Sample records for abnormal involuntary movement

  1. Abnormal Involuntary Movements: Side-Effect of Neuroleptic Drugs


    Oyewumi, L. K.


    Neuroleptics are antipsychotic drugs. In addition to their antipsychotic properties, many physicians use them as anti-anxiety or antiemetics. Indeed, most patients referred to psychiatrists would have been given one, or a combination, of these drugs. Physicians should therefore be aware of their side-effects. Abnormal involuntary movements, now recognized as side-effects of neuroleptics, are broadly classified as acute early occurring movement disorders and late appearing movement disorders. ...

  2. [Intercultural adaptation of the AIMS in German language: A scale for abnormal involuntary movements]. (United States)

    Buhmann, C; Rizos, A; Emmans, D; Jost, W H


    Dyskinesias are abnormal involuntary movements and occur across many movement disorders. In Parkinson's disease dyskinesias can be troublesome and are a determinant of the quality of life throughout the course of the disease. Assessment and rating of dyskinesias is thus important for clinical assessment of patients, as well as for academic studies and clinical trials. The abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) is an English language standardised, reliable and validated scale to evaluate dyskinesias. In this article we present a linguistically validated German version of AIMS. The intercultural adaptation of the German translation was performed following an internationally accepted procedure. Firstly, two neurologists independently translated the original into German. Taking both versions into account, a consensus version was agreed on by both translators and was tested on 10 patients. This preliminary German version was then independently translated back into the original language by two different neurologists, and again, a consensus version was agreed on. All translators then compared this English version to the original. Subsequently, the German version was linguistically modified until it resulted in a final German version, which was agreed on by all translators, deemed linguistically acceptable, and the translation back into English was considered to be as unambiguous as possible. This final German version of AIMS was applied to 50 patients in two different hospitals for diagnostic purposes and tested for feasibility and comprehension. In this paper, we present an intercultural adaptation of a linguistically validated German version of AIMS.

  3. Association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism and development of schizophrenia and abnormal involuntary movements in the Xhosa population. (United States)

    Hitzeroth, Angelika; Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Botes, Willem C; Deleuze, J F; Warnich, Louise


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and poor outcome of schizophrenia, as well as the development of neuroleptic-induced abnormal involuntary movements. Recently, the functional polymorphism (Ala-9Val) in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene (part of the antioxidant defense mechanism) was found to be associated with schizophrenia in a Turkish population. This study was aimed at replicating this finding in a Xhosa population. In addition, the role of Ala-9Val in abnormal involuntary movement and tardive dyskinesia development in the Xhosa population was also investigated. The schizophrenic patient group (n=286) and a healthy control group (n=243) were genotyped for the Ala-9Val polymorphism using heteroduplex-single stranded conformational polymorphism (HEX-SSCP) analysis. No significant difference in genotype or allele frequency could be observed between the schizophrenia and control group (P=0.294 and P=0.528 respectively). In addition no association could be found between the polymorphism and symptom severity (SANS and SAPS). The Xhosa schizophrenia patient group with abnormal involuntary movements (n=54) and a subgroup with tardive dyskinesia (n=30) was found to significantly differ in Ala-9Val genotype frequency (P=0.008 and P=0.011 respectively) compared to the Xhosa schizophrenia patient group without abnormal involuntary movements (n=204). However, no significant difference was found for the allele frequencies (P=0.955 and P=0.161). Further, using ANCOVA no association was found between AIMS score and genotype in the group with abnormal involuntary movements (P=0.1234). However, in the patient group with tardive dyskinesia an association was observed between genotype and AIMS score (P=0.0365). These results do not support a major role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in the development of schizophrenia or symptom severity in the Xhosa population. Yet it seems to be involved in the

  4. Correlation between dopamine receptor D2 expression and presence of abnormal involuntary movements in Wistar rats with hemiparkinsonism and dyskinesia. (United States)

    Caro Aponte, P A; Otálora, C A; Guzmán, J C; Turner, L F; Alcázar, J P; Mayorga, E L


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by motor alterations, which are commonly treated with L-DOPA. However, long-term L-DOPA use may cause dyskinesia. Although the pathogenic mechanism of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is unclear, the condition has been associated with alterations in dopamine receptors, among which D2 receptors (D2R) have received little attention. This study aims to: (i)develop and standardise an experimental model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats with hemiparkinsonism; and (ii)evaluate the correlation between D2R expression and presence of abnormal involuntary movements (AIM). We allocated 21 male Wistar rats into 3 groups: intact controls, lesioned rats (with neurotoxin 6-OHDA), and dyskinetic rats (injected with L-DOPA for 19 days). Sensorimotor impairment was assessed with behavioural tests. Dyskinetic rats gradually developed AIMs during the treatment period; front leg AIMs were more severe and locomotor AIMs less severe (Pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Their association in relation to topography of involuntary movements and criterion of their abnormality. (United States)

    Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A; Dolphin, C; Kinsella, A


    Little is known of factors that, on an individual basis, confer vulnerability to the emergence of involuntary movements (tardive dyskinesia) during long-term neuroleptic treatment. In this study of 88 chronic schizophrenic inpatients, 22 variables (four demographic, 14 medication history, and four features of illness) were compared for any association(s) with the presence, by differing topographies and criteria of abnormality, and severity of involuntary movements. Irrespective of the criterion used, the presence of marked cognitive dysfunction-muteness bore a consistent and highly significant primary association with both the presence and the overall severity of orofacial dyskinesia; no such association was found in relation to the presence of limb-truncal dyskinesia. Flattening of affect was the only other variable consistently associated with the presence of orofacial movements. The reliability and prominence of the association between the presence of orofacial, but not of limb-truncal, movements and cognitive dysfunction-negative symptoms suggest that these varying topographies may not constitute a unitary syndrome. This strong association, not with indexes of neuroleptic exposure but rather with features of the illness for which that treatment was prescribed, suggests some neurologic process, more subtle than may previously have been appreciated, as a vulnerability factor of some importance. In schizophrenia it appears to be intimately related to the disease process.

  6. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Alexander De Havas


    Full Text Available Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies.

  7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease versus anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis in a patient with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal electroencephalogram: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L


    Full Text Available Li Sun, Jie Cao, Chang Liu, Yudan LvDepartment of Neurology, The First Hospital of JiLin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only because of its variable clinical features but also because of nonspecific changes on the electroencephalogram (EEG in the early stages of the disease. Here we report on a patient who presented with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal EEG. We provide a detailed analysis and differential diagnosis between anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1 limbic encephalitis versus CJD, in the hope of providing a new understanding of CJD. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with slowly progressive cognitive decline with psychiatric symptoms. On admission, he presented with facial grimacing and brief left upper limb dystonic posturing lasting 1–2 seconds, with hyponatremia that was difficult to rectify. Neurological examination showed increased muscle tension in the left limb but without pathological reflexes. His early EEG showed focal periodic wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a suspected “lace sign” in the occipital cortex. His cerebrospinal fluid was negative for LGI1 antibodies and positive for 14-3-3 brain protein. Therefore, we made a presumptive diagnosis of CJD. At the following visit, a second EEG showed paroxysmal sharp wave complexes, but the patient had a poor prognosis. Atypical facio-brachio-crural movement and nonspecific EEG changes may occasionally be found in patients with CJD or anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Clinicians should not be dissuaded from a diagnosis of CJD where the EEG does not show paroxysmal sharp wave complexes in the early stages but abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement is present.Keywords: abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement, hyponatremia, Creutzfeldt

  8. Scopolamine alleviates involuntary lingual movements: tardive dyskinesia or dystonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu JB


    Full Text Available Jianbo Hu,1,2,* Jianbo Lai,1,2,* Shaohua Hu,1,2 Yi Xu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; 2The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cholinergic hypofunction was believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia, and therefore, anticholinergic treatment might exacerbate the condition. We describe herein a middle-aged male with feeble chewing movements, involuntary rolling motions of the tongue, and abnormally tightened cheeks which developed after consuming different psychotropic medications. These symptoms did not improve after routine treatment for tardive dyskinesia, but responded well to anticholinergic agents, such as scopolamine and benzhexol hydrochloride. This case extended our understanding of the complexity of extrapyramidal effects and their pharmacologic management. Keywords: neuroleptic, scopolamine, tardive dyskinesia, dystonia

  9. Orofacial Involuntary Movements in Neurosyphilis: Beyond the Candy Sign. (United States)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Thota, Naveen; Stezin, Albert; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Yadav, Ravi


    Involvement of the central nervous system in patients with syphilis (neurosyphilis) may result in several neuropsychiatric symptoms. Rarely, patients with neurosyphillis may develop movement disorders with different phenomenology. Subtle orofacial dyskinesias have been reported in patients with neurosyphilis, known as the candy sign. We describe a patient with neurosyphilis who presented with severe orofacial involuntary movements. Our patient had orofacial movements at presentation and severity of the movements was much higher than the candy sign that has been reported in patients with neurosyphilis. This report contributes towards the ever-expanding clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis.

  10. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements. (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick


    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Neurological signs and involuntary movements in schizophrenia: intrinsic to and informative on systems pathobiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitty, Peter F


    While it has long been considered whether the pathobiology of schizophrenia extends beyond its defining symptoms to involve diverse domains of abnormality, in the manner of a systemic disease, studies of neuromotor dysfunction have been confounded by treatment with antipsychotic drugs. This challenge has been illuminated by a new generation of studies on first-episode schizophrenia before initiation of antipsychotic treatment and by opportunities in developing countries to study chronically ill patients who have remained antipsychotic naive due to limitations in provision of psychiatric care. Building from studies in antipsychotic-naive patients, this article reviews 2 domains of neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia: neurological signs and involuntary movements. The presence and characteristics of neurological signs in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and implicate disruption to neuronal circuits linking the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. The presence and characteristics of involuntary movements in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate an intrinsic feature of the disease process and implicate dysfunction in cortical-basal ganglia-cortical circuitry. These neuromotor disorders of schizophrenia join other markers of subtle but pervasive cerebral and extracerebral, systemic dysfunction, and complement current concepts of schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally determined cortical-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical\\/cerebellar network disconnectivity.

  12. Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on a Child with Involuntary Movement after Hypoxic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nagai


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area to inhibit involuntary movements of a child. An 8-year-old boy who developed hypoxic encephalopathy after asphyxia at the age of 2 had difficulty in remaining standing without support because of involuntary movements. He was instructed to remain standing with his plastic ankle-foot orthosis for 10 s at three time points by leaning forward with his forearms on a desk. He received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area at 1 mA for 10 min. Involuntary movements during standing were measured using an accelerometer attached to his forehead. The low-frequency power of involuntary movements during cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation significantly decreased compared with that during sham stimulation. No adverse effects were observed. Involuntary movement reduction by cathodal stimulation to supplementary motor areas suggests that stimulations modulated the corticobasal ganglia motor circuit. Cathodal stimulation to supplementary motor areas may be effective for reducing involuntary movements and may be safely applied to children with movement disorders.

  13. Tendon displacements during voluntary and involuntary finger movements. (United States)

    van Beek, Nathalie; Gijsbertse, Kaj; Selles, Ruud W; de Korte, Chris L; Veeger, DirkJan H E J; Stegeman, Dick F; Maas, Huub


    In the human hand, independent movement control of individual fingers is limited. One potential cause for this is mechanical connections between the tendons and muscle bellies corresponding to the different fingers. The aim of this study was to determine the tendon displacement of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) of both the instructed and the neighboring, non-instructed fingers during single finger flexion movements. In nine healthy subjects (age 22-29 years), instructed and non-instructed FDS finger tendon displacement of the index, middle and ring finger was measured using 2D ultrasound analyzed with speckle tracking software in two conditions: active flexion of all finger joints with all fingers free to move and active flexion while the non-instructed fingers were restricted. Our results of the free movement protocol showed an average tendon displacement of 27 mm for index finger flexion, 21 mm for middle finger flexion and 17 mm for ring finger flexion. Displacements of the non-instructed finger tendons (≈12 mm) were higher than expected based of the amount of non-instructed finger movement. In the restricted protocol, we found that, despite minimal joint movements, substantial non-instructed finger tendon displacement (≈9 mm) was still observed, which was interpreted as a result of tendon strain. When this strain component was subtracted from the tendon displacement of the non-instructed fingers during the free movement condition, the relationship between finger movement and tendon displacement of the instructed and non-instructed finger became comparable. Thus, when studying non-instructed finger tendon displacement it is important to take tendon strain into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disturbance of consciousness and involuntary movements caused by pregabalin. (United States)

    Shimizu, Taro; Yoshida, Tsuneyasu; Kitamura, Koichi; Hamada, Osamu


    A 91-year-old man with chronic low-back pain presented with 1-day history of disturbance of consciousness and myoclonus of all of his extremities and face. Laboratory examinations revealed no abnormalities. Administration of benzodiazepine for the myoclonus resulted in immediate and complete disappearance of the symptoms. He recently started taking pregabalin (Lyrica capsules) which was prescribed for low-back pain 3 days ago. The day following admission, he discontinued pregabalin. He did not experience recurrence of his symptoms any more. We concluded that the neurological symptoms he experienced were possibly due to pregabalin.

  15. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van. (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R


    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  16. [Case of an elderly woman with dementia showing episodic involuntary movement of the tongue]. (United States)

    Mitsueda, Takahiro; Nakaya, Yoshifumi; Hagiwara, Mai; Manabe, Tatsuo; Matsui, Masaru


    We report a 93-year-old woman with dementia who developed generalized convulsion and involuntary movement of her tongue. She could independently walk and eat meals until 8 months ago, however she turned into bedridden. When she was admitted to our emergency room due to status epilepticus, her tongue intermittently moved from the midline to the left. She could not eat or speak during this episodic tongue movement. MR imaging study revealed brain atrophy in the bilateral mesial temporal lobe, consistent with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Despite her tongue movements seemingly developing to the generalized convulsion, EEG study did not indicate epileptiform discharges corresponding to this movement. Although antiepileptic drug therapy was effective, we needed polytherapy to control this movement. Paroxysmal tongue movements were previously reported in cases of epilepsy, brain tumor, and stroke, observed bilaterally in most cases. This episodic tongue movement would be rare in terms of the clear laterality. The etiology of this movement was presumed as focal seizure, palatal tremor, dyskinesia or others, but was undetermined. Episodic movements involving tongue decrease the quality of daily life especially in the elderly. Therefore, we should pay more attention to it and try to treat it earlier.

  17. Facial Involuntary Movements and Respiratory Failure in CANOMAD, Responsive to IVIG Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Johnson


    Full Text Available CANOMAD is a rare chronic neuropathy, characterized by chronic sensory ataxia and intermittent brain stem symptoms due to antidisialosyl antibodies. The disorder results in significant morbidity but is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. We describe a unique case of CANOMAD, associated with involuntary movements of the face; patient reported exacerbations with citrus and chocolate and respiratory muscle weakness. Our patient was initially misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher Syndrome, highlighting the need for vigilance should neurological symptoms recur in patients initially diagnosed with a Guillain Barre variant. Moreover, the optimal treatment is unknown. This patient responded remarkably to intravenous immunoglobulin and has been maintained on this treatment, without further exacerbations.

  18. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia. (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F


    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A case is reported in which qualitatively, grossly abnormal fetal breathing movements turned out to be indicative of complete tracheal atresia. Fetal breathing movements were vigorous and jerky and of large amplitude; similarly abnormal movements were observed after birth. At postmortem tracheal

  20. Abnormal fixational eye movements in strabismus. (United States)

    Ghasia, Fatema F; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Shaikh, Aasef G


    Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision. Eye movements were measured in 13 patients with strabismus and 16 controls during fixation and visually guided saccades under monocular viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts were analysed in the viewing and non-viewing eye of patients with strabismus and controls. We found an increase in fixational instability in patients with strabismus compared with controls. We also found an increase in the disconjugacy of fixational saccades and intrasaccadic ocular drift in patients with strabismus compared with controls. The disconjugacy was worse in patients with large-angle strabismus and absent stereopsis. There was an increase in eye position variance during drifts in patients with strabismus. Our findings suggest that both fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts are abnormal and likely contribute to the fixational instability in patients with strabismus. Fixational instability could be a useful tool for mass screenings of children to diagnose strabismus in the absence of amblyopia and latent nystagmus. The increased disconjugacy of fixational eye movements and visually guided saccades in patients with strabismus reflects the disruption of the fine-tuning of the motor and visual systems responsible for achieving binocular fusion in these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Involuntary Neuromuscular Coupling between the Thumb and Finger of Stroke Survivors during Dynamic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Jones


    Full Text Available Finger–thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger–thumb coupling during close–open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Two types of perturbations were applied randomly to the index with a novel Cable-Actuated Finger Exoskeleton: a sudden joint acceleration stretching muscle groups of the index finger and a sudden increase in impedance in selected index finger joint(s. Electromyographic signals for specific thumb and index finger muscles, thumb tip trajectory, and index finger joint angles were recorded during each trial. Joint angle perturbations invoked reflex responses in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS, first dorsal interossei (FDI, and extensor digitorum communis muscles of the index finger and heteronymous reflex responses in flexor pollicis brevis of the thumb (p < 0.017. Phase of movement played a role as a faster peak reflex response was observed in FDI during opening than during closing (p < 0.002 and direction of perturbations resulted in shorter reflex times for FDS and FDI (p < 0.012 for extension perturbations. Surprisingly, when index finger joint impedance was suddenly increased, thumb tip movement was substantially increased, from 2 to 10 cm (p < 0.001. A greater effect was seen during the opening phase (p < 0.044. Thus, involuntary finger–thumb coupling was present during dynamic movement, with perturbation of the index finger impacting thumb activity. The degree of coupling modulated with the phase of motion. These findings reveal a potential

  2. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator: Performance study with involuntary eye movement (United States)

    Huang, Hongxin; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi


    The performance of an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was investigated. The system achieved high-resolution and high-contrast images of human retinas by dynamic compensation for the aberrations in the eyes. Retinal structures such as photoreceptor cells, blood vessels, and nerve fiber bundles, as well as blood flow, could be observed in vivo. We also investigated involuntary eye movements and ascertained microsaccades and drifts using both the retinal images and the aberrations recorded simultaneously. Furthermore, we measured the interframe displacement of retinal images and found that during eye drift, the displacement has a linear relationship with the residual low-order aberration. The estimated duration and cumulative displacement of the drift were within the ranges estimated by a video tracking technique. The AO-SLO would not only be used for the early detection of eye diseases, but would also offer a new approach for involuntary eye movement research.

  3. Abnormal fetal movements, micrognathia and pulmonary hypoplasia: a case report. Abnormal fetal movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morokuma Seiichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micrognathia is a facial malformation characterized by mandibular hypoplasia and a small, receding chin that fails to maintain the tongue in a forward position. We previously reported a system of prenatal screening that we developed to identify fetuses with compromised central nervous system function by observing fetal behavior. In this paper we report the case of a preterm infant with micrognathia and pulmonary hypoplasia who presented abnormal fetal movements. Case presentation A 27-year-old Japanese primigravida at 33 weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital. Ultrasonographic examination revealed clinical polyhydramnios. Micrognathia was evident on midsagittal and 3 D scan. The lung area was less than the mean -2.0 standard deviations for the gestational age. The infant had mandibular hypoplasia and glossoptosis. After emergency cesarean delivery for non-reasuring fetal status, required immediate tracheostomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with mechanical ventilatory support. However, the infant's cardiopulmonary condition did not improve and she died 21 hours after birth. Conclusions The findings of our ultrasound exam are suggestive of brain dysfunction. The observation of fetal behavior appears to be effective for the prediction of prognosis of cases with micrognathia.

  4. Abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in essential tremor: evidence for abnormal muscle spindle afferent function


    Frima, N; Grunewald, R


    Objectives: Vibration induced illusion of movement (VIIM) is abnormal in patients with idiopathic focal dystonia, an abnormality which corrects with fatigue of the vibrated muscle. Since dystonia and essential tremor sometimes coexist in families, we investigated the perception of VIIM and the effect of fatigue on VIIM in patients with essential tremor.

  5. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  6. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.


    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  7. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy? (United States)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  8. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  9. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (United States)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John


    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  10. [Clinical observation on plum-blossom needle on Governor Vessel and point Jiaji (EX-B 2) for treatment of cerebral palsy of involuntary movement]. (United States)

    Han, Xue; Shang, Qing; Ma, Bing-Xiang


    To probe into an effective therapy for treatment of cerebral palsy of involuntary movement. Sixty cases were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was treated with routine rehabilitation method (Bobath + Tuina + scalp acupuncture), while the observation group was treated with plum-blossom needle on Governor Vessel and point Jiaji (EX-B 2) on the basis of routine rehabilitation method. After 3 months of treatment, therapeutic effect, total percentage of Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM), incurvation reflex and muscular tension fluctuation were compared. The obvious effective rate of 53.3% (16/30) in the observation group was superior to that of 20.0% (6/30) in the control group (P < 0.05); the total percentage of GMFM increased, incurvation reflex disappeared, muscular tension fluctuation relieved in both groups after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), but the indices above all improved more significantly in the observation group than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Plum-blossom needle on Governor Vessel and point Jiaji (EX-B 2) on the basis of routine rehabilitation method for treatment of cerebral palsy of involuntary movement can enhance the gross motor function, make the incurvation reflex disappear effectively, relieve the muscular tension fluctuation.

  11. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (United States)

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S


    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  12. Movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J.; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A. M. J.; Lang, Anthony E.; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M.; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S.


    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In

  13. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill. (United States)

    Wilk, Ruta J.


    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  14. Prevalence of abnormal general movements in three-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijk-Stigter, Geerteke R.; Grooten, Hedwig M. J.; Janssen-Plas, Femke E. M.; Koopmans, Alice J.; Mulder, Christien D.; van Belle, Ans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: The quality of general movements (GMs) is a sensitive tool to measure neurodevelopmental condition in early infancy. No information is available on prevalence rates of abnormal GMs in the general population. Objective: To assess the prevalence of abnormal GMs in the general population of

  15. Improving mouse controlling and movement for people with Parkinson's disease and involuntary tremor using adaptive path smoothing technique via B-spline. (United States)

    Hashem, Seyed Yashar Bani; Zin, Nor Azan Mat; Yatim, Noor Faezah Mohd; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed


    Many input devices are available for interacting with computers, but the computer mouse is still the most popular device for interaction. People who suffer from involuntary tremor have difficulty using the mouse in the normal way. The target participants of this research were individuals who suffer from Parkinson's disease. Tremor in limbs makes accurate mouse movements impossible or difficult without any assistive technologies to help. This study explores a new assistive technique-adaptive path smoothing via B-spline (APSS)-to enhance mouse controlling based on user's tremor level and type. APSS uses Mean filtering and B-spline to provide a smoothed mouse trajectory. Seven participants who have unwanted tremor evaluated APSS. Results show that APSS is very promising and greatly increases their control of the computer mouse. Result of user acceptance test also shows that user perceived APSS as easy to use. They also believe it to be a useful tool and intend to use it once it is available. Future studies could explore the possibility of integrating APSS with one assistive pointing technique, such as the Bubble cursor or the Sticky target technique, to provide an all in one solution for motor disabled users.

  16. Stochastic Signatures of Involuntary Head Micro-movements Can Be Used to Classify Females of ABIDE into Different Subtypes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B. Torres


    Full Text Available Background: The approximate 5:1 male to female ratio in clinical detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD prevents research from characterizing the female phenotype. Current open access repositories [such as those in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE I-II] contain large numbers of females to help begin providing a new characterization of females on the autistic spectrum. Here we introduce new methods to integrate data in a scale-free manner from continuous biophysical rhythms of the nervous systems and discrete (ordinal observational scores.Methods: New data-types derived from image-based involuntary head motions and personalized statistical platform were combined with a data-driven approach to unveil sub-groups within the female cohort. Further, to help refine the clinical DSM-based ASD vs. Asperger's Syndrome (AS criteria, distributional analyses of ordinal score data from Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-based criteria were used on both the female and male phenotypes.Results: Separate clusters were automatically uncovered in the female cohort corresponding to differential levels of severity. Specifically, the AS-subgroup emerged as the most severely affected with an excess level of noise and randomness in the involuntary head micro-movements. Extending the methods to characterize males of ABIDE revealed ASD-males to be more affected than AS-males. A thorough study of ADOS-2 and ADOS-G scores provided confounding results regarding the ASD vs. AS male comparison, whereby the ADOS-2 rendered the AS-phenotype worse off than the ASD-phenotype, while ADOS-G flipped the results. Females with AS scored higher on severity than ASD-females in all ADOS test versions and their scores provided evidence for significantly higher severity than males. However, the statistical landscapes underlying female and male scores appeared disparate. As such, further interpretation of the ADOS data seems problematic, rather suggesting the

  17. Effects of observing normal and abnormal goal-directed hand movements on somatosensory cortical activation. (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung


    Existing evidence indicates the importance of observing correct, normal actions on the motor cortical activities. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms, particularly in the somatosensory system, remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of observing normal and abnormal hand movements on the contralateral primary somatosensory (cSI), contralateral (cSII) and ipsilateral (iSII) secondary somatosensory activities. Experiment I was designed to investigate the effects of motor outputs on the somatosensory processing, in which subjects were instructed to relax or manipulate a small cube. Experiment II was tailored to examine the somatosensory responses to the observation of normal (Normal) and abnormal (Abnormal) hand movements. The subjects received electrical stimulation to right median nerve and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings during the whole experimental period. Regional cortical activation and functional connectivity were analyzed. Compared to the resting condition, a reduction in cSI and an enhancement of SII activation was found when subjects manipulated a cube, suggesting the motor outputs have an influence on the somatosensory responses. Further investigation of the effects of observing different hand movements showed that cSII activity was significantly stronger in the Normal than Abnormal condition. Moreover, compared with Abnormal condition, a higher cortical coherence of cSI-iSII at theta bands and cSII-iSII at beta bands was found in Normal condition. Conclusively, the present results suggest stronger activation and enhanced functional connectivity within the somatosensory system during the observation of normal than abnormal hand movements. These findings also highlight the importance of viewing normal, correct hands movements in the stroke rehabilitation. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Abnormal movements in first-episode, nonaffective psychosis: dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs. (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Fantes, Francisco; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Johnson, Stephanie; Walker, Elaine F


    Motor abnormalities represent a neurobehavioral domain of signs intrinsic to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, though they are commonly attributed to medication side effects and remain understudied. Individuals with first-episode psychosis represent an ideal group to study innate movement disorders due to minimal prior antipsychotic exposure. We measured dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs and examined their associations with: (1) age at onset of psychotic symptoms and duration of untreated psychosis; (2) positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms; (3) neurocognition; and (4) neurological soft signs. Among 47 predominantly African American first-episode psychosis patients in a public-sector hospital, the presence and severity of dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like features were assessed using approximately 30-min video recordings. Movement abnormalities were rated utilizing three scales (Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale, Stereotypy Checklist, and Catatonia Rating Scale). Correlational analyses were conducted. Scores for each of three movement abnormality types were modestly inter-correlated (r=0.29-0.40). Stereotypy score was significantly associated with age at onset of psychotic symptoms (r=0.32) and positive symptom severity scores (r=0.29-0.41). There were no meaningful or consistent associations with negative symptom severity, neurocognition, or neurological soft signs. Abnormal movements appear to represent a relatively distinct phenotypic domain deserving of further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu


    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  20. Developmental visual perception deficits with no indications of prosopagnosia in a child with abnormal eye movements. (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid


    Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. General Practitioners and Involuntary Admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Britta; Lomborg, Kirsten; Engberg, Marianne


    Background: In many countries, medical authorities are responsible for involuntary admissions of mentally ill patients. Nonetheless, very little is known about GPs' experiences with involuntary admission. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore GP's experiences from participating in invo...... by the psychiatric system. Conclusion: The unpleasant experiences and induced feelings resulting from involuntary admissions reflect an undesirable and stressful working environment.......Background: In many countries, medical authorities are responsible for involuntary admissions of mentally ill patients. Nonetheless, very little is known about GPs' experiences with involuntary admission. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore GP's experiences from participating...... in involuntary admissions. Setting: General practice, Aarhus, Denmark. Method: One focus group interview and six individual interviews were conducted with 13 Danish GPs, who had recently sectioned one of their own patients. Results: GPs experienced stress and found the admission procedure time consuming...

