect mode of motors. However, these harmonic frequencies are valuable only when the motor has a continuous slip frequency and operate in constant torque/load condition. The basic concept of the system developed in this work is to detect the characteristic harmonic frequencies occurred when the motor is in abnormal state and to compare it with a predetermined setpoint. Based on these analyses, the place and degree of defect can be easily identified. The experimental results under test bench simulation are also introduced. To find out an alternative way to obtain a threshold level independent of slip/torque, with the rotating field theory, the ratio between harmonic current and total current was calculated with the simplified circuit that is equivalent to two abnormal cases, such as the spatial rotor resistance variation and the symmetrical components changes with field. Also, the threshold level calculation was done with performed the rotating field theory. The results show that they are in good agreement with a experimental results. Further studies are undertaken to extend this work to the on-line monitoring and diagnostic system with a likelihood ratio test method for field application

  17. Maternal Sevoflurane Exposure Causes Abnormal Development of Fetal Prefrontal Cortex and Induces Cognitive Dysfunction in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant mice at gestational day 15.5 received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 h. Learning function of the offspring was evaluated with the Morris water maze test at postnatal day 30. Brain tissues of fetal mice were subjected to immunofluorescence staining to assess differentiation, proliferation, and cell cycle dynamics of the fetal PFC. We found that maternal sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning ability in offspring through inhibiting deep-layer immature neuron output and neuronal progenitor replication. With the assessment of cell cycle dynamics, we established that these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest in neural progenitors. Our research has provided insights into the cell cycle-related mechanisms by which maternal sevoflurane exposure can induce neurodevelopmental abnormalities and learning dysfunction and appeals people to consider the neurotoxicity of anesthetics when considering the benefits and risks of nonobstetric surgical procedures.

  18. Floral homeotic proteins modulate the genetic program for leaf development to suppress trichome formation in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Stewart, Darragh; Zheng, Beibei; Coupland, George; Wellmer, Frank

    2018-02-13

    As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organ is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which, as described by the ABCE model of flower development, act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) and the related SHATTERPROOF1 / 2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner. We show that AG regulates cytokinin responses and genetically interacts with the organ polarity gene KANADI1 to suppress trichome initiation on gynoecia. Thus, our results show that parts of the genetic program for leaf development remain active during flower formation but have been partially rewired through the activities of the floral homeotic proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Improvement of the abnormal diagnosis technology by the development of an abnormal parts assignment system for the engineered safety features actuating system of the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirato, Yoji; Kozawa, Takayuki; Saito, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The safety protection sequence panel of HTTR is a control panel to actuate an engineering safety system for protecting the reactor core, reactor coolant pressure boundary, and containment vessel boundary at the time of an accident of the nuclear reactor facilities. The safety code stipulates that the control panel should receive safety check at a frequency of once a month during reactor operation. When abnormality has been found, it is required to eliminate its causes and restore normal operation as soon as possible. However, since this control panel is composed of a complex control circuit, the cause check during abnormality requires the confirmation by a knowledgeable person spending quite a lot of time for chart checking, which leads to a delay of restoration. To achieve a rapid restoration, the abnormal part assignment system (APAS), which can specify abnormality instantaneously even by a common operator, was developed. It has been confirmed that with this system, rapid initial response and prompt restoration can be effectively made. (A.O.)

  20. Age and Pattern of Pap Smear Abnormalities: Implications for Cervical Cancer Control in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfolarin, Adepiti Clement; Olusegun, Ajenifuja Kayode; Omoladun, Okunola; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Onwundiegu, Uche

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A total of 252 (12.3%) samples were excluded from the analysis. The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6%) women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9%) women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) were reported in 117 (5.7%), 209 (10.2%), and 111 (5.4%) women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0%) and 3 (1.0%), respectively. There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  1. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  2. A mutation inCcdc39causes neonatal hydrocephalus with abnormal motile cilia development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamed, Zakia; Vuong, Shawn M; Hill, Lauren; Shula, Crystal; Timms, Andrew; Beier, David; Campbell, Kenneth; Mangano, Francesco T; Stottmann, Rolf W; Goto, June

    2018-01-09

    Pediatric hydrocephalus is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is one of the most common congenital brain abnormalities. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating CSF flow in the developing brain. Through whole-genome sequencing analysis, we report that a homozygous splice site mutation in coiled-coil domain containing 39 ( Ccdc39 ) is responsible for early postnatal hydrocephalus in the progressive hydrocephal us ( prh ) mouse mutant. Ccdc39 is selectively expressed in embryonic choroid plexus and ependymal cells on the medial wall of the forebrain ventricle, and the protein is localized to the axoneme of motile cilia. The Ccdc39 prh/prh ependymal cells develop shorter cilia with disorganized microtubules lacking the axonemal inner arm dynein. Using high-speed video microscopy, we show that an orchestrated ependymal ciliary beating pattern controls unidirectional CSF flow on the ventricular surface, which generates bulk CSF flow in the developing brain. Collectively, our data provide the first evidence for involvement of Ccdc39 in hydrocephalus and suggest that the proper development of medial wall ependymal cilia is crucial for normal mouse brain development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. In-transit development of color abnormalities in turkey breast meat during winter season

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Rafael H.; Honorato, Danielle C. B.; Guarnieri, Paulo D.; Soares, Adriana L.; Pedrão, Mayka R.; Oba, Alexandre; Paião, Fernanda G.; Ida, Elza I.; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2018-01-01

    Background The poultry industry suffers losses from problems as pale, soft and exudative (PSE), and dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat can develop in meat as a result of short- and long-term stress, respectively. These abnormalities are impacted by pre-slaughter animal welfare. Methods This work evaluated the effects of open vehicle container microclimate, throughout the 38 ± 10 km journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse, on commercially turkey transported during the Brazilian winter season. T...

  4. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms.

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    Xin-Xin Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M, such that the dwarf genotype (D and tall genotype (T in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype.Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T.We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Xin; Li, Qiao-Yun; Shen, Chun-Cai; Duan, Zong-Biao; Yu, Dong-Yan; Niu, Ji-Shan; Ni, Yong-Jing; Jiang, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M), such that the dwarf genotype (D) and tall genotype (T) in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype. Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T. We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study.

  6. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  7. Latrunculin A treatment prevents abnormal chromosome segregation for successful development of cloned embryos.

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    Yukari Terashita

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer to an enucleated oocyte is used for reprogramming somatic cells with the aim of achieving totipotency, but most cloned embryos die in the uterus after transfer. While modifying epigenetic states of cloned embryos can improve their development, the production rate of cloned embryos can also be enhanced by changing other factors. It has already been shown that abnormal chromosome segregation (ACS is a major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and that Latrunculin A (LatA, an actin polymerization inhibitor, improves F-actin formation and birth rate of cloned embryos. Since F-actin is important for chromosome congression in embryos, here we examined the relation between ACS and F-actin in cloned embryos. Using LatA treatment, the occurrence of ACS decreased significantly whereas cloned embryo-specific epigenetic abnormalities such as dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2 could not be corrected. In contrast, when H3K9me2 was normalized using the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294, the Magea2 gene-essential for normal development but never before expressed in cloned embryos-was expressed. However, this did not increase the cloning success rate. Thus, non-epigenetic factors also play an important role in determining the efficiency of mouse cloning.

  8. A temperature response function for modeling leaf growth and development of the African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.

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    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Response functions used in crop simulation models are usually different for different physiological processes and cultivars, resulting in many unknown coefficients in the response functions. This is the case of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl., where a generalized temperature response for leaf growth and development has not been developed yet. The objective of this study was to develop a generalized nonlinear temperature response function for leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate in African violet. The nonlinear function has three coefficients, which are the cardinal temperatures (minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures. These coefficients were defined as 10, 24, and 33ºC, based on the cardinal temperatures of other tropical species. Data of temperature response of leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate in African violet, cultivar Utah, at different light levels, which are from published research, were used as independent data for evaluating the performance of the nonlinear temperature response function. The results showed that a generalized nonlinear response function can be used to describe the temperature response of leaf growth and development in African violet. These results imply that a reduction in the number of input data required in African violet simulation models is possible.

  9. Age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities: Implications for cervical cancer control in a developing country

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    Adepiti Clement Akinfolarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. Design: This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. A total of 252 (12.3% samples were excluded from the analysis. Results: The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6% women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9% women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL were reported in 117 (5.7%, 209 (10.2%, and 111 (5.4% women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0% and 3 (1.0%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  10. Acquiring nutrients from tree leaves: effects of leaf maturity and development type on a generalist caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Kapila, Madhav; Kileen, Sara; Nusbaum, Caleb P

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth and prolific reproduction of many insect herbivores depend on the efficiencies and rates with which they acquire nutrients from their host plants. However, little is known about how nutrient assimilation efficiencies are affected by leaf maturation or how they vary between plant species. Recent work showed that leaf maturation can greatly decrease the protein assimilation efficiency (PAE) of Lymantria dispar caterpillars on some tree species, but not on species in the willow family (Salicaceae). One trait of many species in the Salicaceae that potentially affects PAE is the continuous (or "indeterminate") development of leaves throughout the growing season. To improve our understanding of the temporal and developmental patterns of nutrient availability for tree-feeding insects, this study tested two hypotheses: nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) are more efficiently assimilated from immature than mature leaves, and, following leaf maturation, nutrients are more efficiently assimilated from indeterminate than determinate tree species. The nutritional physiology and growth of a generalist caterpillar (L. dispar) were measured on five determinate and five indeterminate tree species while their leaves were immature and again after they were mature. In support of the first hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on immature leaves had significantly higher PAE and carbohydrate assimilation efficiency (CAE), as well as higher protein assimilation rates and growth rates, than larvae that fed on mature leaves. Contrary to the second hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on mature indeterminate tree leaves did not have higher PAE than those that fed on mature determinate leaves, while CAE differed by only 3% between tree development types. Instead, "high-PAE" and "low-PAE" tree species were found across taxonomic and development categories. The results of this study emphasize the importance of physiological mechanisms, such as nutrient assimilation efficiency, to

  11. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates estrogen-inducible abnormalities in the developing penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Cooke, P S; Szewczykowski, M A; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Williams, J W

    2007-05-01

    Previously, we reported an association between estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) upregulation and detrimental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in the rat penis. The objective of this study was to employ the ERalpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mouse model to test the hypothesis that ERalpha mediates DES effects in the developing penis. ERalphaKO and wild-type C57BL/6 mice received oil or DES at a dose of 0.2 microg/pup per day (0.1 mg/kg) on alternate days from postnatal days 2 to 12. Fertility was tested at 80-240 days of age and tissues were examined at 96-255 days of age. DES caused malformation of the os penis, significant reductions in penile length, diameter, and weight, accumulation of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis, and significant reductions in weight of the bulbospongiosus and levator ani muscles in wild-type mice. Conversely, ERalphaKO mice treated with DES developed none of the above abnormalities. While nine out of ten male mice sired pups in the wild-type/control group, none did in the wild-type/DES group. ERalphaKO mice, despite normal penile development, are inherently infertile. Both plasma and intratesticular testosterone levels were unaltered in the DES-treated wild-type or DES-treated ERalphaKO mice when compared with controls, although testosterone concentration was much higher in the ERalphaKO mice. Hence, the resistance of ERalphaKO mice to developing penile abnormalities provides unequivocal evidence of an obligatory role for ERalpha in mediating the harmful effects of neonatal DES exposure in the developing penis.

  12. Frost sensitivity of various deciduous plant species during leaf development in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Nicole; Heinzmann, Verena; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Frost damage in deciduous woody plants is a major climate component affecting fitness and distribution of species. It is a trade-off between early bud burst enlarging the potential growing season and frost risk for deciduous plants in many regions. In a warming world observed earlier budburst may lead to an increased risk of spring frost damage caused by higher variability in temperatures (IPCC 2007). Lenz et al. (2013) showed that leaves are in general more sensitive to frost in later leaf development stages. But still there is little knowledge on stages of leaf development and their susceptibility to frost damage in many deciduous species. Additionally there might be variation with plant traits or different strategies within specific groups of species. Frost risk minimization can also be achieved by variability in bud burst within a specimen. Therefore, in this study we observed more than 174 individual plant specimen of 96 deciduous woody plant species growing in a comparable microclimate outside on the campus of the Technical University of Munich in Freising, southern Germany. Their phenology was intensively studied from 12th of March to 4th of May, including variation within a specimen. Several times twigs for the frost experiment were cut in different stages of leaf development and exposed to freezing temperatures of -4 and -6°C in two lab freezers. Since the leaf development in spring 2015 started comparably late, too many species emerged simultaneously leading to some capacity problems in the freezers. Nevertheless, our results still reveal novel aspects concerning leaf development and frost sensitivity. The phenological development proceeded in general from outside to inside of the crown (59%), in 33% of the cases all over the plant simultaneously. Sporadic, inside to outside or vertical development characteristics occurred in rare cases (8%). Mixed model analysis indicated impacts on phenology by plant family, natural origin, pollination mode, and

  13. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  14. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  15. The abnormal distribution of development: policies for southern women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, E

    1995-03-01

    This paper offers a feminist critique of the relationships between gender and development by exploring the intersections between three sets of debates: firstly, the relations between interventions for women and for children through the anomalous position accorded to 'the girl child' in aid and development policies; secondly, the relations between psychological and economic models of development; and thirdly, the gendered and geographical allocation of attributes and opportunities. Drawing on analyses of the 'psychological complex' the author suggests that the cultural resources that inform developmental psychological models are highly cultural and class-specific (white, middle class, of the northern hemisphere), giving rise to a globalization of development that is reinscribed within international aid and development policies. In homogenizing difference to its norms, this globalization paradoxically reproduces the north-south opposition as an expression of cultural and political imperialism. While northern children 'develop', dominant discourses of children of the South are preoccupied with 'survival'. By such means the cultural hegemony of a unitary psychology remains intact. This paper discusses the 'abnormal distribution' of development to draw attention to the ways cultural and gender inequalities flow from the norms and generalized descriptions central to the current practice of developmental psychology and to urge that this is an important site of intervention for feminists addressing gender and development issues.

  16. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Morasso, Maria I; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C

    2009-12-31

    EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  17. The N-end rule pathway controls multiple functions during Arabidopsis shoot and leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciet, Emmanuelle; Walter, Franziska; Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Pollmann, Stephan; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Varshavsky, Alexander; Wellmer, Frank

    2009-08-11

    The ubiquitin-dependent N-end rule pathway relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. This proteolytic system is present in all organisms examined and has been shown to have a multitude of functions in animals and fungi. In plants, however, the functional understanding of the N-end rule pathway is only beginning. The N-end rule has a hierarchic structure. Destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu, and (oxidized) Cys requires their conjugation to Arg by an arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase (R-transferase). The resulting N-terminal Arg is recognized by the pathway's E3 ubiquitin ligases, called "N-recognins." Here, we show that the Arabidopsis R-transferases AtATE1 and AtATE2 regulate various aspects of leaf and shoot development. We also show that the previously identified N-recognin PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6) mediates these R-transferase-dependent activities. We further demonstrate that the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway plays a role in repressing the meristem-promoting BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) gene in developing leaves. BP expression is known to be excluded from Arabidopsis leaves by the activities of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) transcription factor complex and the phytohormone auxin. Our results suggest that AtATE1 and AtATE2 act redundantly with AS1, but independently of auxin, in the control of leaf development.

  18. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.

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    Jane Q Chen

    Full Text Available Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds homozygous uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.

  19. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis with purple young shoots during leaf development.

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    Qiongqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL and mature green leaves (MGL included: 1 the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2 the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI and flavonol synthase (FLS likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3 higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx, could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4 the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration.

  20. Structural and metabolic transitions of C4 leaf development and differentiation defined by microscopy and quantitative proteomics in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeran, Wojciech; Friso, Giulia; Ponnala, Lalit; Connolly, Brian; Huang, Mingshu; Reidel, Edwin; Zhang, Cankui; Asakura, Yukari; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H; Sun, Qi; Turgeon, Robert; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2010-11-01

    C(4) grasses, such as maize (Zea mays), have high photosynthetic efficiency through combined biochemical and structural adaptations. C(4) photosynthesis is established along the developmental axis of the leaf blade, leading from an undifferentiated leaf base just above the ligule into highly specialized mesophyll cells (MCs) and bundle sheath cells (BSCs) at the tip. To resolve the kinetics of maize leaf development and C(4) differentiation and to obtain a systems-level understanding of maize leaf formation, the accumulation profiles of proteomes of the leaf and the isolated BSCs with their vascular bundle along the developmental gradient were determined using large-scale mass spectrometry. This was complemented by extensive qualitative and quantitative microscopy analysis of structural features (e.g., Kranz anatomy, plasmodesmata, cell wall, and organelles). More than 4300 proteins were identified and functionally annotated. Developmental protein accumulation profiles and hierarchical cluster analysis then determined the kinetics of organelle biogenesis, formation of cellular structures, metabolism, and coexpression patterns. Two main expression clusters were observed, each divided in subclusters, suggesting that a limited number of developmental regulatory networks organize concerted protein accumulation along the leaf gradient. The coexpression with BSC and MC markers provided strong candidates for further analysis of C(4) specialization, in particular transporters and biogenesis factors. Based on the integrated information, we describe five developmental transitions that provide a conceptual and practical template for further analysis. An online protein expression viewer is provided through the Plant Proteome Database.

  1. Investigating the Development of Abnormal Subauroral Ion Drift (ASAID) and Abnormal Subauroral Polarization Stream (ASAPS) During the Magnetically Active Times of September 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates two recently reported subauroral phenomena: the abnormal subauroral ion drift (ASAID) appearing as an inverted SAID and the shielding-E—SAID structure depicting a SAID feature on the poleward side of a small eastward or antisunward flow channel that is the shielding electric (E) field's signature. We have analyzed polar cross sections, constructed with multi-instrument Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data, for the development of these subauroral phenomena. New results show the features of abnormal subauroral polarization stream (ASAPS) and ASAID-ASAPS comprised by a narrow ASAID embedded in a wider ASAPS. We have identified undershielding, perfect shielding, and overshielding events. Our observational results demonstrate SAPS development during undershielding, the absence of subauroral flow channel during perfect shielding, and ASAID/ASAPS and shielding-E—SAID/SAPS development during overshielding. The appearance of an ASAID-ASAPS structure together with a pair of dayside-nightside eastward auroral flow channels implies the intensification of region 2 field-aligned currents via the westward traveling surge and thus the strengthening of overshielding conditions. From the observational results presented we conclude for the magnetically active time period studied that (i) the shielding E field drove the wider ASAPS flow channel, (ii) the ASAID-ASAPS structure's narrow antisunward flow channel developed due to the injections of hot ring current ions in a short-circuited system wherein the hot ring current plasma was closer to the Earth than the cold plasmaspheric plasma, and (iii) overshielding created this hot-cold plasma configuration via the development of a plasmaspheric shoulder.

  2. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Developed by Mimicking Hierarchical Surface Morphology of Lotus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Latthe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lotus plant is recognized as a ‘King plant’ among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous ‘Lotus Effect’, along with extremely high water contact angle (>150° and low sliding angle (<10°, have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  4. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  5. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  6. Leaf litter mixtures alter microbial community development: mechanisms for non-additive effects in litter decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Chapman

    Full Text Available To what extent microbial community composition can explain variability in ecosystem processes remains an open question in ecology. Microbial decomposer communities can change during litter decomposition due to biotic interactions and shifting substrate availability. Though relative abundance of decomposers may change due to mixing leaf litter, linking these shifts to the non-additive patterns often recorded in mixed species litter decomposition rates has been elusive, and links community composition to ecosystem function. We extracted phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs from single species and mixed species leaf litterbags after 10 and 27 months of decomposition in a mixed conifer forest. Total PLFA concentrations were 70% higher on litter mixtures than single litter types after 10 months, but were only 20% higher after 27 months. Similarly, fungal-to-bacterial ratios differed between mixed and single litter types after 10 months of decomposition, but equalized over time. Microbial community composition, as indicated by principal components analyses, differed due to both litter mixing and stage of litter decomposition. PLFA biomarkers a15∶0 and cy17∶0, which indicate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, in particular drove these shifts. Total PLFA correlated significantly with single litter mass loss early in decomposition but not at later stages. We conclude that litter mixing alters microbial community development, which can contribute to synergisms in litter decomposition. These findings advance our understanding of how changing forest biodiversity can alter microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate.

  7. Changes in oxidative properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana leaf mitochondria during development of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Queiroz-Claret, C

    1985-06-01

    Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants grown under long days (16 h light) exhibit a C3-type photosynthetic metabolism. Switching to short days (9 h light) leads to a gradual development of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Under the latter conditions, dark CO2 fixation produces large amounts of malate. During the first hours of the day, malate is rapidly decarboxylated into pyruvate through the action of a cytosolic NADP(+)-or a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme. Mitochondria were isolated from leaves of plants grown under long days or after treatment by an increasing number of short days. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as well as exogenous NADH and NADPH were readily oxidized by mitochondria isolated from the two types of plants. Glycine, known to be oxidized by C3-plant mitochondria, was still oxidized after CAM establishment. The experiments showed a marked parallelism in the increase of CAM level and the increase in substrate-oxidation capacity of the isolated mitochondria, particularly the capacity to oxidize malate in the presence of cyanide. These simultaneous variations in CAM level and in mitochondrial properties indicate that the mitochondrial NAD(+)-malic enzyme could account at least for a part of the oxidation of malate. The studies of whole-leaf respiration establish that mitochondria are implicated in malate degradation in vivo. Moreover, an increase in cyanide resistance of the leaf respiration has been observed during the first daylight hours, when malate was oxidized to pyruvate by cytosolic and mitochondrial malic enzymes.

  8. Congenital hydrocephalus and abnormal subcommissural organ development in Sox3 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Lee

    Full Text Available Congenital hydrocephalus (CH is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF, a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. In-transit development of color abnormalities in turkey breast meat during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael H; Honorato, Danielle C B; Guarnieri, Paulo D; Soares, Adriana L; Pedrão, Mayka R; Oba, Alexandre; Paião, Fernanda G; Ida, Elza I; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2017-01-01

    The poultry industry suffers losses from problems as pale, soft and exudative (PSE), and dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat can develop in meat as a result of short- and long-term stress, respectively. These abnormalities are impacted by pre-slaughter animal welfare. This work evaluated the effects of open vehicle container microclimate, throughout the 38 ± 10 km journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse, on commercially turkey transported during the Brazilian winter season. The journey was initiated immediately after water bath in truck fitted with portable Kestrel anemometers to measure air ventilation, relative humidity, temperature and ventilation. The inferior compartments of the middle and rear truck regions showed highest temperature and relative humidity, and lower air ventilation. In addition, the superior compartments of the front truck regions presented lower temperature and wind chill, and highest air ventilation. The breast meat samples from animals located at the inferior compartments of the middle and rear truck regions and subjected to with water bath (WiB) treatment presented highest DFD-like and had lowest PSE-like meat incidence than those from animals located at other compartments within the container. Lower incidence of PSE-like meat was observed in birds without water bath (WoB). Assessment on turkeys transported under Brazilian southern winter conditions revealed that breast meat quality can be affected by relative humidity, air ventilation, temperature, and transport under subtropical conditions promoting color abnormalities and the formation of simultaneously PSE-like and DFD-like meat.

  10. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  11. Tannic acid label indicates abnormal cell development coinciding with regeneration of renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are in the focus of research as a future therapeutic option to stimulate regeneration in diseased renal parenchyma. However, current data indicate that successful seeding of implanted stem/progenitor cells is prevented by harmful interstitial fluid and altered extracellular matrix. To find out possible parameters for cell adaptation, the present investigation was performed. Renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in an artificial interstitium for perfusion culture. Exposure to chemically defined but CO2-independent culture media was tested during 13 days. Cell biological features were then analyzed by histochemistry, while structural details were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after conventional and improved fixation of specimens. Culture of renal stem/progenitor cells as well in Leibovitz's L-15 Medium as CO2 Independent Medium shows in fluorescence microscopy spatial development of numerous tubules. Specimens of both media fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde exhibit in electron microscopy a homogeneous cell population in developed tubules. In contrast, fixation by glutaraldehyde including tannic acid illuminates that dispersed dark marked cells of unknown function are present. The screening further demonstrates that the dark cell type does not comply with cells found in embryonic, maturing or matured renal parenchyma. The actual data show that development of abnormal cell features must be taken into account, when regeneration of renal tubules is simulated under in vitro conditions.