  2. Abnormal brain activation during movement observation in patients with conversion paralysis. (United States)

    Burgmer, Markus; Konrad, Carsten; Jansen, Andreas; Kugel, Harald; Sommer, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, Erich B; Heuft, Gereon; Knecht, Stefan


    Dissociative paralysis in conversion disorders has variably been attributed to a lack of movement initiation or an inhibition of movement. While psychodynamic theory suggests altered movement conceptualization, brain activation associated with observation and replication of movements has so far not been assessed neurobiologically. Here, we measured brain activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and subsequent imitative execution of movements in four patients with dissociative hand paralysis. Compared to healthy controls conversion disorder patients showed decreased activation of cortical hand areas during movement observation. This effect was specific to the side of their dissociative paralysis. No brain activation compatible with movement inhibition was observed. These findings indicate that in dissociative paralysis, there is not only derangement of movement initiation but already of movement conceptualization. This raises the possibility that strategies targeted at reestablishing appropriate movement conceptualization may contribute to the therapy of dissociative paralysis.

  3. Disorders of Upper Limb Movements in Ataxia-Telangiectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasef G Shaikh

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia is known for cerebellar degeneration, but clinical descriptions of abnormal tone, posture, and movements suggest involvement of the network between cerebellum and basal ganglia. We quantitatively assessed the nature of upper-limb movement disorders in ataxia-telangiectasia. We used a three-axis accelerometer to assess the natural history and severity of abnormal upper-limb movements in 80 ataxia-telangiectasia and 19 healthy subjects. Recordings were made during goal-directed movements of upper limb (kinetic task, while arms were outstretched (postural task, and at rest. Almost all ataxia-telangiectasia subjects (79/80 had abnormal involuntary movements, such as rhythmic oscillations (tremor, slow drifts (dystonia or athetosis, and isolated rapid movements (dystonic jerks or myoclonus. All patients with involuntary movements had both kinetic and postural tremor, while 48 (61% also had resting tremor. The tremor was present in transient episodes lasting several seconds during two-minute recording sessions of all three conditions. Percent time during which episodic tremor was present was greater for postural and kinetic tasks compared to rest. Resting tremor had higher frequency but smaller amplitude than postural and kinetic tremor. Rapid non-rhythmic movements were minimal during rest, but were triggered during sustained arm postures and goal directed arm movements suggesting they are best considered a form of dystonic jerks or action myoclonus. Advancing age did not correlate with the severity of involuntary limb movements. Abnormal upper-limb movements in ataxia-telangiectasia feature classic cerebellar impairment, but also suggest involvement of the network between the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

  4. Involuntary memories and restrained eating. (United States)

    Ball, Christopher T


    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nocturnal agitation in Huntington disease is caused by arousal-related abnormal movements rather than by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. (United States)

    Neutel, Dulce; Tchikviladzé, Maya; Charles, Perrine; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Roze, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle


    Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and their spouses often complain of agitation during sleep, but the causes are mostly unknown. To evaluate sleep and nocturnal movements in patients with various HD stages and CAG repeats length. The clinical features and sleep studies of 29 patients with HD were retrospectively collected (11 referred for genotype-phenotype correlations and 18 for agitation during sleep) and compared with those of 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients had videopolysomnography, but the movements during arousals were re-analyzed in six patients with HD with stored video. The patients had a longer total sleep period and REM sleep onset latency, but no other differences in sleep than controls. There was no correlation between CAG repeat length and sleep measures, but total sleep time and sleep efficiency were lower in the subgroup with moderate than milder form of HD. Periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorders were excluded, although 2/29 patients had abnormal REM sleep without atonia. In contrast, they had clumsy and opisthotonos-like movements during arousals from non-REM or REM sleep. Some movements were violent and harmful. They might consist of voluntary movements inappropriately involving the proximal part of the limbs on a background of exaggerated hypotonia. Giant (>65 mcV) sleep spindles were observed in seven (24%) patients with HD and one control. The nocturnal agitation in patients with HD seems related to anosognostic voluntary movements on arousals, rather than to REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers Associated with Abnormal Infant Tongue Movement. (United States)

    McClellan, Holly L; Kent, Jacqueline C; Hepworth, Anna R; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T


    Infants of breastfeeding mothers with persistent nipple pain have been shown to apply stronger vacuums to the breast and transfer less milk during one monitored feed. This may be associated with differences in the movement of the tongue. The aim was to analyse the intra-oral nipple shape and movement of the tongue of infants of mothers with and without nipple pain. Breastfeeding infants of mothers with or without nipple pain were monitored using ultrasound and intra-oral vacuum during one breastfeed. From cine clips of the ultrasound scans measurements were made of the depth of the intra-oral space between the hard-soft palate junction (HSPJ) and the mid-tongue; the distance of the tip of the nipple to the HSPJ; and nipple diameters from the tip to the base. During nutritive sucking, tongue movements of infants of mothers with nipple pain resulted in a smaller intra-oral space (p = 0.040) and restricted nipple expansion compared to controls (p mothers, nipple pain was associated with restricted infant tongue movement. Ultrasound may complement measurement of intra-oral vacuum in monitoring treatment strategies in breastfeeding women experiencing nipple pain.

  7. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto


    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An application of dynamic CT for diagnosis of abnormal external ocular muscle movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Kazumi; Ogura, Yuuko; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine); Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi


    To evaluate the movements of retrobulbar structures radiologically, we have developed a new technique called external ocular muscle movement CT (EOM CT), in which dynamic CT scanning is performed while the patient performs controlled eye movements. This new technique was applied in one volunteer and 72 patients with external ophthalmoplegia due to orbital mass lesion, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, blowout fracture, and other retrobulbar lesions. EOM CT permits the assessment of extraocular muscle contraction in cases of blowout fracture, the evaluation of muscular contraction in hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, and the diagnosis of adhesions between the extraocular muscles and intraorbital masses. Radiation dose to the lens from EOM CT was measured using a phantom and TLD, and was compared with that of conventional CT scanning with a 5 mm slice thickness. The dose to the lens from EOM CT was three times higher than that for conventional CT in axial scanning, but in the coronal section of the retrobulbar region, the dose to the lens from EOM CT decreases to one twelfth of that of conventional CT. EOM CT promises to be a powerful modality for functional evaluation of the extraocular muscles and other retrobulbar structures. (author).

  9. Familial diffuse Lewy body disease, eye movement abnormalities, and distribution of pathology. (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Henson, Craig; Staunton, Hugh


    Familial diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) is rare and not yet associated with a defect in the synuclein gene. In the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes, defects in vertical gaze tend to be identified with progressive supranuclear palsy. False-positive diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy can occur, and defects in vertical gaze have been reported in DLBD, although so far a pure vertical gaze palsy associated with pathological abnormalities in the substrate for vertical gaze has not been described. To report the clinical and pathological findings in 2 siblings with DLBD, and to relate the distribution of the pathological abnormalities in the brainstem to centers for vertical gaze. For several years, 2 Irish siblings experienced a progressive parkinsonism-dementia complex associated in one with a defect in vertical gaze and in both with visual hallucinations. In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze). Familial DLBD (not shown to be genetically as distinct from environmentally transmitted) has been shown to exist in an Irish family. Caution should be enjoined in the interpretation of defects in vertical gaze in the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes.

  10. Diagnosis abnormalities of limb movement in disorders of the nervous system (United States)

    Tymchik, Gregory S.; Skytsiouk, Volodymyr I.; Klotchko, Tatiana R.; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Wójcik, Waldemar; Luganskaya, Saule; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Iskakova, Aigul


    The paper deals with important issues of diagnosis early signs of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and other specific diseases. Small quantities of violation trajectory of spatial movement of the extremities of human disease at the primary level as the most appropriate features are studied. In modern medical practice is very actual the control the emergence of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease. In work a model limbs with six rotational kinematic pairs for diagnosis of early signs of diseases of the nervous system is considered. subject.

  11. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality? (United States)

    Merello, Marcelo


    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society

  12. Functional Movement Disorder (United States)

    ... Psychogenic movement may develop as part of a conversion disorder (in which a psychological event causes physical symptoms ... distracted. Many individuals with psychogenic tremor have a conversion disorder. Psychogenic dystonia involves involuntary muscle contractions that cause ...

  13. The Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention (United States)

    Prinzmetal, William; Ha, Ruby; Khani, Aniss


    We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…

  14. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba


    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  15. Insiders, Outsiders, and Involuntary Unemployment


    Chen, Daniel L.; Sethi, Jasmin


    Sexual harassment is perceived to be a major impediment to female labor force participation. We use the random assignment of U.S. federal judges setting geographically-local precedent, and the fact that judges’ biographies predict decisions in sexual harassment cases, to document the causal impact of forbidding sexual harassment. Consistent with an insider-outsider theory of involuntary unemployment, but in contrast to a mandated benefits theory of employment protections, pro-plaintiff sexual...

  16. Abnormal amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations associated with rapid-eye movement in chronic primary insomnia patients. (United States)

    Ran, Qian; Chen, Jia; Li, Chuan; Wen, Li; Yue, Faguo; Shu, Tongsheng; Mi, Jianxun; Wang, Guangxian; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Dong; Zhang, Dong


    Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function. Limited work has been performed to explore brain function of insomnia patients in combination with PSG analysis. We observed increased ALFF within areas related to hyperarousal such as the midbrain and bilateral extra-nucleus, whereas decreased ALFF was observed within areas associated with memory and attention involving the parietal and occipital lobule and others. Furthermore, the altered ALFF was associated with the duration of insomnia, sleep efficiency, duration of REM, latency of RME and ratio of REM. In this study, we recruited twenty-five CPI patients and twenty-five normal sleep (NS) volunteers as a control group to investigate the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the correlation between those altered ALFF regions through resting-state fMRI and PSG data. These findings suggest that hyperarousal reflected by ALFF abnormality within brain areas related to cognition and emotion in insomnia associated with REM sleep.

  17. Abnormal response of melanin-concentrating hormone deficient mice to fasting: hyperactivity and rapid eye movement sleep suppression. (United States)

    Willie, J T; Sinton, C M; Maratos-Flier, E; Yanagisawa, M


    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH(-)(/)(-)) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH(-)(/)(-) mice was normal. Thus MCH(-)(/)(-) mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances.

  18. Special involuntary conversion situations involving timberland (United States)

    William C. Siegal


    If standing timber is destroyed or stolen, or if forest land is condemned for public use, the owner may be entitled to take a deduction on his or her income tax return. These types of losses are called involuntary conversions. In previous National Woodlands articles I've discussed in detail casualty losses, which represent the major type of timber involuntary...

  19. 29 CFR 785.28 - Involuntary attendance. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary attendance. 785.28 Section 785.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of...

  20. Gender, personality, and involuntary autobiographical memory. (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Soni, Mira


    We utilised the recently developed continuous word association task (CWAT) to investigate whether attributes of involuntary autobiographical memory, including gender and cue valence effects, were similar to those found for voluntary autobiographical memory, as well as investigating the role of individual differences in memory production. A total of 80 undergraduate volunteers reported involuntary memories that came to mind during the word association task and completed measures of trait dissociation and psychosis-proneness. Involuntary memories showed similar cue valence effects to those typically found with voluntary memories but the usual gender effect was only apparent once participants learned the task involved autobiographical memory. The total number of involuntary autobiographical memories produced in response to negative cue words was related to greater trait dissociation and psychosis-proneness. The implications for differences between voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memory are discussed.

  1. Involuntary admission: the case of anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Douzenis, Athanasios; Michopoulos, Ioannis


    Involuntary treatment of psychiatric disorders has always been controversial; this is especially true for eating disorders. Patients with anorexia nervosa of life threatening severity frequently refuse psychiatric hospitalization. Ambivalence toward treatment is characteristic of eating disorders and patients are often admitted to inpatient programs under pressure from family and doctors. In this article, we report research on the positive or negative impact of involuntary admission in the treatment of eating disorders, its application and effectiveness as well as the adverse consequences of coercive treatment in eating disorders. A literature review was done. From a total of 134 publications which were retrieved from the literature search, 50 studies were directly relevant to the scope of this review and fulfilled all inclusion criteria. There are trends and arguments for both sides; for and against involuntary treatment in anorexia nervosa. The scientific literature so far is inconclusive, although in the short term, involuntary hospitalization has benefits. This review has also shown that involuntary hospitalization can have adverse long-term consequences for the patient-therapist allegiance. We conclude that in some cases, involuntary treatment can save lives of young patients with anorexia nervosa; however, in other cases, it can break the psychotherapeutic relationship and make the patient abandon treatment. It is the clinician who has to decide for whom and when to approve involuntary treatment or not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Forma intermediária de síndrome de Foix-Chavany-Marie / síndrome de Worster-Drought associada a movimentos involuntários: aspectos neuropsicológicos e fonoaudiológicos Intermediary form of Foix-Chavany-Marie / Worster-Drought syndromes associated to involuntary movements: neuropsychological and phonoaudiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gadelha Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available A síndrome de Foix-Chavany-Marie (SFCM caracteriza-se por apraxia da fala associada à paralisia bilateral da face, palato mole, língua e musculatura da faringe, mas com preservação das funções reflexas e automáticas. Na síndrome de Worster-Drought (SWD, há predomínio da disartria. Descrevemos o caso de uma jovem de 18 anos, que apresenta os achados clínicos e radiológicos compatíveis com a forma intermediária de SFCM/SWD, acompanhados de movimentos involuntários (coréia e distonia, fato de ocorrência rara na descrição destas síndromes.The Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS is characterized by apraxia of speech associated to bilateral central facio-linguo-velo-pharyngeal paralysis, with automatic-voluntary dissociation. In Worster-Drought Syndrome (WDS, dysarthria is remarkable. We report an 18-year-old female, with clinical and radiological findings of intermediary form of FCMS/WDS, and showing involuntary movements, an unusual fact.

  3. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab


    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka


    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories. Showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the prese...

  4. Photogrammetry of fetal breathing movements during the third trimester of pregnancy: observations in normal and abnormal pregnancies. (United States)

    Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Soto, V; Camacho, A; Moscoso, G; Navarrete, L


    To evaluate parameters of fetal breathing movements-displacement of the fetal abdominal wall during inspiration and expiration, time of inspiration and expiration and speed of inspiration and expiration-between 30 and 36 weeks' gestation in normal pregnancies, and in those complicated by gestational diabetes or maternal hypertension. Three categories of pregnancy were investigated: 49 were normal, 16 had pregnancy-induced diabetes and 10 were hypertensive. According to their gestational age, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A between 30 and 32 weeks' gestation and Group B between 33 and 36 weeks. Using photogrammetry and a computer-operated algorithm, six parameters of fetal breathing movements were investigated. There were significant differences in the various fetal parameters measured among the three categories of pregnant women. Up until 32 weeks of gestation, the displacements during inspiration and expiration were larger, the speeds of inspiration and expiration were higher, and the times for inspiration and expiration were shorter in the diabetic and hypertensive groups than in the normal group. In the later period, between 33 and 36 weeks, fetuses of pregnancy-induced diabetic patients showed the lowest inspiration and expiration times and the highest speeds of inspiration and expiration. Photogrammetry in conjunction with a computer-operated algorithm can be used to assess fetal breathing movements. There are significant differences in fetal breathing movements between normal pregnancies and those that are complicated by gestational diabetes or hypertension.

  5. Involuntary Psychiatric Holds in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Santillanes


    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the use of involuntary psychiatric holds in preadolescent children. The primary objective was to characterize patients under the age of 10 years on involuntary psychiatric holds. Methods: This was a two-year retrospective study from April 2013 – April 2015 in one urban pediatric emergency department (ED. Subjects were all children under the age of 10 years who were on an involuntary psychiatric hold at any point during their ED visit. We collected demographic data including age, gender, ethnicity and details about living situation, child protective services involvement and prior mental health treatment, as well as ED disposition. Results: There were 308 visits by 265 patients in a two-year period. Ninety percent of involuntary psychiatric holds were initiated in the prehospital setting. The following were common characteristics: male (75%, in custody of child protective services (23%, child protective services involvement (42%, and a prior psychiatric hospitalization (32%. Fifty-six percent of visits resulted in discharge from the ED, 42% in transfer to a psychiatric hospital and 1% in admission to the pediatric medical ward. Median length of stay was 4.7 hours for discharged patients and 11.7 hours for patients transferred to psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study presents the first characterization of preadolescent children on involuntary psychiatric holds. Ideally, mental health screening and services could be initiated in children with similar high-risk characteristics before escalation results in placement of an involuntary psychiatric hold. Furthermore, given that many patients were discharged from the ED, the current pattern of utilization of involuntary psychiatric holds in young children should be reconsidered.

  6. Abnormal amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations associated with rapid-eye movement in chronic primary insomnia patients


    Ran, Qian; Chen, Jia; Li, Chuan; Wen, Li; Yue, Faguo; Shu, Tongsheng; Mi, Jianxun; Wang, Guangxian; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Dong; Zhang, Dong


    Purpose Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive...

  7. Congenital abnormalities of cranial nerve development: overview, molecular mechanisms, and further evidence of heterogeneity and complexity of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements. (United States)

    Traboulsi, Elias I


    The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23-q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei.

  8. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report. (United States)

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim; Jung, Han Young


    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus.

  9. Measuring abnormal movements in free-swimming fish with accelerometers: implications for quantifying tag and parasite load. (United States)

    Broell, Franziska; Burnell, Celene; Taggart, Christopher T


    Animal-borne data loggers allow movement, associated behaviours and energy expenditure in fish to be quantified without direct observations. As with any tagging, tags that are attached externally may adversely affect fish behaviour, swimming efficiency and survival. We report on free-swimming wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in a large mesocosm that exhibited distinctly aberrant rotational swimming (scouring) when externally tagged with accelerometer data loggers. To quantify the phenomenon, the cod were tagged with two sizes of loggers (18 and 6 g; parasite-load shedding in the wild. The results infer a more careful interpretation of data derived from external tags and the careful consideration of tag type, drag, buoyancy and placement, as well as animal buoyancy and species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. 32 CFR 644.102 - Examples of involuntary acquisitions. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Examples of involuntary acquisitions. 644.102... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Involuntary Acquisition by the United States § 644.102 Examples... property, as prescribed by Pub. L. 91-646. Examples of involuntary acquisition are: (a) Damage to real...

  11. Compulsory outpatient treatment can prevent involuntary commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene Nørregård; Svensson, Eva Maria Birgitta; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette


    Compulsory outpatient treatment (co-pt) has been possible in Denmark since 2010. The aim is to secure necessary treatment, reduce involuntary commitment and improve quality of life for patients with a severe psychiatric illness. Co-pt has been brought into use in 33 cases. This case report...

  12. Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features. (United States)

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Bedetti, Christophe; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gaubert, Malo; Gagnon, Jean-François


    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  13. [Quality of involuntary hospital administration in Switzerland]. (United States)

    Jäger, Matthias; Ospelt, Isabelle; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Rössler, Wulf; Hoff, Paul


    This study aims at investigating the formal and content-related quality of medical certificates directing compulsory hospital admissions before the scheduled alteration of the Swiss civil legislation in January 2013. A comparison between physicians with different professional backgrounds concerning certificates and patients was conducted. Retrospective investigation of medical records of involuntary inpatients at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Zurich during a period of six months (N=489). Considerable deficits concerning formal and particularly content-related aspects of the certificates were found. Psychiatrists issued certificates of the highest quality followed by emergency physicians, hospital doctors and general practitioners. Patients differed with respect to several sociodemographic and clinical variables. The quality of certificates directing involuntary hospital admission has to be improved considering the impact on the individual concerned. The consequences of the new legislation on the quality of the admission practices should be inquired in order to improve professional training on the issue.

  14. Design of a Magnetic Resonance-Safe Haptic Wrist Manipulator for Movement Disorder Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Dyon; Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Bour, Lo J.; van der Helm, Frans C. T.; Lammertse, Piet


    Tremor, characterized by involuntary and rhythmical movements, is the most common movement disorder. Tremor can have peripheral and central oscillatory components which properly assessed may improve diagnostics. A magnetic resonance (MR)-safe haptic wrist manipulator enables simultaneous measurement

  15. Involuntary inter-prison transfer of prisoners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....

  16. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain. (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C


    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study. (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner


    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  18. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marotta


    Full Text Available Functional movement disorders (FMD are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21 and healthy controls (n = 21 underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI, in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation. Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved.

  19. Relationship between frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and cognitive failure. (United States)

    Kamiya, Shunji


    Involuntary autobiographical memories are memories of personal experiences that pop into mind without a conscious attempt at their retrieval. This study investigated individual differences in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories, and explored the relationship between the frequency of occurrence in involuntary autobiographical memory and cognitive failures in everyday memory, as indexed by metamemory questionnaires. A total of 24 undergraduate students reported involuntary autobiographical memories in controlled field interviews, and completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. The results showed that, despite controlled conditions, considerable individual differences were observed in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories reported while walking along a prescribed route on the campus, and that reported memories were predominantly serving self function. In addition, the number of involuntary autobiographical memories was positively related to cognitive failures in everyday memory: participants who acknowledged more problems in everyday memory had a higher frequency of involuntary memories. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the complementary function of involuntary autobiographical memory in everyday life.

  20. Social workers and involuntary treatment in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Floyd Taylor


    Full Text Available Involuntary treatment is often a reality in mental health social work. The current research examined 330 mental health social workers' involvement in and opinions about involuntary treatment as part of their primary job functions. Varieties of involuntary intervention and typical frequency were investigated. The most often cited areas of involuntary treatment experience proved to be mandated outpatient counseling and emergency hospitalization. In general, participants reported a high level of support for the existence of involuntary intervention, both in "idea" and "implementation." The study also explored the attitudes social workers have about these sometimes "ethically-complex" social work interventions and how these attitudes may have changed over the life of their practice careers due to practice experience and personal growth, job changes, and exposure to the reality of mental illness.

  1. Social Workers and Involuntary Treatment in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa F. Taylor


    Full Text Available Involuntary treatment is often a reality in mental health social work. The current research examined 330 mental health social workers’ involvement in and opinions about involuntary treatment as part of their primary job functions. Varieties of involuntary intervention and typical frequency were investigated. The most often cited areas of involuntary treatment proved to be mandated outpatient counseling and emergency hospitalization. In general, participants reported high level of support for the existence of involuntary intervention, both in “idea” and “implementation.” The study also explored the attitudes social workers have about these sometimes “ethically-complex” social work interventions and how these attitudes may have changed over the life of their practice careers due to practice experience and personal growth, job changes, and exposure to the reality of mental illness.

  2. The impact of a change in commitment procedures on the character of involuntary psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Levinson, R M; Briggs, R P; Ratner, C H


    The statutory requirements for involuntary civil psychiatric confinement have become increasingly restrictive. In the jurisdiction under investigation, patients were originally admitted under an Order to Apprehend (OTA) procedure simply on the petition of two affiants who indicated the patient was in need of care. A newly elected judge instituted changes requiring affiants to claim the subject was "dangerous" to self or others and asking for a clinical assessment and recommendation before signing the petitioned request for involuntary confinement. It might be expected that the more restrictive procedures would have produced a population of more assaultive patients. A study of petitions signed under in the earlier (N = 133) and later, more restrictive (N = 218) procedures indicated that the proportion of assaultive or dangerous patients was virtually identical. Further investigation, using hospital data an OTA patients from this area in both time periods, suggested that while patients were not more assaultive, they appeared to be more seriously ill or psychiatrically impaired. Apparently, movement to a dangerousness standard that allows clinical discretion in interpreting its presence may result in involuntary commitments for more seriously ill, although not necessarily more assaultive, patients.