  12. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Wang

    Full Text Available Chemical hybridization agent (CHA-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  13. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  14. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  15. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  16. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  17. [Development of aloin cells and accumulation of anthraquinone in aloe leaf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai Xia; Li, Jing Yuan; Shen, Zong Gen; Hu, Zheng Hai

    2003-10-01

    The development of aloin cells and its relationship with the accumulation of anthraquinone in aloe leaf were investigated with the methods of paraffin section, semi-thin section, histochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed: cells rounded the procambium bundle differentiated into bundle sheath at the initial stage of procambium bundle developing into vascular bundle. When the sieve tube members appeared in protophloem, there were a lay of procambium bundle cells reserved between the sieve tube members and bundle sheath. These cells began to devise, then developed into aloin cells through enlargement of volume and vacuolization with the differentiation of metaphloem and metaxylem. So the aloin cells were special phloem parenchyma cells because they shared the same origin with the other phloem cells. The investigation of histochemistry reflected that there were aloin precipitate in the central vacuole of aloin cells after the material was soaked in the liquid of 1% lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2]. In addition, the yellow fluorescence was observed in aloin cells when the section of fresh material was investigated under the fluorescent microscope with blue light, which suggested the aloin cells of vascular bundles were the mainly storage site of anthraquinone.

  18. Cardia bifida, defective heart development and abnormal neural crest migration in embryos lacking hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compernolle, Veerle; Brusselmans, Koen; Franco, Diego; Moorman, Antoon; Dewerchin, Mieke; Collen, Désiré; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed the essential role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in cardiovascular development. We attempted to further characterize the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal cardiogenesis and

  19. The role of the second heart field in pulmonary vein development : new insights in the origin of clinical abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Yvonne Louise

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we describe normal and abnormal pulmonary vein development in human and mouse hearts, and focus on the histo(patho)logy of the pulmonary venous and left atrial dorsal wall, in order to elucidate the role of the posterior heart field in the formation and differentiation of the

  20. Congenital brain abnormalities: an update on malformations of cortical development and infratentorial malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2014-07-01

    In the past two decades, significant progress in neuroimaging and genetic techniques has allowed for advances in the correct definition/classification of congenital brain abnormalities, which have resulted in a better understanding of their pathogenesis. In addition, new groups of diseases, such as axonal guidance disorders or tubulinopathies, are increasingly reported. Well-defined neuroimaging diagnostic criteria have been suggested for the majority of congenital brain abnormalities. Accurate diagnoses of these complex abnormalities, including distinction between malformations and disruptions, are of paramount significance for management, prognosis, and family counseling. In the next decade, these advances will hopefully be translated into deeper understanding of these disorders and more specific treatments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  2. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a ‘geneticalgenomics’ approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Wang, H.; Basnet, R.K.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, K.; Hou, X.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa

  3. Development of monitoring method of coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) infected area using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhama, N.; Ikeda, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Marpaung, F.; Yoshii, T.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) has expanded its infection in Latin America, and early trimming and burning infected trees have been only effective countermeasures to prevent spreading infection. Although some researchers reported a case about the monitoring of coffee leaf rust using satellite remote sensing in 1970s, the spatial resolution was unsatisfied, and therefore, further technological development has been required. The purpose of this research is to develop effective method of discovering coffee leaf rust infected areas using satellite remote sensing. Annual changes of vegetation indices, i.e. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (MSIPI), around Cuchumatanes Mountains, Republic of Guatemala, were analyzed by Landsat 7 images. Study fields in the research were limited by the coffee farm areas based on a previous paper about on site surveys in different damage areas. As the result of the analysis, the annual change of NDVI at the coffee farm areas with damages tended to be lower than those without damages. Moreover, the decline of NDVI appear from 2008 before the damage was reported. On the other hand, the change of MSIPI had no significant difference. NDVI and MSIPI are mainly related to the amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the leaves respectively. This means that the infected coffee leaves turned yellow without defoliation. This situation well matches the symptom of coffee leaf rust. The research concluded that the property of infected leaves turning yellow is effective to monitoring of infection areas by satellite remote sensing.

  4. Fabrication of Artificial Leaf to Develop Fluid Pump Driven by Surface Tension and Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Minki; Lim, Hosub; Lee, Jinkee

    2017-01-01

    Plants transport water from roots to leaves via xylem through transpiration, which is an evaporation process that occurs at the leaves. During transpiration, suction pressure is generated by the porous structure of mesophyll cells in the leaves. Here, we fabricate artificial leaf consisting of micro and nano hierarchy structures similar to the mesophyll cells and veins of a leaf using cryo-gel method. We show that the microchannels in agarose gel greatly decrease the flow resistance in dye di...

  5. Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches

  6. Developing software to "track and catch" missed follow-up of abnormal test results in a complex sociotechnical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Murphy, D; Laxmisan, A; Sittig, D; Reis, B; Esquivel, A; Singh, H

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider's prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA's EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility's "test" EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for

  7. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  8. Bioprospective of Sorbus aucuparia leaf extract in development of silver and gold nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shashi Prabha; Lahtinen, Manu; Särkkä, Heikki; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-10-01

    At the present time the bioprospective field is a dynamic area of research. The rapid biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles without using toxic chemicals is reported here. Sorbus aucuparia is omnipresent in Europe. The aqueous leaves extract of the plant were used as reducing agent for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from their salt solutions. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical, triangular and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 16 and 18nm for silver and gold, respectively. Different extract quantities, metal concentrations, temperatures and contact times were investigated to find their effect on nanoparticles synthesis. The resulting silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The concentration of residual silver and gold ions was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. Silver and gold nanoparticle suspensions gave maximum UV-vis absorbance at 446 and 560nm, respectively. The XRD data illustrated characteristic diffraction patterns of the elemental silver and gold phases and the average size of the crystallites were estimated from the peak profiles by Scherrer method. FTIR spectra of the leaf extract before and after the development of nanoparticles were determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles.

  9. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2010-10-06

    Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention

  10. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  11. LMI1-like genes involved in leaf margin development of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiyuan; Liu, Han; Huang, Jixiang; Zhao, Jianyi

    2017-06-01

    In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions. All three LMI1-like genes of B. napus produced serrate leaf margins. The expression analysis indicated that the expression level of BnaA10g26320D determined the difference between lobed- and entire-leaved lines in rapeseed. Therefore, it is likely that BnaA10g26320D corresponds to BnLL1.

  12. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Vinicius S; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Exposure of spermatozoa to dibutyl phthalate induces abnormal embryonic development in a marine invertebrate Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie; Aitken, Robert John

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on early embryogenesis in a sessile marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa. DBP was found to induce sperm dysfunction as well as impaired and defective embryogenesis characterised by a particular pattern of abnormality. Thus, after the first cleavage, one blastomere in these abnormal embryos was able to carry out further mitoses, while the other arrested. Analysis of microtubules, chromosomes and actin filaments demonstrated that the mitotic spindles in the abnormal embryos were irregularly bent, shortened and unable to anchor to the cortex, resulting in the defective segregation of chromosomes. Within the non-dividing blastomeres, karyokinesis was found to continue at a slow pace as indicated by the presence of multiple sets of abnormal mitotic spindles. However, cytokinesis had been disrupted in these arrested cells due to a failure to assemble the contractile actin ring, as a result of which one pole of the embryos remained as one large, undivided cell. DBP was found to suppress the activity of superoxide dismutase in spermatozoa and, in association with this change, DBP-treated cells experienced oxidative stress as indicated by the presence of lipid aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the sperm acrosome and neck. Adduction of lipid aldehydes at the level of the acrosome would be expected to impede the acrosome reaction and account for the significant decrease in fertilisation rates. 4-HNE generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation in the sperm neck resulted in alkylation of the sperm centrioles. Such paternally damaged centrioles were inherited by the embryos and disrupted cytoskeletal protein organisation during early cleavage, generating the observed abnormalities in embryonic development. This research emphasises the vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative damage and highlights novel potential mechanisms for reproductive toxicity involving the alkylation of

  14. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  16. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway.

  18. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation.

  19. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  1. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  2. Megalin-deficiency causes high myopia, retinal pigment epithelium-macromelanosomes and abnormal development of the ciliary body in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Heegaard, Steffen; Christensen, Erik Ilsø

    2014-01-01

    of megalin-deficient mice were examined with immunological techniques using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We identified megalin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (NPCBE) in normal mouse eyes. Immunocytochemical investigations furthermore showed...... that megalin localizes to vesicular structures in the RPE and NPCBE cells. Histological investigations of ocular mouse tissue also identified a severe myopia phenotype as well as enlarged RPE melanosomes and abnormal ciliary body development in the megalin-deficient mice. In conclusion, the complex ocular...

  3. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Julia C; Yaapar, Muhammad N; Narawatthana, Supatthra; Lehmeier, Christoph; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Chater, Caspar; Kelly, Steve; Rolfe, Stephen A; Quick, W Paul; Fleming, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  5. Administration of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid during tooth development inhibits tooth eruption and formation and induces dental abnormalities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Toru; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Recently, BPs have also been shown to benefit children with primary and secondary osteoporosis, including osteogenesis imperfecta; however, their long-term safety has not been established yet. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BPs delay or inhibit tooth eruption. The failure of tooth eruption causes several dental abnormalities. In this study, to determine the effects of BPs on tooth formation, the BP zoledronic acid (ZOL) was injected into 7- and 14-day-old rats, and the development of the mandibular teeth was examined. X-ray analysis demonstrated that ZOL inhibited the eruption of both incisors and molars and their formation, especially in the molar roots. Histological examination showed that, in ZOL-treated animals, alveolar bone remained unresorbed around tooth crowns, which injured ameloblasts and enamel matrix, leading to defects of the enamel. Furthermore, haphazard proliferation of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme associated with primitive tooth structures, which resembles human odontomas, was induced at the basal end of incisors but not around the molars. Tooth ankylosis to alveolar bone was occasionally observed in molars. These results suggest that administration of BPs during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption and formation and to induce several types of dental abnormalities, which may be attributed to the altered osteoclastic activities.

  6. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  7. Differential Expression of Genes of the Calvin-Benson Cycle and its Related Genes During Leaf Development in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    To understand how the machinery for photosynthetic carbon assimilation is formed and maintained during leaf development, changes in the mRNA levels of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase and two key enzymes for sucrose synthesis were determined in rice (Oryza sativa L.). According to the patterns of changes in the mRNA levels, these genes were categorized into three groups. Group 1 included most of the genes involved in the carboxylation and reduction phases of the Calvin-Benson cycle, as well as three genes in the regeneration phase. The mRNA levels increased and reached maxima during leaf expansion and then rapidly declined, although there were some variations in the residual mRNA levels in senescent leaves. Group 2 included a number of genes involved in the regeneration phase, one gene in the reduction phase of the Calvin-Benson cycle and one gene in sucrose synthesis. The mRNA levels increased and almost reached maxima before full expansion and then gradually declined. Group 3 included Rubisco activase, one gene involved in the regeneration phase and one gene in sucrose synthesis. The overall pattern was similar to that in group 2 genes except that the mRNA levels reached maxima after the stage of full expansion. Thus, genes of the Calvin-Benson cycle and its related genes were differentially expressed during leaf development in rice, suggesting that such differential gene expression is necessary for formation and maintenance of the machinery of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Vulnerability of the developing brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insults to the thyroid system.

    OpenAIRE

    Porterfield, S P

    1994-01-01

    Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three gr...

  9. LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

  10. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    Human fetal brain development is a complex process which is vulnerable to disruption at many stages. Although histogenesis is well-documented, only a few studies have quantified cell numbers across normal human fetal brain growth. Due to the present lack of normative data it is difficult to gauge...... abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...... are unreliable due to unpredictable shrinking artifacts, and the fragility of the fetal brain requires particular care in handling and processing. The optical fractionator design offers a direct and robust estimate of total cell numbers in the fetal brain with a minimum of handling of the tissue. Bearing...

  11. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  12. Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alternations in CNS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    2007) Iron in fetal and neonatal nutrition . Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 12: 54-63 Raymond GV, Bauman ML, Kemper TL (1996) Hippocampus in autism : a...phenotype for Autism and related alternations in CNS development PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark D. Noble, Ph.D... Autism and related alternations in CNS development 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0702 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  13. Abnormal coronary tree development in embryonic hypoxia leads to heart failure and embryonic lethality.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naňka, O.; Sedmera, David; Grim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2007), s. 778.8 ISSN 0892-6638. [Experimental Biology 2007. 27.04.2007-03.05.2007, Washington DC] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : coronary tree development Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  14. Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

  15. DLX4 is associated with orofacial clefting and abnormal jaw development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, D.; Mandal, S.; Choi, A.; Anderson, A.; Procházková, Michaela; Perry, H.; Gil-Da-Silva-Lopes, V.L.; Lao, R.; Wan, E.; Tang, P.L.F.; Kwok, P.Y.; Klein, O.; Zhuan, B.; Slavotinek, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 15 (2015), s. 4340-4352 ISSN 0964-6906 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Distal-less 4 gene * craniofacial development * cleft lip and/or palate Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.985, year: 2015

  16. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eBaglio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. Aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in borderline intellectual functioning children.Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale and a Magnetic Resonance (MR examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel based morphometry (VBM analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional gray matter volume in bilateral sensori-motor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased gray matter volume in right parahippocampal gyrus. Gray matter volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices.Our is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to general population, contributes to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  17. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment.We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth.Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  18. Development of Nano-hybrid Cellulose Acetate/TiO2 Membrane for Eugenol Purification from Crude Clove Leaf Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Tutuk Djoko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical separation and purification are the important part of the chemical industry which consumes up to 70% energy cost. The separation technology such as distillation and absorption are well known in essential oil purification. The purification of clove leaf oil needs an attention because the current technology still consumes high energy and produces chemical wastes. The employment of membrane separation for clove leaf purification is a novel concept that needs many improvements. The main problem of polymeric membrane utilization is eugenol ability to dissolve the polymer membrane. Cellulose acetate is one of membrane polymers that is insoluble in eugenol. This paper reveals the performance of nanohybrid CA/TiO2 membrane for eugenol purification. The stability of produced membrane as an organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN is evaluated in this study. The SEM image result shows that fabricated membrane has an asymmetric structure of membrane sub-layer. The different nano-particles loading shows the variation of permeate fluxes, the increase of nano-particles in polymer blend tends to increase the permeability. Thus, this study provides an overview of the potential CA/TiO2 for OSN development by incorporating inorganic nano-particles in membrane polymers for eugenol purification that can be integrated in upstream separation process.

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Its Convergent Treatments on Lily Leaf Blight Pathogen, Botrytis elliptica, and the Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation and its convergence with nano-silver particles and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC were investigated to inhibit germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis elliptica, the pathogen of lily leaf blight. In addition, the same treatments were studied on the process of disease development with detached leaf of lily cv. Siberia. Spray inoculation, which is closer to natural infection than wound inoculation, can be a way to investigate infection ability of the treated pathogen. The irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%, D10, was 526 Gy irradiating with 0-2000 Gy gamma ray on the conidial suspension as well as the growing mycelia. Even at 2000 Gy, the mycelium was not killed but just delayed its growth at 1–2 days behind. Convergent treatment with 40 mg/l of NaDCC just before 200 Gy gamma irradiation was the best way to decrease the conidial germination about 1/1000 times. The control values of gamma irradiation were 23% and 19.5% at wound inoculation and spray inoculation, respectively. On wound-inoculation, the control value of NaDCC only was 89%, and that of NaDCC convergent with 200 Gy gamma irradiation was 32%. On sprayinoculation, the highest control value was NaDCC at 50%, and that of NaDCC convergent with gamma irradiation was 24%.

  20. Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal Development of the Earliest Cortical Circuits in a Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Nagode

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD involves deficits in speech and sound processing. Cortical circuit changes during early development likely contribute to such deficits. Subplate neurons (SPNs form the earliest cortical microcircuits and are required for normal development of thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. Prenatal valproic acid (VPA increases ASD risk, especially when present during a critical time window coinciding with SPN genesis. Using optical circuit mapping in mouse auditory cortex, we find that VPA exposure on E12 altered the functional excitatory and inhibitory connectivity of SPNs. Circuit changes manifested as “patches” of mostly increased connection probability or strength in the first postnatal week and as general hyper-connectivity after P10, shortly after ear opening. These results suggest that prenatal VPA exposure severely affects the developmental trajectory of cortical circuits and that sensory-driven activity may exacerbate earlier, subtle connectivity deficits. Our findings identify the subplate as a possible common pathophysiological substrate of deficits in ASD.

  2. Annual research review: Growth connectomics--the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-03-01

    We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  4. Abnormal development of monoaminergic neurons is implicated in mood fluctuations and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude

    2015-03-01

    Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD.

  5. Is pancreas development abnormal in the non-obese diabetic mouse, a spontaneous model of type I diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homo-Delarche

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive genetic and immunological research, the complex etiology and pathogenesis of type I diabetes remains unresolved. During the last few years, our attention has been focused on factors such as abnormalities of islet function and/or microenvironment, that could interact with immune partners in the spontaneous model of the disease, the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse. Intriguingly, the first anomalies that we noted in NOD mice, compared to control strains, are already present at birth and consist of 1 higher numbers of paradoxically hyperactive ß cells, assessed by in situ preproinsulin II expression; 2 high percentages of immature islets, representing islet neogenesis related to neonatal ß-cell hyperactivity and suggestive of in utero ß-cell stimulation; 3 elevated levels of some types of antigen-presenting cells and FasL+ cells, and 4 abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression. However, the colocalization in all control mouse strains studied of fibroblast-like cells (anti-TR-7 labeling, some ECM proteins (particularly, fibronectin and collagen I, antigen-presenting cells and a few FasL+ cells at the periphery of islets undergoing neogenesis suggests that remodeling phenomena that normally take place during postnatal pancreas development could be disturbed in NOD mice. These data show that from birth onwards there is an intricate relationship between endocrine and immune events in the NOD mouse. They also suggest that tissue-specific autoimmune reactions could arise from developmental phenomena taking place during fetal life in which ECM-immune cell interaction(s may play a key role.

  6. Cardiac defects, nuchal edema and abnormal lymphatic development are not associated with morphological changes in the ductus venosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Nicole B.; Haak, Monique C.; Kok, Evelien; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Shou, Weinian; Scambler, Peter J.; Lee, Youngsook; Cho, Eunjin; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Bekker, Mireille N.

    2016-01-01

    In human fetuses with cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency, abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms are observed. It is unknown whether abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency are a reflection of altered cardiac function or

  7. Cardiac defects, nuchal edema and abnormal lymphatic development are not associated with morphological changes in the ductus venosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Nicole B.; Haak, Monique C.; Kok, Evelien; de Groot, Christianne J M; Shou, Weinian; Scambler, Peter J.; Lee, Youngsook; Cho, Eunjin; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Bekker, Mireille N.

    2016-01-01

    Background In human fetuses with cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency, abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms are observed. It is unknown whether abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency are a reflection of altered cardiac

  8. Mice with Tak1 Deficiency in Neural Crest Lineage Exhibit Cleft Palate Associated with Abnormal Tongue Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchen; Liu, Chao; Iwata, Junichi; Gu, Shuping; Suzuki, Akiko; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Shu, Rong; Li, Lu; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing

    2013-01-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGFβ signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGFβ signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGFβ activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGFβ signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1F/F mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGFβ signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting. PMID:23460641

  9. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  10. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  11. Effects of cryoprotectants and low temperatures on hatching and abnormal embryo development of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael S. Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of the cryoprotectants and the low temperatures on the embryonic development of Prochilodus lineatus, describing their main morphological alterations. On chilling sensitivity test, the survival rates at the twenty somites stage (20S were 53.6% at 0ºC, and 100% in 5ºC. To test toxicity, the embryos were exposed to a graded series of 1,2-Propanediol (PROP, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO4 and glycerol (GLY, terminating in a solution of high osmolarity. There was no significant difference in the embryos survival of toxicity test between series of PROP and Me2SO4 in the 6S and 20S. In the cooling protocols, were evaluated the effects of low temperature associated with cryoprotectants. At 5ºC, PROP showed survival rates above 75% in the gastrula stage (G and above 90% in the 6S and 20S stages. High rates of abnormalities were observed, and the most recurrent were: small bodies, fins presenting uncontrolled cell growth, membrane rupture, and retraction. These results demonstrate the need to use cryoprotectant solutions, even when there is no ice nucleation, and, on the other hand, shows that high cryoprotectant concentrations promote numerous morphological lesions, compromising normal embryonic development.

  12. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of a chilled, variegated leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chilling treatments (5 degrees C and 10 degrees C) were performed for different durations (1-7 d) under a moderate irradiance (120 micromol m-2 s-1). The individual leaves were divided into a shaded zone and two illuminated, chilled zones. The leaf tip and sometimes the leaf base were not chilled. Measurements of the dark-adapted Fv/Fm were made on the different leaf zones at the end of the chilling treatment, and then for several days thereafter to monitor recovery. Chilling up to 7 d in the dark did not affect PSII efficiency and visual appearance, whereas chilling in the light caused severe photoinhibition, sometimes followed by leaf necrosis. Photoinhibition increased with the duration of the chilling period, whereas, remarkably, chilling temperature had no effect. In the unchilled leaf tip, photoinhibition also occurred, whereas in the unchilled leaf base it did not. Whatever the leaf zone, photoinhibition became permanent if the mean value dropped below 0.4, although chlorosis and necrosis were associated solely with chilled illuminated tissue. Starch accumulated in the unchilled leaf tip, in contrast to the adjacent chilled irradiated zone. This suggests that photoinhibition was due to a secondary effect in the unchilled leaf tip (sink limitation), whereas it was a direct effect of chilling and irradiance in the chilled illuminated zones. The PSII efficiency and its coefficient of variation showed a unique negative linearity across all leaf zones and different tissue types. The slope of this curve was steeper for chilled leaves than it was for healthy, non-stressed leaves, suggesting that the coefficient of variation may be an important tool for assessing stress in

  13. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Method to Determine Abnormal Joint Torque Coupling Patterns During Walking In Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fricke, S.S.; Dragunas, Andrew C.; Gordon, Keith E.; van der Kooij, H.; van Asseldonk, E.H.F.; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    Motor impairments following stroke may lead to a reduced walking ability, however, no reliable assessments to quantify these impairments during walking are available [1]. For example, abnormal joint torque coupling between hip extension and hip adduction, previously reported under isometric

  15. Morphological abnormalities, impaired fetal development and decrease in myostatin expression following somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Se-Il; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; You, Sang-Young; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-05-01

    Several mammals, including dogs, have been successfully cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but the efficiency of generating normal, live offspring is relatively low. Although the high failure rate has been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei during the cloning process, the exact cause is not fully known. To elucidate the cause of death in cloned offspring, 12 deceased offspring cloned by SCNT were necropsied. The clones were either stillborn just prior to delivery or died with dyspnea shortly after birth. On gross examination, defects in the anterior abdominal wall and increased heart and liver sizes were found. Notably, a significant increase in muscle mass and macroglossia lesions were observed in deceased SCNT-cloned dogs. Interestingly, the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth during embryogenesis, was down-regulated at the mRNA level in tongues and skeletal muscles of SCNT-cloned dogs compared with a normal dog. Results of the present study suggest that decreased expression of myostatin in SCNT-cloned dogs may be involved in morphological abnormalities such as increased muscle mass and macroglossia, which may contribute to impaired fetal development and poor survival rates. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  17. Absence of PTHrP nuclear localization and carboxyl terminus sequences leads to abnormal brain development and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gu

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1-84, a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.

  18. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  19. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  20. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological and anatomical components involved in higher water loss rates after leaf development at high humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Heuvelink, E.; Pinto De Carvalho, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the poor regulation of water loss after leaf development at high relative air humidity (RH), the relative importance of the physiological and anatomical components was analyzed focusing on cultivars with a contrasting sensitivity to elevated RH. The stomatal responsiveness to

  1. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  2. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryk Scott Beal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in

  3. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  4. Allergenicity assessment of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin, a potential candidate protein for developing sap sucking insect resistant food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Hossain Ali; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Majumder, Pralay; Roy, Pampa; Roy, Amit; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta; Das, Sampa

    2011-01-01

    Mannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants. Following the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, the source of the gene, its sequence homology with potent allergens, clinical tests on mammalian systems, and the pepsin resistance and thermostability of the protein were considered to address the issue. No significant homology to the ASAL sequence was detected when compared to known allergenic proteins. The ELISA of blood sera collected from known allergy patients also failed to show significant evidence of cross-reactivity. In vitro and in vivo assays both indicated the digestibility of ASAL in the presence of pepsin in a minimum time period. With these experiments, we concluded that ASAL does not possess any apparent features of an allergen. This is the first report regarding the monitoring of the allergenicity of any mannose-binding monocot lectin having insecticidal efficacy against hemipteran insects.

  5. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  6. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  7. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  8. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition

  9. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-10-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition.

  10. Translational researches on leaf senescence for enhancing plant productivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Leaf senescence is a very important trait that limits yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops and reduces post-harvest performance and the nutritional value of horticultural crops. Significant advance in physiological and molecular understanding of leaf senescence has made it possible to devise ways of manipulating leaf senescence for agricultural improvement. There are three major strategies in this regard: (i) plant hormone biology-based leaf senescence manipulation technology, the senescence-specific gene promoter-directed IPT system in particular; (ii) leaf senescence-specific transcription factor biology-based technology; and (iii) translation initiation factor biology-based technology. Among the first strategy, the P SAG12 -IPT autoregulatory senescence inhibition system has been widely explored and successfully used in a variety of plant species for manipulating senescence. The vast majority of the related research articles (more than 2000) showed that crops harbouring the autoregulatory system displayed a significant delay in leaf senescence without any abnormalities in growth and development, a marked increase in grain yield and biomass, dramatic improvement in horticultural performance, and/or enhanced tolerance to drought stress. This technology is approaching commercialization. The transcription factor biology-based and translation initiation factor biology-based technologies have also been shown to be very promising and have great potentials for manipulating leaf senescence in crops. Finally, it is speculated that technologies based on the molecular understanding of nutrient recycling during leaf senescence are highly desirable and are expected to be developed in future translational leaf senescence research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

  12. Erythropoietin Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microgliosis and Abnormal Granule Cell Development in the Ovine Fetal Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie R. A. McDougall

    2017-07-01

    density of Iba-1-positive microglia in the deep WM or the density of apopotic cells in the cerebellum. LPS-induced intrauterine inflammation caused microgliosis and abnormal development of granule cells. rhEPO ameliorated these changes, suggesting that it is neuroprotective against LPS-induced inflammatory effects in the cerebellum.

  13. Topography and crop management are key factors for the development of american leaf spot epidemics on coffee in costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Cabut, Sandrine; Barboza, Bernardo; Barquero, Miguel; Alfaro, Ronny; Esquivel, César; Durand, Jean-François; Cilas, Christian

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT We monitored the development of American leaf spot of coffee, a disease caused by the gemmiferous fungus Mycena citricolor, in 57 plots in Costa Rica for 1 or 2 years in order to gain a clearer understanding of conditions conducive to the disease and improve its control. During the investigation, characteristics of the coffee trees, crop management, and the environment were recorded. For the analyses, we used partial least-squares regression via the spline functions (PLSS), which is a nonlinear extension to partial least-squares regression (PLS). The fungus developed well in areas located between approximately 1,100 and 1,550 m above sea level. Slopes were conducive to its development, but eastern-facing slopes were less affected than the others, probably because they were more exposed to sunlight, especially in the rainy season. The distance between planting rows, the shade percentage, coffee tree height, the type of shade, and the pruning system explained disease intensity due to their effects on coffee tree shading and, possibly, on the humidity conditions in the plot. Forest trees and fruit trees intercropped with coffee provided particularly propitious conditions. Apparently, fertilization was unfavorable for the disease, probably due to dilution phenomena associated with faster coffee tree growth. Finally, series of wet spells interspersed with dry spells, which were frequent in the middle of the rainy season, were critical for the disease, probably because they affected the production and release of gemmae and their viability. These results could be used to draw up a map of epidemic risks taking topographical factors into account. To reduce those risks and improve chemical control, our results suggested that farmers should space planting rows further apart, maintain light shading in the plantation, and prune their coffee trees.

  14. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  15. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  16. Rose bush leaf and internode expansion dynamics: analysis and development of a model capturing interplant variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eDemotes-Mainard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bush rose architecture, among other factors, such as plant health, determines plant visual quality. The commercial product is the individual plant and interplant variability may be high within a crop. Thus, both mean plant architecture and interplant variability should be studied. Expansion is an important feature of architecture, but it has been little studied at the level of individual organs in bush roses. We investigated the expansion kinetics of primary shoot organs, to develop a model reproducing the organ expansion of real crops from non destructive input variables. We took interplant variability in expansion kinetics and the model’s ability to simulate this variability into account. Changes in leaflet and internode dimensions over thermal time were recorded for primary shoot expansion, on 83 plants from three crops grown in different climatic conditions and densities. An empirical model was developed, to reproduce organ expansion kinetics for individual plants of a real crop of bush rose primary shoots. Leaflet or internode length was simulated as a logistic function of thermal time. The model was evaluated by cross-validation. We found that differences in leaflet or internode expansion kinetics between phytomer positions and between plants at a given phytomer position were due mostly to large differences in time of organ expansion and expansion rate, rather than differences in expansion duration. Thus, in the model, the parameters linked to expansion duration were predicted by values common to all plants, whereas variability in final size and organ expansion time was captured by input data. The model accurately simulated leaflet and internode expansion for individual plants (RMSEP = 7.3% and 10.2% of final length, respectively. Thus, this study defines the measurements required to simulate expansion and provides the first model simulating organ expansion in rosebush to capture interplant variability.

  17. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  18. Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2012-06-06

    As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world's food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and β-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies.

  19. Association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism and development of schizophrenia and abnormal involuntary movements in the Xhosa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzeroth, Angelika; Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Botes, Willem C; Deleuze, J F; Warnich, Louise

    2007-04-13

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and poor outcome of schizophrenia, as well as the development of neuroleptic-induced abnormal involuntary movements. Recently, the functional polymorphism (Ala-9Val) in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene (part of the antioxidant defense mechanism) was found to be associated with schizophrenia in a Turkish population. This study was aimed at replicating this finding in a Xhosa population. In addition, the role of Ala-9Val in abnormal involuntary movement and tardive dyskinesia development in the Xhosa population was also investigated. The schizophrenic patient group (n=286) and a healthy control group (n=243) were genotyped for the Ala-9Val polymorphism using heteroduplex-single stranded conformational polymorphism (HEX-SSCP) analysis. No significant difference in genotype or allele frequency could be observed between the schizophrenia and control group (P=0.294 and P=0.528 respectively). In addition no association could be found between the polymorphism and symptom severity (SANS and SAPS). The Xhosa schizophrenia patient group with abnormal involuntary movements (n=54) and a subgroup with tardive dyskinesia (n=30) was found to significantly differ in Ala-9Val genotype frequency (P=0.008 and P=0.011 respectively) compared to the Xhosa schizophrenia patient group without abnormal involuntary movements (n=204). However, no significant difference was found for the allele frequencies (P=0.955 and P=0.161). Further, using ANCOVA no association was found between AIMS score and genotype in the group with abnormal involuntary movements (P=0.1234). However, in the patient group with tardive dyskinesia an association was observed between genotype and AIMS score (P=0.0365). These results do not support a major role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in the development of schizophrenia or symptom severity in the Xhosa population. Yet it seems to be involved in the

  20. Effects of willow hybridisation and simulated browsing on the development and survival of the leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgren Per

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridisation is common between many plant species and causes rapid changes in a variety of plant characters. This may pose problems for herbivores because changes in recognition characters may be poorly correlated with changes in quality characters. Many studies have examined different systems of hybrids and herbivores in attempts to understand the role of hybridisation in the evolution of plant resistance. The results from different systems are variable. Studies of hybrids between Salix caprea (L., Salicaceae and S. repens show that they are intermediate between the two parental species in most resistence characters. However, a plants herbivore resistence depends also on its biotic and abiotic environment. Important biotic factors that may influence plant growth and plant chemistry include the interactions between different herbivores that occur through their exploitation of common host plants. Although the effects on plants of previous herbivory are likely to be strongly affected by environmental conditions, they are also species-specific. Damage may therefore have different effects on hybrids than on their parental species, and this could influence the performance of herbivores on pure and hybrid species of plants. To evaluate the effects of hybridisation on insect performance, the development and survival rates of Phratora vitellinae (L. 1758, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae on pure S. repens, pure S. caprea and Fl hybrids of the two species was monitored. Further, to examine the effect of herbivorous mammals on the performance of the larvae, plants were damaged to simulate winter foraging by voles or spring leaf stripping by moose. Results The results show that development rates were highest on S. repens and equally low on S. caprea and the Fl hybrid. In addition, development of the plants treated to simulate mammalian herbivore damage was slower than that of corresponding controls. Conclusions The

  1. CLD1/SRL1 modulates leaf rolling by affecting cell wall formation, epidermis integrity and water homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, Min-Juan; Gan, Peng-Fei; Qiao, Lei; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Miao, Hai; Wang, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Wen-Ting; Li, Hai-Feng; Shi, Chun-Hai; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf-rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1, and loses function in cld1 through DNA methylation. CLD1/SRL1 encodes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that modulates leaf rolling and other aspects of rice growth and development. The cld1 mutant exhibits significant decreases in cellulose and lignin contents in secondary cell walls of leaves, indicating that the loss of function of CLD1/SRL1 affects cell wall formation. Furthermore, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function leads to defective leaf epidermis such as bulliform-like epidermal cells. The defects in leaf epidermis decrease the water-retaining capacity and lead to water deficits in cld1 leaves, which contribute to the main cause of leaf rolling. As a result of the more rapid water loss and lower water content in leaves, cld1 exhibits reduced drought tolerance. Accordingly, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function causes abnormal expression of genes and proteins associated with cell wall formation, cuticle development and water stress. Taken together, these findings suggest that the functional roles of CLD1/SRL1 in leaf-rolling regulation are closely related to the maintenance of cell wall formation, epidermal integrity and water homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-07

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormalities as an imaging biomarker for the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Intelligent Image Information Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hepatic contour was quantified and converted to hepatic fibrosis index (HFI). • HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio of 26.4. • HFI may be an important imaging biomarker for managing cirrhotic patients. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate whether a hepatic fibrosis index (HFI), quantified on the basis of hepatic contour abnormality, is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and written informed consent was waved. During a 14-month period, consecutive 98 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no medical history of HCC treatment (56 men and 42 women; mean age, 70.7 years; range, 48–91 years) were included in this study. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte specific phase was used to detect and analyze hepatic contour abnormality. Hepatic contour abnormality was quantified and converted to HFI using in-house proto-type software. We compared HFI between patients with (n = 54) and without HCC (n = 44). Serum levels of albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, percent prothrombin time, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, and HFI were tested as possible risk factors for the development of HCC by determining the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis. Results: HFIs were significantly higher in patients with HCC (0.58 ± 0.86) than those without (0.36 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that only HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC development with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 26.4 (9.0–77.8) using a cutoff value of 0.395. Conclusion: The hepatic fibrosis index, generated using a computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormality, may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  4. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

    2009-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, ...

  5. Variable Effects of Grass-Neotyphodium Associations on Cereal Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) Feeding, Development and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cereal grains are the preferred food plants of the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), several other graminoid species are acceptable feeding hosts of larvae and adults of this chrysomelid beetle. In view of the potential for expanding the use of diverse endophytic fungi (Neotyphodi...

  6. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  7. Effect of sunlight shielding on leaf structure and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case, the chloroplasts showed partially lysed, with few thylakoids. The leaf albinism was reverted when the leaf was shielded from direct illumination of strong sunlight. It is considered that the blocked development of chloroplast and photosynthetic pigments in the albinism leaf inhibited the biosynthesis of leaf proteins, ...

  8. Genetic Analysis of Streaked and Abnormal Floret Mutant st-fon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A double mutant with streaked leaf and abnormal floret was found and temporarily named streaked leaf and floral organ number mutant (st-fon. For this mutant, besides white streak appeared on culm, leaves and panicles, the number of floral organs increased and florets cracked. The extreme phenotype was that several small florets grew from one floret or branch rachis in small florets extended and developed into panicles. By using transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of white histocytes of leaves at the seedling stage, the white tissues which showed abnormal plastids, lamellas and thylakoids could not develop into normal chloroplast, and the development of chloroplast was blocked at the early growth stage of plastid. Scanning electron microscope and paraffin section were also used to observe the development of floral organs, and the results indicated that the development of floral meristem was out of order and unlimited, whereas in the twisty leaves, vascular bundle sheath cells grew excessively, or some bubbly cells increased. Genetic analyses carried out by means of cross and backcross with four normal-leaf-color materials revealed that the mutant is of cytoplasm inheritance.

  9. Arabidopsis Class I and Class II TCP Transcription Factors Regulate Jasmonic Acid Metabolism and Leaf Development Antagonistically1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Muino, Jose M.; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.

    2012-01-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  10. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  11. Congenital abnormalities of cranial nerve development: overview, molecular mechanisms, and further evidence of heterogeneity and complexity of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Elias I

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23-q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei.

  12. Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed

  13. Estrogen-induced abnormal accumulation of fat cells in the rat penis and associated loss of fertility depends upon estrogen exposure during critical period of penile development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M; Williams, J W

    2005-09-01

    We previously reported that diethylstilbestrol (DES) or estradiol valerate (EV) exposure at a dose of 0.10-0.12 mg/kg, or higher, per day, on alternate days, from postnatal days 2-12, resulted in abnormal penis development and infertility (H. O. Goyal et al., 2005, J. Androl. 26, 32-43). The objective of this study was to identify a critical developmental period(s) during which EV exposure results in the observed penile abnormalities. Male pups received EV at a dose of 0.10-0.12 mg/kg on postnatal day(s) 1, 1-3, 4-6, 1-6, 7-12, 13-18, 19-24, or 25-30. Fertility was tested at 102-115 days of age and tissues were examined at 117-137 days. Both penile morphology and fertility were unaltered in rats treated with EV after 12 days of age. Conversely, except in rats treated on postnatal day 1 only, none of the males treated prior to 12 days of age sired pups, and all had abnormal penises, including varying degrees of abnormal accumulation of fat cells and loss of cavernous spaces and smooth muscle cells in the corpora cavernosa penis, which were maximal in the 1-6-day group. Also, the preputial sheath was partially released or its release was delayed, and the weight of the bulbospongiosus muscle was significantly reduced. Plasma testosterone (T) in the 1-6- and 4-6-day groups and intratesticular T in the 4-6-day group were significantly lower. The testosterone surge, characteristic of controls in the first week of life, was suppressed in the 1-3-day group. Estrogen receptor alpha mRNA expression was enhanced in the body of the penis in the 1-3-day group, but not in the 13-18-day group. Hence, EV exposure prior to 12 days of age (as short as 1-3 days postnatal), but not after 12 days of age, results in long-term abnormal penile morphology, characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis and, consequently, loss of fertility.

  14. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the black leaf streak pathogen of banana: progress towards understanding pathogen biology and detection, disease development, and the challenges of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Alice C L

    2011-05-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits are a key staple food in many developing countries and a source of income for subsistence farmers. Bananas are also a major, multibillion-dollar export commodity for consumption primarily in developed countries, where few banana cultivars are grown. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease (BLSD; aka black Sigatoka leaf spot) on the majority of edible banana cultivars grown worldwide. The fact that most of these cultivars are sterile and unsuitable for the breeding of resistant lines necessitates the extensive use of fungicides as the primary means of disease control. BLSD is a significant threat to the food security of resource-poor populations who cannot afford fungicides, and increases the environmental and health hazards where large-acreage monocultures of banana (Cavendish subgroup, AAA genome) are grown for export. Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet is a sexual, heterothallic fungus having Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton as the anamorph stage. It is a haploid, hemibiotrophic ascomycete within the class Dothideomycetes, order Capnodiales and family Mycosphaerellaceae. Its taxonomic placement is based on DNA phylogeny, morphological analyses and cultural characteristics. Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a leaf pathogen that causes reddish-brown streaks running parallel to the leaf veins, which aggregate to form larger, dark-brown to black compound streaks. These streaks eventually form fusiform or elliptical lesions that coalesce, form a water-soaked border with a yellow halo and, eventually, merge to cause extensive leaf necrosis. The disease does not kill the plants immediately, but weakens them by decreasing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, causing a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit, and inducing the premature ripening of fruit harvested from infected plants. Although Musa spp. are the

  15. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Frank M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people. The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000 between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1, dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150 with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision

  16. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Us Saqib, Qazi Najam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. Aims: This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark. Results: The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin. Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control. PMID:26120229

  17. Silicon Conversion From Bamboo Leaf Silica By Magnesiothermic Reduction for Development of Li-ion Baterry Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Silviana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is a promising alternative material for the anode Lithium ion Battery (LIB. Si has a large theoretical capacity about 3579 mA hg-1, ten times greater than the commercial graphite anode (372 mA hg-1. Bamboo is a source of organic silica (bio-silica. Most part biogenetic content of SiO2 is obtained in bamboo leaves. This paper aims to investigate the synthesis nano Si from bamboo leaves through magnesiothermic reduction after silica extraction using sol–gel method and to observe nano Si of bamboo leaf as mixed material for lithium ion baterry. Silica and silicon content was determined using XRF. Silica product has 96,3 wt. % yield of extraction from bamboo leaf, while silicon yield was obtained 61.2 wt. %. The XRD pattern revealed that silica and silicon product were amourphous. The extracted silica and silicon from bambo leaf has spherical shape and agglomerated form. As anoda material for LIB, silicon product achieved 0,002 mAh capacity for 22 cycle.

  18. Assessment of leaf carotenoids content with a new carotenoid index: Development and validation on experimental and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Dong, Yingying; Casa, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Leaf carotenoids content (LCar) is an important indicator of plant physiological status. Accurate estimation of LCar provides valuable insight into early detection of stress in vegetation. With spectroscopy techniques, a semi-empirical approach based on spectral indices was extensively used for carotenoids content estimation. However, established spectral indices for carotenoids that generally rely on limited measured data, might lack predictive accuracy for carotenoids estimation in various species and at different growth stages. In this study, we propose a new carotenoid index (CARI) for LCar assessment based on a large synthetic dataset simulated from the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5, and evaluate its capability with both simulated data from PROSPECT-5 and 4SAIL and extensive experimental datasets: the ANGERS dataset and experimental data acquired in field experiments in China in 2004. Results show that CARI was the index most linearly correlated with carotenoids content at the leaf level using a synthetic dataset (R2 = 0.943, RMSE = 1.196 μg/cm2), compared with published spectral indices. Cross-validation results with CARI using ANGERS data achieved quite an accurate estimation (R2 = 0.545, RMSE = 3.413 μg/cm2), though the RBRI performed as the best index (R2 = 0.727, RMSE = 2.640 μg/cm2). CARI also showed good accuracy (R2 = 0.639, RMSE = 1.520 μg/cm2) for LCar assessment with leaf level field survey data, though PRI performed better (R2 = 0.710, RMSE = 1.369 μg/cm2). Whereas RBRI, PRI and other assessed spectral indices showed a good performance for a given dataset, overall their estimation accuracy was not consistent across all datasets used in this study. Conversely CARI was more robust showing good results in all datasets. Further assessment of LCar with simulated and measured canopy reflectance data indicated that CARI might not be very sensitive to LCar changes at low leaf area index (LAI) value, and in these conditions soil moisture

  19. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  20. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  1. Impact of elevated temperature scenarios on potato leaf development Impacto de cenários de aumento de temperatura no desenvolvimento foliar da batata

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    Nereu A. Streck

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of elevated temperature scenarios on leaf development of potato in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Leaf appearance was estimated using a multiplicative model that has a non-linear temperature response function which calculates the daily leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day-1 and the accumulated number of leaves (LN from crop emergence to the appearance of the upper last leaf. Leaf appearance was estimated during 100 years in the following scenarios: current climate, +1 °C, +2 °C, +3 °C, +4 °C e +5 °C. The LAR model was estimated with coefficients of the Asterix cultivar in five emergence dates and in two growing seasons (Fall and Spring. Variable of interest was the duration (days of the crop emergence to the appearance of the final leaf number (EM-FLN phase. Statistical analysis was performed assuming a three-factorial experiment, with main effects being climate scenarios, growing seasons, and emergence dates in a completely randomized design using years (one hundred as replications. The results showed that warmer scenarios lead to an increase, in the fall, and a decrease, in the spring growing season, in the duration of the leaf appearance phase, indicating high vulnerability and complexity of the response of potato crop grown in a Subtropical environment to climate change.O objetivo, neste trabalho, foi estimar o impacto de cenários de temperaturas elevadas no desenvolvimento foliar da cultura da batata, em Santa Maria-RS, Brasil. A emissão de folhas da cultura da batata foi estimada por um modelo multiplicativo com função de reposta não linear à temperatura que calcula a taxa diária de aparecimento de folhas (TAF, folhas dia-1 e o número acumulado de folhas (NF a partir da data de emergência da cultura até o surgimento da última folha. A emissão de folhas foi estimada em 100 anos de cada um dos cenários climáticos: clima atual, +1 °C, +2 °C, +3 °C, +4 °C e +5 °C. O

  2. [Abnormal floral meristem development in transgenic tomato plants do not depend on the expression of genes encoding defense-related PR-proteins and antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliluev, M R; Chaban, I A; Kononenko, N V; Baranova, E N; Dolgov, S V; Kharchenko, P N; Poliakov, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and cytoembryological analyses of the tomato plants transformed with the genes encoding chitin-binding proteins (ac and RS-intron-Shir) from Amaranthus caudatus L. andA. retroflexus L., respectively, as well as the gene amp2 encoding hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from Stellaria media L., have been performed. The transgenic lines were adapted to soil and grown the greenhouse. The analysis of putative transgenic tomato plants revealed several lines that did not differ phenotypically from the wild type plants and three lines with disruption in differentiation of the inflorescence shoot and the flower, as well as the fruit formation (modified plants of each line were transformed with a single gene as noted before). Abnormalities in the development of the generative organs were maintained for at least six vegetative generations. These transgenic plants were shown to be defective in the mail gametophyte formation, fertilization, and, consequently, led to parthenocarpic fruits. The detailed analysis of growing ovules in the abnormal transgenic plants showed that the replacement tissue was formed and proliferated instead of unfertilized embryo sac. The structure of the replacement tissue differed from both embryonic and endosperm tissue of the normal ovule. The formation of the replacement tissue occurred due to continuing proliferation of the endothelial cells that lost their ability for differentiation. The final step in the development of the replacement tissue was its death, which resulted in the cell lysis. The expression of the genes used was confirmed by RT-PCR in all three lines with abnormal phenotype, as well as in several lines that did not phenotypically differ from the untransformed control. This suggests that abnormalities in the organs of the generative sphere in the transgenic plants do not depend on the expression of the foreign genes that were introduced in the tomato genome. Here, we argue that agrobacterial

  3. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment.

  4. Leveraging multiple datasets for deep leaf counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Andrei; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2017-01-01

    The number of leaves a plant has is one of the key traits (phenotypes) describing its development and growth. Here, we propose an automated, deep learning based approach for counting leaves in model rosette plants. While state-of-the-art results on leaf counting with deep learning methods have recently been reported, they obtain the count as a result of leaf segmentation and thus require per-leaf (instance) segmentation to train the models (a rather strong annotation). Instead, our method tre...

  5. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  6. Development of a simple and effective protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated leaf disc transformation of commercial tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Dang Thi; Ferro, Noel; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens is still far from being routine, particularly when it comes to commercial varieties. In the present paper, we present an efficient and simple protocol for leaf disc transformation of three Vietnamese tomato cultivars (DM8, MTS, FM372C) by comparing shoot regeneration media for expanding leaves and examining different parameters of inoculation, co-culture and selection conditions. The present transformation method requires neither feeder layers of cell suspension cultures nor pre-culture. The data clearly show that appropriate cytokinin- and auxin combinations and concentrations provide competent tissues for transformation. Supplementing of 8 µM trans-zeatin and 5 µM indoleacetic acid (IAA) into pre-treatment, inoculation and co-culture media resulted in higher frequency of transformation and stronger GUS-expression than that of media supplemented with 4 µM trans-zeatin and 2 µM IAA. The experiments also exhibited that tomato leaf tissues were more sensitive to glufosinate after inoculation with Agrobacteria compared to the untreated controls, so a more sophisticated scheme for the glufosinate selection had to be established.

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  10. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  11. Development and characterization of a Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng 7Ns chromosome addition line with leaf rust resistance.

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    Wanli Du

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize a Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs disomic addition line 2-1-6-3. Individual line 2-1-6-3 plants were analyzed using cytological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, EST-SSR, and EST-STS techniques. The alien addition line 2-1-6-3 was shown to have two P. huashanica chromosomes, with a meiotic configuration of 2n = 44 = 22 II. We tested 55 EST-SSR and 336 EST-STS primer pairs that mapped onto seven different wheat chromosomes using DNA from parents and the P. huashanica addition line. One EST-SSR and nine EST-STS primer pairs indicated that the additional chromosome of P. huashanica belonged to homoeologous group 7, the diagnostic fragments of five EST-STS markers (BE404955, BE591127, BE637663, BF482781 and CD452422 were cloned, sequenced and compared. The results showed that the amplified polymorphic bands of P. huashanica and disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 shared 100% sequence identity, which was designated as the 7Ns disomic addition line. Disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 was evaluated to test the leaf rust resistance of adult stages in the field. We found that one pair of the 7Ns genome chromosomes carried new leaf rust resistance gene(s. Moreover, wheat line 2-1-6-3 had a superior numbers of florets and grains per spike, which were associated with the introgression of the paired P. huashanica chromosomes. These high levels of disease resistance and stable, excellent agronomic traits suggest that this line could be utilized as a novel donor in wheat breeding programs.