  3. Bilateral Gluteal Dyskinesia: Discussion of a Rare Movement Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sorokin


    Full Text Available Background: Involuntary movements of gluteal muscles have rarely been reported. Case Report: This 46‐year‐old female with pelvic endometriosis developed involuntary rhythmic movements in the left gluteus maximus, which within a year became bilateral. The movements gradually increased in intensity and interfered with ambulation. Electromyography, at rest, demonstrated almost continuous periodic gluteal discharges, with left‐sided discharges seeming to lead to those on the right. OnabotulinumtoxinA injections into the gluteal muscles improved the movements. Discussion: A rare and previously unreported form of gluteal involuntary movements with periodic electromyographic discharges is described. The cause is uncertain. The differential diagnosis of this unusual movement disorder is discussed, with the most likely diagnosis being myoclonus.

  4. Patient experiences with involuntary out-of-network charges. (United States)

    Kyanko, Kelly A; Pong, Denise D; Bahan, Kathleen; Curry, Leslie A


    Approximately 40 percent of individuals using out-of-network physicians experience involuntary out-of-network care, leading to unexpected and sometimes burdensome financial charges. Despite its prevalence, research on patient experiences with involuntary out-of-network care is limited. Greater understanding of patient experiences may inform policy solutions to address this issue. To characterize the experiences of patients who encountered involuntary out-of-network physician charges. Qualitative study using 26 in-depth telephone interviews with a semi-structured interview guide. Participants were a purposeful sample of privately insured adults from across the United States who experienced involuntary out-of-network care. They were diverse with regard to income level, education, and health status. Recurrent themes were generated using the constant comparison method of data analysis by a multidisciplinary team. Four themes characterize the perspective of individuals who experienced involuntary out-of-network physician charges: (1) responsibilities and mechanisms for determining network participation are not transparent; (2) physician procedures for billing and disclosure of physician out-of-network status are inconsistent; (3) serious illness requiring emergency care or hospitalization precludes ability to choose a physician or confirm network participation; and (4) resources for mediation of involuntary charges once they occur are not available. Our data reveal that patient education may not be sufficient to reduce the prevalence and financial burden of involuntary out-of-network care. Participants described experiencing involuntary out-of-network health care charges due to system-level failures. As policy makers seek solutions, our findings suggest several potential areas of further consideration such as standardization of processes to disclose that a physician is out-of-network, holding patients harmless not only for out-of-network emergency room care but also for

  5. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe


    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Stephanie Panggabean


    Full Text Available This article described how to control reproduction and the development of contraception in some case studies: Indonesia, Yunani dan India. The case studies are utilised to illustrate how normative gender roles in the society create stigmatisation of women in involuntary childlessness. They are also used to elaborate how stigma affects women’s construction of identity. The three case studies and other literatures about involuntary childlessness and infertility show how the narrow gendered roles in society affect women negatively.

  7. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab. (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka


    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace (2005) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (2008), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Participants completed a monotonous vigilance task twice and reported the occurrence of any spontaneous thoughts that were later classed as IAMs or other thoughts. Priming was manipulated by having experimental participants reminiscing about high school period between the two vigilance tasks and control participants playing simple games. Results showed that participants in the experimental group reported IAMs relating to high school period more frequently during the second vigilance task than those in the control group. In the experimental group, the number of high school memories was marginally higher in the second vigilance task compared to the first vigilance task with the medium effect size, but this within subjects effect was not significant in the control group. Finally, priming also enhanced the retrieval of more remote IAMs in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that priming may play a significant role in the activation and recall of IAMs and open up interesting avenues for future research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra


    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  9. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz


    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  11. Effect of 4-Horizontal Rectus Muscle Tenotomy on Visual Function and Eye Movement Records in Patients with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome without Abnormal Head Posture and Strabismus: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ameri


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tenotomy on visual function and eye movement records in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS without abnormal head posture (AHP and strabismusMethods: A prospective interventional case-series of patients with INS with no AHP or strabismus. Patients underwent 4-horizontal muscle tenotomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and eye movement recordings were compared pre and postoperatively.Results: Eight patients were recruited in this study with 3 to 15.5 months of follow-up. Patients showed significant improvement in their visual function. Overall nystagmus amplitude and velocity was decreased 30.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Improvements were more marked at right and left gazes. Conclusion: Tenotomy improves both visual function and eye movement records in INS with no strabismus and eccentric null point. The procedure has more effect on lateral gazes with worse waveforms, thus can broaden area with better visual function. We recommend this surgery in patients with INS but no associated AHP or strabismus.

  12. Effects of involuntary eccentric contraction training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the enhancement of muscle strength. (United States)

    Son, Jongsang; Lee, Dongyeop; Kim, Youngho


    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is well-known as a modality to improve the performance of neuromuscular system, but its clinical value on muscle strengthening remains equivocal. In this study, we designed a system for an involuntary eccentric contraction of biceps brachii muscles using continuous passive movement and commercial neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices. To investigate the effects of involuntary eccentric contraction training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the enhancement of muscle strength, seven healthy men between the ages of 24 and 29 years participated in this study. Participants were trained two times per week for 12 weeks. Each exercise session was performed for 30 min with no rest intervals. Isometric elbow flexion torque and biceps brachii muscle thickness were chosen as evaluation indices, and were measured at pre-/post-training. After the 12-week training, the isometric elbow flexion torque of the trained side significantly increased by approximately 23% compared to the initial performance (Pcontraction (P<0.01). The developed system and the technique show promising results, suggesting that it has the potential to be used to increase the muscle strength in patients with neuromuscular disease and to be implemented in design rehabilitative protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Welfare Effects of Involuntary Part-time Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowczyk-Martins, Daniel; Lalé, Etienne


    Employed individuals in the USA are increasingly more likely to move to involuntarily part-time work than to unemployment. Spells of involuntary part-time work are different from unemployment spells: a full-time worker who takes on a part-time job suffers an earnings loss while remaining employed......-time work faced by involuntary part-time workers, and use our model to tabulate its value in consumption-equivalent units.......Employed individuals in the USA are increasingly more likely to move to involuntarily part-time work than to unemployment. Spells of involuntary part-time work are different from unemployment spells: a full-time worker who takes on a part-time job suffers an earnings loss while remaining employed...... with US institutions and labour market dynamics shows that involuntary part-time work generates lower welfare losses relative to unemployment. This finding relies critically on the much higher probability to return to full-time employment from part-time work. We interpret it as a premium in access to full...

  14. Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will examine the interplay between involuntary displacement, violence, inequality, and poverty on re-settled populations living in urban ... also seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Rutgers, AWF; Van Weerden, TW

    Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, effects of changes in voluntary control were studied by asking PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects to adapt their walking pattern to visual cues

  16. 12 CFR 614.4513 - Uninsured voluntary and involuntary accounts. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uninsured voluntary and involuntary accounts. 614.4513 Section 614.4513 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN... conditional payments intended to be applied to future maturities. The monies in the advance conditional...

  17. State Involuntary Commitment Laws: Beyond Deinstitutionalization. Human Resources Series. (United States)

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Paterson, Andrea


    Involuntary commitment laws, once seen as reform, now questioned as roadblocks to needed treatment, are discussed. The ineffectiveness of state's commitment laws, lack of community resources for treating the mentally ill, and homelessness among the mentally ill are discussed in the introduction. The history of the right of a state to commit…

  18. Social Work Students' Attitudes about Working with Involuntary Clients (United States)

    Pope, Natalie D.; Kang, Byungdeok


    Social workers employed in areas such as public child welfare, substance abuse, and corrections often provide services to involuntary clients. These individuals do not seek social work services on their own volition and may be actively opposed to the services they are receiving. This study explores social work students' attitudes about working…

  19. Cognitive Control of Involuntary Distraction by Deviant Sounds (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Hebrero, Maria


    It is well established that a task-irrelevant sound (deviant sound) departing from an otherwise repetitive sequence of sounds (standard sounds) elicits an involuntary capture of attention and orienting response toward the deviant stimulus, resulting in the lengthening of response times in an ongoing task. Some have argued that this type of…

  20. [Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems]. (United States)

    Ikehara, Yoshikazu


    Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems were initially discussed from the perspective of personal liberty. However, the autonomy of persons with mental health problems has been growing in importance as an issue of involuntary placement and treatment since the last part of the twentieth century, because the purpose of involuntary placement is not the deprivation of liberty but to provide adequate treatment under medical supervision. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adds a new perspective from non-discrimination and equality. Article 14 of CRPD states that "the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty." This provision should be construed from a perspective of non-discrimination. Conventional types of involuntary placement mainly based on dangerousness (UN-MI Principle 16-1a) and incompetency (UN-MI Principle16-1b) are not allowed by Article 14. There is a discussion on the difference between "mental disability" and "mental illness". Some people argue that CRPD should apply not to persons with mental illness, but to those with mental disabilities. However, CRPD does not provide a definition of "disability". It states that its definition is developing. ICF also mentions that ICD-10 and ICF should complement each other. Thus, CRPD should apply to the involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental illness as well. It is clear that Article 14 intends to change the situation whereby persons who have been described using various terms, such as madness, lunacy, insanity, mental illness, mental disability, mental health problems, and users, are involuntarily hospitalized/placed. The significance of Article 14 will be lost if it cannot be applied to psychiatric hospitalization. From the perspective of non-discrimination, we have to universalize involuntary placement and treatment or completely abolish them. We cannot tolerate a situation where a type of

  1. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Involuntary psychiatric admission based on risk rather than need for treatment: report from the Dublin Involuntary Admission Study (DIAS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, BD


    Involuntary psychiatric admission in Ireland is based on the presence of mental disorder plus serious risk to self\\/others and\\/or need for treatment. This study aimed to examine differences between use of risk and treatment criteria, about which very little is known.

  3. Experience of action depends on intention, not body movement: an experiment on memory for mens rea. (United States)

    Jensen, Mads; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Overgaard, Morten; Haggard, Patrick


    How do we know whether our own actions were voluntary or involuntary? Intentional theories of sense of agency suggest that we consciously perceive the intentions that accompany our actions, but reconstructive theories suggest that we perceive our actions only through the body movements and other effects that they produce. Intentions would then be mere confabulations, and not bona fide experiences. Previous work on voluntary action has focused on immediate experiences of authorship, and few studies have considered memory for voluntary actions. We devised an experiment in which both voluntary action and involuntary movement always occurred at the same time, but could either involve the same hand (congruent condition), or different hands (incongruent condition). When signals from the voluntary and involuntary movements involved different hands, they could therefore potentially interfere in memory. We found that recall of a voluntary action was unaffected by an incongruent involuntary movement. In contrast, recall of an involuntary movement was strongly influenced by an incongruent voluntary action. Our results demonstrate an "intentional capture" of body movement by voluntary actions, in support of intentional theories of agency, but contrary to reconstructive theories. When asked to recall both actions and movements, people's responses are shaped by memory of what they intended to do, rather than by how their body moved. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Walking abnormalities (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  6. Perspectives on functional and hyperkinetic movement disorders : Phenomenology & pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, S.M.A.


    Functional movement disorders (FMD), previously known as conversion disorders or psychogenic movement disorders, are abnormal movements which cannot be attributed to other neurological disorders. FMD are frequently encountered in movement disorder outpatient clinics. Yet, most neurologists consider

  7. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  8. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio. (United States)

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J


    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contractures and involuntary muscle overactivity in severe brain injury. (United States)

    Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan; Rockstroh, Günter; Rückriem, Stefan; Koch, Rainer


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of contractures with an increase or reduction of non-spastic muscle overactivity due to severe cerebral damage. Forty-five patients with tetraparesis after severe cerebral damage were investigated. Three groups were defined based on the presence of spasticity (revealed as resistance to passive stretch (= hypertonia)), and the presence of contracture of the relevant knee joint: Group(s) (17 patients with hypertonia without contracture), Group(s+c) (20 patients with hypertonia and contracture), and Group(c) (eight patients without hypertonia and with contracture). In all groups spontaneous involuntary muscle activity was assessed continuously over a 12-hour period through isometric measurement of knee joint flexion torque. A mathematical algorithm differentiated an hourly muscle activity spectrum (PI(h)). The frequency of peaks (peaks(h)) from the activity spectrum was determined. We revealed that Group(s) had higher PI(h) and more frequent peaks(h) compared with Group(s+c) and Group(c) (p0.05). The presence of contractures was associated with lower involuntary muscle overactivity in terms of lower PI(h) and less frequent peaks(h), indicating that contractures may be associated with reduced non-spastic positive features of the upper motor neurone syndrome in patients with severe brain damage.

  10. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in furtherance...

  11. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy. (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others


    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  12. 7 CFR 766.357 - Involuntary liquidation of real property and chattel. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Involuntary liquidation of real property and chattel... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Liquidation § 766.357 Involuntary liquidation of real property and chattel. (a) General. The Agency will liquidate...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-3 - Involuntary conversion of principal residence. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Involuntary conversion of principal residence. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-3 Involuntary conversion of principal residence. Section 1033 shall apply in the case of property used by the taxpayer as...

  14. Does Involuntary Mental Time Travel Make Sense in Prospective Teachers' Feelings and Behaviors during Lessons? (United States)

    Eren, Altay; Yesilbursa, Amanda


    This study examined the effects of involuntary mental time travel into the past and into the future on prospective teachers' feelings and behaviors during the period of a class hour. A total of 110 prospective teachers participated voluntarily in the study. The results of the present study showed that (a) the involuntary mental time travel into…

  15. Involuntary Subordination and Its Relation to Personality, Mood, and Submissive Behavior (United States)

    Sturman, Edward D.


    According to social rank theory, involuntary subordination may be adaptive in species that compete for resources as a mechanism to switch off fighting behaviors when loss is imminent (thus saving an organism from injury). In humans, major depression is thought to occur when involuntary subordination becomes prolonged. The present study sought to…

  16. Short-term risk experience of involuntary resettled households in the Philippines and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, Anke; Horst, van der H.M.; Vaart, van der W.


    Involuntary resettlement often impoverishes the displaced households. Cernea argued that impover-ishment can be avoided with his Involuntary Risks and Reconstruction Model (IRR). The IRR Model has been widely utilized in resettlement studies and identi¿es nine interlinked potential risks inherent to

  17. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age. (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue


    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Frequency of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories and Future Thoughts in Relation to Daydreaming, Emotional Distress, and Age (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Salgado, Sinue


    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  19. Disconjugate eye movements. (United States)

    Straumann, Dominik


    To foveate targets in different depths, the movements of the two eyes must be disconjugate. Fine measurements of eye rotations about the three principal axes have demonstrated that disconjugate eye movements may appear not only in the horizontal, but also in the vertical and torsional directions. In the presence of visual targets, disconjugate eye movements are driven by the vergence system, but they may also appear during vestibular stimulation. Disconjugate eye movements are highly adaptable by visual disparities, but under normal condition the effects of adaptation only persist when one eye is covered. Finally, disorders of the brainstem and cerebellum may lead to abnormal disconjugate eye movements that are often specific for the topography of the lesion. This chapter reviews the literature on the phenomenology of disconjugate eye movements over the last 15 years.

  20. Modifying the frequency and characteristics of involuntary autobiographical memories. (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Batool, Iram; Pelagatti, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana


    Recent studies have shown that involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) can be elicited in the laboratory. Here we assessed whether the specific instructions given to participants can change the nature of the IAMs reported, in terms of both their frequency and their characteristics. People were either made or not made aware that the aim of the study was to examine IAMs. They reported mental contents either whenever they became aware of them or following a predetermined schedule. Both making people aware of the aim of the study and following a fixed schedule of interruptions increased significantly the number of IAMs reported. When aware of the aim of the study, participants reported more specific memories that had been retrieved and rehearsed more often in the past. These findings demonstrate that the number and characteristics of memories depend on the procedure used. Explanations of these effects and their implications for research on IAMs are discussed.

  1. Modifying the frequency and characteristics of involuntary autobiographical memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila Vannucci

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs can be elicited in the laboratory. Here we assessed whether the specific instructions given to participants can change the nature of the IAMs reported, in terms of both their frequency and their characteristics. People were either made or not made aware that the aim of the study was to examine IAMs. They reported mental contents either whenever they became aware of them or following a predetermined schedule. Both making people aware of the aim of the study and following a fixed schedule of interruptions increased significantly the number of IAMs reported. When aware of the aim of the study, participants reported more specific memories that had been retrieved and rehearsed more often in the past. These findings demonstrate that the number and characteristics of memories depend on the procedure used. Explanations of these effects and their implications for research on IAMs are discussed.

  2. Spontaneous or intentional? Involuntary versus voluntary episodic memories in older and younger adults. (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Anne S; Miles, Amanda N; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Ramsgaard, Stine B


    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of past events that come to mind with no preceding attempt of retrieval. Such memories have received little attention in relation to aging compared with voluntary episodic memories (i.e., intentionally retrieved memories of past events). It is well documented that older compared with younger adults have reduced access to episodic memories, when retrieval is voluntary, but little is known about their involuntary episodic recall. Recent evidence suggests that involuntary autobiographical memories are at least as frequent as voluntary autobiographical memories in daily life, but this research has been limited to younger adults. Here older and younger adults recorded involuntary and voluntary episodic memories in relation to a film of a simulated event (Study 1) and during a normal day in their lives (Study 2). Across both studies, no age differences were found regarding the frequency of involuntary episodic memories, whereas older adults showed slower (Study 1) and less frequent (Study 2) voluntary remembering compared with younger adults. The findings suggest that involuntary relative to voluntary episodic remembering is enhanced in older adults, consistent with reduced executive functioning and increased processing of task irrelevant information with aging. Involuntary episodic remembering may provide an adaptive compensation for reductions in strategic retrieval in later adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication by Prescribed Medications: An Appellate Case Review. (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer


    The defense of involuntary intoxication has long been an exception to the general notion that intoxication is not a defense to criminal liability. The consumption of medications prescribed by a physician can form the basis of an involuntary-intoxication defense. In this article, I review cases where defendants relied on the use of prescribed medications for an involuntary-intoxication defense. The medications most frequently implicated by defendants are listed by name and by class. From the case law, I provide a summary of the defense and a review of the pitfalls of the defense to serve as practice pointers for forensic evaluators. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson


    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  5. The Frequency of Voluntary and Involuntary Autobiographical Memories across the Lifespan (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe


    Ratings of the memory of an important event from the last week on the frequency of voluntary and involuntary retrieval, belief in its accuracy, visual imagery, auditory imagery, setting, emotional intensity, valence, narrative coherence, and centrality to the life story were obtained from 988 adults whose age ranged from 15 to over 90. Another 992 adults provided the same ratings for a memory from their confirmation day when they were about age 14. The frequencies of involuntary and voluntary retrieval were similar. Both frequencies were predicted by emotional intensity and centrality to the life story. The results from this study, which is the first to measure the frequency of voluntary and involuntary retrieval for the same events, are counter to both cognitive and clinical theories, which consistently claim that involuntary memories are infrequent compared to voluntary memories. Age and gender differences are noted. PMID:19487759

  6. External control of the stream of consciousness: Stimulus-based effects on involuntary thought sequences. (United States)

    Merrick, Christina; Farnia, Melika; Jantz, Tiffany K; Gazzaley, Adam; Morsella, Ezequiel


    The stream of consciousness often appears whimsical and free from external control. Recent advances, however, reveal that the stream is more susceptible to external influence than previously assumed. Thoughts can be triggered by external stimuli in a manner that is involuntary, systematic, and nontrivial. Based on these advances, our experimental manipulation systematically triggered a sequence of, not one, but two involuntary thoughts. Participants were instructed to (a) not subvocalize the name of visual objects and (b) not count the number of letters comprising object names. On a substantial proportion of trials, participants experienced both kinds of involuntary thoughts. Each thought arose from distinct, high-level processes (naming versus counting). This is the first demonstration of the induction of two involuntary thoughts into the stream of consciousness. Stimulus word length influenced dependent measures systematically. Our findings are relevant to many fields associated with the study of consciousness, including attention, imagery, and action control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Involuntary memories of emotional scenes: The effects of cue discriminability and emotion over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Berntsen, Dorthe


    suffering from psychological disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, have stressful, repetitive, and unwanted involuntary memories about negative events in their past. These unwanted recollections are disturbing and debilitating. Although such intrusive involuntary memories are observed across......Involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously--that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. Such memories are frequent in daily life, in which they are predominantly positive and often triggered by situational features matching distinctive parts of the memory. However, individuals...... a range of clinical disorders, there is no broadly agreed upon explanation of their underlying mechanisms and no successful experimental simulations of their retrieval. In a series of experiments, we experimentally manipulated the activation of involuntary episodic memories for emotional and neutral...

  8. The impossibility of involuntary unemployment in an overlapping generations model with rational expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian


    If there is unemployment no matter how low the wage rate becomes, one speaks of involuntary unemployment. This phenomenon has been shown to arise in a variety of temporary or atemporal macro models with imperfect competition in the goods markets. In this paper we investigate whether the phenomenon...... of involuntary unemployment arises in a Hartian overlapping generations model with rational expectations. It does not, neither in the short nor in the long run...

  9. Development's Collateral Damage : The World Bank, involuntary resettlement and human rights


    Martin, Deirdre Christine


    Each year millions of people throughout the world are forced from their homes to make way for new roads, dams and other infrastructure developments. The World Bank funds many of these projects in developing countries and has been both harshly criticised for its track record with involuntary resettlement and a global leader in producing guidelines aimed at ensuring those forced to relocate are not harmed by the process. The Bank’s policy on involuntary resettlement is backed up by an Inspecti...

  10. Involuntary emotional expressive disorder: a case for a deeper neuroethics. (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter J; Waller, Sara


    Understanding why we produce labels for neuropsychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and how we use those words to tell stories about our brain, as well as which groups control such diagnostic discourse, is important to a wise understanding of our cognitive abilities, their limitations, and even our very human nature. Here, we explore the history and current focus of a newly emerging field called neuroethics and explore its relationship (or lack thereof) to a newly created clinical syndrome called involuntary emotional expressive disorder (IEED). The main argument concerns the lack of neuroethical discussion of issues pertinent to social influences on disease and the construction of professional specialization. We are critical of the processes associated with the creation of both the field and the syndrome, and express concern about their eventual outcomes. The interaction of social, political, and business institutions, the inherent interests of the advancement of larger research projects (and the individuals that compose them), their potential for profit, and other incentives to enhance marketability and public attention toward certain research programs will be examined as we discuss the development of the field of neuroethics. Similarly, we argue that these social factors and forces are instrumental in the development of IEED as a recognizable category and condition. Our critique is guided by the hope that through such analyses we can improve our understanding of how we go about our academic activities in cognitive neuroscience and also improve our efforts to help people suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions, such as dementia.

  11. Does sleep quality affect involuntary attention switching system? (United States)

    Salmi, Juha; Huotilainen, Minna; Pakarinen, Satu; Siren, Teo; Alho, Kimmo; Aronen, Eeva T


    We studied the relationship between sleep quality and quantity and subsequently recorded automatically evoked event-related potential (ERP) responses. In previous studies decrement of attentional processing has been associated with changes in sleep. Sleep is shown to associate also with ERPs elicited by unattended sound stream, however, there is no consensus on these effects. A recent study suggested that the early anterior P3a to novel stimuli in attended stream is attenuated and the late parietal P3a is strengthened by total sleep deprivation. We carried out 72-h consecutive actigraphy measurements in a naturalistic setting to collect information about variation in sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and percentage of sleep. MMN and P3a deflections to infrequent changes in sound duration and pitch in unattended sound stream were obtained in a separate recording session from the same subjects when they were awake. No significant correlations were found between sleep and MMN parameters, indicating that MMN is resistant to normal variation in sleep. However, P3a to both pitch and duration changes correlated positively with sleep onset latency, and P3a to duration changes correlated negatively with sleep efficiency and percentage of sleep. The correlation was higher in the posterior scalp areas. Our results suggest that the involuntary attention switching system, reflected by the P3a is sensitized as a function of decreased sleep quality.

  12. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention. (United States)

    Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W


    Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.

  13. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Williamson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  14. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery? (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren


    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  15. Abnormal Head Position (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  16. Involuntary social cue integration in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Tumkaya, Selim; Karadag, Filiz; Jellema, Tjeerd; Oguzhanoglu, Nalan Kalkan; Ozdel, Osman; Atesci, Figen Culha; Varma, Gulfizar


    Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have inferior social functioning compared to healthy controls, but the exact nature of these social deficits, and the underpinning mechanisms, are unknown. We sought to investigate social functioning in patients with OCD by measuring their involuntary/spontaneous processing of social cues using a specifically designed test, which might reveal deficits in these patients that explicit voluntary tasks do not detect. The sample of the study consisted of an OCD group (n = 25) and a control group (n = 26). Both groups performed an adaptation of the Social Distance Judgment Task (SDJT; Jellema et al., 2009), in which participants have to judge the geometrical distance between two human cartoon figures presented on a computer screen. Head/gaze direction and body direction were manipulated to be either compatible, i.e. both directed to the left or to the right (Compatible condition) or incompatible, i.e. body directed toward the observer (frontal view) and head/gaze directed to the left or right (Incompatible condition). In the Compatible condition, controls nor OCD patients were influenced by the social cues in their judgments of the geometrical distances. However, in the Incompatible condition, where the attentional cue was more conspicuous, both groups were influenced by the cues, but the controls to a significantly larger extent than the OCD patients. This study showed that patients with OCD are less likely, compared to controls, to automatically/spontaneously integrate the other's direction of attention into their visual percept. This may have resulted in their judgments of the geometrical distances between the agents to be more accurate than those of controls. The suggested impairment in automatically integrating social cues may have important repercussions for the social functioning of OCD patients. © 2014.

  17. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. (United States)

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa


    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.

  18. Decisions to initiate involuntary commitment: the role of intensive community services and other factors. (United States)

    McGarvey, Elizabeth Lloyd; Leon-Verdin, MaGuadalupe; Wanchek, Tanya Nicole; Bonnie, Richard J


    This study examined the predictors of actions to initiate involuntary commitment of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Emergency services clinicians throughout Virginia completed a questionnaire following each face-to-face evaluation of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Over a one-month period in 2007, a total of 2,624 adults were evaluated. Logistic hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the relationship between demographic, clinical, and service-related variables and outcomes of the emergency evaluations. Several factors predicted 84% of the actions taken to initiate involuntary commitment. These included unavailability of alternatives to hospitalization, such as temporary housing or residential crisis stabilization; evaluation of the client in a hospital emergency room or police station or while in police custody; current enrollment in treatment; and clinical factors related to the commitment criteria, including risk of self-harm or harm to others, acuity and severity of the crisis, and current drug abuse or dependence. A lack of intensive community-based treatment and support in lieu of hospitalization accounted for a significant portion of variance in actions to initiate involuntary commitment. Comprehensive community services and supports for individuals experiencing mental health crises may reduce the rate of involuntary hospitalization. There is a need to enrich intensive community mental health services and supports and to evaluate the impact of these enhancements on the frequency of involuntary mental health interventions.