  12. Decreased sorbitol synthesis leads to abnormal stamen development and reduced pollen tube growth via an MYB transcription factor, MdMYB39L, in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; He, Mingyang; Bai, Yang; Xu, Hongxia; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Fei, Zhangjun; Cheng, Lailiang

    2018-01-01

    Sugars produced by photosynthesis not only fuel plant growth and development, but may also act as signals to regulate plant growth and development. This work focuses on the role of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, in flower development and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus domestica). Transgenic 'Greensleeves' apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis had abnormal stamen development, a decreased pollen germination rate and reduced pollen tube growth, which were all closely related to lower sorbitol concentrations in stamens. RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analyses identified reduced transcript levels during stamen development and pollen tube growth in the transgenic trees of a stamen-specific MYB39-like transcription factor, MdMYB39L, and of its putative target genes involved in hexose uptake, cell wall formation and microsporogenesis. Suppressing MdMYB39L expression in pollen via antisense oligonucleotide transfection significantly reduced the expression of its putative target genes and pollen tube growth. Exogenous sorbitol application during flower development partially restored MdMYB39L expression, stamen development, and pollen germination and tube growth of the transgenic trees. Addition of sorbitol to the germination medium also partially restored pollen germination and tube growth of the transgenic trees. We conclude that sorbitol plays an essential role in stamen development and pollen tube growth via MdMYB39L in apple. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Arrested human embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos from women of advanced maternal age

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Tao; Liang, Li-Feng; Xian, Ye-Xing; Liu, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than partial chromosome screening, as errors can occur in any chromosome. Currently, chromosome screening for aneuploidy is performed in developing embryos, mai...

  14. Gm1-MMP is involved in growth and development of leaf and seed, and enhances tolerance to high temperature and humidity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sushuang; Liu, Yanmin; Jia, Yanhong; Wei, Jiaping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yali; Zhu, Yajing; Gu, Weihong; Ma, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases. Gm1-MMP was found to play an important role in soybean tissue remodeling during leaf expansion. In this study, Gm1-MMP was isolated and characterized. Its encoding protein had a relatively low phylogenetic relationship with the MMPs in other plant species. Subcellular localization indicated that Gm1-MMP was a plasma membrane protein. Gm1-MMP showed higher expression levels in mature leaves, old leaves, pods, and mature seeds, as well as was involved in the development of soybean seed. Additionally, it was involved in response to high temperature and humidity (HTH) stress in R7 leaves and seeds in soybean. The analysis of promoter of Gm1-MMP suggested that the fragment from -399 to -299 was essential for its promoter activity in response to HTH stress. The overexpression of Gm1-MMP in Arabidopsis affected the growth and development of leaves, enhanced leaf and developing seed tolerance to HTH stress and improved seed vitality. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ROS in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds were lower than those in wild type seeds under HTH stress. Gm1-MMP could interact with soybean metallothionein-II (GmMT-II), which was confirmed by analysis of yeast two-hybrid assay and BiFC assays. All the results indicated that Gm1-MMP plays an important role in the growth and development of leaves and seeds as well as in tolerance to HTH stress. It will be helpful for us understanding the functions of Gm1-MMP in plant growth and development, and in response to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recapitulating cortical development with organoid culture in vitro and modeling abnormal spindle-like (ASPM related primary microcephaly disease

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    Rui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of a cerebral organoid culture in vitro offers an opportunity to generate human brain-like organs to investigate mechanisms of human disease that are specific to the neurogenesis of radial glial (RG and outer radial glial (oRG cells in the ventricular zone (VZ and subventricular zone (SVZ of the developing neocortex. Modeling neuronal progenitors and the organization that produces mature subcortical neuron subtypes during early stages of development is essential for studying human brain developmental diseases. Several previous efforts have shown to grow neural organoid in culture dishes successfully, however we demonstrate a new paradigm that recapitulates neocortical development process with VZ, OSVZ formation and the lamination organization of cortical layer structure. In addition, using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs with dysfunction of the Aspm gene from a primary microcephaly patient, we demonstrate neurogenesis defects result in defective neuronal activity in patient organoids, suggesting a new strategy to study human developmental diseases in central nerve system.

  16. Identification of nickel response genes in abnormal early developments of sea urchin by differential display polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae Kwon; Lee, Gunsup; Rhee, Yong; Park, Heung-Sik; Chang, Man; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Jaean; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2012-10-01

    Bioassays and biomarkers have been previously developed to assess the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the sea urchin. In this study, malformation in the early developmental processes was observed in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) larvae exposed to 10 ppm Ni for over 30 h. The most critical stage at which the triggering of nickel effects takes place is thought to be the blastula stage, which occurs after fertilization in larval development. To investigate the molecular-level responses of sea urchin exposed to heavy metal stress and to explore the differentially expressed genes that are induced or repressed by nickel, differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used with sea urchin mRNAs. The malformation-related genes expressed in the early life stages of the sea urchin were cloned from larvae exposed to 10 ppm of nickel for 15 h, and accessed via DD-PCR. Sequence analysis results revealed that each of the genes evidenced high homology with EGF2, PCSK9, serine/threonine protein kinase, apolipophorin precursor protein, and MGC80921 protein/transcript variant 2. This result may prove useful in the development of novel biomarkers for the assessment of heavy metal stresses on sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marco A N; de Cruz, Viviane Oliveira; Emediato, Flavia L; de Teixeira, Cristiane Camargo; Azevedo, Vânia C Rennó; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Amorim, Edson P; Ferreira, Claudia F; Martins, Natalia F; Togawa, Roberto C; Júnior, Georgios J Pappas; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Miller, Robert N G

    2013-02-05

    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores. The study generated 846,762 high quality sequence reads, with an average length of 334 bp and totalling 283 Mbp. De novo assembly generated 36,384 and 35,269 unigene sequences for M. acuminata Calcutta 4 and Cavendish Grande Naine, respectively. A total of 64.4% of the unigenes were annotated through Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity analyses against public databases.Assembled sequences were functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with unigene functions covering a diverse range of molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Genes from a number of defense-related pathways were observed in transcripts from each cDNA library. Over 99% of contig unigenes mapped to exon regions in the reference M. acuminata DH Pahang whole genome sequence. A total of 4068 genic-SSR loci were identified in Calcutta 4 and 4095 in Cavendish Grande Naine. A subset of 95 potential defense-related gene-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were validated for specific amplification and polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, with alleles per polymorphic locus ranging from 3 to 8 and polymorphism information content ranging from 0.34 to 0.82. A large set

  18. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormalities of Endocytosis, Phagocytosis, and Development Process in Dictyostelium Cells That Over-Express Acanthamoeba castellanii Metacaspase Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entsar Saheb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba castellanii forms a resistant cyst that protects the parasite against the host's immune response. Acanthamoeba Type-I metacaspase (Acmcp is a caspase-like protein that has been found to be expressed during the encystations. Dictyostelium discoideum is an organism closely related to Acanthamoeba useful for studying the molecular function of this protozoan caspase-like protein.The full length of Acmcp and a mutated version of the same gene, which lacks the proline rich N-terminal region (Acmcp-dpr, were cloned into the pDneo2a-GFP vector separately. The pDneo2a-GFP-Acmcp and pDneo2a-GFPAcmcp-dpr were electro-transfected into wild type D. discoideum cells to create cell lines that over-expressed Acmcp or Acmcp-dpr.Both cell lines that over-expressed Acmcp and Acmcp-dpr showed a significant increase in the fluid phase internalization and phagocytosis rate compared to the control cells. Additionally, the cells expressing the Acmcp-dpr mutant were unable to initiate early development and failed to aggregate or form fruiting bodies under starvation conditions, whereas Acmcp over-expressing cells showed the opposite phenomena. Quantitative cell death analysis provided additional support for these findings.Acmcp is involved in the processes of endocytosis and phagocytosis. In addition, the proline rich region in Acmcp is important for cellular development in Dictyostelium. Given its important role in the development process, metacaspase protein is proposed as a candidate drug target against infections caused by A. castellanii.

  20. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  1. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589

  2. Development of extract library from indonesian biodiversity: exploration of antibacterial activity of mangrove bruguiera cylindrica leaf extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audah, K. A.; Amsyir, J.; Almasyhur, F.; Hapsari, A. M.; Sutanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Antibacterial drugs derived from natural sources play significant roles in the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections since antibiotics have become less effective against many infectious diseases. Mangroves are very potential natural antibacterial sources among great numbers of wild medicinal plants. Bruguiera cylindrica is one of the many mangroves species which spread along Indonesian coastline. The aim of this study was to explore the antibacterial activity of B. cylindrica wet and dried leaf extracts. The wet extracts study was conducted with three different solvents system (water, ethanol, and n-Hexane) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. While, the dried extracts study was conducted with four different solvents system (water, ethanol, chloroform and n-Hexane) against three types of bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of phenolic and flavonoid. Antibacterial actitivity was measured by zone of inhibition which obtained from agar-disk diffusion method. The widest area of zone of inhibition was showed by wet extracts with ethanol against S. aureus and E. coli are 14.30 and 13.30 mm, respectively. While, the zone of inhibition dried extracts with ethanol against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. coli are 9.32, 6.59 and 6.20 mm, respectively. In conclusion, both type of extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria as crude extracts.

  3. Abnormal differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae impairs development of the motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Amanda R; McNeill, Matthew S; Lambert, Aaron M; Overton, Jeffrey D; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lorca, Ramón A; Johnson, Nicolas A; Brockerhoff, Susan E; Mohapatra, Durga P; MacArthur, Heather; Panula, Pertti; Masino, Mark A; Runnels, Loren W; Cornell, Robert A

    2014-02-15

    Transient receptor potential, melastatin-like 7 (Trpm7) is a combined ion channel and kinase implicated in the differentiation or function of many cell types. Early lethality in mice and frogs depleted of the corresponding gene impedes investigation of the functions of this protein particularly during later stages of development. By contrast, zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae undergo early morphogenesis normally and thus do not have this limitation. The mutant larvae are characterized by multiple defects including melanocyte cell death, transient paralysis, and an ion imbalance that leads to the development of kidney stones. Here we report a requirement for Trpm7 in differentiation or function of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. First, trpm7 mutant larvae are hypomotile and fail to make a dopamine-dependent developmental transition in swim-bout length. Both of these deficits are partially rescued by the application of levodopa or dopamine. Second, histological analysis reveals that in trpm7 mutants a significant fraction of dopaminergic neurons lack expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Third, trpm7 mutants are unusually sensitive to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, an oxidative stressor, and their motility is partially rescued by application of the iron chelator deferoxamine, an anti-oxidant. Finally, in SH-SY5Y cells, which model aspects of human dopaminergic neurons, forced expression of a channel-dead variant of TRPM7 causes cell death. In summary, a forward genetic screen in zebrafish has revealed that both melanocytes and dopaminergic neurons depend on the ion channel Trpm7. The mechanistic underpinning of this dependence requires further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Stomata are small pores on the surfaces of leaves and generally comprised of ... plant's different parts attract more people's attention. ... further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials. Plants of B. spectabilis Willd were grown in the Jinan University.

  5. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  6. Colonial museology and the Buddhist chronicles of Sri Lanka: agency and negotiation in the development of the palm-leaf manuscript collection at the Colombo Museum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sweet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The roles of colonial museums in South Asia have been understood in terms of the dissemination of museology within the British Empire. This has often underplayed the participation of local intellectuals in the formation of museum collections, and thus has not recognized their agency in the creation of knowledge and of longstanding cultural assets. This article addresses this in part through an historical case study of the development of the palm-leaf manuscript collection at the Colombo Museum in nineteenth century Ceylon. The article focuses on the relationships between Government aims, local intellectuals and the Buddhist clergy. I argue that colonial museology and collecting activity in Ceylon ought to be understood as a negotiated process and a number of reasons for this are discussed. This article contributes to an area of museological research that is exploring the roles of indigenous actors in colonial collecting and museum practice in South Asia and broader geographical contexts.

  7. Short Communication: The developmentt of a leaf tensilmeter for in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a portable leaf tensilmeter for the in situ measurement of leaf tensile strength is described. Tensile strength is determined by the distortion of strain gauges on modified stripping pliers which are used to break leaf blades. The output is displayed via an analogue chip through a liquid crystal display.

  8. Congenital penile pathology is associated with abnormal development of the dartos muscle: a prospective study of primary penile surgery at a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoit, A-F; Van Praet, C; Groen, L-A; Van Laecke, E; Praet, M; Hoebeke, P

    2015-05-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms leading to chordee in patients with hypospadias and to the hidden state of buried penis in the prepubic fat remain unclear. Resection of dartos tissue usually makes the penis straight in patients with hypospadias and corrects it in those with buried penis, suggesting a common pathophysiology related to dartos tissue. Tissue samples from 113 children undergoing primary penile surgery for hypospadias (94 patients), epispadias (1) or buried penis (18) were collected between November 2011 and September 2013. Tissue samples from 79 children undergoing circumcision for nonmedical reasons served as controls. All samples were stained with smooth muscle actin and analyzed by the same pathologist, who was blinded to indication for surgery. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied. Three different dartos tissue patterns were observed. Pattern I (normal) consisted of smooth muscle fibers of dartos tissue organized in a parallel configuration in the subcutaneous tissue. Pattern II was characterized by poorly developed and hypotrophic smooth muscle fibers. Pattern III was determined by randomly distributed smooth muscle fibers in the subcutaneous tissue, without parallel configuration. Pattern I was observed in 45 circumcision specimens (64%). Of buried penis cases 78% were considered abnormal (pattern II in 4 cases and III in 10, p = 0.001). Of hypospadias cases 70% were considered abnormal (pattern II in 31 cases, III in 32, and mixed II and III in 3, p Congenital penile pathology (hypospadias, buried penis) is associated with structural anomalies in dartos tissue. Further research is needed to unveil the pathophysiology of the condition. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term leaf phenology and leaf exchange strategies of a cerrado savanna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Costa Alberton, Bruna; de Carvalho, Gustavo H.; Magalhães, Paula A. N. R.; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C.

    2017-04-01

    Leaf development and senescence cycles are linked to a range of ecosystem processes, affecting seasonal patterns of atmosphere-ecosystem carbon and energy exchanges, resource availability and nutrient cycling. The degree of deciduousness of tropical trees and communities depend on ecosystems characteristics such as amount of biomass, species diversity and the strength and length of the dry season. Besides defining the growing season, deciduousness can also be an indicator of species response to climate changes in the tropics, mainly because severity of dry season can intensify leaf loss. Based on seven-years of phenological observations (2005 to 2011) we describe the long-term patterns of leafing phenology of a Brazilian cerrado savanna, aiming to (i) identify leaf exchange strategies of species, quantifying the degree of deciduousness, and verify whether these strategies vary among years depending on the length and strength of the dry seasons; (ii) define the growing seasons along the years and the main drivers of leaf flushing in the cerrado. We analyzed leafing patterns of 107 species and classified 69 species as deciduous (11 species), semi-deciduous (29) and evergreen (29). Leaf exchange was markedly seasonal, as expected for seasonal tropical savannas. Leaf fall predominated in the dry season, peaking in July, and leaf flushing in the transition between dry to wet seasons, peaking in September. Leafing patterns were similar among years with the growing season starting at the end of dry season, in September, for most species. However, leaf exchange strategies varied among years for most species (65%), except for evergreen strategy, mainly constant over years. Leafing patterns of cerrado species were strongly constrained by rainfall. The length of the dry season and rainfall intensity were likely affecting the individuals' leaf exchange strategies and suggesting a differential resilience of species to changes of rainfall regime, predicted on future global

  10. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  11. A model for net photosynthesis of rose leaves as a function of photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieth, J.H.; Pasian, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical description for the relationship between the rate of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) leaf net photosynthesis and photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age is developed. The model provides a tool for the prediction of these rates for leaves growing in a rose crop canopy. (author)

  12. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  13. Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner-Kock, Anja; Thorey, Irmgard S.; Koli, Katri; Wempe, Frank; Otte, Jürgen; Bangsow, Thorsten; Kuhlmeier, Katharina; Kirchner, Thomas; Jin, Shenchu; Keski-Oja, Jorma; von Melchner, Harald

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) are multifunctional growth factors that are secreted as inactive (latent) precursors in large protein complexes. These complexes include the latency-associated propeptide (LAP) and a latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein (LTBP). Four isoforms of LTBPs (LTBP-1–LTBP-4) have been cloned and are believed to be structural components of connective tissue microfibrils and local regulators of TGF-β tissue deposition and signaling. By using a gene trap strategy that selects for integrations into genes induced transiently during early mouse development, we have disrupted the mouse homolog of the human LTBP-4 gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele develop severe pulmonary emphysema, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. These highly tissue-specific abnormalities are associated with profound defects in the elastic fiber structure and with a reduced deposition of TGF-β in the extracellular space. As a consequence, epithelial cells have reduced levels of phosphorylated Smad2 proteins, overexpress c-myc, and undergo uncontrolled proliferation. This phenotype supports the predicted dual role of LTBP-4 as a structural component of the extracellular matrix and as a local regulator of TGF-β tissue deposition and signaling. PMID:12208849

  14. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown.To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction.These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  15. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  16. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  17. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  18. Betel leaf in stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Tahmina; Talukder, Rupom; Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Hoque, Mozammel

    2007-07-01

    Construction of a stoma is a common procedure in pediatric surgical practice. For care of these stomas, commercially available devices such as ostomy bag, either disposable or of longer duration are usually used. These are expensive, particularly in countries like Bangladesh, and proper-sized ones are not always available. We have found an alternative for stoma care, betel leaf, which is suitable for Bangladeshis. We report the outcome of its use. After construction of stoma, at first zinc oxide paste was applied on the peristomal skin. A betel leaf with shiny, smooth surface outwards and rough surface inwards was put over the stoma with a hole made in the center according to the size of stoma. Another intact leaf covers the stomal opening. When bowel movement occurs, the overlying intact leaf was removed and the fecal matter was washed away from both. The leaves were reused after cleaning. Leaves were changed every 2 to 3 days. From June 1998 to December 2005, in the department of pediatric surgery, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a total of 623 patients had exteriorization of bowel. Of this total, 495 stomas were cared for with betel leaves and 128 with ostomy bags. Of 623 children, 287 had sigmoid colostomy, 211 had transverse colostomy, 105 had ileostomy, and 20 had jejunostomy. Of the 495 children under betel leaf stoma care, 13 patients (2.6%) developed skin excoriation. There were no allergic reactions. Of the 128 patients using ostomy bag, 52 (40.65%) had skin excoriation. Twenty-four (18.75%) children developed some allergic reactions to adhesive. Monthly costs for betel leaves were 15 cents (10 BDT), whereas ostomy bags cost about US$24. In the care of stoma, betel leaves are cheap, easy to handle, nonirritant, and nonallergic.

  19. Osteo-chondroprogenitor-specific deletion of the selenocysteine tRNA gene, Trsp, leads to chondronecrosis and abnormal skeletal development: a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M Downey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease, a syndrome characterized by short stature, skeletal deformities, and arthropathy of multiple joints, is highly prevalent in specific regions of Asia. The disease has been postulated to result from a combination of different environmental factors, including contamination of barley by mold mycotoxins, iodine deficiency, presence of humic substances in drinking water, and, importantly, deficiency of selenium. This multifunctional trace element, in the form of selenocysteine, is essential for normal selenoprotein function, including attenuation of excessive oxidative stress, and for the control of redox-sensitive molecules involved in cell growth and differentiation. To investigate the effects of skeletal selenoprotein deficiency, a Cre recombinase transgenic mouse line was used to trigger Trsp gene deletions in osteo-chondroprogenitors. Trsp encodes selenocysteine tRNA([Ser]Sec, required for the incorporation of selenocysteine residues into selenoproteins. The mutant mice exhibited growth retardation, epiphyseal growth plate abnormalities, and delayed skeletal ossification, as well as marked chondronecrosis of articular, auricular, and tracheal cartilages. Phenotypically, the mice thus replicated a number of the pathological features of Kashin-Beck disease, supporting the notion that selenium deficiency is important to the development of this syndrome.

  20. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  3. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  4. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  5. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torales, Susana L; Rivarola, Máximo; Pomponio, María F; Gonzalez, Sergio; Acuña, Cintia V; Fernández, Paula; Lauenstein, Diego L; Verga, Aníbal R; Hopp, H Esteban; Paniego, Norma B; Poltri, Susana N Marcucci

    2013-10-14

    Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads.Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data.The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics

  7. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14 CO 2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14 C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  8. Land use effects on leaf litter breakdown in low-order streams draining a rapidly developing tropical watershed in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro J; Ramírez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Land use has an important role influencing stream ecosystem processes, such as leaf litter breakdown. Here, we assessed rates of leaf litter breakdown in low-order tropical streams draining forest, agriculture, and urban land uses in Puerto Rico. To measure leaf breakdown rates, we placed litter bags made of coarse mesh in nine streams, three for each land use type. At each stream, we measured changes in leaf mass over time, leaf breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and stream physicochemistry. Streams differed in their water physicochemistry, with urban streams showing high values for most variables. Stream physical habitat was evaluated using a visual assessment protocol, which indicated that agricultural and urban streams were more degraded than forested streams. Leaf breakdown rates were fast in all streams (k values ranging 0.006-0.024). Breakdown rates were significantly related to the physical conditions of the stream channel (e.g., visual protocol scores), with fastest rates in forested streams. Invertebrates colonizing leaves were mainly mayflies (Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, and Caenidae), dipterans (Chironomidae), caddisflies (Polycentropodidae), and beetles (Elmidae and Gyrinidae). Our streams lacked large decapod populations, contrasting with other Puerto Rican streams. We found little evidence for an insect effect on leaf breakdown. Results suggest that land use is an important factor affecting leaf litter processing in streams. In contrast to studies in temperate regions, we found little evidence for a positive nutrient related effect of agricultural land use on decomposition rates. Changes in the physical characteristics of streams appear to be the main drivers behind observed decomposition patterns.

  9. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, R; Godart, J; Wauben, D J L; Langendijk, J A; Van't Veld, A A; Korevaar, E W

    2016-05-21

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a detector model and an optimizer. Expected detector response was calculated using a radiotherapy treatment plan in combination with the fluence model and detector model. MLC leaf positions were reconstructed by minimizing differences between expected and measured detector response. The iterative reconstruction method was evaluated for an Elekta SLi with 10.0 mm MLC leafs in combination with the COMPASS system and the MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) detector with a spacing of 7.62 mm. The detector was positioned in such a way that each leaf pair of the MLC was aligned with one row of ionization chambers. Known leaf displacements were introduced in various field geometries ranging from  -10.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Error detection performance was tested for MLC leaf position dependency relative to the detector position, gantry angle dependency, monitor unit dependency, and for ten clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment beams. For one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam, influence of the iterative reconstruction method on existing 3D dose reconstruction artifacts was evaluated. The described iterative reconstruction method was capable of individual MLC leaf position reconstruction with millimeter accuracy, independent of the relative detector position within the range of clinically applied MU's for IMRT. Dose reconstruction artifacts in a clinical IMRT treatment beam were considerably reduced as compared to the current dose verification procedure. The iterative reconstruction method allows high accuracy 3D dose verification by including actual MLC leaf positions reconstructed from low resolution 2D measurements.

  10. Excessive astrocyte-derived neurotrophin-3 contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yang

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Recent studies suggest a role of astrocytes in neuronal development. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation process of astrocytes from FXS remain unclear. In this study, we found that astrocytes derived from a Fragile X model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO mouse which lacks FMRP expression, inhibited the proper elaboration of dendritic processes of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM from KO astrocytes inhibited proper dendritic growth of both wild-type (WT and KO neurons. Inducing expression of FMRP by transfection of FMRP vectors in KO astrocytes restored dendritic morphology and levels of synaptic proteins. Further experiments revealed elevated levels of the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 in KO ACM and the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. However, the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF were normal. FMRP has multiple RNA-binding motifs and is involved in translational regulation. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP showed the NT-3 mRNA interacted with FMRP in WT astrocytes. Addition of high concentrations of exogenous NT-3 to culture medium reduced the dendrites of neurons and synaptic protein levels, whereas these measures were ameliorated by neutralizing antibody to NT-3 or knockdown of NT-3 expression in KO astrocytes through short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs. Prefrontal cortex microinjection of WT astrocytes or NT-3 shRNA infected KO astrocytes rescued the deficit of trace fear memory in KO mice, concomitantly decreased the NT-3 levels in the prefrontal cortex. This study indicates that excessive NT-3 from astrocytes contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development and that astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target for FXS.

  11. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  12. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  13. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  14. Strategies to facilitate the development of uncloned or cloned infectious full-length viral cDNAs: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marais Armelle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approaches to simplify and streamline the construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones (FL-cDNAs are needed. Among desirable improvements are the ability to use total nucleic acids (TNA extracts from infected hosts (to bypass viral purification limitations for the direct one-step amplification of large FL-cDNAs, the possibility to inoculate plants with uncloned FL-cDNAs and the simplified cloning of these large molecules. Results Using the 7.55 kb genome of Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV approaches allowing the rapid generation from TNA extracts of FL-cDNAs under the control of the T7 promoter and the successful inoculation of plants using in vitro transcripts obtained from these uncloned amplification products have been developed. We also show that the yeast homologous recombination system permits efficient cloning of FL-cDNAs and the simultaneous one-step tailoring of a ternary Yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium tumefaciens shuttle vector allowing efficient inoculation of both herbaceous and woody host plants by agroinfiltration. Conclusions The fast and efficient strategies described here should have broad applications, in particular for the study of "difficult" plant viruses, such as those infecting woody hosts, and potentially for other, non plant-infecting viral agents.

  15. miR156/SPL10 Modulates Lateral Root Development, Branching and Leaf Morphology in Arabidopsis by Silencing AGAMOUS-LIKE 79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The developmental functions of miR156-SPL regulatory network have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, but the downstream genes regulated by each SPL have not been well characterized. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing-based transcriptome analysis was performed on roots of wild type (WT and miR156 overexpression (miR156OE plants. One of the SPL genes, SPL10, which represses lateral root growth in Arabidopsis, was significantly downregulated in miR156OE plants. A transcription factor, AGAMOUS-like MADS box protein 79 (AGL79, was also significantly downregulated in the miR156OE plants, but was upregulated in the SPL10 overexpression (SPL10OE Arabidopsis plants. In addition, SPL10 was found to bind to the core consensus SPL binding sequences in AGL79 gene. Moreover, analyses of complementation lines revealed a linear relationship between SPL10 and AGL79 in regulating Arabidopsis plant development. In addition, it was observed that plant phenotypes are AGL79 dose-dependent, with higher expression causing narrow leaf shape, less number of leaves and early flowering time, whereas relatively lower AGL79 overexpression produce plants with more rosette leaves and more lateral branches. Our findings revealed direct binding of SPL10 to AGL79 promoter, which further suggests a role for miR156/SPL10 module in plant lateral root growth by directly regulating AGL79.

  16. Development of an assessment methodology for geopressured zones of the upper Gulf Coast based on a study of abnormally pressured gas fields in south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, R K; Oetking, P; Osoba, J S; Hagens, R C

    1976-08-01

    Detailed study of the producing gas fields in south Texas has identified a total of 47 abnormally pressured fields in a six-county area including Hidalgo, Brooks, Cameron, Willacy, Kenedy, and Live Oak Counties. An assessment methodology for assessing the potential of the deep geopressured zone in south Texas as an energy resource was developed, based on investigation of the reservoir parameters of these fields. This methodology is transferrable to broad areas of the Gulf Coast. The depth of the geopressured zone in the study area ranges from 7000 ft in western Hidalgo to 12,000 ft in central Cameron County. Temperature data from within the fields, corrected to undisturbed reservoir values, yields a 300/sup 0/F isogeothermal surface at depths from 10,500 ft to 17,000 ft over the study area. The question of fluid deliverability was found to be paramount in determining the potential of the geopressure-geothermal resource as a practical source of energy. The critical parameter is the effective reservoir permeability throughout the study region. Individual fields were assessed for their potential to produce large quantities of geothermal fluid based on reservoir study and detailed geological investigation. Five locations within the study region have been selected as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible eventual testing. Based on investigation of permeability and temperature, the upper limit of fluid temperature likely to be produced in the lower south Texas study region is 300/sup 0/F. In Live Oak County, the possibility of producing fluid at higher temperatures is somewhat improved, with a reasonable possibility of producing fluid at 350/sup 0/ to 375/sup 0/F.

  17. The ecological impacts of leaf drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Megan Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate drought for many plants, making drought tolerance a key driver of species and ecosystem responses. However, predicting responses from traits requires greater understanding of how physiological processes impact ecology. I developed new theory and methods and applied meta-analyses to characterize the ecological impacts of leaf drought tolerance. I compared the predictive ability of several traits for ecological drought tolerance and showed that the leaf ...

  18. The energetic and carbon economic origins of leaf thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; McDowell, Nate G; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2016-08-22

    Leaf thermoregulation has been documented in a handful of studies, but the generality and origins of this pattern are unclear. We suggest that leaf thermoregulation is widespread in both space and time, and originates from the optimization of leaf traits to maximize leaf carbon gain across and within variable environments. Here we use global data for leaf temperatures, traits and photosynthesis to evaluate predictions from a novel theory of thermoregulation that synthesizes energy budget and carbon economics theories. Our results reveal that variation in leaf temperatures and physiological performance are tightly linked to leaf traits and carbon economics. The theory, parameterized with global averaged leaf traits and microclimate, predicts a moderate level of leaf thermoregulation across a broad air temperature gradient. These predictions are supported by independent data for diverse taxa spanning a global air temperature range of ∼60 °C. Moreover, our theory predicts that net carbon assimilation can be maximized by means of a trade-off between leaf thermal stability and photosynthetic stability. This prediction is supported by globally distributed data for leaf thermal and photosynthetic traits. Our results demonstrate that the temperatures of plant tissues, and not just air, are vital to developing more accurate Earth system models.

  19. Expression of a bacterial, phenylpropanoid-metabolizing enzyme in tobacco reveals essential roles of phenolic precursors in normal leaf development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Zara; Mayer, Melinda J; Parker, Mary L; Michael, Anthony J; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

    2012-06-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv XHFD 8) were genetically modified to express a bacterial 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase (HCHL) enzyme which is active with intermediates of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We have previously shown that HCHL expression in tobacco stem resulted in various pleiotropic effects, indicative of a reduction in the carbon flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway, accompanied by an abnormal phenotype. Here, we report that in addition to the reduction in lignin and phenolic biosynthesis, HCHL expression also resulted in several gross morphological changes in poorly lignified tissue, such as abnormal mesophyll and palisade. The effect of HCHL expression was also noted in lignin-free single cells, with suspension cultures displaying an altered shape and different growth patterns. Poorly/non-lignified cell walls also exhibited a greater ease of alkaline extractability of simple phenolics and increased levels of incorporation of vanillin and vanillic acid. However, HCHL expression had no significant effect on the cell wall carbohydrate chemistry of these tissues. Evidence from this study suggests that changes in the transgenic lines result from a reduction in phenolic intermediates which have an essential role in maintaining structural integrity of low-lignin or lignin-deprived cell walls. These results emphasize the importance of the intermediates and products of phenylpropanoid pathway in modulating aspects of normal growth and development of tobacco. Analysis of these transgenic plants also shows the plasticity of the lignification process and reveals the potential to bioengineer plants with reduced phenolics (without deleterious effects) which could enhance the bioconversion of lignocellulose for industrial applications. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  20. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Solana-Arellano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina. The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d-1 leaf-1. The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d-1 leaf-1. The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d-1 leaf-1 respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1003-1013. Epub 2008 September 30.Las praderas de pastos marinos abaten la erosión y aportan gran parte de la productividad primaria de los esteros y son refugio de muchos peces y sus larvas. El presente trabajo introduce métodos analíticos para estimar las tasas medias de crecimiento foliar de Zostera marina L. y sus varianzas. La calibración del método se llevó a cabo utilizando datos de una pradera de esta fanerógama en el Estero de Punta Banda Baja California, México. Las referidas estimaciones analíticas, se basan en medias de longitud foliar y en procedimientos estandarizados de regresión. Dichas determinaciones son por

  1. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  2. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...

  3. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  4. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  6. Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

    2014-10-01

    Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway

  7. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/β-galactosidase (β-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, β-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using β-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably

  8. Development and verification of a time delivery model for prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy using a Siemens®Artiste™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicola; Ali, Omer A; Rae, William I D

    2017-03-01

    Time delivery models thus far proposed for prediction of radiotherapy delivery times are not applicable to all makes of Linac. Our purpose was to develop a time delivery model, which would also be applicable for a Siemens ® ARTISTE™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) linear accelerator (Linac) and validate the model using prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. To our knowledge, a time delivery model has not yet been proposed for a Siemens ® ARTISTE™ 160 MLC Linac. We used the principles of the time delivery model created for a Varian ® Linac and added the radio frequency (RF) wave component, and the MLC delay time to the MLC travel time component. Machine input parameters were confirmed using a WIN ® stopwatch. We tested our derived model by selecting ten random 15 MV prostate IMRT treatment plans from our clinic. The delivery time was measured three times, once per day on three different days. The calculated and measured times were compared by means of correlation. The time delivery ranged between 314 and 480 s. The largest percentage difference was 3.3% (16 s) and the smallest 0.2% (1 s); the mean percentage difference was 1.9%. MLC delay and MLC speed, representing segment delivery, had the greatest uncertainties. From the successfully verified time delivery model created, it is concluded that the inter-segmental component of the process is most time-consuming. In order to decrease delivery time it is proposed that the total segments of a treatment plan be decreased.

  9. Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2017-01-12

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.

  10. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  11. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTombesi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L (a hard-to-root specie leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  12. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  13. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  14. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  15. Development of leaf silvering in squash cultivars infested by silverleaf whitefly Prateamento das folhas em cultivares de aboboreira infestadas por mosca-branca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Lourenção

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the most harmful insect pests for agricultural and vegetable crops. Beside the direct damage, it transmits pathogenic virus and induces plant physiological disorders, such as the squash silverleaf disorder. In this research we evaluated the development of leaf silvering in squash cultivars submitted to artificial infestation of B. tabaci biotype B. An experiment was conducted under field conditions, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the season 2003-2004. The germplasm (Cucurbita spp. comprised of seven cultivars of summer squash and nine of bush squash. The experiment used a complete randomized blocks design, with 16 treatments (cultivars and five replications. Each plot consisted of two plants. The artificial infestation was done when the plants emitted the third pair of leaves, by transplanting soybean plants infested with silverleaf whitefly between the squash plots. The leaf silvering was evaluated every two or three days, using a rating scale varying from 1 (no symptom to 5 (leaves completely silvered. The highest level (5.0 was observed in 'Baianinha', 'Golden Delight', 'Caravela' and 'Arlika', while 'Novita' (2.5, 'Atlas' (2.0 and 'Atlanta AG-303' (1.5 showed light symptoms, indicating that these have low sensibility to this physiological disorder.A mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é uma das mais nocivas pragas da agricultura. Além de danos diretos, transmite vírus e também induz desordens fisiológicas, como o prateamento-das-folhas-da-aboboreira. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o prateamento em folhas de cultivares de aboboreiras, submetidas à infestação artificial de B. tabaci biótipo B. Um experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo, em Campinas-SP, no ano agrícola 2003-2004, com 16 cultivares de aboboreira (Cucurbita spp., sendo sete de hábito de crescimento rasteiro e nove de moita. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 16

  16. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  17. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  18. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL ELEMENTS TO GROW LEAF BIOMASS IN AMARANTH WITH INCREASED CONTENT OF ANTIOXIDANTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FUNCTIONAL PRUDUCTS AND FOR PROPHYLACTIC PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse technological methods are widely used in horticulture to improve the energy of seed germination, as well as growth and development of plants and their productivity. Ecologically safe methods to accelerate the plant growth processes are known as a presowing treatment of seeds and foliar feeding by plant growth-stimulating agents of natural origin. Pre-sowing seed treatment is necessary when plants grow and maturate not simultaneously, as noticed in amaranth. The action of growth-stimulating agents is an influence in slight concentration not only on biometrical plant parameters, but also on photosynthetic reactions and whole plant physiology. The seed treatment by preparations containing biologically active substances is not only ecologically safe methods but also an economically profitable. Consequently, improvement of quality in vegetable crops by high content of biologically active substances in them, such as polyphenols can be reached with technologies based on the use of preparations, containing biologically active substances and biogenic chemical elements. It was shown that distinctive feature of red leaf plants of amaranth cultivar ‘Valentina’ was a very variable concentration of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and their glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acids, simple phenols, polymeric and condensed polyphenols in different aged leaves at the time of vegetation. Moreover, the metabolite variation, antioxidant in fractions of phenolic compounds, obtained from different aged leaves, was increased by biopreparations of natural origin. It is supposed that those preparations had an effect on stress-action system as in protective plant reaction, increasing the antioxidants content. The data obtained has shown that the plants of amaranth, as a promising source of antioxidants, can be used to develop functional food products and phytopreparations.

  20. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  1. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  2. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Brian N; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field. (paper)

  3. Further studies of the heat transfer from a leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, E T

    1967-05-01

    The resistance to the diffusion of heat and water vapor external to a leaf, can be derived from measurement of the rate of change of the leaf temperature, after a sudden alteration of the intensity of irradiation. The theory of the method has been developed to accommodate the case of a leaf that is freely transpiring, exchanging longwave radiation with the environment and with different internal resistances on the 2 sides of the leaf. It has been successfully applied to measurements on wet blotting paper in the laboratory.

  4. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  5. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  6. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  7. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  8. 'Dangshansuli' pear leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Effects of calcium, potassium and magnesium on oxalic, malic and citric acid content of Valencia orange leaf tissue. Plant Physiol. 36: 39-101. Ruffner HP, Possner D, Brem S, Rast DM (1984). The physiological role of malic enzyme in grape ripening. Plant, 160: 444-448. Sadka A, Artzi B, Cohen L, Dahan E ...

  9. Antitumour activity of Angelica archangelica leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Hallgrimsson, Jonas; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a leaf extract from A. archangelica on the growth of Crl mouse breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The antiproliferative activity of the extract was measured by 3H-thymidine uptake in the Crl cells in vitro. Twenty mice were injected with the Crl cells, and 11 of them were fed A. archangelica leaf extract, and the progress of the tumours was followed. The leaf extract was mildly antiproliferative on the Crl cells with an EC50 of 87.6 microg/ml The antitumour activity of the extract was expressed in the mice by marked reduction in tumour growth. In the experimental animals, 9 out of 11 mice developed no or very small tumours, whereas control animals, not receiving the extract, developed significantly larger tumours (parchangelica

  10. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf hydraulic conductance declines in coordination with photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf water status as soybean leaves age regardless of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M.; Ort, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis requires sufficient water transport through leaves for stomata to remain open as water transpires from the leaf, allowing CO2 to diffuse into the leaf. The leaf water needs of soybean change over time because of large microenvironment changes over their lifespan, as leaves mature in full sun at the top of the canopy and then become progressively shaded by younger leaves developing above. Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf), a measure of the leaf’s water transport capacity, can often be linked to changes in microenvironment and transpiration demand. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that K leaf would decline in coordination with transpiration demand as soybean leaves matured and aged. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were also measured at various leaf ages with both field- and chamber-grown soybeans to assess transpiration demand. K leaf was found to decrease as soybean leaves aged from maturity to shading to senescence, and this decrease was strongly correlated with midday A. Decreases in K leaf were further correlated with decreases in g s, although the relationship was not as strong as that with A. Separate experiments investigating the response of K leaf to drought demonstrated no acclimation of K leaf to drought conditions to protect against cavitation or loss of g s during drought and confirmed the effect of leaf age in K leaf observed in the field. These results suggest that the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance as leaves age keeps hydraulic supply in balance with demand without K leaf becoming limiting to transpiration water flux. PMID:25281701

  12. Efficient plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum americanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... A very efficient system for direct plant regeneration from in vitro–derived leaf explants of Solanum americanum was developed. S. americanum is a tropical plant with important medical properties. The in vitro procedure that was established consists of (i) induction of shoots from leaf tissue, (ii) elongation of.

  13. II. Characterization and development of the regional- and cellular-specific abnormalities in the epididymis of mice with beta-hexosaminidase A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamali, H I; Somani, I H; Huang, J Q; Gravel, R A; Trasler, J M; Hermo, L

    1999-01-01

    Beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) is a lysosomal enzyme that exists as two isoenzymes: Hex A (subunit structure alphabeta) and Hex B (betabeta). Its presence in the testis and epididymis suggests important roles for Hex and its substrates in male fertility and reproductive functions. Disruption of the Hexa gene encoding the alpha-subunit of Hex has led to the generation of a mildly affected mouse model of human Tay-Sachs disease, allowing us the opportunity to analyze the effects of isolated Hex A deficiency on epithelial cellular morphology of the male reproductive tract. At 5 weeks and at 3, 5, and 12 months, the testes, efferent ducts and epididymides of Hex A-deficient (Hexa -/-) and wild-type (Hexa +/+) mice were perfuse fixed and analyzed by routine light and electron microscopy as well as with immunocytochemistry employing antibodies to lysosomal enzymes. In the testis, the seminiferous epithelium of Hexa -/- mice appeared comparable to that of wild-type mice in appearance and topographical arrangement of its cell types at all ages examined. Also, no differences were noted for the efferent ducts. In contrast, there were striking abnormalities in the epididymides of the mutant mice; however, the abnormalities were mainly restricted to the initial segment and intermediate zone. Principal cells of these regions at 5 weeks showed a dramatic increase in the number of lysosomes as compared with those from wild-type animals, and this progressed with increasing age. Furthermore, unlike the few small lysosomes present in wild-type mice, those of Hexa -/- mice were at times enlarged and often filled the supranuclear and basal regions of these cells. In the light microscope, large, dense cellular aggregates were noted at the base of the epithelium in the proximal initial segment that corresponded in the electron microscope to two different cell types, both of which increased in size with age. One aggregate was considered to belong to narrow cells on the basis of the presence

  14. Do general patterns of leaf thermoregulation hold in the tropics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, S. T.; Blonder, B.; Chambers, J.; Enquist, B. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Grossiord, C.; Jardine, K.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Varadharajan, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Detto, M.; Wolfe, B.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf temperature is a critical driver of plant and ecosystem functioning because it governs rates of photosynthesis and transpiration. While leaf temperatures are often assumed to equal ambient air temperatures, recent studies show that leaves thermoregulate, so they are warmer than air in cool temperatures and cooler than air in warm temperatures. This pattern appears to be general across diverse plant taxa and boreal-to-subtropical air temperature gradients. However, one exception to the general pattern may be the tropics, where scant data suggest that daytime leaf temperatures are always warmer and increase at a faster rate than air temperature, possibly because transpiration and latent heat fluxes are limited by high relative humidity. In this talk, we evaluate tropical leaf thermoregulation using new data from the DOE Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Tropics project and a recent analytical energy budget model for leaf temperature. The model expresses leaf temperature as a linear function of air temperature, several additional meteorological variables, and several leaf functional traits. We examine patterns of tropical leaf thermoregulation and identify the relative importance of meteorological variables and leaf traits in driving these patterns. Our results demonstrate that the temperatures of plant tissues, and not just air, are vital to developing more accurate earth system models.

  15. Bone Abnormalities in Mice with Protein Kinase A (PKA) Defects Reveal a Role of Cyclic AMP Signaling in Bone Stromal Cell-Dependent Tumor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Shapiro, J M; Saloustros, E; Stratakis, C A

    2016-11-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is an important enzyme for all eukaryotic cells. PKA phosphorylates other proteins, thus, it is essential for the regulation of many diverse cellular functions, including cytoplasmic trafficking and signaling, organelle structure and mitochondrial oxidation, nuclear gene expression, the cell cycle, and cellular division. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits. Four regulatory (R1α, R1β, R2α, and R2β) and 4 catalytic subunits (Cα, Cβ, Cγ, and Prkx) have been identified, giving rise to mainly PKA-I (when the 2 regulatory subunits are either R1α or R1β), or PKA-II (when the 2 regulatory subunits are either R2α or R2β). Mutations in the PKA subunits can lead to altered total PKA activity or abnormal PKA-I to PKA-II ratio, leading to various abnormalities in both humans and mice. These effects can be tissue-specific. We studied the effect of PKA subunit defects on PKA activity and bone morphology of mice that were single or double heterozygous for null alleles of the various PKA subunit genes. Bone lesions including fibrous dysplasia, myxomas, osteo-sarcomas, -chondromas and -chondrosarcomas were found in these mice. Observational and molecular studies showed that these lesions were derived from bone stromal cells (BSCs). We conclude that haploinsufficiency for different PKA subunit genes affected bone lesion formation, new bone generation, organization, and mineralization in variable ways. This work identified a PKA subunit- and activity-dependent pathway of bone lesion formation from BSCs with important implications for understanding how cyclic AMP affects the skeleton and its tumorigenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A Leaf Recognition Of Vegetables Using Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Jaan D. Caldito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing plants is a vital problem especially for biologists agricultural researchers and environmentalists. Plant recognition can be performed by human experts manually but it is a time consuming and low-efficiency process. Automation of plant recognition is an important process for the fields working with plants. This paper presents an approach for plant recognition using leaf images. In this study the proponents demonstrated the development of the system that gives users the ability to identify vegetables based on photographs of the leaves taken with a high definition camera. At the heart of this system is a modernize process of identification so as to automate the way of identifying the vegetable plants through leaf image and digital image processing. The system used the Gabor Filter Edge Detection RGB Color and Grayscale Image to acquire the physical parameter of the leaves. The output parameters are used to compute well documented metrics for the statistical and shape. Base on the study the following conclusion are drawn The system can extract the physical parameters from the leafs image that will be used in identifying Vegetables. From the extracted leaf parameters the system provides the statistical analysis and general information of the identified leaf. The used algorithm can organize data and information to useful resources to the future researchers.

  17. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  18. Automated Leaf Tracking using Multi-view Image Sequences of Maize Plants for Leaf-growth Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Samal, A.; Stoerger, V.; Bashyam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of phenotypes with botanical importance by analyzing plant image sequences has the desirable advantages of non-destructive temporal phenotypic measurements of a large number of plants with little or no manual intervention in a relatively short period of time. The health of a plant is best interpreted by the emergence timing and temporal growth of individual leaves. For automated leaf growth monitoring, it is essential to track each leaf throughout the life cycle of the plant. Plants are constantly changing organisms with increasing complexity in architecture due to variations in self-occlusions and phyllotaxy, i.e., arrangements of leaves around the stem. The leaf cross-overs pose challenges to accurately track each leaf using single view image sequence. Thus, we introduce a novel automated leaf tracking algorithm using a graph theoretic approach by multi-view image sequence analysis based on the determination of leaf-tips and leaf-junctions in the 3D space. The basis of the leaf tracking algorithm is: the leaves emerge using bottom-up approach in the case of a maize plant, and the direction of leaf emergence strictly alternates in terms of direction. The algorithm involves labeling of the individual parts of a plant, i.e., leaves and stem, following graphical representation of the plant skeleton, i.e., one-pixel wide connected line obtained from the binary image. The length of the leaf is measured by the number of pixels in the leaf skeleton. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we publicly release University of Nebraska-Lincoln Component Plant Phenotyping dataset-2 (UNL-CPPD-2) consisting of images of the 20 maize plants captured by visible light camera of the Lemnatec Scanalyzer 3D high throughout plant phenotyping facility once daily for 60 days from 10 different views. The dataset is aimed to facilitate the development and evaluation of leaf tracking algorithms and their uniform comparisons.

  19. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  20. Anonna muricata Linn Leaf Effect in Inhibiting SGPT Elevation

    OpenAIRE

    Galih Tanaya; Kuswinarti; R. Nina Susana Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis is an infection or inflammation disease of the liver which is caused by virus, toxic substance, and immunological abnormalities. Soursop plant as a medicinal plants is known to have an antioxidant effect and nowadays is used as an alternative drug for hepatitis. One of the methods to assess liver function is to measure the serum Glutamate Piruvate Transaminase (SGPT) level. The purpose of this study was to find the effect of Soursop Leaf in inhibiting the SGPT elevation...

  1. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  2. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  3. Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John C; Quadros, Edward V

    2017-08-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked to abnormalities in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms in folate genes may act in complex polygenic ways to increase the risk of developing ASD. Autoantibodies that block folate transport into the brain have been associated with ASD and children with ASD and these autoantibodies respond to high doses of a reduced form of folate known as folinic acid (leucovorin calcium). Some of the same abnormalities are also found in mothers of children with ASD and supplementing folate during preconception and gestational periods reduces the risk to the offspring from developing ASD. These data suggest that folate pathway abnormalities may be a major metabolic disturbance underlying ASD that can be leveraged as biomarkers to improve symptoms and prevent ASD.

  4. Predicting tropical plant physiology from leaf and canopy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

    2011-02-01

    A broad regional understanding of tropical forest leaf photosynthesis has long been a goal for tropical forest ecologists, but it has remained elusive due to difficult canopy access and high species diversity. Here we develop an empirical model to predict sunlit, light-saturated, tropical leaf photosynthesis using leaf and simulated canopy spectra. To develop this model, we used partial least squares (PLS) analysis on three tropical forest datasets (159 species), two in Hawaii and one at the biosphere 2 laboratory (B2L). For each species, we measured light-saturated photosynthesis (A), light and CO(2) saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), respiration (R), leaf transmittance and reflectance spectra (400-2,500 nm), leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and leaf mass per area (LMA). The model best predicted A [r(2) = 0.74, root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1))] followed by R (r(2) = 0.48), and A(max) (r(2) = 0.47). We combined leaf reflectance and transmittance with a canopy radiative transfer model to simulate top-of-canopy reflectance and found that canopy spectra are a better predictor of A (RMSE = 2.5 ± 0.07 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) than are leaf spectra. The results indicate the potential for this technique to be used with high-fidelity imaging spectrometers to remotely sense tropical forest canopy photosynthesis.