  19. Ways of sampling voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memories in daily life. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Johannessen, Kim B; Berntsen, Dorthe


    Cognitive psychologists have often equaled retrieval of personal events with voluntary recall from autobiographical memory, but more recent research shows that autobiographical memories often come to mind involuntarily-that is, with no retrieval effort. Voluntary memories have been studied in numerous laboratory experiments in response to word-prompts, whereas involuntary memories primarily have been examined in an everyday living context, using a structured diary procedure. However, it remains unclear how voluntary memories sampled in the laboratory map onto self-prompted voluntary memories in daily life. Here, we used a structured diary procedure to compare different types of voluntary autobiographical memories to their involuntary counterparts. The results replicated previous findings with regard to differences between word-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories, whereas there were fewer differences between self-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories. The findings raise the question as to what is the best way of sampling voluntary memories and the best comparison for involuntary memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric patients' views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Katsakou, Christina; Rose, Diana; Amos, Tim; Bowers, Len; McCabe, Rosemarie; Oliver, Danielle; Wykes, Til; Priebe, Stefan


    To explore involuntary patients' retrospective views on why their hospitalisation was right or wrong. Involuntary patients were recruited from 22 hospitals in England and interviewed in-depth. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis. Most of the patients felt mentally unwell before admission and out of control during their treatment. Despite these common experiences, three groups of patients with distinct views on their involuntary hospitalisation were identified: those who believed that it was right, those who thought it was wrong and those with ambivalent views. Those with retrospectively positive views believed that hospitalisation ensured that they received treatment, averted further harm and offered them the opportunity to recover in a safe place. They felt that coercion was necessary, as they could not recognise that they needed help when acutely unwell. Those who believed that involuntary admission was wrong thought that their problems could have been managed through less coercive interventions, and experienced hospitalisation as an unjust infringement of their autonomy, posing a permanent threat to their independence. Patients with ambivalent views believed that they needed acute treatment and that hospitalisation averted further harm. Nonetheless, they thought that their problems might have been managed through less coercive community interventions or a shorter voluntary hospitalisation. The study illustrates why some patients view their involuntary hospitalisation positively, whereas others believe it was wrong. This knowledge could inform the development of interventions to improve patients' views and treatment experiences.

  1. Trauma-related versus positive involuntary thoughts with and without meta-awareness. (United States)

    Green, Deanne M; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen; Takarangi, Melanie K T


    In earlier work, we asked subjects to report involuntary thoughts relating to a trauma film and also probed subjects periodically. Subjects often reported involuntary thoughts in response to probes, suggesting they lacked meta-awareness of those thoughts. But it is possible that some or all probe-detected thoughts were continuations of thoughts subjects had spontaneously reported, leading us to overestimate involuntary thoughts lacking meta-awareness. It is also unclear whether failures in meta-awareness occur for other emotional events. We exposed subjects to a negative or positive film. Subsequently, they reported involuntary film-related thoughts and responded to probes that distinguished new from continuing thoughts. Many (54%) but not all probe-caught thoughts were thought continuations. This result supports our earlier finding that people can lack meta-awareness for trauma-related thoughts, but suggests caution in how meta-awareness is assessed. We also found that self-caught negative and positive involuntary thoughts occurred at a similar frequency, with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions (United States)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  3. The Emotional Response to Everyday Involuntary and Voluntary Memories in Dysphoria and Non-Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Retrieving personal memories may cause emotional reactions and thus a need for emotion regulation. Past research indicates that involuntary memories have a greater effect on mood that the voluntary counterparts. However, different dimensions of the emotional response (i.e., intensity and regulation......) upon retrieval of both involuntary and voluntary personal memories have not been thoroughly examined. We examined individuals’ emotional intensity and regulation of everyday involuntary and voluntary memories during dysphoria and non-depression. Twenty dysphoric individuals and 23 non......-depressed individuals completed a structured memory diary where the intensity of fear, sadness, happiness, and anger, as well as the employment of emotion regulation strategies (brooding, memory suppression, emotional suppression, and reflection) was recorded upon the retrieval of everyday autobiographical memories...

  4. More Than Ataxia: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders in Childhood Autosomal Recessive Ataxia Syndromes (United States)

    Pearson, Toni S.


    Background The autosomal recessive ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by complex neurological features in addition to progressive ataxia. Hyperkinetic movement disorders occur in a significant proportion of patients, and may sometimes be the presenting motor symptom. Presentations with involuntary movements rather than ataxia are diagnostically challenging, and are likely under-recognized. Methods A PubMed literature search was performed in October 2015 utilizing pairwise combinations of disease-related terms (autosomal recessive ataxia, ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and symptom-related terms (movement disorder, dystonia, chorea, choreoathetosis, myoclonus). Results Involuntary movements occur in the majority of patients with ataxia–telangiectasia and AOA1, and less frequently in patients with AOA2, Friedreich ataxia, and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. Clinical presentations with an isolated hyperkinetic movement disorder in the absence of ataxia include dystonia or dystonia with myoclonus with predominant upper limb and cervical involvement (ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and generalized chorea (ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1, ataxia-telangiectasia). Discussion An awareness of atypical presentations facilitates early and accurate diagnosis in these challenging cases. Recognition of involuntary movements is important not only for diagnosis, but also because of the potential for effective targeted symptomatic treatment. PMID:27536460

  5. Long-term effects of involuntary hospitalization on medication adherence, treatment engagement and perception of coercion. (United States)

    Jaeger, Susanne; Pfiffner, Carmen; Weiser, Prisca; Längle, Gerhard; Croissant, Daniela; Schepp, Wiltrud; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas; Eschweiler, Gerhard; Steinert, Tilman


    The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term influence of involuntary hospitalization on medication adherence, engagement in out-patient treatment and perceived coercion to treatment participation. In a naturalistic observational multi-centre study, 290 voluntarily and 84 involuntarily hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder had been followed up over a period of 2 years with half-yearly assessments. Assessments included self-rated medication adherence, externally judged medication adherence by blood levels, engagement in treatment and perceived coercion. The statistical analyses were based on multilevel hierarchical modelling of longitudinal data. Level and development of the outcome was controlled for involuntariness, for sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Involuntariness of the index-hospitalization did not have an effect on the development of treatment engagement or medication adherence judged by blood levels in the course of the follow-up period when the models were controlled for sociodemographic variables and clinical history. It was associated, though, with a continuously lower self-rated medication adherence. Moreover, former involuntarily hospitalized patients more often felt coerced in several treatment aspects at the follow-up assessments. Yet, there was no difference between the voluntary and involuntary group with regard to the development of the levels of adherence or coercion experiences over time. Involuntary hospitalization does not seem to impair future treatment engagement in patients with schizophrenia, but formerly involuntarily hospitalized patients continue to be more sensitive to subjective or real coercion in their treatment and more vulnerable to medication non-adherence. Hereby, their risk of future involuntary hospitalization might be increased.

  6. Sensory aspects of movement disorders (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark


    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  7. Coming to Terms With Permanent Involuntary Childlessness: A Phenomenological Analysis of Bulletin Board Postings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira H. Malik


    Full Text Available Little is known about the role that online support communities play in the lives of women faced with permanent involuntary childlessness. To understand the experiences of these women, this study conducted a thematic analysis of messages downloaded from an online community for permanent involuntary childlessness. Four central themes were identified: Feeling like an “outsider”, A whole lifetime of loss, Coming to terms with childlessness and Finding a safe haven online. These findings show that the online community appeared to empower women to move on with their lives and discover a new sense of self-worth and identity beyond that of motherhood.

  8. A 2-year follow-up of involuntary admission's influence upon adherence and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opjordsmoen, S; Friis, S; Melle, I


    OBJECTIVE: To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission. METHOD: We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary...

  9. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders. (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo


    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  10. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism. (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K; Willoughby, Christy L; Anderson, Jill S; Bothun, Erick D; Stager, David; Felius, Joost; Lee, Helena; Gottlob, Irene


    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls. Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles. These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.

  11. Tooth - abnormal colors (United States)

    ... Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  12. Urine - abnormal color (United States)

    ... Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  14. Beyond the Mechanics of Infertility: Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Infertility and Involuntary Childlessness. (United States)

    Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph


    Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…

  15. Mending new communities after involuntary resettlement in the Philippines and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quetulio-Navarra, M.


    Displacement of poor families contribute to the worsening of their poverty situation yet involuntary resettlement still takes place. According to the latest Report of the Indonesian Centre on Housing Rights and Eviction, more than 12,000 people were reportedly evicted in August 2008 to give way

  16. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.


    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two

  17. Individual differences in recognising involuntary autobiographical memories: impact on the reporting of abstract cues. (United States)

    Mace, John H; Bernas, Ronan S; Clevinger, Amanda


    This study examined individual differences in the ability to recognise involuntary autobiographical memories. We hypothesised that individuals may not always recognise involuntary memories which are cued by abstract experiences (e.g., thoughts or language), while they are better able to recognise those which are cued by concrete sensory/perpetual experiences. We hypothesised that individuals without formal training in psychology would be more prone to these recognition failures than individuals with training in psychology. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the results of general first-year undergraduate students, graduate students in psychology and graduates students in other disciplines after each had participated in a two-week diary study of their naturally occurring involuntary memories. The results showed undergraduate participants and non-psychology graduate participants reporting fewer involuntary memories being triggered by abstract cues than the graduate psychology participants, while the groups did not differ in the report of memories triggered by sensory/perpetual cues. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Local Geographical Distribution of Acute Involuntary Psychiatric Admissions in Subdistricts In and Around Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Arjan W; van Ommeren, Omar W H R; van Buuren, Melissa L; Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo M; Engelhard, Iris M

    BACKGROUND: Acute involuntary psychiatric admissions (AIPA) tend to be applied more often in urban areas. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to describe AIPA prevalence differences between the subdistricts in an urban area, and to identify which district characteristics are associated with a higher

  19. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-1 - Involuntary conversions; nonrecognition of gain. (United States)


    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-1... section 1033 to involuntary conversions of a principal residence with respect to which an election has been made under section 121 (relating to gain from sale or exchange of residence of individual who has...

  20. Why Am I Remembering This Now? Predicting the Occurrence of Involuntary (Spontaneous) Episodic Memories (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Staugaard, Soren Rislov; Sorensen, Louise Maria Torp


    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of events that come to mind spontaneously, that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. They are common in daily life and observed in a range of clinical disorders in the form of negative, intrusive recollections or flashbacks. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we report a…

  1. A Reading "Din in the Head": Evidence of Involuntary Mental Rehearsal in Second Language Readers. (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff; Rodrigo, Victoria


    Discusses the phenomenon of involuntary mental rehearsal of language as an indicator of second language (L2) acquisition among acquirers. This study provides evidence for an L2 "Din in the head" after reading from a survey of two classes of intermediate Spanish students: a reading-only group and a reading-and-conversation group. (11 references)…

  2. Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom : Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon-Dugin, Frances E.


    Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom: Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50 Frances Elizabeth Lyon-Dugin A large share of our time with each other is centered around employment or ‘work’, however we define it. A time of transition between jobs, especially when a job is lost through no choice of

  3. Involuntary Mental Time Travel and Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Situational Intrinsic Motivations (United States)

    Eren, Altay


    Recent cognitive psychological research has argued that involuntary mental time travel is an important individual difference variable that has the potential to affect an individual's motivation. However, this issue has not been empirically investigated in educational settings such as teacher education. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the…

  4. The importance of safety, agency and control during involuntary mental health admissions. (United States)

    Wyder, Marianne; Bland, Robert; Crompton, David


    Constructs such as personal recovery, patient engagement and consumer involvement are central in mental health care delivery. These approaches emphasise the importance of empowerment and choice. Under some circumstances Involuntary Treatment Orders (ITO) allow a person to be treated for a mental illness without their consent. This study explores the tensions between the principles of empowerment and control and involuntary treatment. Twenty-five involuntary inpatients of a major teaching hospital were interviewed about their experiences of being placed under an ITO. The interviews were analysed thematically. Being able to have some sense of agency and re-asserting personal control are critical components of an involuntary mental health admission. Participants wanted information about their treatment, the ITO process and their environment. They also spoke about the importance of a space where they felt safe from themselves and others to make sense of the experience. This study suggests that for coercive treatment to aid, rather than disrupt recovery, treatment services need to focus on: the provision of rights; the creation of a sense of safety; establishing supportive relationships; carrying hope and finding ways to foster a strong sense of agency and empowerment.

  5. [Factors associated with involuntary hospital admissions in technology-dependent children]. (United States)

    Okido, Aline Cristiane Cavicchioli; Pina, Juliana Coelho; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia


    To identify the factors associated with involuntary hospital admissions of technology-dependent children, in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach. After an active search, 124 children who qualified under the inclusion criteria, that is to say, children from birth to age 12, were identified. Data was collected in home visits to mothers or the people responsible for the children, through the application of a questionnaire. Analysis of the data followed the assumptions of the Generalized Linear Models technique. 102 technology-dependent children aged between 6 months and 12 years participated in the study, of whom 57% were male. The average number of involuntary hospital admissions in the previous year among the children studied was 0.71 (±1.29). In the final model the following variables were significantly associated with the outcome: age (OR=0.991; CI95%=0.985-0.997), and the number of devices (OR=0.387; CI95%=0.219-0.684), which were characterized as factors of protection and quantity of medications (OR=1.532; CI95%=1.297-1.810), representing a risk factor for involuntary hospital admissions in technology-dependent children. The results constitute input data for consideration of the process of care for technology-dependent children by supplying an explanatory model for involuntary hospital admissions for this client group.

  6. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan


    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  7. Reflections on involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa: A review of five cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Janni Schmidt; Brixen, Kim; Andries, Alin


    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa (AN) is still controversial. METHOD: Five fatal cases of AN were identified out of 1,160 patients who attended a specialized eating disorder unit between 1994 and 2006. Information on inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency...

  8. Involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation, stigma stress and recovery: a 2-year study. (United States)

    Xu, Z; Lay, B; Oexle, N; Drack, T; Bleiker, M; Lengler, S; Blank, C; Müller, M; Mayer, B; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N


    Compulsory admission can be experienced as devaluing and stigmatising by people with mental illness. Emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation and stigma-related stress may affect recovery, but longitudinal data are lacking. We, therefore, examined the impact of stigma-related emotional reactions and stigma stress on recovery over a 2-year period. Shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation, stigma stress, self-stigma and empowerment, as well as recovery were assessed among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalisation. More shame, self-contempt and stigma stress at baseline were correlated with increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment after 1 year. More stigma stress at baseline was associated with poor recovery after 2 years. In a longitudinal path analysis more stigma stress at baseline predicted poorer recovery after 2 years, mediated by decreased empowerment after 1 year, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline. Stigma stress may have a lasting detrimental effect on recovery among people with mental illness and a history of involuntary hospitalisation. Anti-stigma interventions that reduce stigma stress and programs that enhance empowerment could improve recovery. Future research should test the effect of such interventions on recovery.

  9. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas]. (United States)

    Mitrossili, M


    This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of Οviedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it

  10. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness. (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Müller, Mario; Lay, Barbara; Corrigan, Patrick W; Zahn, Roland; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf


    Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor.

  11. Qualitative exploration of stakeholders' perspectives of involuntary admission under the Mental Health Act 2001 in Ireland. (United States)

    Smyth, Siobhán; Casey, Dympna; Cooney, Adeline; Higgins, Agnes; McGuinness, David; Bainbridge, Emma; Keys, Mary; Georgieva, Irina; Brosnan, Liz; Beecher, Claire; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; Murphy, Kathy


    There is international interest in, and continued concern about, the potential long-term impact of involuntary admission to psychiatric institutions, and the effect this coercive action has on a person's well-being and human rights. Involuntary detention in hospital remains a controversial process that involves stakeholders with competing concerns and who often describe negative experiences of the process, which can have long-lasting effects on the therapeutic relationship with service users. The aim of the present study was to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the involuntary admission and detention of people under the Mental Health Act 2001 in Ireland. Focus groups were used to collect data. Stakeholders interviewed were service users, relatives, general practitioners, psychiatrists, mental health nurses, solicitors, tribunal members, and police. Data were analysed using a general inductive approach. Three key categories emerged: (i) getting help; (ii) detention under the Act; and (iii) experiences of the tribunal process. This research highlights gaps in information and uncertainty about the involuntary admission process for stakeholders, but particularly for service users who are most affected by inadequate processes and supports. Mental health law has traditionally focussed on narrower areas of detention and treatment, but human rights law requires a greater refocussing on supporting service users to ensure a truly voluntary approach to care. The recent human rights treaty, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, is to guarantee a broad range of fundamental rights, such as liberty and integrity, which can be affected by coercive processes of involuntary admission and treatment. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. [Stereotypic movements]. (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  13. [Movement disorders in childhood: therapeutic update]. (United States)

    Roubertie, A; Leydet, J; Rivier, F; Humbertclaude, V; Cheminal, R; Echenne, B


    Abnormal movements are not uncommon in childhood. Due to the severity of the abnormal movements or to the functional disability, a medical treatment is often required; the wide range of available pharmacological molecules and the absence of therapeutic consensus highlight the limited efficacy of the medical treatment on dystonic or athetoid movements, or severe tic disorders. The recent identification of the enzymatic defect implicated in metabolic diseases led to the development of specific treatment for newly recognized disorders, with more or less interesting results (creatine ou biotine supplementation). Recent progress in functional neurosurgery opened new fields in the treatment of movement disorders. Intrathecal baclofen was proved effective in the treatment of secondary dystonia, especially in patients with cerebral palsy. Deep brain stimulation is now an established therapy for patients with a generalized dystonic syndrome. Given the successful results of pallidal stimulation in dystonia, the indication of this procedure has been discussed in other types of abnormal movements.

  14. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm. (United States)

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M


    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling

  15. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements. (United States)

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A


    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  16. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohtsuka


    Full Text Available Mirror movement (MM, or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke.

  17. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan


    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  18. Long-term consequences of youth volunteering: Voluntary versus involuntary service. (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Morgül, Kerem


    Despite the renewed interest in youth volunteering in recent years, there remain major gaps in our knowledge of its consequences. Drawing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the long-term effects of youth volunteering on the civic and personal aspects of volunteers' lives. Our results suggest that youth volunteering has a positive return on adult volunteering only when it is voluntary, and that net of contextual factors neither voluntary nor involuntary youth service has a significant effect on adult voting. Regarding personal outcomes, our findings indicate that the psychological benefits of youth volunteering accrue only to voluntary participants, whereas both voluntary and involuntary youth service are positively associated with educational attainment and earnings in young adulthood. Taken together, these results lend support to the case for youth volunteer programs, though the civic benefits of these programs appear to be less dramatic than generally suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law. (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan


    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe


    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A panel data analysis of the effects of voluntary and involuntary separations on unit performance in


    Cristina Simón


    We studied the relationship between collective involuntary and voluntary turnover over unit-level performance. Our unique dataset, consisting of panel data with 24-month observations for 232 stores of a large Spanish fashion retail company, enabled us to compare different time lags between the moment of departures and the performance measures using fixed effects regressions. Such analyses revealed that both types of turnover had different consequences. Voluntary turnover was unrelated to stor...

  2. The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life


    Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R.; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; Stewart, Lauren


    The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previousl...

  3. Factors associated with involuntary hospital admissions in technology-dependent children


    Okido,Aline Cristiane Cavicchioli; Pina,Juliana Coelho; Lima,Regina Aparecida Garcia


    Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with involuntary hospital admissions of technology-dependent children, in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. METHOD A cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach. After an active search, 124 children who qualified under the inclusion criteria, that is to say, children from birth to age 12, were identified. Data was collected in home visits to mothers or the people responsible for the children, through th...

  4. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.


    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  5. Involuntary and voluntary recall of musical memories: A comparison of temporal accuracy and emotional responses. (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren


    Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or "earworms")-the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune-to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI.

  6. Resources and adaptation following involuntary resettlement in the Bytom-Karb community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietkiewicz Igor


    Full Text Available Studies show that involuntary displacement often creates various threats for the community and individuals. To reduce these risks, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Health Impact Assessment, and Social Assessment are recommended. Whereas assessments focus mostly on the community level and studies describe cases of large population displacements, there is a lack of empirical evidence about how individuals cope with involuntary displacement and what factors contribute or hinder their successful adaptation in the target location. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 21 people about their experience of resettlement due to a mine collapse in Bytom, Poland, that led to involuntary displacement of 560 people. Data was analyzed according to the constructivist grounded theory principles. Results show that this case illustrates a mixture of post-disaster and development-induced displacement. Various factors and resources that affected coping strategies were analyzed, including: material and legal status, health and age, communication skills, and relocation experience. Our findings suggest that, when circumstances allow, an individual resources assessment should also be conducted to counteract impoverishment and further marginalization of the disprivileged and vulnerable individuals.

  7. Nutrition and involuntary weight loss: a pilot study of an educational intervention for nursing home surveyors. (United States)

    Chang, Joan C; Finucane, Thomas E; Christmas, Colleen; Vaughan, William; Schwartz, Jack; Leff, Bruce


    To describe the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home (NH) surveyors before and after a brief educational intervention related to nutrition and involuntary weight loss in nursing home residents. A questionnaire covering knowledge and attitudes about nutrition was given 1 month before and 6 months after a targeted educational intervention. State of Maryland nursing home surveyors. A 24-item questionnaire of NH surveyor knowledge (11 items) and attitudes (13 items) regarding issues related to nutrition and involuntary weight loss in NH residents. Overall surveyors' knowledge scores increased from 68% (SD, 17%) pre-intervention to 76% (SD, 18%) post-intervention (P = .11). Knowledge related to the lack of the effect of tube feeding on survival in NH residents with end-stage dementia was the only knowledge item that improved significantly with the intervention (39% correct pre-intervention and 68% correct post-intervention, P = .04). There were no changes in attitudes toward the diagnosis or treatment of nutrition after the intervention. Overall, NH surveyor knowledge related to nutrition and involuntary weight loss varied widely across topic areas. Neither knowledge nor attitudes were substantially affected by a brief educational intervention. Development of effective educational interventions for NH surveyors should be a priority for stakeholders in NH care.

  8. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.


    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  9. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  10. Impaired sense of agency in functional movement disorders: An fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatta B Nahab

    Full Text Available The sense of agency (SA is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology. We used fMRI to explore whether alterations in SA in an FMD population could explain why these patients feel their movements are involuntary. We compared the FMD group to a control group that was previously collected using an ecologically valid, virtual-reality movement paradigm that could modulate SA. We found selective dysfunction of the SA neural network, whereby the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area on the right did not respond differentially to the loss of movement control. These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date for a physiological basis underlying these disabling disorders.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology. (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.


    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz


    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  14. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.


    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  15. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  16. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia


    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  17. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.


    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  18. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  19. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories. (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv


    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. How shortcomings in the mental health system affect the use of involuntary community treatment orders. (United States)

    Light, Edwina M; Robertson, Michael D; Boyce, Philip; Carney, Terry; Rosen, Alan; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; O'Connor, Nick; Ryan, Christopher J; Kerridge, Ian H


    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine stakeholder perspectives on how the operation of the mental health system affects the use of involuntary community treatment orders (CTOs). Methods A qualitative study was performed, consisting of semi-structured interviews about CTO experiences with 38 purposively selected participants in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Participants included mental health consumers (n=5), carers (n=6), clinicians (n=15) and members of the Mental Health Review Tribunal of NSW (n=12). Data were analysed using established qualitative methodologies. Results Analysis of participant accounts about CTOs and their role within the mental health system identified two key themes, namely that: (1) CTOs are used to increase access to services; and (2) CTOs cannot remedy non-existent or inadequate services. Conclusion The findings of the present study indicate that deficiencies in health service structures and resourcing are a significant factor in CTO use. This raises questions about policy accountability for mental health services (both voluntary and involuntary), as well as about the usefulness of CTOs, justifications for CTO use and the legal criteria regulating CTO implementation. What is known about this topic? Following the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric services over recent decades, community settings are increasingly the focus for the delivery of mental health services to people living with severe and persistent mental illnesses. The rates of use of involuntary treatment in Australian community settings (under CTOs) vary between state and territory jurisdictions and are high by world standards; however, the reasons for variation in rates of CTO use are not well understood. What does this paper add? This paper provides an empirical basis for a link between the politics of mental health and the uptake and usefulness of CTOs. What are the implications for practitioners? This paper makes explicit the real-world demands on the

  1. Involuntary outpatient treatment (iot) for severe mental patients: current situation in Spain. (United States)

    Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Pérez-Prieto, Juan F; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Leal-Cercós, Carmen


    Involuntary Outpatient Treatment (IOT) expects to improve treatment compliance and, therefore, prevent the impairment of patients with severe mental illness, as well as the risk for them and others. Besides IOT introduction defenders and opponent's states, scientific literature offers contradictory results. Legislative changes have been taken in the vast majority of our neighbouring countries in order to regulate IOT application. There is no legal regulation in Spain; however, OIT application is possible in certain Spanish cities. This article reviews IOT in Spain and surrounding countries.

  2. Destiny, Miracle Healers and Magical Intervention: Vernacular Beliefs on Involuntary Childlessness in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reet Hiiemäe


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the dynamics of contemporary beliefs related to involuntary childlessness. Firstly, the methodological issues of collecting source material on delicate matters and the advantages of anonymous and narrative presentation modes in certain contexts will be discussed. Secondly, conclusions drawn from the collected material, i.e. the temporary and changeable nature of those beliefs, their relations with the mass media, the social and the individual aspects and the motifs of guilt and supernatural punishment in the context of identity issues will be presented, concluding that such belief-based models of explanation and help-seeking eventually function as a mental self-defence mechanism.