  5. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.C.; Bazzaz, F.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} levels. Leaves of elevated CO{sub 2} plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient CO{sub 2} plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf size, as well as analyses that controlled for leaf development order. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were most pronounced when plants were grown individually, but detectable differences were also found in plants grown at high density. Although less dramatic than in Taraxacum, significant effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were also found in two other weedy rosette species, Plantago major and Rumex crispus. These observations support the long-standing hypothesis that leaf carbohydrate level plays an important role in regulating heteroblastic leaf development, though elevated CO{sub 2} may also affect leaf development through direct hormonal interactions or increased leaf water potential. In Taraxacum, pronounced modifications of leaf shape were found at CO{sub 2} levels predicted to occur within the next century. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Change in First Leaf Date Between 1951-1960 and 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This figure shows modeled trends in lilac and honeysuckle first leaf dates at weather stations across the contiguous 48 states. This map compares the average first leaf date during two 10-year periods, developed using data from the USA National Phenology Network. Blue circles represent later leaf dates, and red circles represent earlier. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators

  9. Desenvolvimento de mudas de bromélia (Neoregelia cruenta (R. Graham L. B. Smith cultivadas em diferentes substartos e adubação foliar Development of plantlets of bromeliad (Neoregelia cruenta cultivated in different substrates and leaf fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Alves Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    extraction. This situation is also a consequence of the reduced technical information regarding its propagation and development. One of the limitations is the lack of knowledge regarding the type of substrate and adequate fertilizer for its cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Neoregelia cultivated in different substrates and leaf fertilizers through the variables height, leaf number and fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots. The plantlets used were produced by tissue culture. After a period of pre-acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to a green house without nebulization. The substrates consisted of different proportions of soil, sand and carbonized rice husk and a commercial substrate composed of vermiculite. Leaf fertilizers were applied to the substrates combining urea and sucrose in intervals of fifteen days. The results showed that the interactions of the substrates and the sucrose and urea dosages had no effect on height and leaf number. The use of sucrose also showed no influence on plant development. The commercial substrate composed of vermiculite, independent of the leaf fertilizer application, showed the best results for plant height and leaf number. The use of urea presented a crescent linear effect during the evaluated period.

  10. DETERMINATION OF LEAF AREA AND PLANT COVER BY USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    LŐKE, ZS.; SOÓS, G.

    2002-01-01

    The development of different crop models, and crop simulation models in particular, pointed out the importance of quantifying the exact value of the leaf area. To measure the leaf size of plants of pinnatifid form, automatic, portable leaf area meters are necessary. In most places these instruments are not available to measure the assimilatory surface size of crops with special leaf shapes. Any cheap and effective method, that could replace the application of expensive portable area meters co...

  11. Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    cells, bacteroid differentiation aborted prematurely, and a reduced pool of functional bacteroids which underwent premature senescence. We discuss possible underlying genetic causes of these developmental abnormalities and consider impacts on N2-fixation of clovers. PMID:22989463

  12. Effects of nitrogen application rate and leaf age on the distribution pattern of leaf SPAD readings in the rice canopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    Full Text Available A Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter can be used as a simple tool for evaluating N concentration of the leaf and investigating the combined effects of nitrogen rate and leaf age on N distribution. We conducted experiments in a paddy field over two consecutive years (2008-2009 using rice plants treated with six different N application levels. N distribution pattern was determined by SPAD readings based on the temporal dynamics of N concentrations in individual leaves. At 62 days after transplantation (DAT in 2008 and DAT 60 in 2009, leaf SPAD readings increased from the upper to lower in the rice canopy that received N levels of 150 to 375 kg ha(-1The differences in SPAD readings between the upper and lower leaf were larger under higher N application rates. However, as plants grew, this atypical distribution of SPAD readings in canopy leaf quickly reversed to the general order. In addition, temporal dynamics of the leaf SPAD readings (N concentrations were fitted to a piecewise function. In our model, changes in leaf SPAD readings were divided into three stages: growth, functioning, and senescence periods. The leaf growth period lasted approximately 6 days, and cumulative growing days were not affected by N application rates. The leaf functioning period was represented with a relatively stable SPAD reading related to N application rate, and cumulative growing days were extended with increasing N application rates. A quadratic equation was utilized to describe the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf age during the leaf senescence period. The rate of decrease in SPAD readings increased with the age of leaves, but the rate was slowed by N application. As leaves in the lower canopy were physiologically older than leaves in the upper canopy, the rate of decrease in SPAD readings was faster in the lower leaves.

  13. Leaf pack breakdown and macroinvertebrate colonization: bioassessment tools for a high-altitude regulated system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S M

    2000-11-01

    Leaf pack processing and invertebrate colonization for bioassessment of metals pollution in a stream also impacted by a dam were examined. Differences in leaf breakdown rates at sites upstream and downstream of a metals point source were not detected. However, multivariate and logistic regression techniques indicated there were differences in aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages that colonized leaf packs above and below the metal inflow. Development of a logistic regression model allowed for prediction of leaf pack location from indicator taxa in the leaf pack invertebrate community. Collector-gatherers, rather than shredders, were the most important predictors of whether leaf packs were located above or below the metal inflow, and were perhaps related to algae growing on leaf packs and/or fine particulate organic matter quality. Biotic structure, in this study, provided more information for evaluating pollution impacts than did measurement of leaf breakdown rates.

  14. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 Inhibits Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an integral part of plant development, and the timing and progressing rate of senescence could substantially affect the yield and quality of crops. It has been known that a circadian rhythm synchronized with external environmental cues is critical for the optimal coordination of various physiological and metabolic processes. However, the reciprocal interactions between the circadian clock and leaf senescence in plants remain unknown. Here, through measuring the physiological and molecular senescence related markers of several circadian components mutants, we found that CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 inhibits leaf senescence. Further molecular and genetic studies revealed that CCA1 directly activates GLK2 and suppresses ORE1 expression to counteract leaf senescence. As plants age, the expression and periodic amplitude of CCA1 declines and thus weakens the inhibition of senescence. Our findings reveal an age-dependent circadian clock component of the process of leaf senescence.

  15. Phenotype abnormality: 45 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u551i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named stamen during process named organ development ... stamen ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  16. Phenotype abnormality: 37 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 37 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u543i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named cotyledon during process named organ development ... cotyledon ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 39 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u545i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named flower during process named organ development ... flower ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u550i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named organ development ... root ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  19. Phenotype abnormality: 32 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u538i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named organ development ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  20. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  1. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  2. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  3. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  4. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...

  8. Leaf traits and herbivory levels in a tropical gymnosperm, Zamia stevensonii (Zamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alberto; Sierra, Adriel; Windsor, Donald; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2014-03-01

    Slow-growing understory cycads invest heavily in defenses to protect the few leaves they produce annually. The Neotropical cycad Zamia stevensonii has chemical and mechanical barriers against insect herbivores. Mechanical barriers, such as leaf toughness, can be established only after the leaf has expanded. Therefore, chemical defenses may be important during leaf expansion. How changes in leaf traits affect the feeding activity of cycad specialist insects is unknown. We investigated leaf defenses and incidence of specialist herbivores on Z. stevensonii during the first year after leaf flush. Herbivore incidence, leaf production, and leaf traits that might affect herbivory-including leaf age, lamina thickness, resistance-to-fracture, work-to-fracture, trichome density, and chlorophyll, water, and toxic azoxyglycoside (AZG) content-were measured throughout leaf development. Principal component analysis and generalized linear models identified characteristics that may explain herbivore incidence. Synchronized leaf development in Z. stevensonii is characterized by quick leaf expansion and delayed greening. Specialist herbivores feed on leaves between 10 and 100 d after flush and damage ∼37% of all leaflets produced. Young leaves are protected by AZGs, but these defenses rapidly decrease as leaves expand. Leaves older than 100 d are protected by toughness. Because AZG concentrations drop before leaves become sufficiently tough, there is a vulnerable period during which leaves are susceptible to herbivory by specialist insects. This slow-growing gymnosperm invests heavily in constitutive defenses against highly specialized herbivores, underlining the convergence in defensive syndromes by major plant lineages.

  9. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  11. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  12. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ramularia leaf spot severity and effects on cotton leaf area and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ascari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton monoculture favors the development of diseases such as ramularia leaf spot, which causes early defoliation and boll rotting, thus decreasing yield. This study aimed at evaluating the severity of ramularia leaf spot and its effects on cotton leaf area and yield. The experiment was conducted in a triple (4 x 3 x 2 factorial design, consisting of four cultivars (FM940GLT, FM944GL, TMG42WS and TMG43WS, three thirds of the plant (lower, middle and upper and two management conditions (with and without fungicide application. To the variable area under the disease progress curve, the lowest values were observed in the upper third of the TMG42WS and TMG43WS cultivars, with the lower and middle thirds presenting the highest severity. The condition managed with fungicide and the upper third showed the lowest values for area under the disease progress curve. The leaf area was negatively affected by the ramularia leaf spot. Concerning the seed and fiber yields, the highest averages were observed for the middle third and the condition managed with fungicide. There was no statistical difference for cotton yield loss.

  14. Estimating Rice Leaf Nitrogen Concentration: Influence of Regression Algorithms Based on Passive and Active Leaf Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is important for the growth of crops. Estimating leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC accurately and nondestructively is important for precision agriculture, reduces environmental pollution, and helps model global carbon and N cycles. Leaf reflectance, especially in the visible and near-infrared regions, has been identified as a useful indicator of LNC. Except reflectance passively acquired by spectrometers, the newly developed multispectral LiDAR and hyperspectral LiDAR provide possibilities for measuring leaf spectra actively. The regression relationship between leaf reflectance spectra and rice (Oryza sativa LNC relies greatly on the algorithm adopted. It would be preferable to find one algorithm that performs well with respect to passive and active leaf spectra. Thus, this study assesses the influence of six popular linear and nonlinear methods on rice LNC retrieval, namely, partial least-square regression, least squares boosting, bagging, random forest, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector regression of different types/kernels/parameter values. The R2, root mean square error and relative error in rice LNC estimation using these different methods were compared through the passive and active spectral measurements of rice leaves of different varieties at different locations and time (Yongyou 4949, Suizhou, 2014, Yangliangyou 6, Wuhan, 2015. Results demonstrate that BPNN provided generally satisfactory performance in estimating rice LNC using the three kinds of passive and active reflectance spectra.

  15. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, I.J.; Reich, P.B.; Westoby, M.; Ackerly, D.D.; Baruch, Z.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chapin, T.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Diemer, M.; Flexas, J.; Garnier, E.; Groom, P.K.; Gulias, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Lamont, B.B.; Lee, T.; Lee, W.; Lusk, C.; Midgley, J.J.; Navas, M.L.; Niinements, Ü.; Oleksyn, J.; Osada, N.; Poorter, H.; Poot, P.; Prior, L.; Pyankov, V.I.; Roumet, C.; Thomas, S.C.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Villar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients

  16. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance development after gestational diabetes: A three-year, prospective, randomized, clinical-based, Mediterranean lifestyle interventional study with parallel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Del Valle, Laura; Torrejón, Maria José; Barca, Idoya; Calvo, María Isabel; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel A; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2015-08-01

    Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in later life. The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of glucose disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or DM2) in women with prior GDM. A total of 260 women with prior GDM who presented with normal fasting plasma glucose at six to twelve weeks postpartum were randomized into two groups: a Mediterranean lifestyle intervention group (n = 130) who underwent an educational program on nutrition and a monitored physical activity program and a control group (n = 130) with a conventional follow-up. A total of 237 women completed the three-year follow-up (126 in the intervention group and 111 in the control group). Their glucose disorders rates, clinical and metabolic changes and rates of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle were analyzed. Less women in the intervention group (42.8%) developed glucose disorders at the end of the three-year follow-up period compared with the control group (56.75%), p women with prior GDM. Body weight gain and an unhealthy fat intake pattern were found to be the most predictive factors for the development of glucose disorders. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN24165302. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/24165302. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Desarrollo foliar y caulinar de las unidades de alargamiento de Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae en condiciones de alta y baja luminosidad Leaf and stem development in extension units of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae under high and low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Calabria

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron el tamaño del tallo y las hojas que componen las unidades de alargamiento (UA del tronco, las ramas principales y las ramas cortas de ejemplares juveniles de Nothofagus dombeyi desarrollados en comunidades de áreas abiertas (bordes de camino y de sotobosque de Patagonia. Se evaluaron el área y la forma (ancho/longitud de las hojas a lo largo de las UA, el área foliar específica (AFE y las relaciones área foliar/volumen del tallo, longitud del tallo/peso del tallo y volumen del tallo/peso del tallo. Para igual posición en la UA, las hojas del tronco son mayores que las de las ramas principales y éstas mayores que las de las ramas cortas. En las UA del tronco el desarrollo caulinar es proporcionalmente mayor al de las hojas en comparación con las UA de las ramas principales y, en especial, de las ramas cortas. La restricción en el desarrollo caulinar y el aumento del AFE en ejemplares de N. dombeyi creciendo a la sombra permitiría su supervivencia pero con limitado desarrollo en altura y, en consecuencia, baja probabilidad de alcanzar el dosel.The size of stem and leaves was studied for trunk, main branch and short branch extension units (EU of young Nothofagus dombeyi trees growing in open areas (road verges and understory communities in Patagonia. The surface area and outline (width/length ratio of single leaves along EU, the specific leaf area, and the ratios leaf area/stem volume, stem length/stem mass and stem volume/stem mass were assessed. Trunk leaves were larger than main-branch leaves and main-branch leaves larger than short-branch leaves in similar positions on the EU. Stem developed proportionally more than leaves in trunk EU than in main-branch EU and, especially, short-branch EUs. Restrictions in stem development and increases in specific leaf area would allow N. dombeyi trees to survive under shaded conditions though limiting their height growth and, consequently, their chances to reach the canopy.

  19. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of

  20. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A. O.; Kuiper, G. G.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; van Rooij, H. C.; Romalo, G.; Trifiro, M.; Mulder, E.; Pinsky, L.; Schweikert, H. U.; Trapman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of the genomic organization of the

  1. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  2. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  3. Phyllotaxis involves auxin drainage through leaf primordia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Yamini; Marti, Dominik; Frenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, known as phyllotaxis, is controlled by an auxin-dependent reiterative mechanism that leads to regular spacing of the organs and thereby to remarkably precise phyllotactic patterns. The mechanism is based on the active cellular transport...... of the phytohormone auxin by cellular influx and efflux carriers, such as AUX1 and PIN1. Their important role in phyllotaxis is evident from mutant phenotypes, but their exact roles in space and time are difficult to address due to the strong pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants in phyllotaxis. Models...... of phyllotaxis invoke the accumulation of auxin at leaf initials and removal of auxin through their developing vascular strand, the midvein. We have developed a precise microsurgical tool to ablate the midvein at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to test its function in leaf formation and phyllotaxis...

  4. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  5. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  7. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Risheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Hao, Xinmei; Zhang, Yanqun

    2014-01-01

    The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET). Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc), an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1) the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2) leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3) a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98), with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL) agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and partitioning λET.

  8. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng Ding

    Full Text Available The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc, an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1 the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2 leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3 a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98, with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  9. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  10. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  11. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  12. Maize YABBY genes drooping leaf1 and drooping leaf2 affect agronomic traits by regulating leaf architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf architectural traits, such as length, width and angle, directly influence canopy structure and light penetration, photosynthate production and overall yield. We discovered and characterized a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant leaf architecture we named drooping leaf1 (drl1), as leaf blades ...

  13. Leaf Disc Regeneration of Passion Fruit | Amugune | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A leaf disc regeneration system was developed for passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims. Leaf discs were cultured on a modified MS medium containing 8.90 µM BAP or on 8.90 µM BAP and 2.32 µM KIN. Shoots appeared within four weeks. These could be rooted when transferred to the same medium containing 0.54, 2.69 ...

  14. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  15. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  16. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  17. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  18. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  19. The significance of measuring serum IGF1, IGFBP3 and OST for the judgement of abnormal skeletal development and therapeutic monitoring in precocious children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhiying; Zhao Ruifang; Lv Xiaomei; Gu Fanlei; Cai Depei

    2004-01-01

    monitoring on delaying skeletal maturity and ameliorating skeletal development that to re-examine the change of serum IGF 1 and OST at regular intervals during treatment course

  20. Vertical leaf area distribution, light transmittance, and application of the Beer-Lambert Law in four mature hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Neal H. Sullivan; Barton D. Clinton; Paul V. Bolstad

    1995-01-01

    We quantified stand leaf area index and vertical leaf area distribution, and developed canopy extinction coefficients (k), in four mature hardwood stands. Leaf area index, calculated from litter fall and specific leaf area (cm²·g-1), ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 m²·m-2. In three of the four stands, leaf area was distributed in...

  1. Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Charles, M.; Jones, G.; Wilson, P.; Shipley, B.; Sharafi, M.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Band, S.R.; Bogard, A.; Castro-Diez, P.; Guerrere-Campo, J.; Palmer, C.; Peréz-Rontomé, M.C.; Carter, G.; Hynd, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Royo Pla, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Specific leaf area (SLA), a key element of the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum', is the preferred 'soft' plant trait for assessing soil fertility. SLA is a function of leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and leaf thickness (LT). The first, LDMC, defines leaf construction costs and

  2. Resistance to leaf spot disease in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Leaf spot disease causes defoliation of peanut plants during pod development thereby reducing yield. To induce mutations for resistance to the disease, dormant seeds of peanut were irradiated with 10-40 kR gamma rays with pre- and post-irradiation treatments to minimize radiation damage. Spores of the causal fungi, Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (B and C) Deigh., were cultured under asceptic conditions in PDA medium with 2-3 drops of 10% table salt solution to enhance development of spores. The first two leaves of M 2 seedlings were hand-inoculated two or three times in the field at one week intervals. Out of a total of 2,453 M 2 seedlings inoculated thrice, 9 plants showed complete resistance based on degree of infection. However, after recurrent selection, only 3 M 5 lines gave complete resistance, the rest exhibiting only intermediate resistance. The disease resistant lines yielded almost twice as much as several commercial varieties due to extensive leaf defoliation in the latter. One of the mutant lines is being crossed with some popular susceptible varieties. Inheritance studies showed that leaf spot resistance is governed by two recessive mutant genes acting complementary. The F 2 ratio was close to 15:1. The mutant lines are presently evaluated through the Bureau of Plant Industry before seeds are distributed to peanut growers. (author)

  3. Raspberry Leaf and Hypoglycemia in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I; Nguyen, Thanh T; Karjane, Nicole W; Salley, Kelsey E S

    2016-12-01

    Raspberry leaf is commonly consumed by pregnant women. Hypoglycemic effects have been documented with other species within the plant family. Whether raspberry leaf affects glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. A 38-year-old nulliparous woman with GDM developed hypoglycemia requiring lowered insulin dose after consuming raspberry leaf tea at 32 weeks of gestation. The temporal relationship was confirmed by the patient's self-withdrawal and reintroduction of the herb. Fetal surveillance and growth were reassuring. A cesarean delivery was performed at 39 weeks of gestation. The neonate did not experience hypoglycemia or other complications. Placental biopsy revealed normal findings. Consumption of raspberry leaf may lead to reduced insulin requirements in GDM. Women with GDM should be cautioned about its use and their glucose levels more closely monitored.

  4. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  5. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios Desenvolvimento foliar de arroz cultivado e arroz vermelho em cenários de aumento de temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu A. Streck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL. Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence date using 100 years of synthetic daily weather data and six climate scenarios, including current, +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 ºC increase in mean air temperature, with symmetric and asymmetric increase in daily minimum and maximum temperature. The increase in air temperature scenarios decreased the duration of the EM-FL phase in the earlier emergence dates (08/20, 09/20, 10/20 whereas in mid (11/20 and late emergence dates (12/20 and 01/20 the longest EM-FL phase was in the symmetric +5 ºC scenario and the shortest duration was in the asymmetric +3 and +4 ºC scenarios. The timing of the onset of flooding irrigation and nitrogen dressing may be altered if global warming takes place and weedy red rice has a potential to enhance its competitiveness with cultivated rice in future climates.Objetivou-se com este estudo simular o desenvolvimento foliar de genótipos de arroz cultivados e biótipos invasores de arroz vermelho em cenários de mudança climática em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Um modelo de aparecimento de folhas foi usado para simular o número de folhas acumuladas, representadas pelo Estádio de Haun, a partir da emergência da cultura até o aparecimento da folha bandeira (EM-FB. Foram utilizados três genótipos de arroz cultivados e dois biótipos de arroz vermelho, em seis épocas de emergência. O modelo foi rodado em cem anos de seis cenários climáticos: atual, +1, +2, +3, +4 e +5 ºC, com aumentos simétricos e assimétricos na

  6. Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the wrist caused by a disturbance of growth that retards the development of the ulnar and volar aspect of the distal radial physis, usually idiopathic, but can be associated with bone dysplas.

  7. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  8. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax...

  9. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax (maximum...

  10. Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Li, Cheng; Kou, Xingran; Yu, Fuhao; Wang, Hongxin; Smith, Gary M; Zhu, Song

    2016-08-01

    First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin, crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source, burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork.

  11. Optimization of the rounded leaf offset table in modeling the multileaf collimator leaf edge in a commercial treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John R

    2014-11-08

    An editable rounded leaf offset (RLO) table is provided in the Pinnacle3 treatment planning software. Default tables are provided for major linear accelerator manu- facturers, but it is not clear how the default table values should be adjusted by the user to optimize agreement between the calculated leaf tip value and the actual measured value. Since we wish for the calculated MLC-defined field edge to closely match the actual delivered field edge, optimal RLO table values are crucial. This is especially true for IMRT fields containing a large number of segments, since any errors would add together. A method based on the calculated MLC-defined field edge was developed for optimizing and modifying the default RLO table values. Modified RLO tables were developed and evaluated for both dosimetric and light field-based MLC leaf calibrations. It was shown, using a Picket Fence type test, that the optimized RLO table better modeled the calculated leaf tip than the Pinnacle3 default table. This was demonstrated for both an Elekta Synergy 80-leaf and a Varian 120-leaf MLC. 

  12. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  13. Ajuste do modelo fototérmico de estimativa do desenvolvimento e do índice de área foliar de soja Adjustment of the photothermic model to estimate soybean development and leaf area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila T. Toledo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se neste estudo, realizar o ajuste do modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento de populações de soja e da variação do índice de área foliar para a variedade IAS 5. Como fonte de variação na velocidade de desenvolvimento, diferentes épocas de plantio foram utilizadas em experimentos nos anos agrícolas de 2004/2005 (três datas e 2005/2006 (quatro datas no IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural localizado em Augusto Pestana, RS (28º 27' 17" S e 53º 54' 50" W, nos quais foram identificadas as datas em que ocorreram as principais fases do desenvolvimento da cultura da soja, seguindo a Escala Fenológica de Fehr & Caviness e estimados o índice de área foliar em quatro momentos: no final do período de instalação da população vegetal (V6; no início do florescimento (R1; início do enchimento de grãos (R5; e no início da maturação (R7. As variáveis meteorológicas temperaturas mínima e máxima diárias foram coletadas. Após o ajuste dos coeficientes genéticos, o modelo foi formatado no programa Stella 5.0. O modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento da soja teve desempenho satisfatório, apresentando estimativas precisas para os dados que o determinaram. O modelo de estimativa do índice de área foliar apresentou estimativas satisfatórias.The present study was carried out to adjust the soy population development model and the leaf area index model for the IAS 5 cultivar. Different sowing dates were used in two experiments as source of development variation during 2004/2005 (three dates and 2005/2006 (four dates in the IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural located in Augusto Pestana, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (28º 27' 17" S and 53º 54' 50" W. The main crop development phases were identified according to the Feher & Caviness phenological scale, and the leaf area index was determined in four occasions: at the final period of plant population installation (V6; at the beginning of flowering

  14. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  17. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  18. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Jagels, R.; Simpson, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  19. Leaf-trait variation explained by the hypothesis that plants maximize their canopy carbon export over the lifespan of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Ross E; Dewar, Roderick C

    2011-09-01

    Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic capacity, leaf lifespan) co-vary consistently within and among diverse biomes, suggesting convergent evolution across species. The same leaf traits co-vary consistently with the environmental conditions (light intensity, carbon-dioxide concentration, nitrogen supply) prevailing during leaf development. No existing theory satisfactorily explains all of these trends. Here, using a simple model of the carbon-nitrogen economy of trees, we show that global leaf-trait relationships and leaf responses to environmental conditions can be explained by the optimization hypothesis (MAXX) that plants maximize the total amount of carbon exported from their canopies over the lifespan of leaves. Incorporating MAXX into larger-scale vegetation models may improve their consistency with global leaf-trait relationships, and enhance their ability to predict how global terrestrial productivity and carbon sequestration respond to environmental change.

  20. Leaf appearance rate and leaf growth in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzini, B.; Miglietta, F.; Orlandini, S.

    1993-01-01

    A morphogenetic approach to the ontogenetic forecast can, at least partially, overcome the difficulties which arise due to the non-linearly of the relation development rate/temperature. In this paper several studies concerning the forecast of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development are shown. They allow the accomplishment of two models simulating leaf appearance rate and leaf surface growth during vegetative season. Moreover, they allow the forecast of ontogenetic developmental dynamics (data of flowering, ripening, etc.). Models parameterization has been performed using results from the literature, while models validation has been carried using original experiences on two varieties (Sangiovese and Malvasia lunga del Chianti) of Chianti wine. The models simulate with accuracy the development of grapevines. They may be considered as the first step of a global model capable of determining grapevine yield on the basis of radiation use efficiency [it

  1. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  2. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  3. Tansig activation function (of MLP network) for cardiac abnormality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Rahman, Muhammad Izzuddin Abd

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and it can cause a sudden death to the patient. In general, heart abnormality is the irregular electrical activity of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect heart abnormality activity through implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP network by using several training algorithms with Tansig activation function.

  4. SNOWY COTYLEDON 2 promotes chloroplast development and has a role in leaf variegation in both Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagari, Nicola; Sandoval Ibáñez, Omar Alejandro; Sandal, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Plants contain various factors that transiently interact with subunits or intermediates of the thylakoid multiprotein complexes, promoting their stable association and integration. Hence, assembly factors are essential for chloroplast development and the transition from heterotrophic to phototrop...

  5. Leaf Aging of Amazonian Canopy Trees: Insights to Tropical Ecological Processes and Satellited Detected Canopy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Malhi, Y.; Gerard, F.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. Leaf age is particularly important for carbon-rich tropical evergreen forests, as leaf demography (leaf age distribution) has been proposed as a major driver of seasonal productivity in these forests. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a novel spectra-based (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,072 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy tree species in southern Peru. Our results demonstrate monotonic decreases in LWC and Pmass and increase in LMA with age across species; Nmass and Cmassshowed monotonic but species-specific age responses. Spectrally, we observed large age-related variation across species, with the most age-sensitive spectral domains found to be: green peak (550nm), red edge (680-750 nm), NIR (700-850 nm), and around the main water absorption features (~1450 and ~1940 nm). A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R2= 0.86; %RMSE= 33) compared to trait-based models using single (R2=0.07 to 0.73; %RMSE=7 to 38) and multiple predictors (step-wise analysis; R2=0.76; %RMSE=28). Spectral and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. The relative importance of the traits modifying the leaf spectra of aging leaves was: LWC>LMA>Nmass>Pmass,&Cmass. Vegetation indices (VIs), including NDVI, EVI2, NDWI and PRI were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity, and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  6. Leaf aging of Amazonian canopy trees as revealed by spectral and physiochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Malhi, Yadvinder; Wu, Jin; Asner, Gregory P; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Enquist, Brian J; Cosio Caravasi, Eric G; Doughty, Christopher E; Saleska, Scott R; Martin, Roberta E; Gerard, France F

    2017-05-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby regulating ecosystem processes and remotely sensed canopy dynamics. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a spectra-based partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1099 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy trees in southern Peru. Results demonstrated monotonic decreases in leaf water (LWC) and phosphorus (P mass ) contents and an increase in leaf mass per unit area (LMA) with age across trees; leaf nitrogen (N mass ) and carbon (C mass ) contents showed monotonic but tree-specific age responses. We observed large age-related variation in leaf spectra across trees. A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R 2  = 0.86; percent root mean square error (%RMSE) = 33) compared with trait-based models using single (R 2  = 0.07-0.73; %RMSE = 7-38) and multiple (R 2  = 0.76; %RMSE = 28) predictors. Spectra- and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. Vegetation indices (VIs) including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and photosynthetic reflectance index (PRI) were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  8. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  9. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Mirazo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse’s nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse’s normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%, vocal cord collapse (35%, abnormal arytenoid function (33% and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%. A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%. Fifteen horses (29% had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48% had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  10. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  11. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  13. Efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade da figueira Effect of the number of productive branches on the leaf area development and fig tree yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade de figos verdes do cultivar Roxo de Valinhos. O experimento utilizando plantas de seis anos de idade, foi conduzido de novembro de 2002 a abril de 2003 na Pesagro-RJ, em Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (21º19'23" de latitude sul, 41º19'40" de longitude oeste, altitude de 20 a 30 m e clima tipo Aw Köppen. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas conduzidas com 16; 20; 24; 28 e 32 ramos. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso e cinco repetições. O IAF aumentou linearmente em função do número de ramos produtivos, enquanto a produtividade mostrou um modelo de resposta quadrática aos tratamentos, provavelmente, limitada pelo sombreamento no interior do dossel que reduz a formação de gemas frutíferas. A maior produtividade observada de figos verdes foi obtida quando as plantas foram conduzidas com 24 ramos, sendo que, neste tratamento, a área foliar média de cada planta foi de 6,2 m².The objective of the present work was to study the effect of number of productive branches on the leaf area development and green fig tree yield of Roxo de Valinhos cultivar. The experiment using six year-old plants was carried out between November/2002 and April/2003 at Pesagro-RJ, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (21º19'23" South latitude, 41º19'40", West longitude, altitude of 20 a 30 m and Aw Koppen climate. The treatments consisted of plants conducted with 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 productive branches in a randomized block design with five replicates. The LAI incresead linearly in function of productive branches, whereas the yield showed a quadratic response pattern to the treatments, probably, limited by shading in canopy that decrease the fruit bud formation. The highest green fig yield was observed in the treatment which had plants conducted with twenty four branches, where the mean leaf area was 6,2 m².

  14. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  15. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  16. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  17. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michelle L

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common medical condition with several causes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics published guidelines in 2011 to develop universally accepted nomenclature and a classification system. In addition, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recently updated recommendations on evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and indications for endometrial biopsies. This article reviews both medical and surgical treatments, including meta-analysis reviews of the most effective treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the role of Arabidopsis class I TCP genes AtTCP7, AtTCP8, AtTCP22, and AtTCP23 in leaf development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Martínez, José A.; Sinha, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    TCP family of plant-specific transcription factors regulates plant form through control of cell proliferation and differentiation. This gene family is comprised of two groups, class I and class II. While the role of class II TCP genes in plant development is well known, data about the function of some class I TCP genes is lacking. We studied a group of phylogenetically related class I TCP genes: AtTCP7, AtTCP8, AtTCP22, and AtTCP23. The similar expression pattern in young growing leaves found for this group suggests similarity in gene function. Gene redundancy is characteristic in this group, as also seen in the class II TCP genes. We generated a pentuple mutant tcp8 tcp15 tcp21 tcp22 tcp23 and show that loss of function of these genes results in changes in leaf developmental traits. We also determined that these factors are able to mutually interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay and regulate the expression of KNOX1 genes. To circumvent the issue of genetic redundancy, dominant negative forms with SRDX repressor domain were used. Analysis of transgenic plants expressing AtTCP7-SRDX and AtTCP23-SRDX indicate a role of these factors in the control of cell proliferation. PMID:24137171

  20. Torpedo maculopathy: A primary choroidal capillary abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Chawla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old healthy male patient's fundus revealed findings consistent with torpedo maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a dome-shaped elevation of the retina at the level of ellipsoid zone. On OCT angiography segmented at the level of the choriocapillaris, a cluster of convoluted fine vessels was seen, and further, deeper scans of the larger choroidal vessels showed a slower flow. From these observations along with the embryological correlation of choriocapillaris development, a possibility of an abnormality preventing proper fenestration of the choriocapillaris along the horizontal raphe being responsible for this anomaly is suggested.

  1. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-13

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  2. LAMINA: a tool for rapid quantification of leaf size and shape parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Petter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased understanding of leaf area development is important in a number of fields: in food and non-food crops, for example short rotation forestry as a biofuels feedstock, leaf area is intricately linked to biomass productivity; in paleontology leaf shape characteristics are used to reconstruct paleoclimate history. Such fields require measurement of large collections of leaves, with resulting conclusions being highly influenced by the accuracy of the phenotypic measurement process. Results We have developed LAMINA (Leaf shApe deterMINAtion, a new tool for the automated analysis of images of leaves. LAMINA has been designed to provide classical indicators of leaf shape (blade dimensions and size (area, which are typically required for correlation analysis to biomass productivity, as well as measures that indicate asymmetry in leaf shape, leaf serration traits, and measures of herbivory damage (missing leaf area. In order to allow Principal Component Analysis (PCA to be performed, the location of a chosen number of equally spaced boundary coordinates can optionally be returned. Conclusion We demonstrate the use of the software on a set of 500 scanned images, each containing multiple leaves, collected from a common garden experiment containing 116 clones of Populus tremula (European trembling aspen that are being used for association mapping, as well as examples of leaves from other species. We show that the software provides an efficient and accurate means of analysing leaf area in large datasets in an automated or semi-automated work flow.

  3. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  4. Effect of incorporation of cauliflower leaf powder on sensory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The malted wheat flour was blended with cauliflower leaf powder in the ratios of 10, 20 and 30% for the development of biscuits. The developed products were stored for 90 days to ascertain the changes in proximate composition and sensory characteristics. The highest moisture, crude protein, crude fibre and ash content of ...

  5. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  6. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  7. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results...

  8. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  9. Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) Science Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Sokol, D.

    2016-12-01

    Northrop Grumman has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the lower atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Saturn's ocean moon, Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in-situ instruments to the surface of Titan. T-LEAF is a highly maneuverable sky rover and its aerodynamic shape (i.e., a flying wing) does not restrict it to following prevailing wind patterns on Titan, but allows mission operators to chart its course. This freedom of mobility allows T-LEAF to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations. We will present a straw man concept of T-LEAF, including size, mass, power, on-board science payloads and measurement, and surface science dropsonde deployment CONOPS. We will discuss the various science instruments and their vehicle level impacts, such as meteorological and electric field sensors, acoustic sensors for measuring shallow depths, multi-spectral imagers, high definition cameras and surface science dropsondes. The stability of T-LEAF and its long residence time on Titan will provide for time to perform a large aerial survey of select prime surface targets deployment of dropsondes at selected locations surface measurements that are coordinated with on-board remote measurements communication relay capabilities to orbiter (or Earth). In this context, we will specifically focus upon key factors impacting the design and performance of T-LEAF science: science payload accommodation, constraints and opportunities characteristics of flight, payload deployment and measurement CONOPS in the Titan atmosphere. This presentation will show how these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of Titan's surface.

  10. A dense camera network for cropland (CropInsight) - developing high spatiotemporal resolution crop Leaf Area Index (LAI) maps through network images and novel satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, H.; Guan, K.; Luo, Y.; Peng, J.; Mascaro, J.; Peng, B.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crop growth conditions is of primary interest to crop yield forecasting, food production assessment, and risk management of individual farmers and agribusiness. Despite its importance, there are limited access to field level crop growth/condition information in the public domain. This scarcity of ground truth data also hampers the use of satellite remote sensing for crop monitoring due to the lack of validation. Here, we introduce a new camera network (CropInsight) to monitor crop phenology, growth, and conditions that are designed for the US Corn Belt landscape. Specifically, this network currently includes 40 sites (20 corn and 20 soybean fields) across southern half of the Champaign County, IL ( 800 km2). Its wide distribution and automatic operation enable the network to capture spatiotemporal variations of crop growth condition continuously at the regional scale. At each site, low-maintenance, and high-resolution RGB digital cameras are set up having a downward view from 4.5 m height to take continuous images. In this study, we will use these images and novel satellite data to construct daily LAI map of the Champaign County at 30 m spatial resolution. First, we will estimate LAI from the camera images and evaluate it using the LAI data collected from LAI-2200 (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Second, we will develop relationships between the camera-based LAI estimation and vegetation indices derived from a newly developed MODIS-Landsat fusion product (daily, 30 m resolution, RGB + NIR + SWIR bands) and the Planet Lab's high-resolution satellite data (daily, 5 meter, RGB). Finally, we will scale up the above relationships to generate high spatiotemporal resolution crop LAI map for the whole Champaign County. The proposed work has potentials to expand to other agro-ecosystems and to the broader US Corn Belt.

  11. Developing multi-tracer approaches to constrain the parameterisation of leaf and soil CO2 and H2O exchange in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogée, Jerome; Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Launois, Thomas; Meredith, Laura; Munger, Bill; Nelson, David; Saleska, Scott; Zahniser, Mark; Wofsy, Steve; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The net flux of carbon dioxide between the land surface and the atmosphere is dominated by photosynthesis and soil respiration, two of the largest gross CO2 fluxes in the carbon cycle. More robust estimates of these gross fluxes could be obtained from the atmospheric budgets of other valuable tracers, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) or the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. Over the past decades, the global atmospheric flask network has measured the inter-annual and intra-annual variations in the concentrations of these tracers. However, knowledge gaps and a lack of high-resolution multi-tracer ecosystem-scale measurements have hindered the development of process-based models that can simulate the behaviour of each tracer in response to environmental drivers. We present novel datasets of net ecosystem COS, 13CO2 and CO18O exchange and vertical profile data collected over 3 consecutive growing seasons (2011-2013) at the Harvard forest flux site. We then used the process-based model MuSICA (multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere) to include the transport, reaction, diffusion and production of each tracer within the forest and exchanged with the atmosphere. Model simulations over the three years captured well the impact of diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions on the net ecosystem exchange of each tracer. The model also captured well the dynamic vertical features of tracer behaviour within the canopy. This unique dataset and model sensitivity analysis highlights the benefit in the collection of multi-tracer high-resolution field datasets and the developement of multi-tracer land surface models to provide valuable constraints on photosynthesis and respiration across scales in the near future.

  12. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  13. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARγ and upregulating PPARα. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  14. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  16. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  17. Evaluation of leaf energy dissipation by the Photochemical Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, S.; Magnani, F.

    Starting from the early paper by Heber (1969), several studies have demonstrated a subtle shift in leaf spectroscopic characteristics (both absorbance and reflectance) in response to rapid changes in environmental conditions. More recent work, briefly reviewed here, has also demonstrated the existence of two components in the maked peak centered at 505-540 nm: an irreversible component, attributed to the interconversion of leaf xanthophylls, and a reversible component at slightly longer wavelengths, resulting from conformational changes induced by the buildup of a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane associated with photosynthetic electron transport. Both processes (xanthophyll de-epoxidation and conformational changes) are known to contribute to the dissipation of excess energy in Photosystem II (PSII). Leaf spectroscopy could therefore provide a powerful non-invasive tool for the determination of leaf photosynthetic processes. This led to the development of the normalized spectral index PRI (Photochemical Reflectance Index; Gamon, Penuelas &Field 1992; Gamon, Serrano &Surfus 1997), which relates the functional signal at 531 nm to a reference signal at 570 nm. The index has been found to track diurnal changes in xanthophyll de-epoxidation state, radiation use efficiency and fluorescence in response to light, both at the leaf and more recently at the canopy level. A common relationship has also beenreported across species and functional types, although such a generality has not always been confirmed. Recent reports (Stylinski et al. 2000) have also hinted of a possible link between PRI and leaf photosynthetic potential, possibly through the correlation between xanthophyll content and electron transport machinery in the chloroplast. Such a link, if confirmed, could prove very useful for the remote sensing and modelling ofvegetation. Some of these open questions were addressed in the present study. The correlation between leaf function and reflectance was

  18. The leaf angle distribution of natural plant populations: assessing the canopy with a novel software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Linow, Mark; Pinto-Espinosa, Francisco; Scharr, Hanno; Rascher, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional canopies form complex architectures with temporally and spatially changing leaf orientations. Variations in canopy structure are linked to canopy function and they occur within the scope of genetic variability as well as a reaction to environmental factors like light, water and nutrient supply, and stress. An important key measure to characterize these structural properties is the leaf angle distribution, which in turn requires knowledge on the 3-dimensional single leaf surface. Despite a large number of 3-d sensors and methods only a few systems are applicable for fast and routine measurements in plants and natural canopies. A suitable approach is stereo imaging, which combines depth and color information that allows for easy segmentation of green leaf material and the extraction of plant traits, such as leaf angle distribution. We developed a software package, which provides tools for the quantification of leaf surface properties within natural canopies via 3-d reconstruction from stereo images. Our approach includes a semi-automatic selection process of single leaves and different modes of surface characterization via polygon smoothing or surface model fitting. Based on the resulting surface meshes leaf angle statistics are computed on the whole-leaf level or from local derivations. We include a case study to demonstrate the functionality of our software. 48 images of small sugar beet populations (4 varieties) have been analyzed on the base of their leaf angle distribution in order to investigate seasonal, genotypic and fertilization effects on leaf angle distributions. We could show that leaf angle distributions change during the course of the season with all varieties having a comparable development. Additionally, different varieties had different leaf angle orientation that could be separated in principle component analysis. In contrast nitrogen treatment had no effect on leaf angles. We show that a stereo imaging setup together with the

  19. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  20. Status of conservation of the indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of Africa is being seriously eroded as a result of multiplicity of environmental, political and socio-economic factors. This paper discusses some new development-related and crises factors that have interacted in concert to amplify the spate of loss of the indigenous leaf ...

  1. Leaf roll-necrosis complex of lilacs in an urban environment. [Syringa vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.; Walker, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    Lilacs in the metropolitan New York area have developed a foliar disorder characterized by leaf roll, interveinal and marginal necrosis, chlorosis, bronzing, and early leaf abscission that is sometimes followed by a break in dormancy of terminal buds. Investigations indicate that this disorder is not due to plant nutrition, Anthropod infestation, or plant pathogens. Air pollutants, including ozone, are implicated.

  2. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  3. Habitat Complexity of Stream Leaf Packs: Effects on Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Leaf Litter Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R.; Vanhaitsma, D. L.; Breen, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated two attributes of leaf-pack complexity (i.e., leaf-pack mass and leaf surface area) on fish predation, colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates, and leaf breakdown rates in a coldwater Michigan stream. We manipulated three factors using a factorial design: fish (exclusion or control cage), leaf-pack mass (1, 3, or 5 g dry mass), and leaf surface area (10 cm leaf width). Acer leaves were fastened into leaf packs. Exclusion cages had mesh on all sides; control cages lacked mesh on two sides to provide access to fishes. Two replicate leaf packs were randomly collected after 25-31 d from two sections of the stream (n = 4). Common shredders were Gammarus, Pycnopsyche, and Lepidostoma. We did not detect a significant effect of fish predation on benthic macroinvertebrates or leaf breakdown (i.e., mass loss). Colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates appeared proportional to leaf-pack mass but was unaffected by the surface area of leaves. Leaf breakdown was more rapid among leaf packs with fewer leaves (i.e., leaves with large surface area and leaf packs with low mass) and greater numbers of shredders. We suspect that physical fragmentation is the primary mechanism for higher breakdown rates among leaf packs with fewer leaves.

  4. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  5. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  6. BREEAM Green Leaf Eco-rating Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The environmental performance of buildings is measured for several reasons, the main one being that it can help owners decide where to invest their retrofit dollars to maximize the energy performance of their building and reduce operating costs. The buildings constructed in the 1950s and 1960s in North America are reaching obsolescence and will require major retrofits to improve their energy efficiency, particularly in the area of mechanical equipment. In addition to reducing operating costs, better maintenance and environmental management of buildings can also address issues such as comfort, health, indoor air quality and productivity. In order to accurately measure the environmental performance of a building, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive measuring and benchmarking tool that would allow occupants to compare the buildings' performance with others. In this pilot study, 6 high-rise multi-residential buildings were assessed for environmental performance using the BREEAM Green Leaf assessment method. The methodology originated in Canada and was developed by ECD Energy, Environment Canada and Terra Choice. It combines the BREEAM set of environmental issues with the Green Leaf Eco-Rating technique. The method covers occupant health, energy efficiency, resource efficiency, environmental responsibility and affordability. Operation and management issues are also taken into consideration. The buildings used in this study were located in various locations, ranging from inner city housing to city/suburban areas. 2 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The LEAF questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Åsa B; Skouby, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to...

  9. (Sapotaceae) leaf extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2570. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i12.5. Original ..... cancer progression [19,24]. Wätjen et al [25] reported that quercetin and myricetin can prevent the development of cancer by inducing cytotoxicity,. DNA strand breaks,.

  10. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  11. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  12. Modeling artificial leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Raucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficient artificial leaves relies on the subtle combination of the electronic structure of molecular assemblies able to absorbing sunlight, converting light energy into electrochemical potential energy and finally transducing it into chemical accessible energy. The electronical design of these charge transfer molecular machine is crucial to build up a complex supramolecular architecture for the light energy conversion. The theoretical computational approach represent...

  13. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  14. Can Leaf Spectroscopy Predict Leaf and Forest Traits Along a Peruvian Tropical Forest Elevation Gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Santos-Andrade, P. E.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Blonder, B.; Shenkin, A.; Bentley, L. P.; Chavana-Bryant, C.; Huaraca-Huasco, W.; Díaz, S.; Salinas, N.; Enquist, B. J.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy can be used to measure leaf chemical and structural traits. Such leaf traits are often highly correlated to other traits, such as photosynthesis, through the leaf economics spectrum. We measured VNIR (visible-near infrared) leaf reflectance (400-1,075 nm) of sunlit and shaded leaves in 150 dominant species across ten, 1 ha plots along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in Peru (on 4,284 individual leaves). We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to compare leaf reflectance to chemical traits, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, structural traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), branch wood density and leaf venation, and "higher-level" traits such as leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf water repellency, and woody growth rates. Empirical models using leaf reflectance predicted leaf N and LMA (r2 > 30% and %RMSE < 30%), weakly predicted leaf venation, photosynthesis, and branch density (r2 between 10 and 35% and %RMSE between 10% and 65%), and did not predict leaf water repellency or woody growth rates (r2<5%). Prediction of higher-level traits such as photosynthesis and branch density is likely due to these traits correlations with LMA, a trait readily predicted with leaf spectroscopy.

  15. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  16. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol was developed for Plectranthus barbatus for high frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf derived callus of aseptically grown plantlets derived from mature plant explants of high yielding clones (yield of forskolin 1.5 to 1.9%) on Gamborg medium (B5) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4- dichloro phenoxy ...

  17. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  18. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight i...

  19. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMA

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... A protocol was developed for Plectranthus barbatus for high frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf derived callus of aseptically grown plantlets derived from mature plant explants of high yielding clones. (yield of forskolin 1.5 to 1.9%) on Gamborg medium (B5) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4- ...

  20. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  1. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency.

  2. Study of early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana by quantitative proteomics using reciprocal N-14/N-15 Labeling and difference gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebeler, Romano; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Reidegeld, Kai E.; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Sitek, Barbara; Stuehler, Kai; Meyer, Helmut E.; Sturre, Marcel J. G.; Dijkwel, Paul P.; Warscheid, Bettina

    Leaf senescence represents the final stage of leaf development and is associated with fundamental changes on the level of the proteome. For the quantitative analysis of changes in protein abundance related to early leaf senescence, we designed an elaborate double and reverse labeling strategy

  3. Antioxidant properties of Rubus discolor leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Ivona Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were examined aqueous, methanol, ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Rubus discolor, wild growing blackberry, for their antioxidant properties and total phenol and flavonoid content. The total phenol content (TPC varried from 250.05 to 446.61 mg GAE/g of dry extract, while total flavonoid content (TFC was in range between 22.44 and 61.15 mg QE/g of dry extract. Aqueous extracts were the richest in phenols, as well as in flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radical scavenging procedures and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Aqueous extracts were the most effective through all antioxidant tests. The total phenol content highly correlated with antioxidant activity of extracts. Moreover, weak correlation was established between total phenol and total flavonoid content. The results presented in this work indicate that phenol compounds contribute to antioxidant ability of extracts. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  4. PpORS, an ancient type III polyketide synthase, is required for integrity of leaf cuticle and resistance to dehydration in the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Aslam, Misbah; Rabbi, Fazle; Vanderwel, Mark C; Ashton, Neil W; Suh, Dae-Yeon

    2018-02-01

    PpORS knockout mutants produced abnormal leaves with increased dye permeability and were more susceptible to dehydration, consistent with PpORS products being constituents of a cuticular structure in the moss. Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) have co-evolved with terrestrial plants such that each taxon can generate a characteristic collection of polyketides, fine-tuned to its needs. 2'-Oxoalkylresorcinol synthase from Physcomitrella patens (PpORS) is basal to all plant type III PKSs in phylogenetic trees and may closely resemble their most recent common ancestor. To gain insight into the roles that ancestral plant type III PKSs might have played during early land plant evolution, we constructed and phenotypically characterized targeted knockouts of PpORS. Ors gametophores, unless submerged in water while they were developing, displayed various leaf malformations that included grossly misshapen leaves, missing or abnormal midribs, multicellular protuberances and localized necrosis. Ors leaves, particularly abnormal ones, showed increased permeability to the hydrophilic dye, toluidine blue. Ors gametophores lost water faster and were more susceptible to dehydration than those of the control strain. Our findings are consistent with ors leaves possessing a partially defective cuticle and implicate PpORS in synthesis of the intact cuticle. PpORS orthologs are present in a few moss species but have not been found in other plants. However, conceivably an ancestral ORS in early land plants may have contributed to their protection from dehydration.