  3. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong


    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  4. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft


    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  5. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.


    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz


    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  7. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv


    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember......). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, nonstrategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest...... that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal...

  8. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo


    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  9. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick


    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  10. Involuntary autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noerreslet, Mikkel; Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Traulsen, Janine M


    Consumerism is a major force in western health care. It defines the process in which patients should or do play a more active and central role in making informed choices about health and illness. The talk of patients as consumers is closely linked, and is especially pertinent for patients managing......', by being active, critical, informed etc., in fact prefer to consult a patient-centred medical expert (a dermatologist) with good communication skills, who is able to inform, advise and support on issues of managing atopic dermatitis. These people are not seeking more independence but rather a partnership...

  11. From Nose to Memory: The Involuntary Nature of Odor-evoked Autobiographical Memories in Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Gallouj, Karim; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Antoine, Pascal


    Research suggests that odors may serve as a potent cue for autobiographical retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigated whether odor-evoked autobiographical memory is an involuntary process that shares similarities with music-evoked autobiographical memory. Participants with mild AD and controls were asked to retrieve 2 personal memories after odor exposure, after music exposure, and in an odor-and music-free condition. AD participants showed better specificity, emotional experience, mental time travel, and retrieval time after odor and music exposure than in the control condition. Similar beneficial effects of odor and music exposure were observed for autobiographical characteristics (i.e., specificity, emotional experience, and mental time travel), except for retrieval time which was more improved after odor than after music exposure. Interestingly, regression analyses suggested executive involvement in memories evoked in the control condition but not in those evoked after music or odor exposure. These findings suggest the involuntary nature of odor-evoked autobiographical memory in AD. They also suggest that olfactory cuing could serve as a useful and ecologically valid tool to stimulate autobiographical memory, at least in the mild stage of the disease. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Ironic effects as reflexive responses: Evidence from word frequency effects on involuntary subvocalizations. (United States)

    Bhangal, Sabrina; Merrick, Christina; Morsella, Ezequiel


    In ironic processing, one is more likely to think about something (e.g., white bears) when instructed to not think about that thing. To further investigate this phenomenon involving cognitive control, in the Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT), participants are instructed to not subvocalize the names of visual objects. On the majority of the trials, participants fail to suppress such subvocalizations. This finding supports theorizing that conscious thoughts can be triggered by external stimuli in a manner that is nontrivial, involuntary, and, importantly, reflex-like. These conclusions challenge intuitions that consciousness is unpredictable, whimsical, and somewhat insulated from external control. Perhaps these thoughts arise, not in a reflex-like manner, but from experimental demand or other high-level, strategic processes. This prevalent criticism would be inconsistent with the observation that the RIT effect is influenced by a stimulus parameter such as word frequency. Regarding demand characteristics, such an artifact would require participants to have a theory regarding how word frequency should influence responses. We introduce evidence that stimuli associated with high frequency names are more likely to yield involuntary subvocalizations than stimuli associated with low frequency names. These theoretically-relevant data suggest that ironic effects in paradigms such as the RIT resemble reflex-like processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life. (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Sankarpandi, Sathish K; Stewart, Lauren


    The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

  14. Building Alliances with (In)Voluntary Clients: A Study Focused on Therapists' Observable Behaviors. (United States)

    Sotero, Luciana; Cunha, Diana; da Silva, José Tomás; Escudero, Valentín; Relvas, Ana Paula


    This study aimed to compare therapists' observable behaviors to promote alliances with involuntary and voluntary clients during brief family therapy. The therapists' contributions to fostering alliances were rated in sessions 1 and 4 using videotapes of 29 families who were observed in brief therapy. Using the System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances, trained raters searched for specific therapist behaviors that contributed to or detracted from the four alliance dimensions: engagement in the therapeutic process, an emotional connection with the therapist, safety within the therapeutic system, and a shared sense of purpose within the family. The results showed that when working with involuntary clients, therapists presented more behaviors to foster the clients' engagement and to promote a shared sense of purpose within the family. However, in the fourth session, the therapists in both groups contributed to the alliance in similar ways. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the therapists' alliance-building behaviors, (b) the specificities of each client group, and (c) the implications for clinical practice, training, and research. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar


    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  16. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje


    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  17. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa


    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses. (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.


    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  20. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China. (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W


    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Voluntary and Involuntary Singlehood and Young Adults' Mental Health: an Investigation of Mediating Role of Romantic Loneliness. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna


    The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. The study sample included 151 participants (86 females and 65 males) aged 20-26 ( M  = 22.48, SD  = 2.01) from Poland. The main findings were that voluntarily single young adults reported a lower level of romantic loneliness compared to involuntarily single young adults. The two groups differed neither in regard to positive mental health nor in regard to mental health problems. In addition, gender differences were observed solely in the domain of romantic loneliness, with women reporting greater romantic loneliness than men. The mediation analysis revealed that romantic loneliness does not mediate the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. Voluntary and involuntary singlehood was predictive of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, severe depression, and romantic loneliness.

  2. Involuntary care – capturing the experience of people with dementia in nursing homes : A concept mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.; Depla, M.; Frederiks, B.; Habraken, J.M.; Negenman, A.M.; van Randeraad-van der Zee, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hertogh, C.


    Objective: To avoid restraints and involuntary care caregivers should be aware if and how a patient resists care. This article focuses on behavioural expressions of people with severe dementia in nursing homes that are interpreted by their formal and informal caregivers as possible expressions of

  3. Involuntary care - capturing the experience of people with dementia in nursing homes. A concept mapping study. (United States)

    de Boer, Marike E; Depla, Marja F I A; Frederiks, Brenda J M; Negenman, Annemarieke A; Habraken, Jolanda M; van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn H; Embregts, Petri J C M; Hertogh, Cees M P M


    To avoid restraints and involuntary care caregivers should be aware if and how a patient resists care. This article focuses on behavioural expressions of people with severe dementia in nursing homes that are interpreted by their formal and informal caregivers as possible expressions of their experience of involuntary care. Concept mapping was used, following five steps: (1) brainstorming, (2) rating, (3) sorting, (4) statistical analysis & visual representation and (5) interpretation. Specialists (n = 12), nurses (n = 23) and relatives (n = 13) participated in separate groups . The views generated are grouped into clusters of behaviour, presented in graphic charts for each of the respondent groups. The large variety of behavioural symptoms includes, in all groups, not only the more obvious and direct behavioural expressions like aggression, resistance and agitation, but also more subtle behaviour such as sorrow, general discomfort or discontent. In the interpretation of behavioural symptoms of people with severe dementia it is important to take into account the possibility of that person experiencing involuntary care. Increased awareness and understanding of the meaning and consequences of the behavioural expressions is an important step in improving dementia care by avoiding restraints and involuntary care to its maximum.

  4. Involuntary Rehearsal of Second Language at the Elementary Level: Do Elementary School Children Experience the Din in the Head? (United States)

    Sevilla, Jennifer M.


    Documents the occurrence of involuntary rehearsal of second-language words and sentences in elementary school children. Results of the study suggest that regardless of language background, sex, or age of an individual, we all acquire language in the same way. (six references) (Author/CK)

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  6. Abnormal dopaminergic modulation of striato-cortical networks underlies levodopa-induced dyskinesias in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Haagensen, Brian N.; Christensen, Mark S.


    Dopaminergic signalling in the striatum contributes to reinforcement of actions and motivational enhancement of motor vigour. Parkinson's disease leads to progressive dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, impairing the function of cortico-basal ganglia networks. While levodopa therapy...... alleviates basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, it often elicits involuntary movements, referred to as levodopa-induced peak-of-dose dyskinesias. Here, we used a novel pharmacodynamic neuroimaging approach to identify the changes in cortico-basal ganglia connectivity that herald the emergence...... of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease (age range: 51–84 years; 11 females) received a single dose of levodopa and then performed a task in which they had to produce or suppress a movement in response to visual cues. Task-related activity was continuously mapped...

  7. Prolonged fever and involuntary weight loss as manifestations of bacterial endocarditis: A case report (United States)

    Sukmawati, N. M. D. D.; Merati, T. P.; Somia, A.; Utama, S.; Gayatri, Y.


    We reported an unusual presentation of prolonged fever and involuntary weight loss in older adult as a manifestation of infective bacterial endocarditis. The patient had pre-existing compensated asymptomatic valvular heart disease without treatment. A positive fecal occult blood test is prompting an investigation of malignancy of gastrointestinal as one of other possible cause of prolonged fever with wasting, evaluation of HIV serostatus shows seronegative. The case fulfilled criteria for definitive infective endocarditis: one major criterion of positive blood culture for Streptococcus mitis, which was one of viridans group streptococci and three minor criteria of fever at least 38°Celsius, immunologic phenomena in the form of glomerulonephritis, and a predisposing heart condition. One course of third-generation cephalosporin successfully cleared the Streptococcus mitis infection proven by culture. Infective endocarditis should be considered as one of the causes of prolonged fever with wasting, especially in cases with the previous history of heart disease.

  8. Is involuntary outpatient commitment a remedy for community mental health service failure? (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan D


    Involuntary outpatient commitment (IOC) statutes exist in response to disorganized community mental health service delivery and perceived treatment non-compliance. These statutes attempt to force psychiatric patients to comply with outpatient mental health services. Mental health service consumers, providers, and advocates have increasingly questioned the necessity and legality of IOC. Credible research indicates that IOC does not substantially benefit consumers and may increase mental health deterioration. IOC has proven difficult to implement, enforce, and successfully measure. Rather than resorting to expanding coercive measures, mental health systems and policymakers must ensure provision of voluntary and accessible mental health services. Furthermore, IOC cannot be legally or ethically justified even if hypothetical research supporting its alleged effectiveness exists. This article summarizes influential and contradictory IOC research, explores legal issues, and proposes that providing voluntary consumer-driven services would reduce IOC usage and prevent criminalizing individuals experiencing serious emotional distress.

  9. Pastoral Care Functional Approach as Panacea For Involuntary Childlessness Among Christian Couples In Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oladele Ayankeye


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of involuntary childlessness is a serious one in Africa where parenthood is given a pride of place. The fact that there is a high population growth has not removed the trauma associated with inability to reproduce from the African society. The weight of the crisis cuts across socio-economic and religious boundaries. Little wonder why studies continue to emerge from various fields on the issue. This paper focused on the application of some functions of pastoral care that can be of help while pastoral caregivers and counsellors are caring for childless couples in Africa. The functions are educating healing and sustaining. The intention, since there have been several papers on causes and effects of childlessness, is to avail pastoral caregivers with a handy guideline in the process of ministering to the involuntarily childless couples in Africa

  10. Involuntary and Persistent Environmental Noise Influences Health and Hearing in Beirut, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fooladi, M.M.; Fooladi, M.M.; Fooladi, M.M.


    Objective. This study was conducted to assess the effects of involuntary and persistent noise exposure on health and hearing among Lebanese adults in Beirut, Lebanon, where people are exposed to noise from construction sites, power generators, honking cars, and motorcycles. Methods. Using a descriptive and exploratory design with mixed methods, participants were surveyed, interviewed, and tested for hearing while street noise levels were measured near their residents and work places. Results. Self-reports of 83 Lebanese adult, who lived and worked in Beirut, helped identify common patterns in experiences such as irritability, anger, headaches, and sleep disturbances due to noise annoyance. Of those tested, 30% suffered from high-frequency hearing impairment. Our results showed that environmental sound dB had increased by 12% and sound intensity by 400% above the maximum standard level when compared to the WHO report of 1999. Conclusion. Environmental noise contributes to premature hearing loss and potentiate systemic diseases among Lebanese

  11. Assisted admissions? A national survey of general practitioner experience of involuntary admissions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, M


    The 2001 Mental Health Act introduced in 2006, changed how a patient is admitted involuntarily to a psychiatric unit. This paper reports on a national survey of general practitioners\\' experience implementing the Act. Five hundred and sixty eight (568) GPs completed the survey. Twenty five percent (25%) of respondants had not used it. When used, twenty four percent (24%) report that it takes seven hours or more to complete an admission. Fifty percent (50%) of respondents are confident to complete the necessary paperwork. Overall GPs are dissatisfied with arrangements for transport of patients (mean Likert score 3.5), primarily due to the time delay. GPs believe this places risk on the patient, family and GP. Only thirty-three percent (33%) of respondents feel that the Mental Health Act has improved the patient, GP and family experience of involuntary admission.

  12. Mirror movement-like defects in startle behavior of zebrafish dcc mutants are caused by aberrant midline guidance of identified descending hindbrain neurons. (United States)

    Jain, Roshan A; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin; Granato, Michael


    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns.

  13. Cardinal features of involuntary force variability can arise from the closed-loop control of viscoelastic afferented muscles (United States)

    Laine, Christopher M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.


    Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model. The closed-loop simulation included a musculotendon model, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ (GTO), and a tracking controller which enabled target-guided force tracking. We demonstrate that closed-loop control of an afferented musculotendon suffices to replicate and explain surprisingly many cardinal features of involuntary force variability. Specifically, we present 1) a potential origin of low-frequency force variability associated with co-modulation of motor unit firing rates (i.e.,‘common drive’), 2) an in-depth characterization of how proprioceptive feedback pathways suffice to generate 5-12 Hz physiological tremor, and 3) evidence that modulation of those feedback pathways (i.e., presynaptic inhibition of Ia and Ib afferents, and spindle sensitivity via fusimotor drive) influence the full spectrum of force variability. These results highlight the previously underestimated importance of closed-loop neuromechanical interactions in explaining involuntary force variability during voluntary ‘isometric’ force control. Furthermore, these results provide the basis for a unifying theory that relates spinal circuitry to various manifestations of altered involuntary force variability in fatigue, aging and neurological disease. PMID:29309405

  14. Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders. (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Pareés, Isabel


    This review explores recent developments in understanding the neurobiological mechanism of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs). This is particularly relevant given the resurgence of academic and clinical interest in patients with functional neurological symptoms and the clear shift in diagnostic and treatment approaches away from a pure psychological model of functional symptoms. Recent research findings implicate three key processes in the neurobiology of FMD (and by extension other functional neurological symptoms): abnormal attentional focus, abnormal beliefs and expectations, and abnormalities in sense of agency. These three processes have been combined in recent neurobiological models of FMD in which abnormal predictions related to movement are triggered by self-focused attention, and the resulting movement is generated without the normal sense of agency that accompanies voluntary movement. New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated. It also provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health.

  15. Next of kin's experiences of involvement during involuntary hospitalisation and coercion. (United States)

    Førde, Reidun; Norvoll, Reidun; Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar


    Norway has extensive and detailed legal requirements and guidelines concerning involvement of next of kin (NOK) during involuntary hospital treatment of seriously mentally ill patients. However, we have little knowledge about what happens in practice. This study explores NOK's views and experiences of involvement during involuntary hospitalisation in Norway. We performed qualitative interviews-focus groups and individual-with 36 adult NOK to adults and adolescents who had been involuntarily admitted once or several times. The semi-structured interview guide included questions on experiences with and views on involvement during serious mental illness and coercion. Most of the NOK were heavily involved in the patient's life and illness. Their conceptions of involvement during mental illness and coercion, included many important aspects adding to the traditional focus on substitute decision-making. The overall impression was, with a few exceptions, that the NOK had experienced lack of involvement or had negative experiences as NOK in their encounters with the health services. Not being seen and acknowledged as important caregivers and co sufferers were experienced as offensive and could add to their feelings of guilt. Lack of involvement had as a consequence that vital patient information which the NOK possessed was not shared with the patient's therapists. Despite public initiatives to improve the involvement of NOK, the NOK in our study felt neglected, unappreciated and dismissed. The paper discusses possible reasons for the gap between public policies and practice which deserve more attention: 1. A strong and not always correct focus on legal matters. 2. Little emphasis on the role of NOK in professional ethics. 3. The organisation of health services and resource constraints. 4. A conservative culture regarding the role of next of kin in mental health care. Acknowledging these reasons may be helpful to understand deficient involvement of the NOK in voluntary mental

  16. [Penile congenital abnormalities]. (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S


    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Voluntary eye movements direct attention on the mental number space. (United States)

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco


    Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions.

  18. A systematic review of the frequency, duration, type and effect of involuntary treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and an analysis of patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Loa; Jones, Allan


    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim...... the involuntary treatment of individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. RESULTS: The studies included in the review contained people treated in an inpatient setting for severe or severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. People that were treated involuntarily were characterised by a more severe psychiatric load...

  19. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  20. Movement disorders in 28 HIV-infected patients Distúrbios do movimento em 28 pacientes infectados pelo HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitágoras de Mattos


    Full Text Available From 1986 to 1999, 2460 HIV-positive inpatients were seen in our Hospital. Neurological abnormalities were detected in 1053 (42.8% patients. In this group, 28 (2.7% had involuntary movements, 14 (50% with secondary parkinsonism, six (21.4% with hemichorea/hemiballismus, four (14.2% with myoclonus, two (7.2% with painful legs and moving toes, one (3.6% with hemidystonia and one (3.6% with Holmes' tremor. The HIV itself (12 patients, toxoplasmosis of the midbrain (1 and metoclopramide-related symptoms (1 were the most probable causes for the parkinsonism. All patients with hemichorea/hemiballismus were men and in all of them toxoplasmosis of the basal ganglia, mostly on the right side, was the cause of the involuntary movements. Generalized myoclonus was seen in two patients and they were due to toxoplasmosis and HIV-encephalopathy respectively; two others presented with spinal myoclonus. The two patients with painful legs and moving toes had an axonal neuropathy. The patient with hemidystonia suffered from toxoplasmosis in the basal ganglia and the patient with Holmes' tremor had co-infection with tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis affecting the midbrain and cerebellum. We conclude that HIV-infected patients can present almost any movement disorder. They can be related to opportunistic infections, medications, mass lesions and possibly to a direct or indirect effect of the HIV itself.De 1986 a 1999, 2460 pacientes HIV-positivos internados foram avaliados em nosso Hospital. Alterações neurológicas foram encontradas em 1053 (42,8%. Neste grupo, 28 (2,7% exibiam movimentos involuntários, 14 (50% com parkinsonismo secundário, seis (21,4% com hemicoréia/hemiballismo, quatro (14,2% com mioclonias, dois (7,2% com painful legs and moving toes, um (3,6% com hemidistonia e um (3,6% com tremor de Holmes. No grupo com parkinsonismo, 12 eram, provavelmente, secundários ao HIV; um à toxoplasmose mesencefálica e outro desencadeado pela metoclopramida

  1. Transtorno da expressão emocional involuntária Involuntary emotional expression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Cristina Santos Sartori


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O transtorno da expressão emocional involuntária (involuntary emotional expression disorder ou IEED consiste em um transtorno do afeto, caracterizado por uma dificuldade em controlar a expressão emocional, que se apresenta por episódios breves e estereotipados de riso e/ou choro incontroláveis. Pode estar relacionado a diversas patologias encefálicas, em variadas localizações anatômicas. OBJETIVOS: Revisar aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e fisiopatológicos envolvidos no transtorno da expressão emocional involuntária e apresentar as opções atuais e futuras na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de base de dados MEDLINE/PUBMED e LILACS utilizando os termos transtorno da expressão emocional involuntária, afeto pseudobulbar, riso e choro patológicos, acidente vascular cerebral, doença de Alzheimer, esclerose múltipla, esclerose lateral amiotrófica. RESULTADOS: No trantorno da expressão emocional involuntária, as crises de choro e/ou riso, além de serem incontroláveis, tendem a ser desproporcionais ao estímulo recebido, podendo estar completamente dissociada do estado de humor do paciente ou mesmo ser contraditória ao contexto no qual o estímulo está inserido. Outros termos são usados na nosografia desse transtorno, como afeto pseudobulbar, riso e choro patológicos, labilidade emocional, emocionalismo e desregulação emocional. Termos como choro forçado, choro involuntário, emocionalidade patológica e incontinência emocional também têm sido utilizados com menor freqüência. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos específicos envolvidos nesse transtorno ainda não estão bem esclarecidos. Lesões que podem causá-lo estão amplamente distribuídas no encéfalo, mas parecem envolver o lobo frontal, o sistema límbico, o tronco cerebral e o cerebelo, assim como a substância branca que interconecta essa rede. Seu principal diagnóstico diferencial é a depressão. As terapias farmacológicas hoje

  2. Involuntary euthanasia of severely ill newborns: is the Groningen Protocol really dangerous? (United States)

    Voultsos, P; Chatzinikolaou, F


    Advances in medicine can reduce active euthanasia of newborns with severe anomalies or unusual prematurity, but they cannot eliminate it. In the Netherlands, voluntary active euthanasia among adults and adolescents has been allowed since 2002, when the so-called Groningen Protocol (GP) was formulated as an extension of the law on extremely premature and severely ill newborns. It is maintained that, at bioethical level, it serves the principle of beneficence. Other European countries do not accept the GP, including Belgium. Admissibility of active euthanasia is a necessary, though inadequate, condition for acceptance of the GP. Greece generally prohibits euthanasia, although the legal doctrine considers some of the forms of euthanasia permissible, but not active or involuntary euthanasia. The wide acceptance of passive newborns euthanasia, especially when the gestational age of the newborns is 22-25 weeks ("grey zone"), admissibility of practices within the limits between active and passive euthanasia (e.g., withholding/withdrawing), of "indirect active euthanasia" and abortion of the late fetus, the tendency to accept after-birth-abortion (infanticide) in the bioethical theory, the lower threshold for application of withdrawing in neonatal intensive care units compared with pediatric intensive care units, all the above advocate wider acceptance of the GP. However, the GP paves the way for a wide application of involuntary (or pseudo-voluntary) euthanasia (slippery slope) and contains some ambiguous concepts and requirements (e.g., "unbearable suffering"). It is suggested that the approach to the sensitive and controversial ethical dilemmas concerning the severely ill newborns is done not through the GP, but rather, through a combination of virtue bioethics (especially in the countries of the so-called "Mediterranean bioethical zone") and of the principles of principlism which is enriched, however, with the "principle of mutuality" (enhancement of all values and

  3. Attention to language: novel MEG paradigm for registering involuntary language processing in the brain. (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; Smith, Marie L; Horner, Aidan J; Henson, Richard; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Pulvermüller, Friedemann


    Previous research indicates that, under explicit instructions to listen to spoken stimuli or in speech-oriented behavioural tasks, the brain's responses to senseless pseudowords are larger than those to meaningful words; the reverse is true in non-attended conditions. These differential responses could be used as a tool to trace linguistic processes in the brain and their interaction with attention. However, as previous studies relied on explicit instructions to attend or ignore the stimuli, a technique for automatic attention modulation (i.e., not dependent on explicit instruction) would be more advantageous, especially when cooperation with instructions may not be guaranteed (e.g., neurological patients, children etc). Here we present a novel paradigm in which the stimulus context automatically draws attention to speech. In a non-attend passive auditory oddball sequence, rare words and pseudowords were presented among frequent non-speech tones of variable frequency and length. The low percentage of spoken stimuli guarantees an involuntary attention switch to them. The speech stimuli, in turn, could be disambiguated as words or pseudowords only in their end, at the last phoneme, after the attention switch would have already occurred. Our results confirmed that this paradigm can indeed be used to induce automatic shifts of attention to spoken input. At ~250ms after the stimulus onset, a P3a-like neuromagnetic deflection was registered to spoken (but not tone) stimuli indicating an involuntary attention shift. Later, after the word-pseudoword divergence point, we found a larger oddball response to pseudowords than words, best explained by neural processes of lexical search facilitated through increased attention. Furthermore, we demonstrate a breakdown of this orderly pattern of neurocognitive processes as a result of sleep deprivation. The new paradigm may thus be an efficient way to assess language comprehension processes and their dynamic interaction with those

  4. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families. (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E


    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  5. Workforce Downsizing and Restructuring in the Department of Defense: The Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment Program Versus Involuntary Separation (United States)


    provided a “ soft landing” and helped agencies avoid the problems that are perceived to be associated with layoffs, including workplace turmoil, morale...policy based on voluntary separation also avoids workplace turmoil that occurs under a policy of involuntary separation. VSIP, accompanied by VERA...around in this way can generate uncertainty, delays in workflow, and skills /competency gaps for organizations. Evidence from past studies indicates

  6. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia


    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  7. Voluntary and Involuntary Singlehood and Young Adults’ Mental Health: an Investigation of Mediating Role of Romantic Loneliness


    Adamczyk, Katarzyna


    The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates th...

  8. Employees’ Involuntary Non-Use of ICT Influenced by Power Differences: A Case Study with the Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thale Kvernberg Andersen


    Full Text Available Power differences affect implementation of information and communication technology (ICT in a way that creates differences in ICT use. Involuntary non-use of new ICT at work occurs when employees want to use the new technology, but are unable to due to factors beyond their control. Findings from an in-depth qualitative study show how involuntary non-use of new ICT can be attributed to power differences between occupational groups in the same organization. The findings suggest that experience is a moderating variable and that closeness to formal power holders as well as closeness to the new technology increases the probability for expert control of the ICT-organization processes. These power differences favor ICT experts over ICT novices and result in a high-quality learning environment for the ICT experts characterized by autonomy, inclusion, and adequate work processes and technological solutions. The ICT novices try to navigate in a learning-hostile work environment characterized by marginalization through expert control, isolation, and inadequate work processes and technological solutions. This led to involuntary non-use by the ICT novices, while the experts became more proficient in ICT use. These findings give managers facing a technological organizational change tools to understand important mechanisms for implementing the change in their own organization, and help them take the right actions to integrate new technology and new organization of work.

  9. Temperament, coping, and involuntary stress responses in preadolescent children: the moderating role of achievement goal orientation. (United States)

    Wodzinski, Alaina; Bendezú, Jason J; Wadsworth, Martha E


    Developmental theorists posit that temperament contributes to preadolescent's stress response styles. Findings from empirical studies, however, have yielded mixed results, thus indicating a need to consider moderators of this relation. Utilizing an analytic framework guided by resiliency theory [Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Resiliency theory: A strengths-based approach to research and practice for adolescent health. Health Education & Behavior, 40, 381-383], this study examined achievement goal orientation as a moderator of the relation between temperament and stress response styles. 96 preadolescent-parent dyads (M age  = 10.30 years, range = 9-12 years) participated in the study. Preadolescents reported on their achievement goal orientation, coping and involuntary stress responses (ISRs) styles and a parent reported on children's temperament. Multiple regressions revealed that effortful control positively predicted preadolescent's predominant use of engagement coping and negatively predicted predominance of ISRs, but only for children with a predominant mastery goal orientation. For preadolescents with a predominant performance goal orientation, effortful control negatively predicted the predominant use of engagement coping and positively predicted predominance of ISRs. Negative affectivity and its interaction with goal orientation did not predict coping or ISR styles. Findings suggest that a predominant mastery goal orientation may function as a promotive factor by enhancing the contribution of effortful control to engagement coping styles and buffering against unmanaged reactivity.

  10. Why are we not flooded by involuntary autobiographical memories? Few cues are more effective than many. (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Paccani, Claudia Rossi


    Recent research on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) has shown that these memories can be elicited and studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Employing a modified version of a vigilance task developed by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (Mem Cogn 36:920-932, 2008) to elicit IAMs, we investigated the effects of varying the frequency of external cues on the number of IAMs reported. During the vigilance task, participants had to detect an occasional target stimulus (vertical lines) in a constant stream of non-target stimuli (horizontal lines). Participants had to interrupt the task whenever they became aware of any task-unrelated mental contents and to report them. In addition to line patterns, participants were exposed to verbal cues and their frequency was experimentally manipulated in three conditions (frequent cues vs. infrequent cues vs. infrequent cues plus arithmetic operations). We found that, compared to infrequent cues, both conditions with frequent cues and infrequent cues plus arithmetic operations decreased the number of IAMs reported. The comparison between the three experimental conditions suggests that this reduction was due to the greater cognitive load in conditions of frequent cues and infrequent cue plus arithmetic operations. Possible mechanisms involved in this effect and their implications for research on IAMs are discussed.

  11. Supplemental Work at Home among Finnish Wage Earners: Involuntary Overtime or Taking the Advantage of Flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ojala


    Full Text Available It is suggested, that the new flexible work practices are enhanced to meet the work-family demandsand therefore benefit especially women. In the article the focus is on informal flexibilitytaking place at home, for which field studies of the role of gender are rare. Against the assumptions,paid work at home is mostly informal, supplementary overtime by nature. In this article, I explorewhy employees undertake work in their private sphere during their free time and whether gendermakes a difference there. I carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The qualitativedata consists of 21 interviews with white-collar employees and the quantitative data from theFinnish Quality of Work Life survey 2008 for which there are almost 4400 respondents. The methodsinclude content analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.According to both the qualitative and quantitative data, job characteristics play the most importantrole for all who work at home; employees with higher education, or supervisory tasks, inparallel with having an autonomous and inspiring job predict both tele- and supplemental work.Importantly, gender plays only a minor role in the puzzles of choosing when and where to work.The social relations at the workplace, including the atmosphere and the support of superiors andthe work community, are only weakly related to work at home. At the same time, supplementalwork is associated with great time pressure and involuntary overtime.

  12. Distinct roles of theta and alpha oscillations in the involuntary capture of goal-directed attention. (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Dux, Paul E; Jones, Caelyn N; Mattingley, Jason B


    Mechanisms of attention assign priority to sensory inputs on the basis of current task goals. Previous studies have shown that lateralized neural oscillations within the alpha (8-14Hz) range are associated with the voluntary allocation of attention to the contralateral visual field. It is currently unknown, however, whether similar oscillatory signatures instantiate the involuntary capture of spatial attention by goal-relevant stimulus properties. Here we investigated the roles of theta (4-8Hz), alpha, and beta (14-30Hz) oscillations in human goal-directed visual attention. Across two experiments, we had participants respond to a brief target of a particular color among heterogeneously colored distractors. Prior to target onset, we cued one location with a lateralized, non-predictive cue that was either target- or non-target-colored. During the behavioral task, we recorded brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG), with the aim of analyzing cue-elicited oscillatory activity. We found that theta oscillations lateralized in response to all cues, and this lateralization was stronger if the cue matched the target color. Alpha oscillations lateralized relatively later, and only in response to target-colored cues, consistent with the capture of spatial attention. Our findings suggest that stimulus induced changes in theta and alpha amplitude reflect task-based modulation of signals by feature-based and spatial attention, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The working memory Ponzo illusion: Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory. (United States)

    Shen, Mowei; Xu, Haokui; Zhang, Haihang; Shui, Rende; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jifan


    Visual working memory (VWM) has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary. The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines. This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception. Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.


    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. Functional MRI Studies into the Neuroanatomical Basis of the Eye Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.L. Tam (Caroline)


    textabstractHumans make eye movements to ensure proper processing of visual information. The study of eye movement control provides a window to the brain and can tell us how the brain processes information from the environment. Abnormal eye movement behavior can provide information about the

  16. Effective one step-iterative fiducial marker-based compensation for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm cone-beam CT scanning of knees (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Berger, Martin; Fahrig, Rebecca


    We previously introduced three different fiducial marker-based correction methods (2D projection shifting, 2D projection warping, and 3D image warping) for patients' involuntary motion in the lower body during weight-bearing Carm CT scanning. The 3D warping method performed better than 2D methods since it could more accurately take into account the lower body motion in 3D. However, as the 3D warping method applies different rotational and translational movement to the reconstructed image for each projection frame, distance-related weightings were slightly twisted and thus result in overlaying background noise over the entire image. In order to suppress background noise and artifacts (e.g. metallic marker-caused streaks), the 3D warping method has been improved by incorporating bilateral filtering and a Landwebertype iteration in one step. A series of projection images of five healthy volunteers standing at various flexion angles were acquired using a C-arm cone-beam CT system with a flat panel. A horizontal scanning trajectory of the C-arm was calibrated to generate projection matrices. Using the projection matrices, the static reference marker coordinates in 3D were estimated and used for the improved 3D warping method. The improved 3D warping method effectively reduced background noise down below the noise level of 2D methods and also eliminated metal-generated streaks. Thus, improved visibility of soft tissue structures (e.g. fat and muscle) was achieved while maintaining sharp edges at bone-tissue interfaces. Any high resolution weight-bearing cone-beam CT system can apply this method for motion compensation.

  17. Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is often associated with coexistent abnormal esophageal body motility and abnormal bolus transit. (United States)

    Zheng, E; Gideon, R M; Sloan, J; Katz, P O


    Currently, the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders is in part based upon a hierarchical algorithm in which abnormalities of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is prioritized. An important metric in evaluating the EGJ is the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). Patients who do not have achalasia but are found to have an elevated IRP are diagnosed with EGJ outflow obstruction. It has been our observation that a subset of these patients also has a second named motility disorder and may also have abnormal bolus transit. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of abnormal body motility and or abnormal bolus movement in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction. Further, in an effort to evaluate the potential clinical value in measuring bolus transit as a complement to esophageal manometry, specifically in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction, we analyzed the presenting symptoms of these patients. A total of 807 patients with a mean age of 53 years completed esophageal function testing with impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry between January 2012 and October 2016. There were 74 patients with achalasia who were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 733 patients, 138 (19%) had an elevated IRP and were given a diagnosis of EGJ outflow obstruction. Among these patients, 56 (40%) were diagnosed with an abnormal motility pattern to liquids (ineffective esophageal motility = 28, distal esophageal spasm = 19, Jackhammer = 6), of which 44 (76%) had abnormal bolus transit to liquids, viscous, or both. In contrast, there were 82 patients with EGJ outflow obstruction and normal esophageal motility, of which 33 (40%) had abnormal bolus transit. Patients with preserved esophageal motility and EGJ outflow obstruction were then evaluated. Of the 733 patients, 299 (40%) had intact esophageal motility. Of the 299 patients with normal esophageal motility, 56 patients had an elevated IRP, of which 16 (28%) had abnormal bolus transit. There were 243 (33

  18. Abnormal mitochondria in Rett syndrome: one case report. (United States)

    Mak, S C; Chi, C S; Chen, C H; Shian, W J


    A 6-year-9-month-old girl with the characteristic features of Rett syndrome is reported. Clinically, she had microcephaly, psychomotor arrest, deterioration of communication, autistic behaviour, loss of language development, gait apraxia and stereotyped hand washing movement. Amino acid and organic acid analysis were normal. An abnormal rise in serum lactate was noted 120 minutes after oral glucose loading. Muscle biopsy was performed and there was no specific finding noted under light microscope. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed mild accumulation of mitochondria at subsarcolemmal area with abnormal tubular cristae. The cause of Rett syndrome remains obscure. Several articles concerning abnormal mitochondrial morphology or respiratory enzymes have been reported. The exact pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  19. The Dynamics of Voluntary Force Production in Afferented Muscle Influence Involuntary Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Laine


    Full Text Available Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5 to 9 % of each individual’s maximal voluntary force level. Force fluctuations and EMG activity over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS muscle were recorded and their frequency content was analyzed as a function target phase. Force variability in either the 1 to 5 or 6 to 15 Hz frequency ranges tended to be largest at the peaks and valleys of the target sinusoid. In those same periods, FDS EMG activity was synchronized with force fluctuations. We then constructed a physiologically-realistic computer simulation in which a muscle-tendon complex was set inside of a feedback-driven control loop. Surprisingly, the model sufficed to produce phase-dependent modulation of tremor similar to that observed in humans. Further, the gain of afferent feedback from muscle spindles was critical for appropriately amplifying and shaping this tremor. We suggest that the experimentally-induced tremor may represent the response of a viscoelastic muscle-tendon system to dynamic drive, and therefore does not fall into known categories of tremor generation, such as tremorogenic descending drive, stretch-reflex loop oscillations, motor unit behavior, or mechanical resonance. Our findings motivate future efforts to understand tremor from a perspective that considers neuromechanical coupling within the context of closed-loop control. The strategy of combining experimental recordings with physiologically-sound simulations will

  20. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1. This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2. Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3. The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4. These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects. We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism, which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  1. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients in voluntary and involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robson Bezerra de Medeiros


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients in psychiatric hospitalizations of voluntary inpatients (IPV and involuntary (IPI, in psychiatric hospitals of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, under contract with the Unified Health System (SUS. Methods: A quantitative study, descriptive, cross-sectional and analytical. The sample comprised 393 patients, distributed among 253 IPV and 140 IPI, submitted to Psychiatry specialtytreatment, in the year 2007. Results: For both patients, IPV and IPI, most were male: 185 (73.1% and 82 (58.6%; single: 181 (46.7% and 103 (26.5%; living in Fortaleza: 181 (71.5% and 95 (67.9%, respectively, and aged 20 to 60 years (mean age of 37 years. Weobserved significant difference between the type of hospital and patient gender (p = 0.003, which did not occur with marital status (p = 0.688 and origin (p = 0.95. The main symptom profiles which justified the clinical admission of these patients were the use of alcohol or drugs 70 (27.6%, changes in critical judgments 40 (28.6% and psychological distress 68 (26.9%. Family members were the main responsible for conducting these patients to the hospital. Conclusion: The results showed that patients on IPV and IPI, which joined in the study, had a socio-demographic and clinical profile characterized by: prevalence of male patients, from the capital Fortaleza, single, mean age of 37 years, having been brought tohospital by a relative, mainly due to alcohol use or drugs.

  2. Involuntary autobiographical memories are relatively more often reported during high cognitive load tasks. (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka


    Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load. When performing a vigilance task, participants had to interrupt the task each time they experienced any spontaneous mental contents and write them down. We manipulated the level of cognitive load by either instructing (cognitive load group) or not instructing (control group) participants to perform an additional demanding task. We compared the groups on the number of IAMs and other mental contents (non-IAM contents) recorded, as well as on the frequency of IAMs that was calculated as a proportion of IAMs in all mental contents reported by the participant. We expected that if reporting IAMs depends on the level of cognitive demands, then we should observe lower frequency of IAMs in the cognitive load group compared to the control group. Consistently across studies, we observed a lower number of IAMs and non-IAM contents in the cognitive load group. However, IAMs unexpectedly constituted a higher percentage of all mental contents when participants were cognitively loaded. Further implications of the cognitive load effects for IAMs research and experimental methodology are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories. (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka


    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.

  4. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Barzykowski

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs. In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group. However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group, they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.

  5. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories (United States)

    Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka


    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants’ ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed. PMID:27294408

  6. Characterization of Noise Signatures of Involuntary Head Motion in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caballero


    Full Text Available The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls. Further, statistical analyses of groups from different diagnoses and demographics may be challenging, owing to the disparate number of participants across different clinical subgroups. In this paper, we examine the noise signatures of head motion data extracted from resting state fMRI data harnessed under different sampling resolutions. We characterize the quality of the noise in the variability of the raw linear and angular speeds for different clinical phenotypes in relation to age-matched controls. Further, we use bootstrapping methods to ensure compatible group sizes for statistical comparison and report the ranges of physical involuntary head excursions of these groups. We conclude that different sampling rates do affect the quality of noise in the variability of head motion data and, consequently, the type of random process appropriate to characterize the time series data. Further, given a qualitative range of noise, from pink to brown noise, it is possible to characterize different clinical subtypes and distinguish them in relation to ranges of neurotypical controls. These results may be of relevance to the pre-processing stages of the pipeline of analyses of resting state fMRI data, whereby head motion enters the criteria to clean imaging data from motion artifacts.

  7. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions? (United States)

    Palumbo, Letizia; Jellema, Tjeerd


    Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  8. Positron emission tomography in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.W.


    Positron emission tomography provides a method for the quantitation of regional function within the living human brain. Studies of cerebral metabolism and blood flow in patients with Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia have revealed functional abnormalities within substructures of the basal ganglia. Recent developments permit assessment of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic function ion dopaminergic pathways. These techniques are now being applied to studies of movement disorders in human subjects

  9. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  10. Neurophysiological mechanisms and functional impact of mirror movements in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Friel, Kathleen M; Gordon, Andrew M


    Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) often have mirror movements, i.e. involuntary imitations of unilateral voluntary movements of the contralateral upper extremity. The pathophysiology of mirror movements has been investigated in small and heterogeneous cohorts in the literature. Specific pathophysiology of mirror movements and their impact on upper extremity function require systematic investigation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of children with unilateral spastic CP. Here we review two possible neurophysiological mechanisms underlying mirror movements in children with CP and those with typical development: (1) an ipsilateral corticospinal tract projecting from the contralesional motor cortex (M1) to both upper extremities; (2) insufficient interhemispheric inhibition between the two M1s. We also discuss clinical implications of mirror movements in children with unilateral CP and suggest that a thorough examination of the relationship between the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of mirror movements is warranted. We suggest two premises: (1) the presence of mirror movements is indicative of an ipsilateral corticospinal tract reorganization; and (2) the corticospinal tract organization may affect patients' responses to certain treatment. If these premises are supported through future research, mirror movements should be clinically evaluated for patient selection to maximize benefits of therapy, hence promoting individualized medicine in this population. Mirror movements may be indicative of the underlying corticospinal tract reorganization in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Future research will benefit from systematic investigations of the relationship between mirror movements and its pathophysiology. Mirror movements may be a potential biomarker for individualized medicine in children with unilateral spastic CP. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA. (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul


    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  12. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam


    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  13. Stereotypic movement disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  14. Recent crustal movements (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  15. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  16. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  17. Supplementation of DHA but not DHA with arachidonic acid during pregnancy and lactation influences general movement quality in 12-week-old term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. A traditional neonatal neurological examination and the evaluation of general movement quality are sensitive techniques for assessing neurodevelopment in young infants. Mildly abnormal general movement,,; at 3 months have been

  18. Objectively Differentiating Movement Patterns between Elite and Novice Athletes. (United States)

    Ross, Gwyneth B; Dowling, Brittany; Troje, Nikolaus F; Fischer, Steven L; Graham, Ryan B


    Movement screens are frequently used to identify abnormal movement patterns that may increase risk of injury or hinder performance. Abnormal patterns are often detected visually based on the observations of a coach or clinician. Quantitative, or data-driven methods can increase objectivity, remove issues related to inter-rater reliability and offer the potential to detect new and important features that may not be observable by the human eye. Applying principal components analysis (PCA) to whole-body motion data may provide an objective data-driven method to identify unique and statistically important movement patterns, an important first step to objectively characterize optimal patterns or identify abnormalities. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if PCA could detect meaningful differences in athletes' movement patterns when performing a non-sport-specific movement screen. As a proof of concept, athlete skill level was selected a priori as a factor likely to affect movement performance. Motion capture data from 542 athletes performing seven dynamic screening movements (i.e. bird-dog, drop jump, T-balance, step-down, L-hop, hop-down, and lunge) were analyzed. A PCA-based pattern recognition technique and linear discriminant analysis with cross-validation were used to determine if skill level could be predicted objectively using whole-body motion data. Depending on the movement, the validated linear discriminate analysis models accurately classified 70.66-82.91% of athletes as either elite or novice. We have provided proof that an objective data-driven method can detect meaningful movement pattern differences during a movement screening battery based on a binary classifier (i.e. skill level in this case). Improving this method can enhance screening, assessment and rehabilitation in sport, ergonomics and medicine.

  19. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu


    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  20. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim


    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  1. Paroxysmal eye-head movements in Glut1 deficiency syndrome. (United States)

    Pearson, Toni S; Pons, Roser; Engelstad, Kristin; Kane, Steven A; Goldberg, Michael E; De Vivo, Darryl C


    To describe a characteristic paroxysmal eye-head movement disorder that occurs in infants with Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 101 patients with Glut1 DS to obtain clinical data about episodic abnormal eye movements and analyzed video recordings of 18 eye movement episodes from 10 patients. A documented history of paroxysmal abnormal eye movements was found in 32/101 patients (32%), and a detailed description was available in 18 patients, presented here. Episodes started before age 6 months in 15/18 patients (83%), and preceded the onset of seizures in 10/16 patients (63%) who experienced both types of episodes. Eye movement episodes resolved, with or without treatment, by 6 years of age in 7/8 patients with documented long-term course. Episodes were brief (usually <5 minutes). Video analysis revealed that the eye movements were rapid, multidirectional, and often accompanied by a head movement in the same direction. Eye movements were separated by clear intervals of fixation, usually ranging from 200 to 800 ms. The movements were consistent with eye-head gaze saccades. These movements can be distinguished from opsoclonus by the presence of a clear intermovement fixation interval and the association of a same-direction head movement. Paroxysmal eye-head movements, for which we suggest the term aberrant gaze saccades, are an early symptom of Glut1 DS in infancy. Recognition of the episodes will facilitate prompt diagnosis of this treatable neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers. (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szatko, Franciszek


    The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles ( p smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned ( p smoking among young people.

  3. GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy with infantile-onset epilepsy, and hyperkinetic and stereotyped movement disorders. (United States)

    Ohba, Chihiro; Shiina, Masaaki; Tohyama, Jun; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Mukaida, Souichi; Nozaki, Fumihito; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Onuma, Akira; Kodera, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi


    Recently, de novo mutations in GRIN1 have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and epileptic encephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis of patients with genetically unsolved epileptic encephalopathies identified four patients with GRIN1 mutations, allowing us to investigate the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1 mutations. Eighty-eight patients with unclassified early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) with an age of onset A) with a mutant allele frequency of 16% (in DNA of blood leukocytes) was detected in one patient. Three mutations were located in the transmembrane domain (3/4, 75%), and one in the extracellular loop near transmembrane helix 1. All the mutations were predicted to impair the function of the NMDA receptor. Clinical features of de novo GRIN1 mutations include infantile involuntary movements, seizures, and hand stereotypies, suggesting that GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy resulting in seizures and movement disorders. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Psychogenic Movement Disorders (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.


    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  5. Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Roversi, MF; Bos, AF; Paolicelli, PB; Ranzi, A; Prechtl, HFR

    Objective: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. Design: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were

  6. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping


    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen


    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  9. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  10. Abnormal electrochemical skin conductance in cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Hubert, Dominique; Brunswick, Philippe; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Dusser, Daniel; Fajac, Isabelle


    Electrochemical skin conductance measurement is an active electrophysiologic method in which incremental low direct voltage is applied on the skin. It generates a current due to reverse iontophoresis which previous studies suggested to be mostly related to chloride anion movements. As sweat chloride movements upon electric stimulation were likely to be impaired in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we designed a proof-of-concept study to measure electrochemical skin conductance in CF patients and control subjects and to test the ability of this method to discriminate CF from controls. Electrochemical skin conductance was measured in 41 adult patients with classical CF and 20 healthy control subjects. Patients placed their hands and feet on nickel electrodes and an incremental low direct voltage was applied on the anode during 2min. The resulting voltage on the cathode and the current generated between anode and cathode were measured and from them, two electrochemical skin conductance variables were calculated: ESC, obtained when a low voltage of 1.6V was applied, and dESC which took into account electrochemical skin conductances obtained when low and high voltages were applied. ESC measurements on hands and feet were significantly different in CF patients (on feet: 75±10μSi), as compared with control subjects (62±13μSi, pconductance which is easily and rapidly measured is abnormal in CF patients. Trial registry name in the European Clinical Trials Database (eudraCT): "EZSCAN MUCO1: Mesure de la conductance cutanée par chronoampérométrie", N°EUDRACT: 2007-A00221-52. Copyright © 2010 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Vaccination Movement


    Chapman, Jonathan


    The current anti-vaccination movements that have established themselves in the United States as well as other regions in the world are like a hydra of discourse. Right when one effective measure is created to convince people to vaccinate two more anti-vaccination movements sprout up in its place. These anti-vaccination movements are driven by cultural beliefs, ideologies, medical exemption laws, non-medical exemption laws, distrust of the government, distrust of large pharmaceutical companies...

  12. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  13. The mathematics of movement (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.


    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  14. Differential effects of low-intensity motor cortical stimulation on the inspiratory activity in scalene muscles during voluntary and involuntary breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Murray, Nicholas P S


    ) hypercapnic involuntary ventilation (end-tidal CO(2), 6.0±0.7%). Electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded from the scalene muscles (obligatory inspiratory muscles) and was significantly suppressed by TMS at short latency (17.2±1.7ms). The scalene EMG was reduced to 76±8% and 76±7% in voluntary breathing...

  15. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe


    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  16. Pathophysiology of somatosensory abnormalities in Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Khan, Nashaba; Defazio, Giovanni; Rothwell, John C; Berardelli, Alfredo


    Changes in sensory function that have been described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can be either 'pure' disorders of conscious perception such as elevations in sensory threshold, or disorders of sensorimotor integration, in which the interaction between sensory input and motor output is altered. In this article, we review the extensive evidence for disrupted tactile, nociceptive, thermal and proprioceptive sensations in PD, as well as the influences exerted on these sensations by dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation. We argue that abnormal spatial and temporal processing of sensory information produces incorrect signals for the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Sensory deficits are likely to be a consequence of the dopaminergic denervation of the basal ganglia that is the hallmark of PD. A possible mechanism to account for somatosensory deficits is one in which disease-related dopaminergic denervation leads to a loss of response specificity, resulting in transmission of noisier and less-differentiated information to cortical regions. Changes in pain perception might have a different explanation, possibly involving disease-related effects outside the basal ganglia, including involvement of peripheral pain receptors, as well as structures such as the periaqueductal grey matter and non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  17. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  18. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis (United States)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.


    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  19. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon


    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  20. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders. (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M


    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  1. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects, (United States)


    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  2. 85 Engaging Movement Activities. (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  3. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.


    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  4. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  5. [Dance/Movement Therapy. (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  6. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.


    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)



    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.


    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  8. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.


    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  9. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.


    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause. (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A


    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  11. Anorexia nervosa: the diagnosis. A postmodern ethics contribution to the bioethics debate on involuntary treatment for anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Kendall, Sacha


    This paper argues that there is a relationship between understandings of anorexia nervosa (AN) and how the ethical issues associated with involuntary treatment for AN are identified, framed, and addressed. By positioning AN as a construct/discourse (hereinafter "AN: the diagnosis") several ethical issues are revealed. Firstly, "AN: the diagnosis" influences how the autonomy and competence of persons diagnosed with AN are understood by decision-makers in the treatment environment. Secondly, "AN: the diagnosis" impacts on how treatment and treatment efficacy are defined and the ethical justifiability of paternalism. Thirdly, "AN: the diagnosis" can limit the opportunity for persons with AN to construct an identity that casts them as a competent person. "AN: the diagnosis" can thus inherently affirm professional knowledge and values. Postmodern professional ethics can support professionals in managing these issues by highlighting the importance of taking responsibility for professional knowledge, values, and power and embracing moral uncertainty.

  12. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment]. (United States)

    Pollmächer, T


    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  13. The effects of involuntary job loss on suicide and suicide attempts among young adults: evidence from a matched case-control study. (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard


    To assess the influence of involuntary job loss on suicide and attempted suicide in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Cases included both suicides (n=84) and attempts (n=101). A structured interview was conducted with next of kin (for suicide cases) and suicide attempters admitted to hospital. Controls selected from the general population were matched to cases by age and sex. Job dismissal or redundancy (involuntary job loss) in the 12 months before suicide or attempt was the main study variable of interest. Suicide and attempts were modelled separately and in combination as outcomes using conditional logistic regression modelling. The analysis was also adjusted for marital status, socio-economic status and diagnosis of an affective or anxiety disorder. Following adjustment for other variables, involuntary job loss was associated with an odds ratio of 1.82 for suicide and attempted suicide (combined) (95% CI 0.98 to 3.37; p=0.058). Low socio-economic status was associated with an odds ratio of 3.80 for suicide and attempted suicide (95% CI 2.16 to 6.67; p<0.001) compared to high socio-economic status (after adjustment). Diagnosis of a mental disorder was associated with a 7.87 (95% CI 5.16 to 12.01; p<0.001) odds ratio of suicide and attempted suicide compared to no diagnosis (after adjustment). Involuntary job loss was associated with increased odds of suicide and attempts when these were modelled separately, but results did not reach statistical significance. Involuntary job loss was associated with increased odds of suicide and attempted suicide. The strength of this relationship was attenuated after adjustment for socio-economic status and mental disorders, which indicates that these may have a stronger influence on suicide than job loss.