  5. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  6. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  8. Leaf optical system modeled as a stochastic process. [solar radiation interaction with terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Garratt, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A stochastic leaf radiation model based upon physical and physiological properties of dicot leaves has been developed. The model accurately predicts the absorbed, reflected, and transmitted radiation of normal incidence as a function of wavelength resulting from the leaf-irradiance interaction over the spectral interval of 0.40-2.50 micron. The leaf optical system has been represented as Markov process with a unique transition matrix at each 0.01-micron increment between 0.40 micron and 2.50 micron. Probabilities are calculated at every wavelength interval from leaf thickness, structure, pigment composition, and water content. Simulation results indicate that this approach gives accurate estimations of actual measured values for dicot leaf absorption, reflection, and transmission as a function of wavelength.

  9. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Fernandez, M.; Menor Serrano, F.; Bordon Ferre, F.; Garcia Tena, J.; Esteban Hernandez, E.; Sanguesa Nebot, C.; Marti Bonnati, L.

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  10. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  11. Comparison of gold leaf thickness in Namban folding screens using X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Madeira, Teresa I.; Manso, Marta [Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Guerra, Mauro; Carvalho, Maria Luisa [Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Gac, Agnes le [Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the thickness of the gold leaf applied in six Japanese folding screens is compared using a nondestructive approach. Four screens belonging to the Momoyama period (∝1573-1603) and two screens belonging to the early Edo period (∝1603-1868) were analyzed in situ using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and the thickness of the applied gold leaf was evaluated using a methodology based on the attenuation of the different characteristic lines of gold in the gold leaf layer. Considering that the leaf may well not be made of pure gold, we established that, for the purpose of comparing the intensity ratios of the Au lines, layers made with gold leaf of high grade can be considered identical. The gold leaf applied in one of the screens from the Edo period was found to be thinner than the gold leaf applied in the other ones. This is consistent with the development of the beating technology to obtain ever more thin gold leafs. (orig.)

  12. Identification among morphologically similar Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) based on leaf anatomy and phenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiperm, Paweena; Chow, Janene; Nopun, Possathorn; Staples, G; Swangpol, Sasivimon C

    2017-12-01

    The genus Argyreia Lour. is one of the species-rich Asian genera in the family Convolvulaceae. Several species complexes were recognized in which taxon delimitation was imprecise, especially when examining herbarium materials without fully developed open flowers. The main goal of this study is to investigate and describe leaf anatomy for some morphologically similar Argyreia using epidermal peeling, leaf and petiole transverse sections, and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to investigate the similarity of these morpho-types. Anatomical differences observed between the morpho-types include epidermal cell walls and the trichome types on the leaf epidermis. Additional differences in the leaf and petiole transverse sections include the epidermal cell shape of the adaxial leaf blade, the leaf margins, and the petiole transverse sectional outline. The phenogram from cluster analysis using the UPGMA method represented four groups with an R value of 0.87. Moreover, the important quantitative and qualitative leaf anatomical traits of the four groups were confirmed by the principal component analysis of the first two components. The results from phenetic analyses confirmed the anatomical differentiation between the morpho-types. Leaf anatomical features regarded as particularly informative for morpho-type differentiation can be used to supplement macro morphological identification.

  13. Leaf nitrogen spectral reflectance model of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on PROSPECT: simulation and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Zhao, Chunjiang; Pu, Ruiliang; Feng, Haikuan; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Sun, Chenhong

    2015-01-01

    Through its association with proteins and plant pigments, leaf nitrogen (N) plays an important regulatory role in photosynthesis, leaf respiration, and net primary production. However, the traditional methods of measurement leaf N are rooted in sample-based spectroscopy in laboratory. There is a big challenge of deriving leaf N from the nondestructive field-measured leaf spectra. In this study, the original PROSPECT model was extended by replacing the absorption coefficient of chlorophyll in the original PROSPECT model with an equivalent N absorption coefficient to develop a nitrogen-based PROSPECT model (N-PROSPECT). N-PROSPECT was evaluated by comparing the model-simulated reflectance values with the measured leaf reflectance values. The validated results show that the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.98 for the wavelengths of 400 to 2500 nm. Finally, N-PROSPECT was used to simulate leaf reflectance using different combinations of input parameters, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to establish the relationship between the N-PROSPECT simulated reflectance and the corresponding leaf nitrogen density (LND). The inverse of the PLSR-based N-PROSPECT model was used to retrieve LND from the measured reflectance with a relatively high accuracy (R2=0.77, RMSE=22.15 μg cm-2). This result demonstrates that the N-PROSPECT model established in this study can accurately simulate nitrogen spectral contributions and retrieve LND.

  14. Quantification of physical (roughness) and chemical (dielectric constant) leaf surface properties relevant to wettability and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison; van Leeuwen, Rebecca M

    2011-12-01

    Spray droplet adhesion is dependent not only on formulation and droplet parameters but also on the surface properties (physical and chemical) of the leaf. Quantifying these leaf surface properties would aid understanding and modelling of adhesion, helping to optimise spray formulations. Fractal dimensions (FDs) were used to quantify the relative leaf surface roughness of ten plant species. Static droplet contact angles were measured on each leaf surface, and wetting tension was calculated. Chemical profiles of the leaf surfaces were developed by evaluating contact angle behaviour relative to solution dielectric constants. The FDs of Cryo-SEM micrographs taken at 300× magnification gave the best correlation with adhesion. The wetting tension intercept had a strong relationship with mean adhesion, and successfully accounted for the wettability of the outlier species. The microroughness of the leaf surface, as revealed by Cryo-SEM, can be quantified by fractal dimension analysis. However, the wetting tension intercept is a more useful universal measure of the surface properties of the leaf (including roughness) as they pertain to adhesion. The slope of the wetting tension versus dielectric constant plot allowed preliminary quantification of the chemical contribution of leaf surface dielectric behaviour to adhesion. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  16. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change.

  17. Effects of γ-rays on vegetable leaf and leaf tissue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fei; Luo Shishi; Feng Min; Wang Zegang; Ge Cailin; Guo Yifeng

    2003-01-01

    The change of the leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis of two kinds of vegetables by γ-rays were studied and the apparent characters were observed. The results showed as follows. The effect of γ-rays on vegetable firstly appears on leaf and the leaf is the sensitive part to γ-rays. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance changes paralleled to the ability of resistance to γ-rays, the higher the resistant ability is, the higher the peak value of the leaf tissue resistance will be. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance can be used as the index of the ability of vegetable resistance to γ-rays. Contrast with ion exosmosis, leaf tissue resistance showed different resistant abilities to γ-rays with different leaves of the same plant. The death dose of vegetable can be determined with the change of leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis

  18. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  19. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  20. Leaf-jams - A new and unique leaf deposit in the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia: Origin and plant taphonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch. [University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Palaeobotany Studies Group, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Rice, A. Hugh N. [University of Vienna, Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-08-01

    This paper documents a previously unrecorded type of leaf deposit, comprising essentially monospecific linear accumulations of Colophospermum mopane leaves on a point bar of the ephemeral Hoanib River, NW Namibia. In these 'leaf-jams', leaf laminae stand on edge, orientated more-or-less normal to bedding. Leaf-jams, which formed upstream of cobbles, clumps of grass and sticks wedged against the former two, were orientated subparallel to the adjacent meandering river-bed, such that over the 40 m of their occurrence, their mean azimuth changed by 59 anticlockwise downstream. The longest leaf-jam was 50 cm and contained approximately 500 leaves, as well as grass culms, twigs (C. mopane, Tamarix usneoides and unidentified) and medium- to fine-grained sand and silt. Individual leaf-jams were partially buried in the point bar sediments up to a depth of 3 cm. Leaf-jam formation occurred in the austral summer of 2006, during the waning stage of a major flood caused by anomalous tropical to extra-tropical storms. Their monospecifity is due to the overwhelming preponderance of the zonal taxon C. mopane in the catchment area, although the Khowarib Gorge contains a quite diverse azonal plant association due to the presence of a permanent water-seep. During leaf-jam formation, the water depth was less than the height of the cobbles (0.1 m), with stream flow-rates competent to transport medium-grained sand (velocity estimated at 0.5 m s{sup -} {sup 1}). Leaves must have been partially or fully waterlogged to inhibit buoyancy forces tending to lift them out of the developing leaf-jams, which propagated upstream in a manner comparable to longitudinal bars in a braided river. If fossilised, such deposits would probably lead to a very biased interpretation of the composition of the surrounding flora; the correct interpretation would be the one least favoured by palaeobotanists. (author)

  1. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  2. Machine vision guided sensor positioning system for leaf temperature assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ling, P. P.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor positioning system was developed for monitoring plants' well-being using a non-contact sensor. Image processing algorithms were developed to identify a target region on a plant leaf. A novel algorithm to recover view depth was developed by using a camera equipped with a computer-controlled zoom lens. The methodology has improved depth recovery resolution over a conventional monocular imaging technique. An algorithm was also developed to find a maximum enclosed circle on a leaf surface so the conical field-of-view of an infrared temperature sensor could be filled by the target without peripheral noise. The center of the enclosed circle and the estimated depth were used to define the sensor 3-D location for accurate plant temperature measurement.

  3. Placental Abnormalities and Preeclampsia in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Women who are carrying a trisomy 13 fetus are prone to have an abnormal placenta as well as to develop preeclampsia in the second and third trimesters. This article provides a comprehensive review of placental abnormalities, such as small placental volume, reduced placental vascularization, a partial molar appearance of the placenta and placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and preeclampsia associated with trisomy 13 pregnancies. The candidate preeclampsia-causing genes on chromosome 13, such as sFlt1, COL4A2 and periostin, are discussed.

  4. Repolarization abnormalities in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The recognition of ventricular repolarization abnormalities in the newborn carries several and significant implications, because it calls attention to the possibility of dealing with an infant affected by the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This article provides key elements for the correct measurement of the QT interval in newborns and succinctly reviews some aspects of the disease. It gives normative values on the QT interval distribution in the first month of life based on a prospective study in more than 44,000 infants. It shows the probability, based on the QTc observed in two recordings, to find disease-causing mutations. The data indicate clearly that widespread electrocardiographic screening in the newborn allows early identification of most, if not all, the infants affected by LQTS with marked QT prolongation and thus of those at higher risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Through the affected infants, it becomes possible to identify the family members affected by LQTS, including the "silent mutation carriers"; our study shows that disease-causing mutations are found in 51% of the family members. Because early recognition leads to the implementation of effective preventive strategies, it follows that electrocardiographic screening will avoid preventable deaths either in the first year of life when they are usually labeled as "sudden infant death syndrome" or later in life. The case is made for medicolegal implications whenever neonatologists and pediatricians fail to inform the parents of a newborn child of the prevalence of LQTS (one in 2000), of the effectiveness of existing therapies, and of the diagnosis with a simple electrocardiogram.

  5. A transmission electron microscopy study of the diversity of Candida albicans cells induced by Euphorbia hirta L. leaf extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basma, Abu Arra; Zuraini, Zakaria; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-01-01

    To determine the major changes in the microstructure of Candida albicans (C. albicans) after treatment with Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) L. leaf extract. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes caused by E. hirta extract on C. albicans cells at various exposure time. It was found that the main abnormalities were the alterations in morphology, lysis and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. Whereas the control cultures showed a typical morphology of Candida with a uniform central density, typically structured nucleus, and a cytoplasm with several elements of endomembrane system and enveloped by a regular, intact cell wall. The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of E. hirta L. suggests its potential against infections caused by C. albicans. The extract may be developed as an anticandidal agent.

  6. Attitude of Nigerian women to abnormal menstrual bleeding from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and Norethisterone Enanthate (Net-En) are frequently used progestogen-only injectable contraceptives in many developing countries including Nigeria. Their use is often complicated by abnormal and unpredictable menstrual bleeding patterns. This has often been ...

  7. Identification of Abnormal Stem Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Novikov, Sergey M; Beermann, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells in cell-based therapeutics for degenerative diseases requires development of criteria for defining normal stem cells to ensure safe transplantation. Currently, identification of abnormal from normal stem cells is based on extensive ex vivo and in vivo testing. Raman...

  8. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome: the hidden normal or abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal or abnormal anatomy and the value of laparoscopy. Abdullah Alwabari, Lalit Parida and Ahmed H. Al-Salem. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare disorder of male sexual development. It is characterized by the presence of a uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina in an otherwise phenotypically ...

  9. Abnormal compression wood in Pinus taeda : a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal compression wood in P. taeda stands was first discovered in the early 1980s. Since then several research projects and surveys have been carried out in order to develop a better understanding of the problem and to try to find a solution. Currently a large proportion of the sawmill intake of logs in the Mpumalanga ...

  10. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  11. Altering Attitudes toward Suicide in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a report stemming from the development and application of a Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ)--a 100 item attitudinal and factual instrument designed to cover a wide range of suicidal concerns. Subjects of the study were 17 college students drawn at random from 89 students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Results…

  12. A comparative study of EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Electrophysiological investigation is an integral part in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders; but this is rare in developing countries including Nigeria. Objectives: The study aims to determine EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter-ictal psychosis in comparison to those with schizophrenia.

  13. Anonna muricata Linn Leaf Effect in Inhibiting SGPT Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Tanaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis is an infection or inflammation disease of the liver which is caused by virus, toxic substance, and immunological abnormalities. Soursop plant as a medicinal plants is known to have an antioxidant effect and nowadays is used as an alternative drug for hepatitis. One of the methods to assess liver function is to measure the serum Glutamate Piruvate Transaminase (SGPT level. The purpose of this study was to find the effect of Soursop Leaf in inhibiting the SGPT elevation . Methods: An experimental study was conducted on 25 white male rats of wistar strain in the pharmacology laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran during the period of September to October 2012. The rats were divided into 5 groups (group 1 and 2 as control; group 3, 4, and 5 as treatment groups treated by 200, 400, 600 mg/kgbw soursop extract, respectively. The soursop extract was administered to the treatment groups for 8 days. On the 8th day, group 2, 3, 4, and 5 received 1.6 ml CCl410% intraperitoneally. After 18 hours, the mean SGPT levels from all groups were measured. ANOVA test was used to analyze the result. Results : The mean SGPT levels were lower in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th group compared to group 2. There was a significant difference among treatment groups. Group 3 had the most significant result. Conclusion: Soursop leaf inhibits the elevation of SGPT level.

  14. Abnormal mitochondria in Rett syndrome: one case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, S C; Chi, C S; Chen, C H; Shian, W J

    1993-08-01

    A 6-year-9-month-old girl with the characteristic features of Rett syndrome is reported. Clinically, she had microcephaly, psychomotor arrest, deterioration of communication, autistic behaviour, loss of language development, gait apraxia and stereotyped hand washing movement. Amino acid and organic acid analysis were normal. An abnormal rise in serum lactate was noted 120 minutes after oral glucose loading. Muscle biopsy was performed and there was no specific finding noted under light microscope. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed mild accumulation of mitochondria at subsarcolemmal area with abnormal tubular cristae. The cause of Rett syndrome remains obscure. Several articles concerning abnormal mitochondrial morphology or respiratory enzymes have been reported. The exact pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  15. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarper, Nazan [Caferaga mah, Dr. Sakir Pasa sok, 7/4 Huzur Apt., 81300 Kadikoey-Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Paediatrics, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey); Akansel, Guer [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey); Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim [Department of Paediatrics, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2002-12-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  16. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  17. Convergence in relationships between leaf traits, spectra and age across diverse canopy environments and two contrasting tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Prohaska, Neill; Serbin, Shawn P; Guan, Kaiyu; Albert, Loren P; Yang, Xi; van Leeuwen, Willem J D; Garnello, Anthony John; Martins, Giordane; Malhi, Yadvinder; Gerard, France; Oliviera, Raimundo Cosme; Saleska, Scott R

    2017-05-01

    Leaf age structures the phenology and development of plants, as well as the evolution of leaf traits over life histories. However, a general method for efficiently estimating leaf age across forests and canopy environments is lacking. Here, we explored the potential for a statistical model, previously developed for Peruvian sunlit leaves, to consistently predict leaf ages from leaf reflectance spectra across two contrasting forests in Peru and Brazil and across diverse canopy environments. The model performed well for independent Brazilian sunlit and shade canopy leaves (R 2  = 0.75-0.78), suggesting that canopy leaves (and their associated spectra) follow constrained developmental trajectories even in contrasting forests. The model did not perform as well for mid-canopy and understory leaves (R 2  = 0.27-0.29), because leaves in different environments have distinct traits and trait developmental trajectories. When we accounted for distinct environment-trait linkages - either by explicitly including traits and environments in the model, or, even better, by re-parameterizing the spectra-only model to implicitly capture distinct trait-trajectories in different environments - we achieved a more general model that well-predicted leaf age across forests and environments (R 2  = 0.79). Fundamental rules, linked to leaf environments, constrain the development of leaf traits and allow for general prediction of leaf age from spectra across species, sites and canopy environments. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pNail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  19. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  2. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  3. ‘Breath figures’ on leaf surfaces – formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eBurkhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Microscopic leaf wetness’ means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 µm, microscopic leaf wetness it is about 2 orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the amount and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g. ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  4. Screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities during the second trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Hui; Li Ming; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a pre -natal screening program for fetal chromosome abnormalities based on risk values calculated from maternal serum markers levels during the second trimester. Methods: Serum levels of AFP, β-HCG, uE 3 were determined with CLIA in 1048 pregnant women during 14-21w gestation period and the results were analyzed with a specific software (screening program for Down' s syndrome developed by Beckman) for the risk rate. In those women defined as being of high risk rate, cells from amniotic fluid or umbilical cord blood were studied for karyotype analysis. Results: Of these 1048 women, 77 were designated as being of high risk rate for several chromosome abnormalities i.e. Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and trisomy -18 syndrome (overall positive rate 7.3%). Further fetal chromosome study in 31 of them revealed three proven cases of abnormality. Another cord blood study was performed in a calculated low risk rate case but with abnormal sonographic finding at 31 w gestation and proved to be abnormal (software study false negative). The remaining 46 high risk rate cases either refused future study (n=35) or were lost for follow-up (n=11). Fortunately, all the 35 women refused further study gave birth to normal babies without any chromosome abnormalities discovered on peripheral blood study. Besides, in a trial study, five high risk rate women were again evaluated a few weeks later but with tremendous difference between the results. Conclusion: The present program proves to be clinically useful but needs further study and revision. Many factors may influence the result of the analysis and the duration of gestation period in weeks should be as accurate as possible. At present, in order to avoid getting false negatives, we don't advise a second check in 'high risk' cases. (authors)

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Phosphorus Metabolism and Transport during Leaf Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, Kyla A; Plaxton, William C

    2015-12-16

    Leaf senescence, being the final developmental stage of the leaf, signifies the transition from a mature, photosynthetically active organ to the attenuation of said function and eventual death of the leaf. During senescence, essential nutrients sequestered in the leaf, such as phosphorus (P), are mobilized and transported to sink tissues, particularly expanding leaves and developing seeds. Phosphorus recycling is crucial, as it helps to ensure that previously acquired P is not lost to the environment, particularly under the naturally occurring condition where most unfertilized soils contain low levels of soluble orthophosphate (Pi), the only form of P that roots can directly assimilate from the soil. Piecing together the molecular mechanisms that underpin the highly variable efficiencies of P remobilization from senescing leaves by different plant species may be critical for devising effective strategies for improving overall crop P-use efficiency. Maximizing Pi remobilization from senescing leaves using selective breeding and/or biotechnological strategies will help to generate P-efficient crops that would minimize the use of unsustainable and polluting Pi-containing fertilizers in agriculture. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms whereby P is remobilized from senescing leaves and transported to sink tissues, which encompasses the action of hormones, transcription factors, Pi-scavenging enzymes, and Pi transporters.

  6. The Design and Implementation of the Leaf Area Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI, over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable.

  7. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  8. Assessing Frogeye Leaf Spot Resistance on Recommended Soybean Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean frogeye leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina Hara, has known to lead a severe reduction of crop yield. Since frogeye leaf spot on soybean has recently become a serious problem in Korea, the susceptibility of recent recommended cultivars against C. sojina had been tested. To standardize the disease severity of soybean, the optimum sporulation condition of C. sojina and the disease index were established in this study. Sporulation was maximized on the 10% V8 juice agar with 12 h light and 12 h dark at 25°C. Spore suspension (105 spores/ml was sprayed on the leaves of soybean (V6 stage, and the disease responses to each isolate were evaluated on 28 days after inoculation. As a result, Daepung, Shinpaldal2ho, Yeonpung and Cheonga showed the resistance reaction to 8, 7, 6, 6 isolates of C. sojina, respectively, whereas Cheongja, Hwangkeum, Taekwang, Daewon, Cheonsang and Sinhwa showed the susceptible reaction to 8 isolates of C. sojina. Breeding the resistant soybean cultivars against C. sojina requires a uniform resistance for screening technique. The disease index of frogeye leaf spot on soybean developed in this study can be effectively used for the accurate field assay to select the frogeye leaf spot resistant soybean.

  9. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing from southwest to northeast and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east. Here we describe the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25–182.25 cm2. The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2 is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the northwest of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  10. Trade-offs between seed and leaf size (seed-phytomer-leaf theory): functional glue linking regenerative with life history strategies … and taxonomy with ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John G; Santini, Bianca A; Montserrat Marti, Gabriel; Royo Pla, Ferran; Jones, Glynis; Bogaard, Amy; Charles, Mike; Font, Xavier; Ater, Mohammed; Taleb, Abdelkader; Poschlod, Peter; Hmimsa, Younes; Palmer, Carol; Wilson, Peter J; Band, Stuart R; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Green, Laura; Nitsch, Erika; Stroud, Elizabeth; Romo-Díez, Angel; de Torres Espuny, Lluis; Warham, Gemma

    2017-11-10

    . 1974. Flowering plants: evolution above the species level . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press) is perhaps associated with both seed and leaf development, and major taxa appear routinely specialized with respect to ecologically important size-related traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  12. An abnormal event advisory expert system prototype for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators must respond correctly during abnormal conditions in the presence of dynamic and potentially overwhelming volumes of information. For this reason, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of nuclear plant operator aids using artificial intelligence techniques. The objective of such systems is to diagnose abnormal conditions within the plant, possibly predict consequences, and advise the operators of corrective actions in a timely manner. The objective of the work is the development of a prototype expert system to diagnose abnormal events at a nuclear power plant and advise plant operators of the event and applicable procedures in an on-line mode. The major difference between this effort and previous work is the use of plant operating procedures as a knowledge source and as an integral part of the advice provided by the expert system. The acceptance by utilities of expert systems as operator aids requires that such systems be compatible with the regulatory environment and provide economic benefits. For this reason, commercially viable operator aid systems developed in the near future must complement existing plant procedures rather than reach beyond them in a revolutionary manner. A knowledge source is the resource providing facts and relationships that are coded into the expert system program. In this case, the primary source of knowledge is a set of selected abnormal operating procedures for a modern Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

  13. PROFILE OF Nauclea diderrichii LEAF EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    problems, gonorrhea and menstruation problems, while a bark infusion is taken for the treatment of hepatitis and as a vermifuge. In Guinea, leaf preparations are applied on tumours. In Sierra Leone, leaf decoctions are drunk against diarrhea and as a wash for the treatment of measles and the ripe infructescence is eaten as ...

  14. [Study on pharmacognosy of Ginkgo leaf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guo-Ping; Ma, Zhi-Gang; Mao, Chong-Wu

    2007-05-01

    The primary study of Ginkgo leaf such as crude drug macroscopic and powder characteristics were carried out, and the flavonoids content in the leaf of Ginkgo in different areas of Gansu province was determined by HPLC, in order to provide scientific references for the exploitation of Ginkgo in Gansu province.

  15. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  16. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle 3 planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle 3 planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan quality

  17. Effects of leaf area of downy oak (Quercus pubescens Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... On the other hand, the light energy that is held by a leaf depends on the size of the leaf area (leaf surface). The measure of the leaf surface area (l.a.) is total leaf surface area of the plant (m2). The ratio between the total surface leaf area of a plant and the land area it covers (m2/ha or m2/m2) at a certain ...

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  19. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  20. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.