  14. Association of ethnicity with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for infertility: baseline data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). (United States)

    Karmon, Anatte; Hailpern, Susan M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Polotsky, Alex J


    To evaluate whether ethnicity is associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for difficulties in becoming pregnant. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Multiethnic, community-based observational study of US women. Women in midlife (3,149), aged 42-52 years. None. Involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. One hundred thirty-three subjects (4.2%) were involuntarily childless, defined by a reported history of infertility and nulliparity. Ethnicity was significantly associated with self-reported involuntary childlessness. After controlling for economic and other risk factors, African American (odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.59) and Chinese women (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14-0.90) were less likely to suffer from involuntary childlessness compared with non-Hispanic white women. In addition, 302 subjects reported a perceived etiology of infertility. An unexpectedly large proportion of these women (24.5%, 74 of 302) reported etiologies not known to cause infertility (i.e., tipped uterus, ligaments for tubes were stretched), with African American women having been most likely to report these etiologies (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.26-6.28) as the reason for not becoming pregnant. Ethnicity is significantly associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. Misattribution of causes of infertility is common and merits further consideration with respect to language or cultural barriers, as well as possible physician misattribution. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysautonomia in Parkinson’s disease: neurocardiological abnormalities (United States)

    Goldstein, David S


    Symptoms of abnormal autonomic-nervous-system function occur commonly in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Orthostatic hypotension in patients with parkinsonism has been thought to be a side-effect of treatment with levodopa, a late stage in the disease progression, or, if prominent and early with respect to disordered movement, an indication of a different disease, such as multiple system atrophy. Instead, patients with PD and orthostatic hypotension have clear evidence for baroreflex failure and loss of sympathetic innervation, most noticeably in the heart. By contrast, patients with multiple system atrophy, which is difficult to distinguish clinically from PD, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Post-mortem studies confirm this distinction. Because PD involves postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesions, the disease seems to be not only a movement disorder with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with norepinephrine loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. PMID:24715569

  16. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers (United States)

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz


    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  17. Dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias: under-recognized movement disorders in domestic animals? A comparison with human dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eRichter


    Full Text Available Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e. dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans, and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals.

  18. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F


    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  20. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review. (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique


    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.


    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  2. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg


    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used re...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  3. Nuclear movement in fungi. (United States)

    Xiang, Xin


    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.


    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  5. An explorative, cross-sectional study into abnormal muscular coupling during reach in chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stienen Arno HA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many stroke patients arm function is limited, which can be related to an abnormal coupling between shoulder and elbow joints. The extent to which this can be translated to activities of daily life (ADL, in terms of muscle activation during ADL-like movements, is rather unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the occurrence of abnormal coupling on functional, ADL-like reaching movements of chronic stroke patients by comparison with healthy persons. Methods Upward multi-joint reaching movements (20 repetitions at a self-selected speed to resemble ADL were compared in two conditions: once facilitated by arm weight compensation and once resisted to provoke a potential abnormal coupling. Changes in movement performance (joint angles and muscle activation (amplitude of activity and co-activation between conditions were compared between healthy persons and stroke patients using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results The present study showed slight changes in joint excursion and muscle activation of stroke patients due to shoulder elevation resistance during functional reach. Remarkably, in healthy persons similar changes were observed. Even the results of a sub-group of the more impaired stroke patients did not point to an abnormal coupling between shoulder elevation and elbow flexion during functional reach. Conclusions The present findings suggest that in mildly and moderately affected chronic stroke patients ADL-like arm movements are not substantially affected by abnormal synergistic coupling. In this case, it is implied that other major contributors to limitations in functional use of the arm should be identified and targeted individually in rehabilitation, to improve use of the arm in activities of daily living.

  6. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  7. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol


    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  8. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser


    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Haynes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a stress and sleep and (b sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual’s daily routine. Methods This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. Discussion It is hypothesized that: (1 unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2 disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between

  10. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick


    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  11. Movement as utopia. (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián


    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  12. Cannabis use and involuntary admission may mediate long-term adherence in first-episode psychosis patients: a prospective longitudinal study. (United States)

    Barbeito, Sara; Vega, Patricia; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Saenz, Margarita; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Bermudez, Cristina; Hernanz, Margarita; Corres, Blanca Fernández de; González-Pinto, Ana


    This study aimed to examine factors associated with treatment adherence in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients followed up over 8 years, especially involuntary first admission and stopping cannabis use. This prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients collected data on symptoms, adherence, functioning, and substance use. Adherence to treatment was the main outcome variable and was categorized as 'good' or 'bad'. Cannabis use during follow-up was stratified as continued use, stopped use, and never used. Bivariate and logistic regression models identified factors significantly associated with adherence and changes in adherence over the 8-year follow-up period. Of the 98 FEP patients analyzed at baseline, 57.1% had involuntary first admission, 74.4% bad adherence, and 52% cannabis use. Good adherence at baseline was associated with Global Assessment of Functioning score (p = 0.019), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (p = 0.017) and voluntary admission (p < 0.001). Adherence patterns over 8 years included: 43.4% patients always bad, 26.1% always good, 25% improved from bad to good. Among the improved adherence group, 95.7% had involuntary first admission and 38.9% stopped cannabis use. In the subgroup of patients with bad adherence at baseline, involuntary first admission and quitting cannabis use during follow up were associated with improved adherence. The long-term association between treatment adherence and type of first admission and cannabis use in FEP patients suggest targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Individual, interpersonal, and social-structural correlates of involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Nguyen, Lucie; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico-U.S. border. In 2010 to 2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n = 106) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 108) aged ≥ 18 years who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange These women were younger at sex industry entry [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.84/1-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 0.97] and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/sexually transmitted infection-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15 to 48.91). In addition, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52 to 41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03 to 10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 95% CI: 1.43 to 13.91). Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients' behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multilevel interventions for all females who exchange sex and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (eg, measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed.

  14. Individual, Interpersonal, and Social-Structural Correlates of Involuntary Sex Exchange Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities (United States)

    Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.


    Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ≥18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997

  15. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna


    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  16. Fluid movement and creativity. (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini


    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in children with congenital oculomotor apraxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung June; Kim, Yu Kyoong; Oh, Yeong Mi; Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) is a rare impairment of saccadic eye movement in horizontal direction. The typical symptom is poor vision or compensatory head thrusting movement. In this study, we investigate the brain metabolic changes in children with COMA using FDG PET. Brain FDG PET studies were performed in 6 children (mean age: 5.82.1 years, M: F=5: 1) with typical COMA by clinical diagnosis. For comparison purpose, age-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 6.42.2 years, M: F = 4: 1) were selected among sibling. Measures of significant difference in cerebral metabolism between the patients and control group were determined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Four of six had the structural abnormalities limited in the cerebellar vermis, and the other two had no structural lesion. FDG PET of patients revealed the significant regional hypometabolism in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and the bilateral occipital cortices as well as cerebellar vermis (P < 0.005, k=100) in comparison with healthy control group. Meanwhile, hypermetabolism was observed in the right precentral gyrus (BA 6), bilateral frontal gyri (BA 8/BA 10). FDG PET could demonstrate the regional metabolic changes in patients with congenital motor apraxia, which may indicate the functional disturbance in the brain regions related with saccadic eye movement and the compensatory hyperfunction in their head motion.

  18. Motion energy analysis reveals altered body movement in youth at risk for psychosis. (United States)

    Dean, Derek J; Samson, Alayna T; Newberry, Raeana; Mittal, Vijay A


    Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome. The initial 15min of the baseline clinical interview was assessed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) providing frame-by-frame measures of total movement, amplitude, speed, and variability of both head and body movement separately. Result showed region-specific group differences such that there were no differences in head movement but significant differences in body movement. Specifically, the UHR group showed greater total body movement and speed of body movements, and lower variation in body movement compared to healthy controls. However, there were no significant associations with positive, negative or disorganized symptom domains. This study represents an innovative perspective on gross motor function in the UHR group. Importantly, the automated approach used in this study provides a sensitive and objective measure of body movement abnormalities, potentially guiding novel assessment and prevention of symptom development in those at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure. (United States)

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren


    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Involuntary switching into the native language induced by electrocortical stimulation of the superior temporal gyrus: a multimodal mapping study. (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Canderan, Cinzia; Maieron, Marta; Budai, Riccardo; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran


    We describe involuntary language switching from L2 to L1 evoked by electro-stimulation in the superior temporal gyrus in a 30-year-old right-handed Serbian (L1) speaker who was also a late Italian learner (L2). The patient underwent awake brain surgery. Stimulation of other portions of the exposed cortex did not cause language switching as did not stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where we evoked a speech arrest. Stimulation effects on language switching were selective, namely, interfered with counting behaviour but not with object naming. The coordinates of the positive site were combined with functional and fibre tracking (DTI) data. Results showed that the language switching site belonged to a significant fMRI cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus found activated for both L1 and L2, and for both the patient and controls, and did not overlap with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). This area, also known as Stp, has a role in phonological processing. Language switching phenomenon we observed can be partly explained by transient dysfunction of the feed-forward control mechanism hypothesized by the DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model (Golfinopoulos, E., Tourville, J. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). The integration of large-scale neural network modeling and functional brain imaging in speech motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector (United States)

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel


    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual’s overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000–2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999–2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r2 = 0.94 in WSC and r2 = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and

  2. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E


    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  3. Managing Movement as Partnership (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead


    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  4. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar


    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  5. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao


    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  6. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil


    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  7. The Mastery of Movement. (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  8. The Full Inclusion Movement. (United States)

    Machado, Rodney E.; And Others


    Overviews background of the movement toward full inclusion of special education students into regular classrooms, including legal issues and successful educational practices. Suggests that full inclusion does not benefit all students and that inclusion should be one of several alternatives to meeting students' educational needs. Of approximately…

  9. Music, Movement, and Poetry. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  10. Posture and Movement (United States)


    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  11. [Architecture and movement]. (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel


    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  12. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN


    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  13. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome. (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola


    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  15. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie


    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  16. Recognizing Uncommon Presentations of Psychogenic (Functional Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo


    Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic or functional movement disorders (PMDs pose a challenge in clinical diagnosis. There are several clues, including sudden onset, incongruous symptoms, distractibility, suggestibility, entrainment of symptoms, and lack of response to otherwise effective pharmacological therapies, that help identify the most common psychogenic movements such as tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus.Methods: In this manuscript, we review the frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are also reviewed. In addition, we discuss PMDs at the extremes of age and mass psychogenic illness.Results: Psychogenic parkinsonism (PP is observed in less than 10% of the case series about PMDs, with a female–male ratio of roughly 1:1. Lack of amplitude decrement in repetitive movements and of cogwheel rigidity help to differentiate PP from true parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging with photon emission tomography can also help in the diagnostic process. Psychogenic movements resembling tics are reported in about 5% of PMD patients. Lack of transient suppressibility of abnormal movements helps to differentiate them from organic tics. Psychogenic facial movements can present with hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm, and other movements. Some patients with essential palatal tremor have been shown to be psychogenic. Convergence ocular spasm has demonstrated a high specificity for psychogenic movements. PMDs can also present in the context of mass psychogenic illness or at the extremes of age.Discussion: Clinical features and ancillary studies are helpful in the diagnosis of patients with uncommon presentations of psychogenic movement disorders.

  17. Abnormal brain MRI in a case of acute ataxia as the only sign of abdominal neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla Mohammadi, M.; Karimzadeh, P.; Khatami, A.; Jadali, F.


    Ataxia is a movement disorder that may manifest an acute, intermittent, non progressive or chronic progressive course. Ataxia alone is rare as a para neoplastic sign, especially if it is due to neuroblastoma (abdominal or chest). We report an abdominal neuroblastoma in a two-year-old girl presenting with only acute ataxia and abnormal neuroimaging. Brain MRI showed abnormal signal finding in the medulla, pons, cortico spinal tract and the periventricular space. In the abdominal CT, a mass was detected in the right adrenal gland with calcification and the histopathologic examination re-vealed neuroblastoma. We suggest in children with acute ataxia, with or without opalescence-myoclonus, neuroblastoma should be considered.

  18. Does general movements quality in term infants predict cerebral palsy and milder forms of limited mobility at 6 years? (United States)

    van Iersel, Patricia A M; Bakker, Saskia C M; Jonker, Arnold J H; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    To evaluate in term infants associations between quality of general movements and developmental outcome in term infants at 6 years with either cerebral palsy (CP) or limited mobility without CP. Participants of this prospective study were 145 term infants (86 male, 59 female). Their general movements quality was assessed at 'writhing' and 'fidgety' general movements age (3wks and 13wks post term). The assessment at 6 years consisted of a neurological examination, including assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND), evaluation of mobility with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and of behaviour and learning problems with questionnaires. Definitely abnormal general movements at writhing age were not associated with CP, whereas definitely abnormal general movements at fidgety age were (sensitivity 60%; specificity 91%; positive predictive value 19%, negative predictive value 98%). In children without CP, general movements quality was not associated with limited mobility, but it was associated to a minor extent with MND. In term infants, definitely abnormal general movements at fidgety age do predict CP, but with lower accuracy than in preterm infants. General movements quality does not predict limited mobility in children without CP. The study supports suggestions that predictive value of general movements assessment in term infants is lower than that in preterm infants. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Repolarization abnormalities in the newborn. (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Stramba-Badiale, Marco


    The recognition of ventricular repolarization abnormalities in the newborn carries several and significant implications, because it calls attention to the possibility of dealing with an infant affected by the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This article provides key elements for the correct measurement of the QT interval in newborns and succinctly reviews some aspects of the disease. It gives normative values on the QT interval distribution in the first month of life based on a prospective study in more than 44,000 infants. It shows the probability, based on the QTc observed in two recordings, to find disease-causing mutations. The data indicate clearly that widespread electrocardiographic screening in the newborn allows early identification of most, if not all, the infants affected by LQTS with marked QT prolongation and thus of those at higher risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Through the affected infants, it becomes possible to identify the family members affected by LQTS, including the "silent mutation carriers"; our study shows that disease-causing mutations are found in 51% of the family members. Because early recognition leads to the implementation of effective preventive strategies, it follows that electrocardiographic screening will avoid preventable deaths either in the first year of life when they are usually labeled as "sudden infant death syndrome" or later in life. The case is made for medicolegal implications whenever neonatologists and pediatricians fail to inform the parents of a newborn child of the prevalence of LQTS (one in 2000), of the effectiveness of existing therapies, and of the diagnosis with a simple electrocardiogram.

  20. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy. (United States)

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon


    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards

  1. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark


    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.

  2. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo. (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa


    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pNail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  3. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  4. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  5. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  6. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.


    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  7. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders]. (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra


    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White


    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  9. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal


    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  11. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  12. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.


    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  13. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients in voluntary and involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p361

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Nogueira Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients in psychiatric hospitalizations of voluntary inpatients (IPV and involuntary (IPI, in psychiatric hospitals of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, under contract with the Unified Health System (SUS. Methods: A quantitative study, descriptive, cross-sectional and analytical. The sample comprised 393 patients, distributed among 253 IPV and 140 IPI, submitted to Psychiatry specialty treatment, in the year 2007. Results: For both patients, IPV and IPI, most were male: 185 (73.1% and 82 (58.6%; single: 181 (46.7% and 103 (26.5%; living in Fortaleza: 181 (71.5% and 95 (67.9%, respectively, and aged 20 to 60 years (mean age of 37 years. We observed significant difference between the type of hospital and patient gender (p = 0.003, which did not occur with marital status (p = 0.688 and origin (p = 0.95. The main symptom profiles which justified the clinical admission of these patients were the use of alcohol or drugs 70 (27.6%, changes in critical judgments 40 (28.6% and psychological distress 68 (26.9%. Family members were the main responsible for conducting these patients to the hospital. Conclusion: The results showed that patients on IPV and IPI, which joined in the study, had a socio-demographic and clinical profile characterized by: prevalence of male patients, from the capital Fortaleza, single, mean age of 37 years, having been brought to hospital by a relative, mainly due to alcohol use or drugs.

  14. Chest wall abnormalities and their clinical significance in childhood. (United States)

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C


    The thorax consists of the rib cage and the respiratory muscles. It houses and protects the various intrathoracic organs such as the lungs, heart, vessels, esophagus, nerves etc. It also serves as the so-called "respiratory pump" that generates the movement of air into the lungs while it prevents their total collapse during exhalation. In order to be performed these functions depend on the structural and functional integrity of the rib cage and of the respiratory muscles. Any condition (congenital or acquired) that may affect either one of these components is going to have serious implications on the function of the other. Furthermore, when these abnormalities occur early in life, they may affect the growth of the lungs themselves. The following article reviews the physiology of the respiratory pump, provides a comprehensive list of conditions that affect the thorax and describes their effect(s) on lung growth and function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep Mimicking REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A New Form of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder. (United States)

    Gaig, Carles; Iranzo, Alex; Pujol, Montserrat; Perez, Hernando; Santamaria, Joan


    To describe a group of patients referred because of abnormal sleep behaviors that were suggestive of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in whom video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and showed the reported behaviors associated with vigorous periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS). Clinical history and video-polysomnography review of patients identified during routine visits in a sleep center. Patients were 15 men and 2 women with a median age of 66 (range: 48-77) years. Reported sleep behaviors were kicking (n = 17), punching (n = 16), gesticulating (n = 8), falling out of bed (n = 5), assaulting the bed partner (n = 2), talking (n = 15), and shouting (n = 10). Behaviors resulted in injuries in 3 bed partners and 1 patient. Twelve (70.6%) patients were not aware of displaying abnormal sleep behaviors that were only noticed by their bed partners. Ten (58.8%) patients recalled unpleasant dreams such as being attacked or chased. Video-polysomnography showed (1) frequent and vigorous stereotyped PLMS involving the lower limbs, upper limbs, and trunk (median PLMS index 61.2; median PLMS index in NREM sleep 61.9; during REM sleep only 8 patients had PLMS and their median PLMS index in REM sleep was 39.5); (2) abnormal behaviors (e.g., punching, groaning) during some of the arousals that immediately followed PLMS in NREM sleep; and (3) ruled out RBD and other sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. Dopaminergic agents were prescribed in 14 out of the 17 patients and resulted in improvement of abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams in all of them. After dopaminergic treatment, follow-up video-polysomnography in 7 patients showed a decrease in the median PLMS index from baseline (108.9 vs. 19.2, p = .002) and absence of abnormal behaviors during the arousals. Abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams simulating RBD symptomatology may occur in patients with severe PLMS. In these cases, video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and

  16. Chinas architectural heritage conservation movement


    Zhu, Guangya


    Chinas civilization is ancient. The countrys architectural heritage conservation activity is an integral part of the world conservation movement. This paper gives a general introduction of the movement in China from four aspects: (1) history, (2) important conservation projects assessments, (3) new ideas and principles being debated and discussed, and (4) issues facing the movement. The present paper summarizes the essential character of the movement in China and highlights the importance of ...

  17. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    Antiglobalization movements are transnational social movements that challenge what they perceive as a monolithic global laissez-faire economic regime. From the 1990s, these movements have accused global political and economic networks of delivering too much power to dominant elites at the expense...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  18. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp


    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  20. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement. (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  1. Movement Arts and Nonverbal Communication. (United States)

    Herman, Gail Neary; Kirschenbaum, Robert


    The study of creative movement, dramatic expression, and kinesthetic awareness can develop students' skills not only in movement but also in communication and leadership. Suggested kinesthetic activities follow the four phases of: physical movement, examining student responses, stimulating the imagination, and analyzing and sharing the experience.…

  2. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.


    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  3. A Discovery Approach to Movement. (United States)

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.


    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  4. Hypnosis and movement disorders: State of the art and perspectives. (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, C; Célestin-Lhopiteau, I; Roze, E

    Hypnosis might represent an interesting complementary therapeutic approach to movement disorders, as it takes into account not only symptoms, but also well-being, and empowers patients to take a more active role in their treatment. Our review of the literature on the use of hypnosis to treat movement disorders was done by systematically searching the PubMed database for reports published between 1984 and November 2015. The following variables were extracted from each selected paper: study design; sample size; type of movement disorder; hypnotic procedure; treatment duration; and efficacy. Thirteen papers were selected for detailed analysis. Most concerned tremor in Parkinson's disease and tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Although promising, the data were insufficient to allow conclusions to be drawn on the efficacy of hypnosis in movement disorders or to recommend its use in this setting. Well-designed studies taking into account some specific methodological challenges are needed to determine the possible therapeutic utility of hypnosis in movement disorders. In addition to the potential benefits for such patients, hypnosis might also be useful for studying the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of normal and abnormal movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of cortical activation on orthodontic tooth movement. (United States)

    Cho, K-W; Cho, S-W; Oh, C-O; Ryu, Y-K; Ohshima, H; Jung, H-S


    Cortical activation is one of the procedures to accelerate tooth movement by manipulating the cortical bone. In this study, the effect of cortical activation on orthodontic tooth movement was investigated clinically and histologically in the surrounding bony tissue. In the lower and upper jaws of two beagle dogs, cortical activation was applied to the buccal and lingual side of the alveolar bone in the right jaw where 12 holes were made on each cortical plate 4 weeks after the extraction of all the second bicuspids while under deep anesthesia. All third bicuspids on both jaws were forced to move forward by a 150-g force using NiTi coil spring with/without guiding wire. The tooth movement was measured and the animals were killed after tooth movement. Rapid initial tooth movement was apparent after cortical activation. However, after 6 months of cortical activation, the cell number and cellular activity of the surrounding periodontal tissue were decreased. This experiment showed that rapid initial tooth movement was apparent following the application of orthodontic force after cortical activation but the cellular activity and fibroblast structure were abnormal in the surrounding periodontal tissue.

  6. Parasomnias and Sleep-Related Movement Disorders in Older Adults. (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex


    Parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders are important problems in older adults. Sleep paralysis is rare, but may occur in families. In a minority of patients with disorders of arousal, the episodes persist until the age of 70. Zolpidem and other medications may induce sleepwalking and sleep-related eating. Most patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder eventually develop Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. Anti-IgLON5 disease includes abnormal behaviors in NREM and REM sleep. Restless legs syndrome prevalence increases with age. A severe form of periodic limb movements in sleep may mimic REM sleep behavior disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of movement distribution in the lumbar spine using the instantaneous axis of rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Won [Trine University, Angola (Indonesia)


    The position of the torso and the magnitude of exertion are thought to influence the distribution pattern of intervertebral movements within the lumbar spine. Abnormal intervertebral movements have been correlated with the risk of spine injuries. Since the capability to measure movement distribution within the lumbar spine noninvasively is limited, a convenient method to diagnose joint motion function was proposed. The goal of this research was to test the efficacy of the instantaneous axis of rotation for assessment of the distribution of movement within the lumbar spine. The proposed method was evaluated in the bio mechanical model. The results showed that the location of instantaneous axis of rotation lowered with increased trunk exertion force, and slightly moved higher with increased trunk angle. Recognizing that abnormal location of the instantaneous axis of rotation correlated with spinal pain, these results suggest potential the location of the instantaneous axis of rotation relates to the risk of low back pain on distributed spinal kinematics.

  8. Motor excitability during movement imagination and movement observation in psychogenic lower limb paresis. (United States)

    Liepert, Joachim; Hassa, Thomas; Tüscher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger


    Patients with a psychogenic paresis have difficulties performing voluntary movements. Typically, diagnostic interventions are normal. We tested whether patients with a psychogenic lower limb paresis exhibit abnormal motor excitability during motor imagery or movement observation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with single and paired pulses was used to explore motor excitability at rest, during imagination of ankle dorsiflexions and during watching another person perform ankle dorsiflexions. Results obtained in ten patients with a flaccid psychogenic leg paresis were compared with a healthy age-matched control group. In addition, results of two patients with a psychogenic fixed dystonia of the leg are presented. During rest, motor excitability evaluated by motor thresholds, size of motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by single pulse TMS, intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation tested by paired-pulse TMS were similar in patients and healthy subjects. MEPs recorded in five patients during movement observation were also comparable across the two groups. During motor imagery, patient MEPs were significantly smaller than in the control group and smaller than during rest, indicating an inhibition. In patients with motor conversion disorder, the imagination of own body movements induces a reduction of corticospinal motor excitability whereas it induces an excitability increase in healthy subjects. This discrepancy might be the electrophysiological substrate of the inability to move voluntarily. Watching another person perform movements induces a normal excitability increase, indicating a crucial role of the perspective and suggesting that focusing the patient's attention on a different person might become a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil


    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  11. Oculomotor abnormalities in children with Niemann-Pick type C. (United States)

    Blundell, James; Frisson, Steven; Chakrapani, Anupam; Gissen, Paul; Hendriksz, Chris; Vijay, Suresh; Olson, Andrew


    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare recessive disorder associated with progressive supranuclear gaze palsy. Degeneration occurs initially for vertical saccades and later for horizontal saccades. There are studies of oculomotor degeneration in adult NP-C patients [1, 2] but no comparable studies in children. We used high-resolution video-based eye tracking to record monocular vertical and horizontal eye movements in 2 neurological NP-C patients (children with clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities) and 3 pre-neurological NP-C patients (children without clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities). Saccade onset latency, saccade peak velocity and saccade curvature were compared to healthy controls (N=77). NP-C patients had selective impairments of vertical saccade peak velocity and vertical saccade curvature, with slower peak velocities and greater curvature. Changes were more pronounced in neurological than pre-neurological patients, showing that these measures are sensitive to disease progress, but abnormal curvature and slowed downward saccades were present in both groups, showing that eye-tracking can register disease-related changes before these are evident in a clinical exam. Both slowing, curvature and the detailed characteristics of the curvature we observed are predicted by the detailed characteristics of RIMLF population codes. Onset latencies were not different from healthy controls. High-resolution video-based eye tracking is a promising sensitive and objective method to measure NP-C disease severity and neurological onset. It may also help evaluate responses to therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A


    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research.

  13. Fetal body movement monitoring. (United States)

    Rayburn, W F


    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  14. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf


    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established....... This article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....

  15. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol


    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  16. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob


    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...

  17. Stereotypic movement disorders. (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The mirror neuron system under hypnosis - brain substrates of voluntary and involuntary motor activation in hypnotic paralysis. (United States)

    Burgmer, Markus; Kugel, Harald; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ewert, Adrianna; Lenzen, Thomas; Pioch, Regina; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Arolt, Volker; Heuft, Gereon; Konrad, Carsten


    The neurobiological basis of non-organic movement impairments is still unknown. As conversion disorder and hypnotic states share many characteristics, we applied an experimental design established in conversion disorder to investigate hypnotic paralysis. Movement imitation and observation were investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 19 healthy subjects with and without hypnotically induced paralysis of their left hand. Paralysis-specific activation changes were explored in a multivariate model and functional interdependencies of brain regions by connectivity analysis. Hypnotic paralysis during movement imitation induced hypoactivation of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and ipsilateral cerebellum and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), frontal gyrus and insula. No paralysis-specific effects were revealed during movement observation. Hyperactivation of ACC, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and insula might reflect attention (MFG), conflict-detection (ACC) and self-representation processes (insula) during hypnotic paralysis. The lack of effects in movement observation suggests that early motor processes are not disturbed due to the transient nature of the hypnotic impairment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina


    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  20. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer]. (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L


    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  1. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  2. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection (United States)


    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  4. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  5. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  6. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection. (United States)


    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  8. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.


    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  9. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood


    Spinner, Miriam R.


    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  10. Familial eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis with associated ophthalmologic abnormalities. (United States)

    Chen, S; Palay, D; Templeton, S F


    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign adnexal tumor, generally with sporadic occurrence and not linked to other diseases. Only one familial occurrence of ESFA has been reported. We describe the familial occurrence of multiple ESFAs in a father and his two sons, all of whom also had similar eyelid abnormalities and progressive corneal scarring. This description of hereditary ESFA is the first to link ESFA with periocular and ocular abnormalities.

  11. Brain perfusion and markers of neurodegeneration in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. (United States)

    Vendette, Mélanie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Gosselin, Nadia; Postuma, Ronald B; Tuineag, Maria; Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jacques


    Potential early markers of neurodegeneration such as subtle motor signs, reduced color discrimination, olfactory impairment, and brain perfusion abnormalities have been reported in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to reproduce observations of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in a larger independent sample of patients and to explore correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and markers of neurodegeneration. Twenty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 20 healthy controls were studied by single-photon emission computerized tomography. Motor examination, color discrimination, and olfactory identification were examined. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder showed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex and in medial parietal areas and increased regional cerebral blood flow in subcortical regions including the bilateral pons, putamen, and hippocampus. In rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, brain perfusion in the frontal cortex and occipital areas was associated with poorer performance in the color discrimination test. Moreover, a relationship between loss of olfactory discrimination and regional cerebral blood flow reduction in the bilateral anterior parahippocampal gyrus, a region known to be involved in olfactory functions, was found. This study provides further evidence of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder that are similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. Moreover, regional cerebral blood flow anomalies were associated with markers of neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding]. (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U


    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  13. The incidence of spontaneous movements (myoclonus) in dogs undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. (United States)

    Cattai, Andrea; Rabozzi, Roberto; Natale, Valentina; Franci, Paolo


    To evaluate the incidence of myoclonus (involuntary movements during anaesthesia, unrelated to inadequate hypnosis or analgesia, and of sufficient severity to require treatment) in dogs anaesthetized with a TIVA of propofol with or without the use of fentanyl. Retrospective clinical study. Dogs, undergoing general anaesthesia for clinical procedures between January 2012 and January 2013 and subject to TIVA with propofol. A retrospective analysis reviewed the medical and anaesthetic records. Animals with existing or potential neurological or neuromuscular pathology in the anamnesis or upon clinical examination and cases with incomplete clinical records were excluded. Myoclonus was considered as involuntary muscle contractions which did not cease following a bolus administration of propofol or fentanyl and, due to their intensity and duration, made continuation of the procedure impracticable without other drug administration. Tremors, paddling or muscle spasms, explicable as insufficient hypnosis or analgesia, and transient excitatory phenomena only present during the awakening phase, were not considered as myoclonus. Out of a total of 492 dogs undergoing anaesthesia, six mixed breed dogs (1.2%), one male and five females, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I, median (range) weight 20.5 (7-37) kg and age 1.5 (1-5) years had myoclonus according to the aforementioned definition. In all subjects, myoclonus appeared within 20 minutes after induction of anaesthesia, and mainly involved the limb muscles. All subjects appeared to be in an adequate plane of anaesthesia before and during myoclonus. This study shows that 1.2% of dogs, undergoing TIVA with propofol with or without fentanyl administration, developed myoclonus, which required to be, and were treated successfully pharmacologically. The cause of this phenomenon is yet to be determined. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  14. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Nielsen, Jørgen; Lohmann, Ebba; Schiefer, Johannes; Schieffer, Johannes; Wild, Edward; Jennum, Poul; Konofal, Eric; Walker, Matthew; Oudiette, Delphine; Tabrizi, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra


    Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages and the length of CAG repeats. Because a mild hypocretin deficiency has been found in the brains of some patients with HD (hereinafter referred to as HD patients), we also tested the HD patients for narcolepsy. Twenty-five HD patients (including 2 premanifest carriers) underwent clinical interview, nighttime video and sleep monitoring, and daytime multiple sleep latency tests. Their results were compared with those of patients with narcolepsy and control patients. The HD patients had frequent insomnia, earlier sleep onset, lower sleep efficiency, increased stage 1 sleep, delayed and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients with very mild HD and worsened with disease severity. In contrast to narcoleptic patients, HD patients had no cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, or sleep paralysis. Four HD patients had abnormally low (< 8 minutes) daytime sleep latencies, but none had multiple sleep-onset REM periods. The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep.

  15. Rhythm, Movement and Synchrony. Effective Teaching Tools. (United States)

    Aldrich, Kenneth R.


    This article discusses incorporation of academic curriculum elements into movement units, synchronous movement as a teaching tool, the movement-cognition connection, and identification and use of rhythm and movement elements in the classroom. (IAH)

  16. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén


    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways. ...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective........ The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  17. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth


    in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  18. Altered striatal and pallidal connectivity in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnooz, C.C.S.; Pasman, J.W; Beckmann, C.F.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de


    Cervical dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary, abnormal movements of the head and neck. Injecting the overactive muscles with botulinum toxin is the gold standard treatment, supported by good evidence (Delnooz and van de Warrenburg in Ther Adv Neurol Disord

  19. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  20. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.


    in non-ideal scenarios, we show that generally the estimation of models of this type is both feasible and ecologically informative. We illustrate the approach using real movement data from 11 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Results indicate a directional bias towards a group centroid for reindeer......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...

  1. Ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals. (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele


    To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth (United States)

    ... Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email Ultrasound examinations are often done as ... What causes urinary tract abnormalities to occur before birth? In about one of 500 births, some abnormality ...

  3. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward


    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  4. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea. (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes


    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  5. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.


    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  6. General movements in the perinatal period and its relation to echogenicity changes in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosier-van Dunne, F.M.F.; Wezel-Meijler, G.; Bakker, M.P.; de Groot, L.; Odendaal, H.J.; de Vries, J.I.P.


    Background: In preterm born infants abnormal general movements (GMs) generally normalize before three months post term, but may persist when perinatal brain injury is present. Aims: To assess the continuity of GM quality from fetal to early neonatal period and its relation to brain echogenicity

  7. The Effect of Expertise on Eye Movement Behaviour in Medical Image Perception (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Helle, Laura; Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Svedström, Erkki


    The present eye-movement study assessed the effect of expertise on eye-movement behaviour during image perception in the medical domain. To this end, radiologists, computed-tomography radiographers and psychology students were exposed to nine volumes of multi-slice, stack-view, axial computed-tomography images from the upper to the lower part of the abdomen with or without abnormality. The images were presented in succession at low, medium or high speed, while the participants had to detect enlarged lymph nodes or other visually more salient abnormalities. The radiologists outperformed both other groups in the detection of enlarged lymph nodes and their eye-movement behaviour also differed from the other groups. Their general strategy was to use saccades of shorter amplitude than the two other participant groups. In the presence of enlarged lymph nodes, they increased the number of fixations on the relevant areas and reverted to even shorter saccades. In volumes containing enlarged lymph nodes, radiologists’ fixation durations were longer in comparison to their fixation durations in volumes without enlarged lymph nodes. More salient abnormalities were detected equally well by radiologists and radiographers, with both groups outperforming psychology students. However, to accomplish this, radiologists actually needed fewer fixations on the relevant areas than the radiographers. On the basis of these results, we argue that expert behaviour is manifested in distinct eye-movement patterns of proactivity, reactivity and suppression, depending on the nature of the task and the presence of abnormalities at any given moment. PMID:23785481

  8. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril


    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  9. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.


    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  10. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs. (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed


    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  11. Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers. (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John C; Quadros, Edward V


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked to abnormalities in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms in folate genes may act in complex polygenic ways to increase the risk of developing ASD. Autoantibodies that block folate transport into the brain have been associated with ASD and children with ASD and these autoantibodies respond to high doses of a reduced form of folate known as folinic acid (leucovorin calcium). Some of the same abnormalities are also found in mothers of children with ASD and supplementing folate during preconception and gestational periods reduces the risk to the offspring from developing ASD. These data suggest that folate pathway abnormalities may be a major metabolic disturbance underlying ASD that can be leveraged as biomarkers to improve symptoms and prevent ASD.

  12. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women even before...

  13. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  14. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi


    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  16. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise


    and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida......Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology...... incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed....

  17. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo


    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  18. [Abnormal peripheral circulation in heart failure]. (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, A; Laperche, T; Caviezel, B; Dahan, M; Gourgon, R


    Left ventricular failure leads to circulatory failure which causes clinical symptoms and in which regional blood flow changes play an important role. An abnormality of systemic vasodilatation on exercise or on pharmacological intervention has been shown. This affects both the resistance and conductive vessels and is mainly functional, related to neurohormonal stimulation with a predominance of vasoconstrictive factors amongst which increased adrenergic tone probably plays an essential part. A modification of the endothelium-dependent response has recently been confirmed. The presence of structural vascular abnormalities (increase in parietal sodium and water concentrations, "remodelling" remains debatable in the human. These abnormalities have a common factor in their chronicity and take time to regress with medical treatment or after cardiac transplantation. Physical training seems to induce more marked and, above all, more rapid effects.

  19. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia. (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S


    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M


    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses. (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F


    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. Temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Tveito, L.; Dale, K.; Ruud, A.F.


    Transantral (infraorbital, transmaxillary) examination of the temporomandibular joint was compared with conventional transcranial examination and lateral tomography of patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 23 to 83. Abnormalities were most frequently found at tomography, and equally frequent at transantral and transcranial examinations. The various examinations appeared to be rather supplementary. Bone erosion was frequently observed at transantral examination, which appeared to be the preferable radiographic method for detecting arthritis of this joint. Combined with transcranial examination, the method is recommended for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis if tomographic equipment is not available. (Auth.)

  3. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia. (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide


    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  4. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.


    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  5. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin


    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  6. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop. (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock


    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  7. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)


    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  8. Spatial memory and animal movement. (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas


    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole


    In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate......-teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... is a new obligation the teachers are facing some pedagogical challenges (Jensen, 2015). The new school reform forces the teachers to teach in a way they are not educated, trained in or experienced. The teachers’ role is changing. This study investigates how teachers in different subjects and with different...

  10. The role of eye movement driven attention in functional strabismic amblyopia. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin


    Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  11. The Role of Eye Movement Driven Attention in Functional Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang


    Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  12. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The association between deafness and ocular problems is well established; however the nature and prevalence of these problems are diverse across the globe. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the nature and prevalence of ophthalmologic abnormalities in deaf students and offer treatment to ...

  13. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Pediatric Neurology Department, Cairo University, 2Clinical Genetics ... Research Centre,3Human Cytogenetics Department, Human Genetics and. Genome ..... cVH. 2/23 cri du chat. 1/23 del. 18q21.1- qter. 1/23. Breathing abnormalities. 3. 13. 3. -. 1. -. -. -. -. Feeding problems. 8. 34.8. -. 5. 2. -. -. 1. -. Autistic behavior. 3. 13.

  14. Prevelence and Pattern of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is paucity of published data on the prevalence and pattern of electrocardiographic abnormalities (ECGA) seen in adult Nigerians referred for this investigation. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of some ECGA in Nigerian adults. Methods: This is a hospital based audit to determine the ...

  15. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 29, 2011 ... HOMA-IR (P = 0.03) in the case group as compared to the control group. We conclude that a family history of diabetic parents can lead to lipid parameters abnormalities and CVD risk factor via aggregation of inherited defected genes. Key words: Diabetes, oxidized-low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apo B100, ...

  16. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  17. Prevalence Of Dental Abnormalities Among Handicapped Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 34% of them had various dental abnormalities, the most commonly encountered being enamel hypoplasia which constituted 12.3%, and more than half of which was chronologic (58.9%). This was predominant among the mentally handicapped (13.5%) and the blind (12.5%). Tetracyline staining was also a common ...

  18. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals (United States)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.


    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  19. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in couples undergoing infertility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999). Oligozoospermia is .... age of abnormal metaphases needed to distinguish between low level and true mosaicism. This borderline ... Moore A. K., Lynch K., Arny M. J. and Grow D. R. 2008 Turner mosaicism (45,X/46,XX) diagnosed in a ...

  20. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC


    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  1. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  2. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities | Cronje | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three members of a family with features of the 'leopard' syndrome are described. The important findings were generalized lentigo, deafness, and cardiac and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Progressive obstructive cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias are features of the condition which may be present, and are potentially ...

  3. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  4. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in couples undergoing infertility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996; Johnson 1998). Consid- ering pooled data obtained from more than 9000 azoosper- mic and oligozoospermic men, a 5.8% incidence of chromo- somal abnormalities has been found. Of these, 4.2% affect the gonosomes and 1.5% the autosomes, respectively (John- son 1998). In detail, sex chromosome anomalies ...

  5. Fetal chromosome abnormalities and congenital malformations: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Our objective were to determine and evaluate the role of genetic counseling and amniocentesis in early detection of chromosomal abnormalities or congenital malformations among women at risk. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 784 pregnant women. Results: The cause for seeking genetic ...

  6. Structural and molecular hair abnormalities in trichothiodystrophy. (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Morris, Andrea; Schlücker, Sebastian; Imoto, Kyoko; Price, Vera H; Menefee, Emory; Wincovitch, Stephen M; Levin, Ira W; Tamura, Deborah; Strehle, Katrin R; Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J


    We examined hair from 15 patients with trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare inherited disorder with brittle, cystine-deficient hair. They had a wide variety of phenotypes, from brittle hair only to severe intellectual impairment and developmental delay. Polarizing light microscopic examination showed alternating light and dark (tiger tail) bands under polarizing microscopy. Confocal microscopy captured structural features of breaks in intact TTD hairs. The autofluorescent appearance was regular and smooth in normal donors and markedly irregular in sections of TTD hairs possibly reflecting abnormalities in melanin distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed numerous surface irregularities. All TTD hair samples had reduced sulfur content. We observed an inverse correlation (R(val)=0.9) between sulfur content and percent of hairs with shaft abnormalities (trichoschisis, trichorrhexis nodosa, or ribbon/twist). There was no association between clinical disease severity and percent of abnormal hairs. Raman spectra of hairs from TTD patients and normal donors revealed a larger contribution of energetically less favored disulfide conformers in TTD hairs. Our data indicate that the brittleness of the TTD hair is dependent upon abnormalities at several levels of organization. These changes make TTD hairs excessively prone to breakage and weathering.

  7. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  8. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom. (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne


    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  9. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks. (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.


    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  10. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders. (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G


    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  11. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary


    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  12. Plant abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Uchida, Shunsuke; Fujimori, Haruo.


    The present invention provides a method and a device capable of detecting abnormal symptoms of equipments having failed portions and portions to be repaired and requiring concentrated monitoring in a plant during operation, for example, nuclear power plants, in an early stage without losing reliability. Namely, the abnormality of the plant is judged based on the comparison of plant operation parameters and their allowable values in the method of monitoring plant abnormality. In this case, the allowable values of the plant operation parameters allowed to be changed based on the information on the state of equipments which shows the state of constitutional equipments of the plant. In addition, when a measured plant operation parameter exceeds the allowable value of each of the previously set plant operation parameters, allowable values of other plant operation parameters having relation with the plant operation parameters can be changed. According to the present invention, since the allowable range of the plant operation parameters for the equipments to be repaired and failed equipments can be made narrower than that of ordinary equipments, abnormal symptoms can be detected on the normal side in an early stage. (I.S.)

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  14. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed ...

  15. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma. (United States)

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L


    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  16. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  17. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.


    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  18. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman


    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  19. Signs of abnormal motor performance in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šlachtová


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of the level of motor development should be a common part of examinations performed by paediatricians, physiotherapists and also teachers. The importance has been increasing because of the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find the differences in performance of the selected motor tasks of gross motor function in preschoolers on both quantitative and qualitative parameters. METHODS: In the study 261 children were included, boys and girls aged 4–6 years (the average age 5.4 years attending regular kindergartens. We used motor tasks of standing on one leg and hopping. Significant differences in quantitative parameters were assessed by two-way ANOVA in Statistica (version 9 software. Relative frequency of characters in qualitative parameters was assessed by the test of the difference between two proportions. RESULTS: Significant differences between the age groups appeared in the quantitative parameters comparing 4 and 5 year old children and 4 and 6 year old children. Regardless of gender there were no differences between 5 year and 6 year old children. Overall, the girls mastered the tasks of the test better than the boys in the quantitative parameters of evaluation. From the evaluation of the quality of motor performance the most frequently reached performance in the tasks of the test has been described (relative frequency of characters. Significantly different motor performance from most children of the sample was observed particularly in the associated movements of limbs or trunk and face, showing for a reduced ability of selective relaxation at higher demands of the movement task. CONCLUSIONS: The different motor performance in observed parameters, showing for a reduced ability of selective relaxation, could be regarded as signs of abnormal motor performance in that age category.

  20. Understanding movement control in infants through the analysis of limb intersegmental dynamics. (United States)

    Schneider, K; Zernicke, R F; Ulrich, B D; Jensen, J L; Thelen, E


    One important component in the understanding of the control of limb movements is the way in which the central nervous system accounts for joint forces and torques that may be generated not only by muscle actions but by gravity and by passive reactions related to the movements of limb segments. In this study, we asked how the neuromotor system of young infants controls a range of active and passive forces to produce a stereotypic, nonintentional movement. We specifically analyzed limb intersegmental dynamics in spontaneous, cyclic leg movements (kicking) of varying intensity in supine 3-month-old human infants. Using inverse dynamics, we calculated the contributions of active (muscular) and passive (motion-dependent and gravitational) torque components at the hip, knee, and ankle joints from three-dimensional limb kinematics. To calculate joint torques, accurate estimates were needed of the limb's anthropometric parameters, which we determined using a model of the human body. Our analysis of limb intersegmental dynamics explicitly quantified the complex interplay of active and passive forces producing the simple, involuntary kicking movements commonly seen in 3-month-old infants. our results revealed that in nonvigorous kicks, hip joint reversal was the result of an extensor torque due to gravity, opposed by the combined flexor effect of the muscle torque and the total motion-dependent torque. The total motion-dependent torque increased as a hip flexor torque in more vigorous kicks; an extensor muscle torque was necessary to counteract the flexor influences of the total motion-dependent torque and, in the case of large ranges of motion, a flexor gravity torque as well. Thus, with changing passive torque influences due to motions of the linked segments, the muscle torques were adjusted to produce a net torque to reverse the kicking motion. As a consequence, despite considerable heterogeneity in the intensity, range of motion, coordination, and movement context of

  1. Corpus callosum abnormalities: neuroradiological and clinical correlations. (United States)

    Al-Hashim, Aqeela H; Blaser, Susan; Raybaud, Charles; MacGregor, Daune


    To study neuroradiological features in pediatric patients with corpus callosum abnormalities, using new functional subtyping for the corpus callosum, and to correlate the features with the clinical presentation. We performed a retrospective review of 125 patients with radiologically identified abnormalities of the corpus callosum seen between 1999 and 2012. The study reviewed clinical features, genetic etiology, and chromosomal microarray (CMA) results. We used a new functional classification for callosal abnormalities based on embryological and anatomical correlations with four classes: complete agenesis, anterior agenesis (rostrum, genu, body), posterior agenesis (isthmus, splenium), and complete hypoplasia (thinning). We also studied the presence of extracallosal abnormalities. The new functional callosal subtyping did not reveal significant differences between the various subtypes in association with neurological outcome; however, the presence of cardiac disease was found more frequently in the group with complete agenesis. Thirty-seven per cent (46/125) had identifiable causes: of these, 48% (22/46) had a monogenic disorder, 30% (14/46) had a pathogenic chromosomal copy-number variant detected by CMA or karyotype, and 22% (10/46) had a recognizable clinical syndrome for which no confirmatory genetic test was available (namely Aicardi syndrome/septo-optic dysplasia and Goldenhar syndrome). The diagnostic yield for a significant CMA change was 19%. The presence of Probst bundles was found to be associated with a better neurodevelopmental outcome. The functional classification system alone 'without clinical data' cannot predict the functional outcome. The presence of extracallosal brain abnormalities and an underlying genetic diagnosis predicted a worse neurodevelopmental outcome. This study highlights the importance of CMA testing and cardiac evaluation as part of a routine screen. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Hemostatic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients (United States)

    Gogia, Aarti; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satender; Rusia, Usha


    Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Diverse hemostatic abnormalities have been reported in patients with myeloma which predispose to bleeding and also thrombosis. Methods: Complete blood count, biochemical parameters and parameters of hemostasis i.e. platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII assay results, plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer and lupus anticoagulant, were assessed in 29 MM patients and 30 age matched controls. Results: The most frequent abnormal screening parameter was APTT. Of the six indicative of a bleeding tendency i.e. thrombocytopenia, prolonged PT, APTT, TT, reduced plasma fibrinogen and factor VIII, at least one was abnormal in 8 (27.6%) patients. Of the four prothrombotic markers, lupus anticoagulant, D-dimer, elevated factor VIII and plasma fibrinogen, one or more marker was present in 24 (82.7%). D-dimer was the most common prothrombotic marker, being elevated in 22 (75.9%) patients. One or more laboratory parameter of hemostasis was abnormal in all 29 (100%) patients. Though thrombotic complications are reported to be less frequent as compared to hemorrhagic manifestations, one or more marker of thrombosis was present in 24 (82.7%) patients. Conclusion: This study provided laboratory evidence of hemostatic dysfunction which may be associated with thrombotic or bleeding complications at diagnosis in all MM patients. Hence, screening for these abnormalities at the time of diagnosis should help improved prognosis in such cases. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)


    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  4. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias. (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen


    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  6. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching. (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua


    Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P < 0.01; F = 4.520, P < 0.05), more fixation counts and saccade counts (F = 7.498, P < 0.01; F = 11.040, P < 0.01), and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F = 29.743, P < 0.01) compared with controls. But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement

  7. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki


    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.


    Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages...... interview, nighttime video and sleep monitoring, and daytime multiple sleep latency tests. Their results were compared with those of patients with narcolepsy and control patients. Results: The HD patients had frequent insomnia, earlier sleep onset, lower sleep efficiency, increased stage I sleep, delayed......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  9. Dance movement therapy for dementia. (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie


    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  10. Biological soliton in multicellular movement (United States)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji


    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement. PMID:23893301

  11. Infertility and abnormal cervical mucus in two sisters who are compound heterozygotes for the cystic fibrosis (CF) DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations. (United States)

    Schoyer, Katherine D; Gilbert, Fred; Rosenwaks, Zev


    To describe two cases of infertile sisters who are compound heterozygote carriers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations and who were found to have significantly abnormal cervical mucus. Case reports and review of literature. Infertility practice based in an academic medical center. Two sisters (ages 34 and 42), compound heterozygote carriers of CF mutations, who presented with involuntary infertility. The partners of both patients tested negative for CF. The evaluation of both sisters did not indicate other causes of infertility aside from advanced maternal age in the 42-year-old patient. Both sisters underwent natural-cycle intrauterine insemination. Pregnancy conception. The 34-year-old patient has subsequently conceived twice through natural-cycle inseminations. This is the first reported case of infertility due to a cervical mucus factor in a patient who is a compound heterozygote of the DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations. This case is important not only because of the distinct phenotypic abnormality seen with specific CF mutations but also because of the associated genotype.

  12. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Karthi


    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  13. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.


    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  14. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mui, Michelle S


    The purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyze the threat posed by certain social movements during the post-Mao reform era and the various methods of social control used by the Chinese government to deal...

  15. Muscle Activation and Movement Coordination.


    Ljung, Carl


    The purpose of this project was to empirically develop a method of using electromyography to identify how humans coordinate their muscles during certain sequences of movement and the effect of an injured anterior cruciate ligament to muscle coordination. In this study, more simple movements of the lower extremities are examined and relatively accurate hypothesizes can be made solely based on anatomical theory. However, a general method for electromyographic studies would open up the possibili...

  16. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet


    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  17. Orthodontic tooth movement and bioelectricity.


    Karanth H; Shetty K


    Research in the field of orthodontics is now focused on the biology of tooth movement. Advanced molecular biology techniques has showed the researchers new avenue towards finding answers to the questions asked for the last few decades. Now it is possible for the researches to explore the lacunae in the field. One such field is, pharmaco-therapeutically or electrophysiologically enhancing the rate of tooth movement, improving the stability of the results, augmenting the anchorage. The voltage ...

  18. The movement ecology of seagrasses. (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos


    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  19. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori


    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  20. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...... is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack...