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Sample records for abnormal humoral immune

  1. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia

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    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress. PMID:22037745

  2. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress.

  3. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

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    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  4. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

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    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  5. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

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    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  6. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

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    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  7. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

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    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  8. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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    Montoya, Carlos J; Toro, Maria F; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Hernandez, Mariluz; Arango, Liliana P; Echeverry, Marta; Arango, Ana E; Prada, Maria C; Alarcon, Herminia del P; Rojas, Mauricio

    2007-06-01

    Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40) against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  9. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  10. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  11. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  12. Humoral Immune Response in Tuberculous Pleuritis

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    Prabha C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous pleuritis is a good human model to understand the local and protective immune response against tuberculosis, due to the self-limitedness of the disease. Although the cellular immune response has been well characterised in tuberculous pleurisy, much less is known about the humoral immune response operating at the site of infection. To understand the humoral immune response, B cells were enumerated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC of tuberculous (TP and non-tuberculous pleuritis patients (NTP. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies for PPD, culture filtrate (CF and sonicate antigens (Son Ag were assessed in plasma (BL and pleural fluid (PF and a western blot was carried out with the CF antigen. The percentage of CD19+B-cells was similar in PBMC and PFMC of TP patients but was significantly lower in PFMCs of NTP patients. The IgG levels for PPD and CF antigens were higher in PF of TP than NTP patients. The antigen recognition patterns did not differ in plasma and pleural fluid of the same patient in both groups pointing out the passive diffusion of the plasma to the pleura. The antigens 25, 31, 33, 70, 110, 124 and 132 kDa were recognized exclusively by the TP patients. Thus our study showed that the local humoral response in TP did not differ from the systemic response. However, the humoral response differed in TP patients when compared to NTP patients.

  13. The immortality of humoral immunity.

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    Elgueta, Raul; de Vries, Victor C; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-07-01

    Decades of high-titered antibody are sustained due to the persistence of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells (PCs). The differentiation of each of these subsets is antigen- and T-cell driven and is dependent on signals acquired and integrated during the germinal center response. Inherent in the primary immune response must be the delivery of signals to B cells to create these populations, which have virtual immortality. Differences in biology and chemotactic behavior disperse memory B cells and long-lived PCs to a spectrum of anatomic sites. Each subset must rely on survival factors that can support their longevity. This review focuses on the generation of each of these subsets, their survival, and renewal, which must occur to sustain serological memory. In this context, we discuss the role of antigen, bystander inflammation, and cellular niches. The contribution of BAFF (B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) to the persistence of memory B cells and PCs are also detailed. Insights that have been provided over the past few years in the regulation of long-lived B-cell responses will have profound impact on vaccine development, the treatment of pre-sensitized patients for organ transplantation, and therapeutic interventions in both antibody- and T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

  14. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

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    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  15. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

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    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  16. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

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    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  17. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

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    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  18. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  19. CONSECUTIVE IMMUNIZATION WITH RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VIRUS AND PLASMID DNA FOR ENHANCING CELLULAR AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤; 金宁一; 郭志儒; 秦云龙; 郭炎; 方厚华; 安汝国; 殷震

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the influence of consecutive immunization on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. Methods: We evaluated a consecutive immunization strategy of priming with recombinant fowlpox virus vUTALG and boosting with plasmid DNA pcDNAG encoding HIV-1 capsid protein Gag. Results: In immunized mice, the number of CD4+ T cells from splenic lymphocytes increased significantly and the proliferation response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS elevated markedly and HIV-1-specific antibody response could be induced. Conclusion: Consecutive immunization could increase cellular and humoral immunity responses in mice.

  20. Genetic restriction of humoral immune response

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    L. L. Golovkina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review provides information about immune response initiation against foreign agents. Significance of separate molecules of major histocompatibility complex in antibodies formation after blood transfusion, during pregnancy, after organ transplantation due to incompatibility of the antigenic structures of donor and recipient, mother and child was shown. Detailed description of platelet antigens protein structure significance in immunocompetent cells recognition of them is provided.

  1. Genetic restriction of humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review provides information about immune response initiation against foreign agents. Significance of separate molecules of major histocompatibility complex in antibodies formation after blood transfusion, during pregnancy, after organ transplantation due to incompatibility of the antigenic structures of donor and recipient, mother and child was shown. Detailed description of platelet antigens protein structure significance in immunocompetent cells recognition of them is provided.

  2. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

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    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  3. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  4. HIV Specific Humoral Immune Response in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Bongertz V

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to characterize HIV-1 polymorphism and anti-HIV immune response are being made in areas where anti-HIV/AIDS vaccines are to be employed. Anti-HIV-1 humoral immune response is being studied in infected individuals resident in Rio de Janeiro, in distinct cohorts involving recent seroconvertors, pregnant women or intravenous drug users (IDU. Comparative analyses of specificity of antibody response towards epitopes important for anti-HIV-1 immune response indicate quantitative differences between cohorts, with an exceptionally strong response in IDUs and weakest response in pregnant women. However, a comparative analysis between pregnant women cohorts from Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul indicated an even lower response (with exception of the anti-V3-C clade peptide recognition for the southern cohort. Studies analysing the immune function of the humoral response indicate a quite elevated occurrence of antibodies capable of neutralizing heterologous primary HIV-1 isolates from Rio de Janeiro. Attempts to correlate seroreactivity with HIV-1 neutralization with respect to HIV-1 polymorphism were not very successfull: while the Brazilian B clade B" variant could be recognized by binding assays, no significant distinction of HIV-1 clades/variants was observed in viral neutralization assays.

  5. Natural humoral immune competence and survival in layers.

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    Star, L; Frankena, K; Kemp, B; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K

    2007-06-01

    The relation between survival and levels of humoral components of innate (and specific) immune competence of laying hens was investigated in a population of 1,063 laying hens from 12 purebred layer lines. Natural immune competence of the chickens was studied by measuring levels of natural antibodies (NAb) binding to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, and hemolytic (classical and alternative) complement activity at 20, 40, and 65 wk of age. In addition, levels of antibodies binding a Newcastle disease vaccine strain as a measure of specific immunity were investigated at 20 wk of age. A distinction could be made between lines showing high or low immune competence with respect to NAb, complement activity, and specific antibodies. Within lines, significant correlations were found for each of the innate parameters among the 3 ages. The innate and specific parameters were, however, not correlated with each other. Based on the limited data set, it was not possible to draw conclusions on line differences for innate or specific immune competence in relation to survival. However, regardless of line, low levels of NAb binding to KLH or high levels of NAb binding to LPS were detected in chickens that did not survive the laying period. The major difference between the responses of NAb binding to KLH or LPS was that the chickens probably did not encounter KLH, which suggests a reflection of the capacity to respond, whereas the chickens most probably did encounter LPS, which suggests a reflection of the active status of the innate humoral immune system. In conclusion, we propose that levels (KLH) and activation (LPS) of components of natural antibodies are indicative for the probability that chickens survive a laying period.

  6. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

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    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tylosin tartrate on humoral immune responses in chickens.

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    Baba, T; Yamashita, N; Kodama, H; Mukamoto, M; Asada, M; Nakamoto, K; Nose, Y; McGruder, E D

    1998-06-01

    While many antimicrobial agents have been reported to cause immunosuppression in animals, macrolide antibiotics enhance the immune function. Tylosin tartrate is a macrolide antibiotic approved for the control of mycoplasmosis in poultry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of tylosin on the humoral immune functions in chickens. Three days after oral tylosin tartrate administration, 4- or 8-week-old chickens were immunized intravenously with carbolic acid-killed Brucella abortus bacterin or sheep red blood cells. Seven days (plasma antibodies titre) or 4 days (antibody forming cells) post-immunization, there was a significant increase in antibody production as well as in the numbers of antibody-producing cells in tylosin tartrate-administered chickens compared with the untreated controls. However, 3 days after tylosin tartrate administration, there was no difference in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 or CD8 positive cells) or B lymphocytes (surface immunoglobulin positive cells) in either the peripheral blood or spleens or untreated control chickens.

  8. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

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    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response.

  9. An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune system consists of a cellular and a humoral arm. Pentraxins (e.g., the short pentraxin C reactive protein and the long pentraxin PTX3) are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity which also includes complement components, collectins, and ficolins. In response to microorganisms and tissue damage, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells are major sources of fluid-phase pattern-recognition molecules (PRMs) belonging to different molecular classes. Humoral PRMs in turn interact with and regulate cellular effectors. Effector mechanisms of the humoral innate immune system include activation and regulation of the complement cascade; agglutination and neutralization; facilitation of recognition via cellular receptors (opsonization); and regulation of inflammation. Thus, the humoral arm of innate immunity is an integrated system consisting of different molecules and sharing functional outputs with antibodies.

  10. INFLUENCE OF Breg AND IL-10 UPON HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Gavrilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B regulatory cells (Bregs are shown to downregulate autoimmune and inflammation processes. Their modifying effects depend on IL-10 secretion. A role of Bregs in development of humoral immune response was not investigated. Influence of Bregs and IL-10 upon in vitro response of murine B1 and B2 cells to T-dependent and T-independent antigens was studied in a model system. A water-soluble sheep erythrocyte antigen was used as a T-dependent antigen, whereas LPS was applied as a type 1 T-independent antigen, and polyvinylpirrolidone and alpha(1→3dextran were added as type 2 T-independent antigens. В1and B2 lymphocytes were isolated from, respectively, peritoneal cavity and spleen of CBA mice. The cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium with 10% of FCS supplemented with appropriate antigens and IL-10. The numbers of antibody- and total Ig-forming cells were determined by ELISPOT method.The erythrocyte antigen induced an increase of antibody- and total Ig-forming cell numbers in cultured B1 and B2 cell populations. IL-10 addition caused reduction of antibody- and total Ig-forming cells by 27%. Similarly, IL-10 caused a drop in antibody- and total Ig-forming cells in LPS-stimulated B2 cell cultures by 75%, as well as 50 per cent decrease in numbers of antibody-forming cells in B-1 cell cultures when induced by the type 2 T-independent antigens.To assess functional activity of Bregs, the cells were isolated from peritoneal cavity and spleen of CBA mice. Total yields of Bregs were 20-fold increased upon activation of B cells with LPS, ionomycin and phorbol ester (from 4% to 96%. IgM was the main immunoglobulin isotype secreted by the Bregs. 96% of activated Bregs produced IL-10. About 12% of the cells were shown to produce immunoglobulins. This finding suggests that some of Bregs synthesize both IL-10 and immunoglobulins.To study distant effect of Bregs upon immune response, the splenocyte culture of xid CBA/N mice were tested in Transwells with

  11. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  12. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  13. Chronic pediatric pulmonary disease and primary humoral antibody based immune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, A

    2011-04-01

    Chronic inflammation of the larger airways is a common occurrence in children. A number of factors such as younger age, premature birth, male gender, exposure to environmental smoke or pollution, and crowded housing can increase a child's susceptibility to chronic lung disease. Chronic bronchitis may be caused by an underlying humoral immunodeficiency if the clinical course is recurrent or prolonged. Primary humoral immunodeficiency accounts for approximately 70% of all immunodeficiencies. The differential of chronic bronchitis also includes Cystic Fibrosis, ciliary defects and immune cellular and phagocytic defects. This review will summarize the most common humoral antibody based immune based deficiencies associated with chronic pulmonary disease.

  14. The cellular and humoral immunity assay in patients with complicated urolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, E; Banov, P; Galescu, A; Tanase, D

    2017-01-01

    Especially complicated, renal lithiasis contributes to the general inflammatory syndrome development that interferes with nonspecific, humoral and cellular immune system. The surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis is closely related to drug therapy of urinary infection, one of the reasons being the reduction of the immune status. The work is performed by evaluating the immunological status preoperatively in 58 patients with complicated lithiasis. The analysis of the status in these patients demonstrated that complicated urolithiasis results in significant changes in the immune system, these changes being expressed at the cellular and humoral level of immunity. PMID:28255384

  15. Humoral immunity links Candida albicans infection and celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Corouge

    Full Text Available The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI.Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC. IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1.CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004 and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009 antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039. During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides.Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  16. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  17. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Increased humoral immunity by DNA vaccination using an alpha-tocopherol-based adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared to that of traditional vaccine......). The animals received two intracutaneous immunizations spaced 3 weeks apart. When combined with Diluvac Forte® or the emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol, the DNA vaccine induced a more potent and balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG2c response, and both IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced...... constituent alpha-tocopherol plays an important role in this immunogenicity. This induction of a potent and balanced humoral response without impairment of cellular immunity constitutes an important advancement toward effective DNA vaccines....

  19. Abnormal immune parameters in HIV-seronegative haemophilic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allersma, DP; Smid, WM; Briet, E

    In HIV-seronegative haemophiliac patients abnormal immune parameters have been demonstrated. In this review data on these abnormalities, their aetiology and clinical consequences are summarized and discussed. The data reviewed show abnormalities at different levels of the adaptive immune system.

  20. Abnormal immune parameters in HIV-seronegative haemophilic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allersma, DP; Smid, WM; Briet, E

    1996-01-01

    In HIV-seronegative haemophiliac patients abnormal immune parameters have been demonstrated. In this review data on these abnormalities, their aetiology and clinical consequences are summarized and discussed. The data reviewed show abnormalities at different levels of the adaptive immune system. Mos

  1. Humoral and Cellular Immunity Changed after Traumatic Brain Injury in Human Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Jin-Ping; Song, Ying-Lun; Zhao, Qi-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there is a disproportionally higher risk of infection following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This predisposition to infection may be driven by a poorly understood, brain-specific response in the immune system after TBI. However, there is a lack of studies that have fully characterized TBI patients to understand the relationship between TBI and peripheral immune function. In the present study, markers for humoral immunity and cellular immunity were measured for up to 2 weeks in the peripheral blood of 37 patients with TBI in order to elucidate the time course and the type of the peripheral immune response following TBI. 12 relatively healthy individuals without TBI and other neurological diseases were enrolled into the control group. Our data indicated that TBI could induce significant changes in humoral immunity characterized by a decrease in IgG and IgM levels and an increase in the complements C3 and C4 levels in comparison with the control group. Moreover, compared with the control group, a significant reduction in peripheral blood CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) lymphocyte counts occurred early (days 1-3) following the onset of trauma. These results provide evidence that TBI is associated with substantial changes in humoral immunity and cellular immunity, which may explain the high incidence of infection encountered in these patients. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Refinement of humoral immune monitoring in kidney transplantation: the role of "hidden" alloreactive memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Sergi; Lúcia, Marc; Bestard, Oriol

    2017-10-01

    The advent of novel sensitive assays assessing circulating anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies has allowed recognizing humoral alloimmunity as the main immune-mediated mechanism responsible for allograft rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation. However, current immune-monitoring techniques, exclusively focusing on circulating anti-HLA antibodies, may underestimate the magnitude of humoral immune response as they exclude the memory B-cell (mBC) pool. Different biological compartments are involved in the intricate mechanisms triggering humoral alloimmune responses even in absence of detectable circulating alloantibodies. Recent studies in animal models as well as in clinical kidney transplantation have shown the key role of this B-cell subset triggering allograft rejection, thus emphasizing the value of recognizing antidonor mBC both as a biomarker of allosensitization and as therapeutic targets. Therefore, considerable efforts are being made among the transplant research community to better understand the role, hierarchy, and impact of mBC in the context of organ transplantation. In this review article, we provide a deep insight into the biology of mBC as well as main evidence of their role orchestrating allograft rejection. Also, we provide a thorough description of main immune-monitoring tools aiming at tracking mBC and a rational for their potential use to refine current humoral immune-risk assessment in kidney transplantation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  3. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K;

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...

  4. INDICATORS OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY UNDER CHEMICAL BURNS OF ESOPHAGUS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, T V; Kravchenko, N K; Raetska, Ya B; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the immune system has been actively involved in the regeneration and healing processes of post burn wounds. However, unanswered questions remain concerning the role of humoral immunity in the healing mechanisms and development of burn wound complications. We have developed an experimental model of chemical esophageal burn (CEB) which corresponds to esophageal burn in 1-8 years old children. We studied the features of humoral immunity upon CEB in rats. A decrease in IgG levels and an increase in levels of medium- and low- molecular circulating immune complexes (CIC) on the first day of esophageal burns were observed. On the 21st day of burn, we observed an increase in the IgG concentration and a tendency to accumulation of medium- and low-molecular CIC. The studied indicators can be used to differentiate CEB development and create a timeline of burn wounds.

  5. Impairment of the humoral and CD4(+) T cell responses in HTLV-1-infected individuals immunized with tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Anselmo; Santos, Silvane; Carvalho, Lucas P; Grassi, Maria Fernanda R; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-08-01

    T cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals have a decreased ability to proliferate after stimulation with recall antigens. This abnormality may be due to the production of regulatory cytokine or a dysfunctional antigen presentation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibody production and cytokine expression by lymphocytes before and after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) and to evaluate the immune response of monocytes after stimulation with TT and frequency of dendritic cells (DC) subsets. HTLV-1 carriers (HC) and uninfected controls (UC) with negative serology for TT were immunized with TT, and the antibody titers were determined by ELISA as well as the cell activation markers expression by monocytes. The frequencies of DC subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Following immunization, the IgG anti-TT titers and the frequency of CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in response to TT were lower in the HC than in the UC. Additionally, monocytes from HC did not exhibit increased HLA-DR expression after stimulation with TT, and presented low numbers of DC subsets, therefore, it's necessary to perform functional studies with antigen-presenting cells. Collectively, our finding suggests that HC present an impairment of the humoral and CD4(+) T cell immune responses after vaccination.

  6. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper...... is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV...

  7. Various eicosanoids modulate the cellular and humoral immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Yonggyun

    2009-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) can catalyze the oxidation of C20 fatty acids to produce certain eicosanoids, which play roles in mediating immune responses in insects. Despite their critical role in insect immunity, there have been few studies of the unique effects of different eicosanoids on immune responses. This study analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, using seven eicosanoids selected from two major eicosanoid subgroups: prostaglandin (PG) and leukotriene (LT), derived from catalytic activities of COX and LOX respectively. Upon bacterial challenge, all seven eicosanoids (PGA(1), PGB(2), PGD(2), PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(1alpha), and LTB(4)) significantly induced hemocyte nodulation and phagocytosis in the presence of dexamethasone, an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor. However, only PGs induced cell lysis of oenocytoids to release prophenoloxidase, which resulted in an increase in phenoloxidase activity. These seven eicosanoids also induced expression of humoral immune-associated genes, including prophenoloxidase, serpin, dopa decarboxylase, cecropin, and lysozyme, in which PGB(2) and PGE(1) did not induce gene expression of prophenoloxidase. To understand the interactions between different eicosanoids, mixture effects of these eicosanoids were compared with their individual eicosanoid effects on mediating nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. All six single PGs showed increases in nodule formation in a dose-dependent manner without significant difference among the different types. LTB(4) was more potent than the tested PGs in mediating the cellular immune response. At low doses, all combinations of two eicosanoids showed significant additive effects on nodule formation. These results indicate that immune target cells, such as hemocyte and fat body, of S. exigua can respond to different COX and LOX products to express cellular and humoral immune responses, and their overlapping, additive

  8. The effects of ochratoxin/aluminosilicate interaction on the tissues and humoral immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Paulillo, Antonio C; Maiorka, Paulo C; Alessi, Antonio C; Krabbe, Everton L; Maiorka, Alex

    2002-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, on the histology of the bursa of Fabricius, liver and kidneys, and on the humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. The exposure of birds to 2 p.p.m. ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, reduced their humoral immune response and the number of mitotic cells in the bursa. The relative weight of the livers of the birds exposed to this toxin was increased and, microscopically, there was hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis with accompanying hyperplasia of the biliary epithelium. The kidneys showed hypertrophy of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Aluminosilicate did not ameliorate the deleterious effects of the ochratoxin.

  9. Stability of a general delayed virus dynamics model with humoral immunity and cellular infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaiw, A. M.; Raezah, A. A.; Alofi, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behavior of a general nonlinear model for virus dynamics with virus-target and infected-target incidences. The model incorporates humoral immune response and distributed time delays. The model is a four dimensional system of delay differential equations where the production and removal rates of the virus and cells are given by general nonlinear functions. We derive the basic reproduction parameter R˜0 G and the humoral immune response activation number R˜1 G and establish a set of conditions on the general functions which are sufficient to determine the global dynamics of the models. We use suitable Lyapunov functionals and apply LaSalle's invariance principle to prove the global asymptotic stability of the all equilibria of the model. We confirm the theoretical results by numerical simulations.

  10. Potential Benefits and Hazards of Humoral Immune Reactions against HTLV-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-10

    Security Clasification )I * -. : -’- Potential Benefits and Hazards of Humoral Immune Reactions Against HTLV-III 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hans Wigzell, Magnus...and recombinant techniques have been applied to obtain viral envelope protein and cellular receptor protein in adequate quantities. Sera from HIV...defined subpopulations as targets for HIV in the presence or absence of anti-HIV antibodies. Fragmentation of viral envelope proteins have been

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  12. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Min Zhai; Hui-Qi Li; Jian-Bo He; Hai-Guo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity.Methods:A total of 86 patients with cerebral infarction were divided into observation group (cerebral infarction combined with infection) (n=40) and control group (cerebral infarction alone) (n=46) according to the combination of infection. Serum content of cortisol, nerve function-related indexes and humoral immunity indexes as well as peripheral blood levels of cellular immunity indexes of two groups of patients were determined on admission, and the correlation between serum cortisol level and the above illness-related indexes in cerebral infarction patients with infection was further analyzed.Results: Serum cortisol content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group; serum nerve function indexes S100β, GFAP, Hcy and HO1 content were significantly higher than those of control group while IGF-1 content was significantly lower than that of control group; humoral immunity indexes IgA, IgM, IgG, C3 and C4 content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; cellular immunity indexes CD3+, CD4+ and CD54+T lymphocyte content in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group while CD19+T lymphocyte content and CD4+/CD8+ level were significantly higher than those of control group; hemodynamic indexes rCBF and rCBV levels were significantly lower than those of control group while MTT, TTP and DLY levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection was directly correlated with the levels of nerve function, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and other illness-related indexes. Conclusions:The high cortisol state in cerebral infarction patients with infection is the visual sign of severe nerve function damage and suppressed immune function, and it can be a

  13. Effects of fenbendazole on the murine humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2009-05-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone and metyrapone partially restore the adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, Bárbara; Maglioco, Andrea; Machuca, Damián; Greco, Daiana Martire; Landoni, Verónica I; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Meiss, Roberto; Fernández, Gabriela C; Isturiz, Martín A

    2014-08-01

    Prior exposure to endotoxins renders the host temporarily refractory to subsequent endotoxin challenge (endotoxin tolerance). Clinically, this state has also been pointed out as the initial cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. We recently demonstrated the restoration of immune response with mifepristone (RU486), a receptor antagonist of glucocorticoids. Here we report the treatment with other modulators of glucocorticoids, i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone with anti-glucocorticoid properties, or metyrapone (MET) an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis. These drugs were able to partially, but significantly, restore the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. A significant recovery of proliferative responsiveness was also observed when splenocytes were obtained from DHEA- or MET-treated immunosuppressed mice. In addition, these treatments restored the hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Finally, although neither DHEA nor MET improved the reduced CD4 lymphocyte count in spleen from immunosuppressed mice, both treatments promoted spleen architecture reorganization, partially restoring the distinct cellular components and their localization in the spleen. The results from this study indicate that DHEA and MET could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS-immunosuppressed mice, reinforcing the concept of a central involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids on this phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Humoral Immune Responses in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely distributed in the world and associated with a still increasing number of acute, chronic, malignant and autoimmune disease syndromes. Humoral immune responses to EBV have been studied for diagnostic, pathogenic and protective (vaccine) purposes. These studies use a range of methodologies, from cell-based immunofluorescence testing to antibody-diversity analysis using immunoblot and epitope analysis using recombinant or synthetic peptide-scanning. First, the individual EBV antigen complexes (VCA , MA, EA(D), EA(R) and EBNA) are defined at cellular and molecular levels, providing a historic overview. The characteristic antibody responses to these complexes in health and disease are described, and differences are highlighted by clinical examples. Options for EBV vaccination are briefly addressed. For a selected number of immunodominant proteins, in particular EBNA1, the interaction with human antibodies is further detailed at the epitope level, revealing interesting insights for structure, function and immunological aspects, not considered previously. Humoral immune responses against EBV-encoded tumour antigens LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 are addressed, which provide novel options for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, some considerations on EBV-linked autoimmune diseases are given, and mechanisms of antigen mimicry are briefly discussed. Further analysis of humoral immune responses against EBV in health and disease in carefully selected patient cohorts will open new options for understanding pathogenesis of individual EBV-linked diseases and developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  16. Humoral and cellular immunity in cosmonauts after the ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykova, M. P.; Antropova, E. N.; Larina, I. M.; Morukov, B. V.

    Spaceflight effects on the immune system were studied in 30 cosmonauts flown onto the International Space Station (ISS) for long- (125-195 d, n=15) and short-term (8-10 d, n=15) missions. Immunological investigations before launch and after landing were performed by using methods for quantitative and functional evaluation of the immunologically competent cells. Specific assays include: peripheral leukocyte distribution, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity, phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes, proliferation of T-cells in response to a mitogen, levels of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG, virus-specific antibody and cytokine in serum. It was noticed that after long-term spaceflights the percentage of NK (CD3-/CD16+/CD56+) cells was significantly reduced compared with pre-flight data (pcytokines (IL- 1β, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF- α) in serum changed in an apparently random manner as compared with values before long- and short-term missions. Despite the fact that many improvements have been made to the living conditions of aboard the ISS our investigations demonstrate the remarkable depression of the immunological function after the ISS missions. These results suggest that the clinical health risk (related to immune dysfunction) will occur during exploration class missions.

  17. The long pentraxin PTX3 as a prototypic humoral pattern recognition receptor: interplay with cellular innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Cotena, Alessia; Moalli, Federica; Jaillon, Sebastien; Deban, Livija; Mantovani, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system consists of a cellular arm and a humoral arm. Components of humoral immunity include diverse molecular families, which represent functional ancestors of antibodies. They play a key role as effectors and modulators of innate resistance in animals and humans, interacting with cellular innate immunity. The prototypic long pentraxin, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), represents a case in point of this interplay. Gene targeting of this evolutionarily conserved long pentraxin has unequivocally defined its role at the crossroads of innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility. Phagocytes represent a key source of this fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor, which, in turn, facilitates microbial recognition by phagocytes acting as an opsonin. Moreover, PTX3 has modulatory functions on innate immunity and inflammation. Here, we review the studies on PTX3 which emphasize the complexity and complementarity of the crosstalk between the cellular and humoral arms of innate immunity.

  18. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis exposed to naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity, and nitric oxide production on the oyster C. corteziensis. The results indicated that naphthalene, under the conditions tested, significantly deregulated the parameters evaluated. This could increase susceptibility to infections and therefore affect oyster production.

  19. Cellular and humoral immunity of virus-induced asthma

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    Yoshimichi eOkayama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Asthma inception is associated with respiratory viral infection, especially infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and/or human rhinovirus (HRV, in the vast majority of cases. However, the reason why RSV and HRV induce the majority of bronchiolitis cases during early childhood and why only a small percentage of children with RSV- and HRV-induced bronchiolitis later develop asthma remains unclear. A genetic association study has revealed the important interaction between viral illness and genetic variants in patients with asthma. Severe RSV- and HRV-induced bronchiolitis may be associated with a deficiency in the innate immune response to RSV and HRV. RSV and HRV infections in infants with deficient innate immune response and the dysfunction of regulatory T cells are considered to be a risk factor for the development of asthma. Sensitization to aeroallergens, beginning in the first year of life, consistently predisposes children to HRV-induced wheezing illnesses, but the converse is not true. Some evidence of virus specificity exists, in that allergic sensitization specifically increased the risk of wheezing in individuals infected with HRV, but not RSV. Administration of Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the A antigenic site of the Fusion-protein of RSV, decreases the risk of hospitalization in high-risk infants and the risk of recurrent of wheezing. However, palivizumab did not have any effect on subsequent recurrent wheezing in children with a family history of atopy. These findings suggest that infection with RSV and infection with HRV might predispose individuals to recurrent wheezing through an atopy-independent and an atopy-dependent mechanism, respectively. Respiratory virus-induced wheezing illnesses may encompass multiple sub-phenotypes that relate to asthma in different ways.

  20. Differential impact of ageing on cellular and humoral immunity to a persistent murine γ-herpesvirus

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    Burkum Claire E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenic γ-herpesviruses establish life-long infections in their hosts and control of these latent infections is dependent on continual immune surveillance. Immune function declines with age, raising the possibility that immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection becomes compromised with increasing age, allowing viral reactivation and/or increased latent load, both of which are associated with the development of malignancies. Results In this study, we use the experimental mouse γ-herpesvirus model, γHV68, to investigate viral immunity in aged mice. We found no evidence of viral recrudescence or increased latent load in aged latently-infected mice, suggesting that effective immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection remains intact with ageing. As both cellular and humoral immunity have been implicated in host control of γHV68 latency, we independently examined the impact of ageing on γHV68-specific CD8 T cell function and antibody responses. Virus-specific CD8 T cell numbers and cytolytic function were not profoundly diminished with age. In contrast, whereas ELISA titers of virus-specific IgG were maintained over time, there was a progressive decline in neutralizing activity. In addition, although aged mice were able to control de novo acute infection with only slightly delayed viral clearance, serum titers of neutralizing antibody were reduced in aged mice as compared to young mice. Conclusion Although there is no obvious loss of immune control of latent virus, these data indicate that ageing has differential impacts on anti-viral cellular and humoral immune protection during persistent γHV68 infection. This observation has potential relevance for understanding γ-herpesvirus immune control during disease-associated or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  1. Selenium supplementation restores innate and humoral immune responses in footrot-affected sheep.

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    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Dietary selenium (Se alters whole-blood Se concentrations in sheep, dependent upon Se source and dosage administered, but little is known about effects on immune function. We used footrot (FR as a disease model to test the effects of supranutritional Se supplementation on immune function. To determine the effect of Se-source (organic Se-yeast, inorganic Na-selenite or Na-selenate and Se-dosage (1, 3, 5 times FDA-permitted level on FR severity, 120 ewes with and 120 ewes without FR were drenched weekly for 62 weeks with different Se sources and dosages (30 ewes/treatment group. Innate immunity was evaluated after 62 weeks of supplementation by measuring neutrophil bacterial killing ability. Adaptive immune function was evaluated by immunizing sheep with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. At baseline, FR-affected ewes had lower whole-blood and serum-Se concentrations; this difference was not observed after Se supplementation. Se supplementation increased neutrophil bacterial killing percentages in FR-affected sheep to percentages observed in supplemented and non-supplemented healthy sheep. Similarly, Se supplementation increased KLH antibody titers in FR-affected sheep to titers observed in healthy sheep. FR-affected sheep demonstrated suppressed cell-mediated immunity at 24 hours after intradermal KLH challenge, although there was no improvement with Se supplementation. We did not consistently prevent nor improve recovery from FR over the 62 week Se-treatment period. In conclusion, Se supplementation does not prevent FR, but does restore innate and humoral immune functions negatively affected by FR.

  2. Protective effect of rutin on humoral and cell mediated immunity in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Saluja, Ajay K

    2017-08-01

    Diet and dietary intake can persuade the development, safeguard and proper functioning of immune system. Ruin, an important bioflavonoid, is abundantly found in various foodstuffs. Rutin has been acknowledged for its protective and beneficial effects on various aspects of the biological system. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of rutin on the regulation of the immune response in experimental animal models. Effect of rutin of cellular immunity was determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, carbon clearance assay, leucocyte mobilization test, and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, whereas humoral immunity was analyzed by the haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre assay. Rutin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) evoked a significant increase in antibody titre in the haemagglutination test, increased immunoglobulin levels, and enhanced the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. It also significantly restored the functioning of leucocytes in cyclophosphamide treated rats and augmented phagocytic index in the carbon clearance assay. The outcomes from the present study indicate that rutin possesses sufficient potential for increasing immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Detection of Humoral Immune Response of Calves to Boophilus annulatus by ELISA

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    N Alidadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are blood feeder acarians that feed on variety of animals and introduce a wide variety of molecules to their host immune system and some of them may stimulate host immune system to produce antibodies. This study was carried out to detect humoral immune responses following Boophilus annulatus infestation.Methods: Seven cattle were each experimentally infested with 10000 B. annulatus larvae and their humoral immune re­sponse to salivary gland; ovary and larval extracts were determined by ELISA. Measurements of serum antibodies level were recorded weekly, in a period of nine weeks post infestation. Results: An increase of the antibody level was observed in all animals at one week post infestation and reached in a peak at week ninth, then decreased in week 9.Conclusion: Sera of infected animals showed approximately similar reactions to all of tissue extracts that might be due to the presence of common proteins in tick tissues and could be a candidate for immunization.

  4. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 humoral immune response and highly active antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bongertz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1 infection is very effective in controlling infection, but elimination of viral infection has not been achieved as yet, and upon treatment interruption an immediate rebound of viremia is observed. A combination of HAART with an immune stimulation might allow treatment interruption without this rebounding viremia, as the very low viremias observed with successful HAART may be insufficient to permit maintenance of a specific anti-HIV-1 immune response. The objective of this study was to compare the humoral immune response of individuals undergoing successful HAART (NF=no failure with that of individuals with evidence of failure of therapy (FT and to verify if the viremia peaks observed in individuals with therapy failure would act as a specific stimulus for the humoral anti-HIV-1 immune response. Antibodies binding to gp120 V3 genotype consensus peptides were more frequently observed for FT, mainly against peptides corresponding to sequences of genotypes prevalent in the Rio de Janeiro city area, B and F. HIV-1 neutralization of HIV-1 IIIB and of four primary isolates from Rio de Janeiro was less frequently observed for plasma from the NF than the FT group, but this difference was more expressive when plasma from individuals with detectable viremia were compared to that of individuals with undetectable viral loads in the year before sample collection. Although statistically significant differences were observed only in some specific comparisons, the study indicates that presence of detectable viremia may contribute to the maintenance of a specific anti-HIV-1 humoral immune response.

  5. Inducing a humoral immune response to pancreatic cancer antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael; Seifert, Gabriel; Wolff-Vorbeck, Guido; Langenmair, Elia; Hopt, Ulrich T; Wittel, Uwe A

    2016-12-01

    Patients with pancreatic carcinoma have a grim prognosis. Here, we examine the induction of an in vitro antibody response of human B cells to pancreatic carcinoma antigens. Cells of five cultured pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma lines were lysed and their plasma membrane fragments isolated in an aqueous two-phase-system. The plasma membrane fragments were then added to cultures of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers for 14 days to act as a tumor antigen. Also, we added combinations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-21, anti-CD40 mAb and varying protein concentrations of the plasma membrane fragments to these cultures. We then tested characteristics and binding of resulting IgG and IgM against aforementioned tumor plasma membrane fragments and their respective cells using ELISAs. The combination of IL-2, IL-4 and anti-CD40 mAb elicited IgM production showing significant binding (pBxPC3 plasma membrane fragments showed inhibitory effects on IgG binding BxPC3 antigens (p<0.05). A human anti-tumor antibody formation can be induced in vitro using PANC-1 antigens and B cell stimulating agents. This response has the potential to generate antibodies specific to PANC-1 antigens. PRéCIS: The concept presented is novel and a promising approach to eliciting a specific B cell response to tumor antigen. The method may prove useful in understanding and developing anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular and humoral local immune responses in sheep experimentally infected with Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Guillaume; Lacroux, Caroline; Andreoletti, Olivier; Bergeaud, Jean Paul; Hailu-Tolosa, Yacob; Hoste, Hervé; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Dorchies, Philippe; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Cellular and humoral local responses were investigated following repetitive artificial Oestrus ovis infections in lambs. The presence of larvae induced a huge local recruitment of either leucocytes (T and B lymphocytes, macrophages) or granulocytes (eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes). This cellular response was more pronounced in the ethmoid and sinus (development sites of second and third instar larvae) than in the septum or turbinates where first instar larvae migrate. Infected lambs produced Oestrus ovis specific IgG and IgA antibodies in their mucus. This local humoral response was mainly directed against larval salivary gland antigens and not against larval digestive tract antigens. Compared to the control animals, the sinusal mucosa of infected animals was extremely thickened and the epithelium exhibited hyperplasia, metaplasia and eosinophilic exocytosis. The possible roles of these local immune responses in the regulation of O. ovis larvae populations in sheep are discussed.

  7. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, François; Duverlie, Gilles; Dubuisson, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review. PMID:22069522

  8. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review.

  9. Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 limits germinal center responses and humoral type 2 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachs, Sebastian; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Stein, Merle; Reimer, Dorothea; Brachvogel, Bent; Bösl, Michael; Winkler, Thomas; Voehringer, David; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Mielenz, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Activated B cells are selected for in germinal centers by regulation of their apoptosis. The Ca2+ -binding cytoskeletal adaptor protein Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 (EFhd2) can promote apoptosis in activated B cells. We therefore hypothesized that EFhd2 might limit humoral immunity by repressing both the germinal center reaction and the expected enhancement of immune responses in the absence of EFhd2. Here, we established EFhd2(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background, which revealed normal B- and T-cell development, basal Ab levels, and T-cell independent type 1, and T-cell independent type 2 responses. However, T cell-dependent immunization with sheep red blood cells and infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N.b) increased production of antibodies of multiple isotypes, as well as germinal center formation in EFhd2(-/-) mice. In addition, serum IgE levels and numbers of IgE+ plasma cells were strongly increased in EFhd2(-/-) mice, both after primary as well as after secondary N.b infection. Finally, mixed bone marrow chimeras unraveled an EFhd2-dependent B cell-intrinsic contribution to increased IgE plasma cell numbers in N.b-infected mice. Hence, we established a role for EFhd2 as a negative regulator of germinal center-dependent humoral type 2 immunity, with implications for the generation of IgE.

  10. A Novel Chitosan CpG Nanoparticle Regulates Cellular and Humoral Immunity of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To develop a safe and novel immunoadjuvant to enhance the immunity and resistance of animals against E.coli infection. Methods An 88-base immunostimulatory oligodeoxynuleotide containing eleven CpG motifs (CpG ODN)was synthesized and amplified by PCR. The chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) was prepared by ion linking method to entrap the CpG ODN that significantly promotes the proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro. Then the CpG- CNP was inoculated into 21-day old Kunming mice, which were orally challenged with virulent K88/K99 E. Coli 35 days after inoculation. Blood was collected from the tail vein of mice on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after inoculation to detect the changes and content of immunoglobulins, cytokines and immune cells by ELISA, such as IgG, IgA, IgM, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Results The CpG provoked remarkable proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro in comparison with that of control group (P<0.05). The inoculation with CpG-CNP significantly raised the content of IgG, IgM, and IgA in the sera of immunized mice (P<0.05). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 in the mice significantly increased in comparison with those in controls (P<0.05), so was the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in immunized mice. The humoral and cellular immunities were significantly enhanced in immunized mice, which resisted the infection of E. coli and survived, while the control mice manifested evident symptoms and lesions of infection. Conclusions CpG-CNP can significantly promote cellular and humoral immunity and resistance of mice against E. coli infection, and can be utilized as an effective adjuvant to improve the immunoprotection and resistance of porcine against infectious disease.

  11. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  12. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark.

  13. A possible role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Carolyn F; Rowe, Dominic B; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Mori, Hideo; Halliday, Glenda M

    2005-11-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is unknown, but nigral degeneration and depigmentation are associated with microglial inflammation and anti-inflammatory medications appear to protect against the disease. The possibility that humoral immunity may play a role in initiating or regulating the inflammation has been suggested by experimental studies triggering dopamine cell death using a variety of transfer strategies and the observation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and complement in the nigra in Parkinson's disease. We analysed the association between degeneration and humoral immune markers in brain tissue of patients with idiopathic (n = 13) or genetic (n = 2 with alpha-synuclein and n = 1 with parkin mutations) Parkinson's disease and controls without neurological disease (n = 12) to determine the humoral immune involvement in Parkinson's disease. Formalin-fixed tissue samples from the substantia nigra and primary visual cortex for comparison were stained for alpha-synuclein, major histocompatibility complex II (HLA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses 1-4 and IgG receptors FcgammaR I-III. Antigen retrieval and both single immunoperoxidase and double immunofluorescence procedures were employed to determine the cell types involved and their pattern and semiquantitative densities. Significant dopamine neuron loss occurred in all patients with Parkinson's disease, negatively correlating with disease duration (r = -0.76, P = 0.002). Although all patients had increased inflammatory HLA immunopositive microglia, the degree of inflammation was similar throughout the disease (r = 0.08, P = 0.82). All patients with Parkinson's disease had IgG binding on dopamine neurons but not IgM binding. Lewy bodies were strongly immunolabelled with IgG. A mean 30 +/- 12% of dopamine nigral neurons were immunoreactive for IgG in Parkinson's disease with the proportion of IgG immunopositive neurons negatively correlating with the degree of cell loss in

  14. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  15. Interference of the humoral immune response against resident and non-resident intestinal commensal strains in weaning pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casini, L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Coloretti, F.; Filippi, de S.; Mazzoni, M.; Trevisi, P.; Bosi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Not nocuous bacteria are important for the maturation and the modulating activity of the gut immune system. However, the humoral immune response against commensal and probiotic bacteria is less documented, particularly in farmhouse animals. Blood serum and saliva were collected in two trials where p

  16. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  17. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  18. The humoral immune response of lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, D; Spooner, R K; Jones, G E; Russell, W C

    1990-08-01

    Using sera from lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica, the development of a good humoral immune response to M. ovipneumoniae was detected by ELISA. The antibody titres peaked 41 days post-infection and good antibody titres were maintained over the 16-week experimental period. Immunoblotting revealed that antibodies to specific antigens appeared in the sera in a sequential manner, some being seen shortly after infection and others developing only after a substantial time lag. Antibodies were raised against almost all the major antigens detected in one laboratory strain (956/2) and against all antigens previously shown to be conserved in 22 Scottish field isolates of M. ovipneumoniae.

  19. Neutralization Interfering Antibodies: A “Novel” Example of Humoral Immune Dysfunction Facilitating Viral Escape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Burioni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune response against some viral pathogens, in particular those causing chronic infections, is often ineffective notwithstanding a robust humoral neutralizing response. Several evasion mechanisms capable of subverting the activity of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs have been described. Among them, the elicitation of non-neutralizing and interfering Abs has been hypothesized. Recently, this evasion mechanism has acquired an increasing interest given its possible impact on novel nAb-based antiviral therapeutic and prophylactic approaches. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms of Ab-mediated interference and the viral pathogens described in literature as able to adopt this “novel” evasion strategy.

  20. Bone marrow transplantation for CVID-like humoral immune deficiency associated with red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayour, Elias J; Mousallem, Talal; Van Mater, David; Wang, Endi; Martin, Paul; Buckley, Rebecca H; Barfield, Raymond C

    2016-10-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease, which may mark the disease onset; however, anemia secondary to pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon presenting feature. Here, we describe a case of CVID-like humoral immune deficiency in a child who initially presented with red cell aplasia and ultimately developed progressive bone marrow failure. Although bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been associated with high mortality in CVID, our patient was successfully treated with a matched sibling BMT and engrafted with >98% donor chimerism and the development of normal antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. AAV-mediated delivery of optogenetic constructs to the macaque brain triggers humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Skyler D; El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable. However, vector readministration has consequences for humoral immunity and gene delivery that depend on vector dosage and route of administration in complex ways. As part of optogenetic experiments in rhesus monkeys, we analyzed blood sera collected before and after AAV injections into the brain and quantified neutralizing antibodies to AAV using an in vitro assay. We found that injections of AAV1 and AAV9 vectors elevated neutralizing antibody titers consistently. These immune responses were specific to the serotype injected and were long lasting. These results demonstrate that optogenetic manipulations in monkeys trigger immune responses to AAV capsids, suggesting that vector readministration may have a higher likelihood of success by avoiding serotypes injected previously.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene delivery is a valuable tool for neurophysiology, but variability in transduction efficiency remains a bottleneck for experimental success. Repeated vector injections can help overcome this limitation but affect humoral immune state and transgene expression in ways that are poorly understood. We show that AAV vector injections into the primate central nervous system trigger long-lasting and serotype-specific immune responses, raising the possibility that switching serotypes may promote successful vector readministration. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Yeast product supplementation modulated humoral and mucosal immunity and uterine inflammatory signals in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, K; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Mamedova, L K; Muckey, M B; Shen, Y; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J

    2015-05-01

    The transition from late gestation to early lactation is characterized by substantial metabolic stress and altered immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on immunity and uterine inflammation in transition cows. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected parturition date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21d before expected parturition to 42d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a product containing yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR, Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Cows were injected subcutaneously with ovalbumin on d -21, -7, and 14 to assess their humoral response. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Concentrations of colostrum IgG were unaffected by treatments. A treatment × week interaction was observed for somatic cell linear score, reflecting a tendency for a quadratic dose effect on wk 1 (2.34, 2.85, 1.47, and 4.06±0.59 for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) and a quadratic dose effect on wk 5 (1.36, -0.15, -1.07, and 0.35±0.64 for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively). Platelet count was increased by YC-EHY. Increasing YC-EHY dose linearly increased plasma anti-ovalbumin IgG levels following 3 ovalbumin challenges, suggesting that treatments enhanced humoral immunity. Increasing YC-EHY dose also quadratically increased fecal IgA concentrations in early lactation, suggesting that 30 and 60g/d doses enhanced mucosal immunity. Uterine neutrophil populations were much greater in samples collected on d 7 compared with those on d 42 (32.1 vs. 7.6±3.5% of cells), reflecting neutrophil infiltration immediately after calving, but no treatment effect was detected. Significant day effects were detected for mRNA of IL-6, IL-8, neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO), and neutrophil elastase (ELANE

  3. Clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of myasthenia gravis patients with abnormal and normal thymus gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhua Peng; Yongqiang Dai; Wei Qiu; Xueqiang Hu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease which mainly affects neuromuscular junctions. The ages, modified Osserman classification and clinical manifestation and humoral immunol function of MG with and without thymic abnormality are different.OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of MG with abnormal and normal thymus gland.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 49 inpatients with MG were selected from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from March 2000 to August 2005. All the patients had typical clinical manifestation of MG and positive neostigmine test. All the patients knew and agreed the laboratory examinations. There were 22 males and 27 females of 2-69 years old. Chest MRI or CT scan were performed to reveal thymus gland abnormality. According to whether there was tumor in superior mediastinum, all patients were divided into 2 groups, abnormal and normal groups. Normal thymus gland group (n=30) contained 16 males and 14 famales of 6-43 years old. Abnormal thymus gland group (n=19) contained 6 male and 13 female of 2-69years old.METHODS: ① All patients were questioned about initial symptoms. Meanwhile, main clinical manifestations were recorded at hospital admission. ② 7180A automatic biochemical analyzer and automatic microplate reader were used in detecting seroimmunity index. The levels of C3, C4, IgG, IgA, IgM and CH50 in blood serum were analyzed by nephelometry. ③ Clinical classification is based on modified Osserman classification. The patients with MG were divided into six types: Ⅰ (Ocular myasthenia), Ⅱ a (Mild generalized myasthenia), Ⅱ b (Moderately severe generalized myasthenia), Ⅲ (Acute fulminating myasthenia), Ⅳ (Late severe myasthenia).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Differences of initial symptoms and clinical manifestation of two group patients.

  4. Specific humoral immune response induced by propionibacterium acnes can prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Lei, Liancheng; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-03-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia.

  5. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  6. Preparation of ESAT-6 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Humoral Immunity after Intranasal Administration

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    H Najminezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among several tuberculosis vaccine candidates for replacement of BCG, ESAT-6 protein has a special role. Since mycobacterium tuberculosis infection most often attacks the lungs, intranasal rout can be regarded as appropriate methods for tuberculosis vaccines and drug delivery. One of the appropriate systems for intranasal vaccine delivery is using biodegradable nanoparticles. Among biodegradable polymers, chitosan polymer has great features to increase the response of immunity system. This study aimed to investigate the specific humoral immune response of mice model after encapsulation of recombinant ESAT-6 antigen in chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: The chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 antigen were synthesized by ionic gelation. Nanoparticle properties including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation rates, and protein release were measured in vitro. The immunization was performed through the nose for 3 times on days 0 and 14 and 28. 2 weeks after last administration, blood samples were collected and specific IgG titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Results: The nanoparticles synthesized had appropriate properties. The mean size of resulting nanoparticles was 242.8 nm by excellent antigen loading capacity (95.23 %. The vitro release of antigen from nanoparticles after 200 hours was detected as 67.5%. The Level of IgG antibody showed significant increase in the group that had received chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 compared with other groups. Conclusion: ESAT-6 protein was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles successfully. Administration of chitosan nanoparticles can be a suitable method for administration of humoral immunity antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through intranasal rout.

  7. A Study on the Humoral and Complement Immune System of Patients with Organic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Najjarbashi, Faegheh; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Alaei, Mohammadreza; Shakiba, Marjan; Jami, Aliakbar; Ghadimi, Farah

    2015-12-01

    Patients with organic acidemia are prone to different infections, which lead to acidosis episodes. Some studies have evaluated the status of immune system in acidotic phase in these patients, but to the best of our knowledge no study has evaluated the immune system in non-acidotic phase of the disease. In this study, thirty-one patients with organic acidemia were enrolled. For evaluation of humoral immunity, serum IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM, isohemaggltuinin titer, anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG were measured. For screening of complement deficiencies, serum C3, C4, and CH50 were assessed. Eleven patients had Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), 10 had methylmalonic acidemia, 5 had isovaleric acidemia, 4 had glutaric aciduria, and 1 had propionic acidemia. Serum IgM level was less than normal in 2 patients. Serum isohemagglutinin titer was less than 1:8 in 2 other patients. IgA, IgE, and IgG were within normal range for all patients. Anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG levels were low in two patients with MSUD. No significant relationship was found between any of the measured parameters and history of recurrent admissions, recurrent infections and the type of their diseases. Five patients had high C3 level, 4 had high C4 level, and 5 had high CH50 percentage. Totally, 10 patients had high complement level, but no remarkable connection was noted between the type of the disease and complement level. Minor insignificant deficiencies in humoral immunity in non-acidotic phase of organic acidemia were found. Some components of complement system showed increase in some patients, which might be due to decreased pH in extracellular fluid.

  8. Effect of nanovaccine chemistry on humoral immune response kinetics and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughney, Shannon L.; Ross, Kathleen A.; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections represent a significant portion of global morbidity and mortality annually. There is a critical need for efficacious vaccines against respiratory pathogens. To vaccinate against respiratory disease, pulmonary delivery is an attractive route because it mimics the route of natural infection and can confer both mucosal and systemic immunity. We have previously demonstrated that a single dose, intranasal vaccine based on polyanhydride nanoparticles elicited a protective immune response against Yersinia pestis for at least 40 weeks after immunization with F1-V. Herein, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle chemistry and its attributes on the kinetics and maturation of the antigen-specific serum antibody response. We demonstrate that manipulation of polyanhydride nanoparticle chemistry facilitated differential kinetics of development of antibody titers, avidity, and epitope specificity. The results provide new insights into the underlying role(s) of nanoparticle chemistry in providing long-lived humoral immunity and aid in the rational design of nanovaccine formulations to induce long-lasting and mature antibody responses.Acute respiratory infections represent a significant portion of global morbidity and mortality annually. There is a critical need for efficacious vaccines against respiratory pathogens. To vaccinate against respiratory disease, pulmonary delivery is an attractive route because it mimics the route of natural infection and can confer both mucosal and systemic immunity. We have previously demonstrated that a single dose, intranasal vaccine based on polyanhydride nanoparticles elicited a protective immune response against Yersinia pestis for at least 40 weeks after immunization with F1-V. Herein, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle chemistry and its attributes on the kinetics and maturation of the antigen-specific serum antibody response. We demonstrate that manipulation of polyanhydride nanoparticle chemistry

  9. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  10. Assessment of humoral immunity to Eimeria tenella sporozoites in chickens by ELISA

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    S. Saravanan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the humoral immune response of Eimeria tenella sporozoites in broiler chickens by a developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the efficacy in terms of bodyweight, lesion score and oocysts excretion in immunized broilers. Materials and Methods: Purified live E. tenella sporozoites were administered subcutaneously in neck region of broiler chickens in the early life (first week at different concentrations. The potency of the sporozoite vaccine as assessed by IgG levels and the performance in immunized broilers as assessed by body weight, lesion score and oocysts excretion in faeces after challenge with 10, 000 live E. tenella oocysts at 49 days of age were evaluated. Results: The chickens of group (T4 immunized with 20 µg of antigen on day 6 showed an increase in IgG levels (0.161±0.004 two weeks post immunization (PI peaking (0.399± 0.016 at 5 weeks PI. The mean weekly weight gain (g after challenge, at 56 days of age was high in T4 (148±4.751 g with a low mean lesion score (2.5±0.22 and mean oocyst output (x103 oocytes per gram (OPG in faeces (100.3± 45.72 when compared to unimmunised infected controls. Conclusion: An early but partial immune response against caecal coccidiosis could be achieved by immunization with E. tenella specific sporozoites in chickens of less than a week old. Moreover, the performance of immunized chickens as indicated by weight gain, lesion score and oocyst output was found to be superior to the unimmunized infected controls.

  11. Humoral immune response to HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ in HTLV-1-infected individuals

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    Enose-Akahata Yoshimi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection can lead to development of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in a subset of infected subjects. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ gene has a critical role in HTLV-1 infectivity and the development of ATL and HAM/TSP. However, little is known about the immune response against HBZ in HTLV-1-infected individuals. In this study, we examined antibody responses against HBZ in serum/plasma samples from 436 subjects including HTLV-1 seronegative donors, asymptomatic carriers (AC, ATL, and HAM/TSP patients using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system. Results Immunoreactivity against HBZ was detected in subsets of all HTLV-1-infected individuals but the test did not discriminate between AC, ATL and HAM/TSP. However, the frequency of detection of HBZ-specific antibodies in the serum of ATL patients with the chronic subtype was higher than in ATL patients with the lymphomatous subtype. Antibody responses against HBZ were also detected in cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients with anti-HBZ in serum. Antibody responses against HBZ did not correlate with proviral load and HBZ mRNA expression in HAM/TSP patients, but the presence of an HBZ-specific response was associated with reduced CD4+ T cell activation in HAM/TSP patients. Moreover, HBZ-specific antibody inhibited lymphoproliferation in the PBMC of HAM/TSP patients. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating humoral immune response against HBZ associated with HTLV-I infection. Thus, a humoral immune response against HBZ might play a role in HTLV-1 infection.

  12. The PLA2 gene mediates the humoral immune responses in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiujia; Dong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) from the sn-2 position. However, little is known about its role in humoral immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of PLA2 in different tissues and developmental stages in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the results showed that the transcriptional level of PLA2 was high in the egg and mature stage and in the testis tissue. Bacterial infection increased the expression of PLA2, and the highest degree of up-regulation appeared in the fat body. Silencing PLA2 influenced the expression of immune-related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, the expression of MyD88 and defensin was down-regulated significantly in the ds-PLA2 group compared with those in the ds-egfp group when B. dorsalis was infected with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, indicating that PLA2 was involved in the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activate the Imd pathway, does not increase the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in the ds-PLA2 group as severely as it increases those in the ds-egfp group, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silencing PLA2. Notably, the development of lipid droplets in fat body cells was influenced by silencing PLA2, implying that PLA2 affects the function of fat body tissue. These results suggest that the PLA2 gene may mediate humoral immune responses by reducing lipid storage in fat body cells in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunology of Kaschin- Beck Disease: Studies on lymphocyte subsets, humoral immunity and their relationship with selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-lun; ZHAI Jun-min; GUO Ru-ning; CHEN Jing-hong; CHEN Yan; ZHOU Yang; Jean Vanderpas

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the humoral immunity status and distribution pattern of lymphocyte subgroups of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in patients with Kaschin - Beck Disease (KBD), and their relationship with erythrocyte selenium. Methods 23 X- ray diagnosed patients, 22 age- and sex- matched healthy children in KBD affected area (KAA), And 25 in KBD non- affected area (KNAA) were randomly selected. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies anti - CD4, anti-CD8. anti - CD20 was conducted to analyze the lymphocyte subsets. Serum IgM, IgA, IgG, Complement C3 and C4 were assayed using rate nephelometry (Array 360 System, USA). The contents of erythrocyte selenium was determined by 2,3 - diaminonaphthalene fluorescence assay. Results CD4+ and CD8 + cells percentage in PBMCs and serum IgA were significantly lower in KAA than those in KNAA( P < 0.05). CD20 +percentage in KAA displayed a decreasing trend compared to KNAA, although not statistically significantly. No statistical differences were found in CD4/CD8 ratio, serum IgG, IgM, C3 and C4 levels. Erythrocyte selenium level in KAA still showed a pronounced decrease compared to that in KNAA. Correlation analysis showed that erythrocyte selenium contents had a strong association with the CD4 cell percentage ( r =0.625, P <0.05), and also a close relationship with serum IgA ( r =0.462, P <0.05). In addition, we detected a moderate correlation between the serum IgA and CD4 + percentage ( r = 0. 130, P > 0. 05). Conclusion Taken together, our resalts suggested that children in KAA had a comparably low cellular immunity level manifested by the marked depression of CD4 and CD8 cells percentage, and their humoral immunity status was also in a state of moderate immune suppression. Of this immune disorder in KBD patients, selenium deficiency probably played a critical role via affecting the distribution pattern of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Selenium-deficiency and immune impairment maybe both have

  14. mTOR Promotes Antiviral Humoral Immunity by Differentially Regulating CD4 Helper T Cell and B Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lilin; Lee, Junghwa; Xu, Lifan; Mohammed, Ata-Ur-Rasheed; Li, Weiyan; Hale, J Scott; Tan, Wendy G; Wu, Tuoqi; Davis, Carl W; Ahmed, Rafi; Araki, Koichi

    2017-02-15

    mTOR has important roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, but whether and how mTOR modulates humoral immune responses have yet to be fully understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, on B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Rapamycin treatment resulted in suppression of virus-specific B cell responses by inhibiting proliferation of germinal center (GC) B cells. In contrast, the number of memory CD4 T cells was increased in rapamycin-treated mice. However, the drug treatment caused a striking bias of CD4 T cell differentiation into Th1 cells and substantially impaired formation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which are essential for humoral immunity. Further experiments in which mTOR signaling was modulated by RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that B cells were the primary target cells of rapamycin for the impaired humoral immunity and that reduced Tfh formation in rapamycin-treated mice was due to lower GC B cell responses that are essential for Tfh generation. Additionally, we found that rapamycin had minimal effects on B cell responses activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which stimulates B cells in an antigen-independent manner, suggesting that rapamycin specifically inhibits B cell responses induced by B cell receptor stimulation with antigen. Together, these findings demonstrate that mTOR signals play an essential role in antigen-specific humoral immune responses by differentially regulating B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute viral infection and that rapamycin treatment alters the interplay of immune cell subsets involved in antiviral humoral immunity. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in a variety of cellular activities. Although its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, is currently used as an immunosuppressive drug in transplant patients, it has been reported that rapamycin can also stimulate pathogen

  15. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional house-to-house study in a leishmaniasis-endemic area in Kenya, the cellular and humoral immune response to Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was determined. Clinical data, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and plasma were obtained from 50 individuals over the age of eight...

  16. Humoral immune response to campylobacter jejuni in patients with enterocolitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

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    Ristić Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. In addition, it can cause neurological post-infectious sequels, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. Humoral immune response to C. jejuni was monitored in patients with C. jejuni enterocolitis, GBS patients and healthy persons, by ELISA. Statistical significance between patients with enterocolitis and healthy persons, as well as among GBS patients and healthy controls, was proven. Statistical significance in IgA among the examined groups was also noticed. The highest values of IgM were found in the patients with GBS, while the highest values of IgG were found in those with enterocolitis. C. jejuni is a significant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. ELISA techniques can be considered a reliable method in determining the presence of serum antibodies in patients with enterocolitis caused by C. jejuni, as well as in patients with GBS.

  17. The effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong H; Li, Xi T; Wang, Xin; Li, Hua S; Yin, Rong L; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Qiao; Wang, Wen C; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Bao S; Han, Xiao H; He, Jian B; Bai, Wen L

    2016-04-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical with high nitrogen content. When added to the pet food and milk it can falsely elevate the apparent protein concentration readings. Cyanuric acid related structurally to melamine has a strong mutual affinity with melamine. The combined ingestion of melamine and cyanuric acid was considered to be responsible for the crystalluria, kidney stones and subsequent renal failure in animals. In our previous investigation, we demonstrated that melamine alone or its combination with cyanuric acid appears to be toxic to the immune system in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice. In comparison to control group, a significantly lower content of plasma cells expressing CD138 were observed in mixture groups of melamine and cyanuric acid with both middle and high doses. The co-administration of melamine and cyanuric acid resulted in a significant decreasing in blimp-1 protein expression and the contents of sIgA, C3, IL-21 and IL-4 compared with the control group. Moreover, our data clearly showed that melamine-related toxicity suppressed the production of IL-6 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the animals from mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid with high dose group exhibited a significantly lower expression of gata-3 protein, The results from the present study suggested that the exposure to melamine alone or combination with cyanuric acid had certain humoral immunotoxicity in mice, especially when ingested in high dosage.

  18. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  19. IGKC and FcγR genotypes and humoral immunity to HER2 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janardan P; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Black, Laurel; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Hamada, Gerson S; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-02-01

    Immunoglobulin κ constant (IGKC) gene has recently been identified as a strong prognostic marker in several human solid tumors, including breast cancer. Although the mechanisms underlying the IGKC signature are not yet known, identification of tumor-infiltrating plasma cells as the source of IGKC expression strongly suggests a role for humoral immunity in breast cancer progression. The primary aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the genetic variants of IGKC, KM (κ marker) allotypes, are risk factors for breast cancer, and whether they influence the magnitude of humoral immunity to epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which is overexpressed in 25-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Using a matched case-control design, we genotyped a large (1719 subjects) study population from Japan and Brazil for KM alleles. Both cases and controls in this study population had been previously characterized for GM (γ marker) and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) alleles, and the cases had also been characterized for anti-HER2 antibodies. Conditional logistic regression analysis of the data showed that KM1 allele additively contributed to the risk of breast cancer in the Japanese subjects from Nagano: Compared to KM3 homozygotes, KM1 homozygotes were almost twice as likely to develop breast cancer (OR=1.77, CI 1.06-2.95). Additionally, KM genotypes-individually and in particular epistatic combinations with FcγRIIa genotypes-contributed to the magnitude of anti-HER2 antibody responsiveness in the Japanese patients. This is the first report implicating KM alleles in the immunobiology of breast cancer.

  20. Time of Initiating Enzyme Replacement Therapy Affects Immune Abnormalities and Disease Severity in Patients with Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanou, Chidima; Plassmeyer, Matthew; Ryherd, Mark; Kozhaya, Lina; Austin, Lauren; Abidoglu, Cem; Unutmaz, Derya; Alpan, Oral; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) patients often present with abnormalities in immune response that may be the result of alterations in cellular and/or humoral immunity. However, how the treatment and clinical features of patients impact the perturbation of their immunological status remains unclear. To address this, we assessed the immune profile of 26 GD patients who were part of an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) study. Patients were evaluated clinically for onset of GD symptoms, duration of therapy and validated outcome measures for ERT. According to DS3 disease severity scoring system criteria, they were assigned to have mild, moderate or severe GD. Flow cytometry based immunophenotyping was performed to analyze subsets of T, B, NK, NKT and dendritic cells. GD patients showed multiple types of immune abnormalities associated to T and B lymphocytes with respect to their subpopulations as well as memory and activation markers. Skewing of CD4 and CD8 T cell numbers resulting in lower CD4/CD8 ratio and an increase in overall T cell activation were observed. A decrease in the overall B cells and an increase in NK and NKT cells were noted in the GD patients compared to controls. These immune alterations do not correlate with GD clinical type or level of biomarkers. However, subjects with persistent immune alterations, especially in B cells and DCs correlate with longer delay in initiation of ERT (ΔTX). Thus, while ERT may reverse some of these immune abnormalities, the immune cell alterations become persistent if therapy is further delayed. These findings have important implications in understanding the immune disruptions before and after treatment of GD patients. PMID:27942037

  1. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

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    Iana H Haralambieva

    age, and that specific markers of immunosenescence (e.g., the baseline/early expression of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells and T cell immune abnormalities are correlated with different humoral immune response outcomes observed after vaccination in older individuals, and thus can be potentially used to predict vaccine immunogenicity.

  2. Enhancement of cellular and humoral immunity following embryonic exposure to melatonin in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C B; Siopes, T D

    2005-09-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of in ovo melatonin supplementation on the ontogeny of immunity in the Large White turkey poult. Different levels of melatonin were injected into the air cell of the egg 4 days prior to hatch. In Experiment 1, turkey embryos received 3 ml of solution containing 200, 100, 50, 25, 10, or 1 microg/ml of melatonin. The hatchability at each dose was determined and compared to vehicle-injected controls. In Experiment 2, only poults from melatonin treatments in Experiment 1 that resulted in normal hatchability (10 and 1 microg/ml) were used. Lymphoproliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) and primary antibody responses to Chukar red blood cells (CRBC) were determine at five time intervals: 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 days post-hatch. At each of these times, including 28 days post-hatch, treatment effects on body weights were determined. At 28 days post-hatch, bursal, thymic, and splenic weights were obtained. In ovo melatonin administration significantly accelerated (P0.05) the development of cell-mediated (PHA-P) and humoral (CRBC) immune responses, and these responses were significantly elevated above vehicle-injected controls through 21 days post-hatch. No effect was observed on bursal, thymic, splenic or body weights. These data suggest that embryonic exposure to melatonin enhances post-hatch immune development and responsiveness.

  3. Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, H; Holers, V M; Li, B; Fung, Y; Mariathasan, S; Goellner, J; Strauss-Schoenberger, J; Karr, R W; Chaplin, D D

    1996-04-16

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) have been implicated as regulators of B-cell activation. We explored the role of these receptors in the development of humoral immunity by generating CR1- and CR2-deficient mice using gene-targeting techniques. These mice have normal basal levels of IgM and of IgG isotypes. B- and T-cell development are overtly normal. Nevertheless, B-cell responses to low and high doses of a T-cell-dependent antigen are impaired with decreased titers of antigen-specific IgM and IgG isotypes. This defect is not complete because there is still partial activation of B lymphocytes during the primary immune response, with generation of splenic germinal centers and a detectable, although reduced, secondary antibody response. These data suggest that certain T-dependent antigens manifest an absolute dependence on complement receptors for the initiation of a normally robust immune response.

  4. Humoral Immune Response to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin, the Protein Carrier in Cancer Vaccines

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    A. Kantele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH appears to be a promising protein carrier for tumor antigens in numerous cancer vaccine candidates. The humoral immune response to KLH was characterized at the single-cell level with ELISPOT combined with separations of cell populations according to their expression of homing receptors (HRs. The analysis of HR expressions is expected to reveal the targeting of the immune response in the body. Eight orally primed and four nonprimed volunteers received KLH-vaccine subcutaneously. Circulating KLH-specific plasmablasts were found in all volunteers, 60 KLH-specific plasmablasts/106 PBMC in the nonprimed and 136/106 in the primed group. The proportion of L-selectin+ plasmablasts proved high and integrin α4β7+ low. KLH serving as protein carrier in several vaccines, the homing profile of KLH-specific response may be applicable to the cancer antigen parts in the same vaccines. The present data reflect a systemic homing profile, which appears advantageous for the targeting of immune response to cancer vaccines.

  5. His-tag ELISA for the detection of humoral tumor-specific immunity

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    Disis Mary L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of high throughput molecular techniques such as SEREX are resulting in the identification of a multitude of tumor associated antigens. As newly identified antigens are incorporated into a variety of clinical trials, standardization of immunologic monitoring methods becomes increasingly important. We questioned whether mammalian cell expression of a histadine-linked human protein could be used to produce antigen suitable for detecting tumor-specific humoral immunity and whether such an assay could be amenable to standardization for clinical use. Methods We designed a his-tagged capture ELISA based on lysate from genetically engineered CHO cells for detection of antibodies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, a novel tumor antigen. We performed technical and preliminary clinical validation studies, including comparison to a standard indirect ELISA based on commercially prepared recombinant antigen. Results The his-tagged capture ELISA could be standardized. Precision experiments resulted in CVs 2 values of 0.99. In comparison to Western blot analysis, his-tag and indirect ELISA accurately identified 88% and 93% of samples, respectively. Sample concordance between capture and indirect assays was highly significant (p = 0.003. Furthermore, significantly greater levels of IGFBP-2 antibody immunity were found in cancer patients compared to normal controls (p = 0.008. Conclusion A genetically engineered cell lysate based ELISA can be amenable to standardization and can detect increased levels of antibody immunity to tumor-associated antigen in cancer patients compared to non tumor-bearing healthy controls.

  6. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

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    Joseph Tellez

    Full Text Available AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT, but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA. Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9, with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  7. Humoral immune response against contractile proteins (actin and myosin) during cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Scheerder, I K; De Buyzere, M; Delanghe, J; Maas, A; Clement, D L; Wieme, R

    1991-08-01

    Sensitive and highly specific ELISA assays were developed to determine humoral immune response against actin and myosin in 122 patients suffering from various cardiovascular diseases: acute viral myocarditis (n = 10, MYO), acute myocardial infarction (n = 28, AMI), valve surgery (n = 35, VALVE), coronary bypass surgery (n = 35, CABG), and peripheral vascular surgery (n = 14, VASC). Anti-actin and anti-myosin antibodies were determined on admission and serially during a period of 90 days. Anti-actin and anti-myosin immune response (IgG, IgM) was expressed comparing absorbance of the patients' serum with a reference serum. In the different patient groups significantly (P less than 0.01) higher anti-actin and anti-myosin antibody concentrations were found on admission compared with age-matched control groups. During follow-up, all patient groups except the vascular surgery group showed a significant immune response against actin and myosin, with an immune response ratio (peak/admission) for AMA IgG and IgM respectively of 2.12 and 2.40 in the VALVE group, 1.30 and 1.99 in the CABG group, 1.42 and 1.48 in the AMI group and 1.66 and 1.25 in the MYO group; and for AAA IgG and IgM respectively of 1.57 and 3.00 in the VALVE group, 1.54 and 1.64 in the CABG group, 1.25 and 1.07 in the AMI group, and 1.42 and 1.42 in the MYO group. A significant correlation between pre-cardiac injury and peak post-cardiac injury anti-myosin and anti-actin autoantibody levels could be demonstrated suggesting that pre-injury sensitization to these antigens plays an important role in evoking post-cardiac injury immune response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The relationship between undernutrition and humoral immune status in children with pneumonia in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Allan W; Otczyk, Diana C; Barker, Jane; Lehmann, Deborah; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant risk factor for childhood infectious diseases in developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG). Whilst the mechanisms are not fully understood there is little doubt that impairment of immune function is a major contributing factor in enhancing disease susceptibility in malnourished children. This susceptibility has been clearly shown for pneumonia in PNG. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of undernutrition on the humoral immune profile in children less than 60 months of age with pneumonia. The study was cross-sectional with measurements of nutritional status and parameters of the immune response being assessed simultaneously. The children were grouped according to age for the purpose of comparative analysis. The children were from the Goroka region of the Eastern Highlands Province of PNG and had been admitted to hospital with moderate-severe pneumonia. They were classified as undernourished (less than 80% weight for age) or nourished (greater than or equal to 80% weight for age). Serum albumin, IgG, IgA and IgM and salivary albumin and IgA were measured. Antibodies to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein and Escherichia coli O antigen were also determined in serum and saliva. Undernourished children aged less than 49 months had lower levels of serum albumin than nourished children throughout this age range. Lower values of salivary IgA were observed in infants (less than 13 months of age) than in older children, with a larger proportion of younger children having no detectable IgA. The age-related immunological profile was similar in undernourished and nourished children. At different age intervals the concentration of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva from undernourished children was generally found to be less than or the same as that from nourished children. In most cases undernourished children had lower levels of specific antibodies than nourished children but for some antibodies in

  9. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

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    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.

  10. Humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B virus-derived antigens: comparative activity of Freund complete adjuvant alum, and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Y; Ionescu-Matiu, I; Dreesman, G R; Kramp, W; Six, H R; Hollinger, F B; Melnick, J L

    1980-01-01

    Complete Freud adjuvant, aluminum gel, and liposomes were compared for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of an intact 22-nm HBsAg particle vaccine and an HBsAg-derived polypeptide vaccine in guinea pigs. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated. The greatest immune response was obtained with complete Freund adjuvant, regardless of the antigen preparation. Aluminum gel appeared to be a better adjuvant for 22-nm HBsAg particles, but the liposomes rendered polypeptide preparations more immunogenic. The possibility that various proportions were entrapped in aqueous compartments instead of being inserted into the lipid bilayers of liposomes might account for this difference. The development of both humoral and cellular immunity was dependent upon the use of an adjuvant, because aqueous preparations had poor immunogenicity. PMID:7014445

  11. TCDD adsorbed on silica as a model for TCDD contaminated soils: Evidence for suppression of humoral immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Barbara L F; Crawford, Robert B; Kovalova, Natalia; Arencibia, Amaya; Kim, Seong Su; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2011-04-11

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, exhibits immune suppression in vivo and in vitro. Suppression of primary humoral immune responses in particular has been well characterized as one of the most sensitive functional immune endpoints in animals treated with TCDD. Previous studies have used purified TCDD to elucidate the mechanisms by which TCDD and dioxin-like compounds (DLC) impair IgM production by B cells, but did not represent the route by which animals and humans are likely to be exposed environmentally. In the studies reported here, mice were treated with TCDD adsorbed onto a well-defined synthetic silica phase of known purity and physical properties, followed by sensitization with sheep erythrocytes to initiate a humoral immune response. We found that surfactant-templated mesoporous forms of amorphous silica provided an ideal combination of purity, dispersibility and textural properties for immobilizing TCDD. TCDD-adsorbed silica distributed to the spleen and liver after oral administration as assessed by induction of cyp1a1 gene expression. Most notably, TCDD delivered in the adsorbed state on amorphous silica and as a solute in corn oil (CO) produced similar suppression of the anti-sheep red blood cell immunoglobulin M antibody forming cell (sRBC IgM AFC) response at equivalent doses of TCDD. These results suggest that TCDD immobilized on silicate particles found in soils distributes to the spleen and suppresses humoral immunity.

  12. A novel HIV vaccine adjuvanted by IC31 induces robust and persistent humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Laura Pattacini

    Full Text Available The HIV vaccine strategy that, to date, generated immune protection consisted of a prime-boost regimen using a canarypox vector and an HIV envelope protein with alum, as shown in the RV144 trial. Since the efficacy was weak, and previous HIV vaccine trials designed to generate antibody responses failed, we hypothesized that generation of T cell responses would result in improved protection. Thus, we tested the immunogenicity of a similar envelope-based vaccine using a mouse model, with two modifications: a clade C CN54gp140 HIV envelope protein was adjuvanted by the TLR9 agonist IC31®, and the viral vector was the vaccinia strain NYVAC-CN54 expressing HIV envelope gp120. The use of IC31® facilitated immunoglobulin isotype switching, leading to the production of Env-specific IgG2a, as compared to protein with alum alone. Boosting with NYVAC-CN54 resulted in the generation of more robust Th1 T cell responses. Moreover, gp140 prime with IC31® and alum followed by NYVAC-CN54 boost resulted in the formation and persistence of central and effector memory populations in the spleen and an effector memory population in the gut. Our data suggest that this regimen is promising and could improve the protection rate by eliciting strong and long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses.

  13. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

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    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  14. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

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    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  15. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants

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    Nina Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4+ T cells. It remains uncertain if CXCR4-using viruses hasten disease or if these variants only emerge after profound immunological damage. We show that exclusively CXCR4- as compared to cocirculating CCR5-utilizing variants are less sensitive to neutralization by both contemporaneous autologous plasma and plasma pools from individuals that harbor only CCR5-using HIV-1. The CXCR4-utilizing variants, however, do not have a global antigenic change because they remain equivalently susceptible to antibodies that do not target coreceptor binding domains. Studies with envelope V3 loop directed antibodies and chimeric envelopes suggest that the neutralization susceptibility differences are potentially influenced by the V3 loop. In vitro passage of a neutralization sensitive CCR5-using virus in the presence of autologous plasma and activated CD4+ T cells led to the emergence of a CXCR4-utilizing virus in 1 of 3 cases. These results suggest that in some but not necessarily all HIV-1 infected individuals humoral immune pressure against the autologous virus selects for CXCR4-using variants, which potentially accelerates disease progression. Our observations have implications for using antibodies for HIV-1 immune therapy.

  16. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nina; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Registre, Ludy; Becerril, Carlos; Etemad, Behzad; Lu, Hong; Wu, Xueling; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Myron; Moyo, Sikhulile; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Sagar, Manish

    2016-06-01

    Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4+ T cells. It remains uncertain if CXCR4-using viruses hasten disease or if these variants only emerge after profound immunological damage. We show that exclusively CXCR4- as compared to cocirculating CCR5-utilizing variants are less sensitive to neutralization by both contemporaneous autologous plasma and plasma pools from individuals that harbor only CCR5-using HIV-1. The CXCR4-utilizing variants, however, do not have a global antigenic change because they remain equivalently susceptible to antibodies that do not target coreceptor binding domains. Studies with envelope V3 loop directed antibodies and chimeric envelopes suggest that the neutralization susceptibility differences are potentially influenced by the V3 loop. In vitro passage of a neutralization sensitive CCR5-using virus in the presence of autologous plasma and activated CD4+ T cells led to the emergence of a CXCR4-utilizing virus in 1 of 3 cases. These results suggest that in some but not necessarily all HIV-1 infected individuals humoral immune pressure against the autologous virus selects for CXCR4-using variants, which potentially accelerates disease progression. Our observations have implications for using antibodies for HIV-1 immune therapy.

  17. State of humoral link of immune system in children with mono- and mixed-variants of rotavirus infection

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    Катерина Олександрівна Сміян-Горбунова

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Connection of an immune system with infection agents defines the further development of infectious diseases especially rotavirus infection (RVI. The state of immune system before the beginning of disease and an adequacy of immune answer to causative agent defines the possibility of disease and its heaviness, duration of an acute period, cyclicity, time of pathogens elimination and period of reconvalescence. The humoral link is one of important components of immune system.Methods. 96 children 1 month-5 years old with acute intestinal infections of rotavirus etiology were under observation. 51 children with mono-variant of rotavirus infection formed the 1 group. The 11 group included 45 patients with mixed-variant of rotavirus infection. The control group included 32 practically healthy children. The research was carried out at the high point of disease (1–3 day and in period of reconvalescence. (5–6 day. The study of humoral link of immunity was carried out using the method of radial immunodiffusion in agar on Mancini G.Results. At comparison of indicators of the humoral link of immune system in children with mono- and mixed-variants of RVI at admission to hospital it was established that Ig М concentration in children of the 1 group was higher (р<0,05, and Ig G level in blood serum lower(р<0,05 than in the 11 group. So the study of the humoral immunity in blood serum in children with rotavirus infection revealed changes that were presented as an increase of Ig М and IgG indicators and also decrease of IgА. An assessment of an immune system after treatment within this research is characterized with an increase of IgА and IgG and decrease of IgМ.Conclusions. In blood serum of children with mono- and mixed-variants of rotavirus infection in an acute period of disease there was observed decrease of Ig А concentration and increase of Ig М і IgG. In the period of reconvalescence in children with mono- and mixed-variants of an acute

  18. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers.

  19. A candidate DNA vaccine elicits HCV specific humoral and cellular immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xin Zhu; Jing Liu; Ye Ye; You-Hua Xie; Yu-Ying Kong; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunogenicity of candidate DNA vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) delivered by two plasmids expressing HCV envelope protein 1 (E1) and envelope protein 2 (E2) antigens respectively and to study the effect of CpG adjuvant on this candidate vaccine.METHODS: Recombinant plasmids expressing HCV E1 and E2 antigens respectively were used to simultaneously inoculate mice with or without CpG adjuvant. Antisera were then collected and titers of anti-HCV antibodies were analyzed by ELISA. One month after the last injection, animals were sacrificed to prepare single-cell suspension of splenocytes.These cells were subjected to HCVantigen specific proliferation assays and cytokine secretion assays to evaluate the cellular immune responses of the vaccinated animals.RESULTS: Antibody responses to HCV E1 and E2 antigens were detected in vaccinated animals. Animals receiving CpG adjuvant had slightly lower titers of anti-HCV antibodies in the sera, while the splenocytes from these animals showed higher HCV-antigen specific proliferation. Analysis of cytokine secretion from the splenocytes was consistent with the above results. While no antigen-specific IL-4 secretion was detected for all vaccinated animals, HCV antigen-specific INF-γ secretion was detected for the splenocytes of vaccinated animals. CpG adjuvant enhanced the secretion of INF-γ but did not change the profile of IL-4 secretion.CONCLUSION: Vaccination of mice with plasmids encoding HCV E1 and E2 antigens induces humoral and cellular immune responses. CpG adjuvant significantly enhances the cellular immune response.

  20. Cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in patients with culture-positive early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, A; Glickstein, L; Field, J A; McHugh, G; Sikand, V K; Damle, N; Steere, A C

    2001-12-01

    We determined cellular and humoral immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi lysate and to recombinant flagellin (FlaB), OspC, and OspA in acute- and convalescent-phase samples from 39 culture-positive patients with erythema migrans and in 20 healthy control subjects. During the acute illness, a median of 4 days after the onset of erythema migrans, 51% of the patients had proliferative cellular responses and 72% had antibody responses to at least one of the borrelial antigens tested. During convalescence, at the conclusion of antibiotic therapy, 64% of the patients had proliferative cellular reactivity and 95% had antibody reactivity with at least one of the spirochetal antigens tested. In both acute- and convalescent-phase samples, cellular immune responses were found as frequently to OspA as to OspC and FlaB. Although antibody responses were also frequently seen to OspC and FlaB, only a few patients had marginal antibody reactivity with OspA. The percentage of patients with proliferative responses was similar in those with clinical evidence of localized or disseminated infection, whereas humoral reactivity was found more often in those with disseminated disease. We conclude that cellular and humoral responses to B. burgdorferi antigens are often found among patients with early Lyme disease. In contrast with the other antigens tested, cellular but not humoral reactivity was often found with OspA.

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid on cell mediated, humoral immune response and pathophysiology of

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    Suchint Simaraks

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an experiment related to the effects of chronic heat stress on total white blood cell changes, pathophysiology of leukocyte and effects of ascorbic acid on lymphocytes, lympholytic cells and humoral immunity of New-castle disease of broilers under chronic heat stress. Randomized complete block was the design. One hundred-forty-four chickens were maintained at 33+1 oC environmental temperature and on four levels of added ascorbic acid i.e. 0 (control group, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg in dietsfor 21 days. On days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period, total white blood cells count, lympholytic cell and HI titer for Newcastle disease were determined. On day 21, histopathology of lung, liver, kidney, heart and bursa of fabricius of randomly selected broilers (n=36; 3 birds per experimental unit were studied. Total white blood cells (TWBC of the birds were significantly increased on day 3 (P<0.05 and were higheston days 7 and 14 then significantly decreased on days 21 (P<0.05. Monocytes were significantly increased on day 3 (P<0.05. Lymphocytes were significantly increased on day 7, and were highest on day 14 (P<0.05. On day 21, the value of lymphocyte was significantly lower than on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, respectively. Lympholytic cells were significantly increased on day 3 and 7 (P<0.05, respectively, but on day 21, lympholyticcells were significantly decreased to lower value than on day 7 (P<0.05. Heterophils were significantly increased on day 3 and 7 and then decreased on day 14 (P<0.05. Tissue injury and hemorrhage in broilers under chronic heat stress caused leukocytosis, heterophilia, lympholysis and monocytosis. The size of lobules within the bursa of fabricius in broilers receiving ascorbic acid at 800 mg/kg in the diet were larger than inbirds that received added ascorbic acid at 400, 200 and 0 mg/kg in their diets, respectively. Lymphocytes and lympholytic cells were not significantly different

  2. Honey bee drones maintain humoral immune competence throughout all life stages in the absence of vitellogenin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gätschenberger, Heike; Gimple, Olaf; Tautz, Jürgen; Beier, Hildburg

    2012-04-15

    Drones are haploid male individuals whose major social function in honey bee colonies is to produce sperm and mate with a queen. In spite of their limited tasks, the vitality of drones is of utmost importance for the next generation. The immune competence of drones - as compared to worker bees - is largely unexplored. Hence, we studied humoral and cellular immune reactions of in vitro reared drone larvae and adult drones of different age upon artificial bacterial infection. Haemolymph samples were collected after aseptic and septic injury and subsequently employed for (1) the identification of immune-responsive peptides and/or proteins by qualitative proteomic analyses in combination with mass spectrometry and (2) the detection of antimicrobial activity by inhibition-zone assays. Drone larvae and adult drones responded with a strong humoral immune reaction upon bacterial challenge, as validated by the expression of small antimicrobial peptides. Young adult drones exhibited a broader spectrum of defence reactions than drone larvae. Distinct polypeptides including peptidoglycan recognition protein-S2 and lysozyme 2 were upregulated in immunized adult drones. Moreover, a pronounced nodulation reaction was observed in young drones upon bacterial challenge. Prophenoloxidase zymogen is present at an almost constant level in non-infected adult drones throughout the entire lifespan. All observed immune reactions in drones were expressed in the absence of significant amounts of vitellogenin. We conclude that drones - like worker bees - have the potential to activate multiple elements of the innate immune response.

  3. Humoral Immune Response Kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis Infected and Immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi Employing an Immunofluorescence Antibody Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Legey

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1 IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2 both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3 experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4 the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.

  4. Protective effect of melatonin against propoxur-induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kumar, Achint; Ahmed, Rafat S; Chakraborti, Ayanabha; Tripathi, A K; Mediratta, P K; Banerjee, B D

    2006-04-01

    Effect of melatonin in attenuation of propoxur induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response was studied in rats. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation in serum after 28 days treatment. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione were also altered following propoxur exposure. In addition propoxur exposure markedly suppressed humoral immune response as assessed by antibody titre and plaque forming cell assay. Simultaneous treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) markedly attenuated the effect of propoxur on (a) lipid peroxidation, (b) oxidative stress parameters and (c) immunotoxicity. Results have been discussed in the light of possible immunopotentiating and antioxidant effects of melatonin to understand the influence of oxidative stress on propoxur induced immunomodulation.

  5. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Francesca Avogadri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2, which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  6. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing TRP-2 provide potent therapeutic effect on melanoma through activation of humoral and cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogadri, Francesca; Merghoub, Taha; Maughan, Maureen F; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Morris, John; Ritter, Erika; Olmsted, Robert; Houghton, Alan N; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2010-09-10

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore alternative approaches to treat this disease, such as immunotherapy, are needed. Melanoma vaccine design has mainly focused on targeting CD8+ T cells. Activation of effector CD8+ T cells has been achieved in patients, but provided limited clinical benefit, due to immune-escape mechanisms established by advanced tumors. We have previously shown that alphavirus-based virus-like replicon particles (VRP) simultaneously activate strong cellular and humoral immunity against the weakly immunogenic melanoma differentiation antigen (MDA) tyrosinase. Here we further investigate the antitumor effect and the immune mechanisms of VRP encoding different MDAs. VRP encoding different MDAs were screened for their ability to prevent the growth of the B16 mouse transplantable melanoma. The immunologic mechanisms of efficacy were investigated for the most effective vaccine identified, focusing on CD8+ T cells and humoral responses. To this end, ex vivo immune assays and transgenic mice lacking specific immune effector functions were used. The studies identified a potent therapeutic VRP vaccine, encoding tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP-2), which provided a durable anti-tumor effect. The efficacy of VRP-TRP2 relies on a novel immune mechanism of action requiring the activation of both IgG and CD8+ T cell effector responses, and depends on signaling through activating Fcγ receptors. This study identifies a VRP-based vaccine able to elicit humoral immunity against TRP-2, which plays a role in melanoma immunotherapy and synergizes with tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings will aid in the rational design of future immunotherapy clinical trials.

  7. Observation of humoral immunity reconstitution and its relationship with infection after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊茹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the humoral immunity reconstitution and its relationship with infection in patients with multiple myeloma(MM) after undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(auto-HSCT)

  8. Capture of influenza by medullary dendritic cells via SIGN-R1 is essential for humoral immunity in draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Kuligowski, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A major pathway for B cell acquisition of lymph-borne particulate antigens relies on antigen capture by subcapsular sinus macrophages of the lymph node. Here we tested whether this mechanism is also important for humoral immunity to inactivated influenza virus. By multiple approaches, including...... multiphoton intravital imaging, we found that antigen capture by sinus-lining macrophages was important for limiting the systemic spread of virus but not for the generation of influenza-specific humoral immunity. Instead, we found that dendritic cells residing in the lymph node medulla use the lectin receptor...... SIGN-R1 to capture lymph-borne influenza virus and promote humoral immunity. Thus, our results have important implications for the generation of durable humoral immunity to viral pathogens through vaccination....

  9. Effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in niosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MADANJitender; KAUSHIKDinesh; SARDANASatish; MISHRADn

    2007-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on anti-BSA antibody production triggered by bovine albumin encapsulated in non-ionic surfactant vesicle, niosomes. Reverse phase evaporation method was adopted to entrap the antigen in colloidal carrier composed of Span 80 and Span 85 followed by simultaneous characterization for particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The protein content was determined by Bradford method using UV Visible Spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Humoral immune response was measured in terms of systemic IgG antibody titre by ELISA method. Experimental data indicated that 7∶3 molar ratio of Span 80 and cholesterol based niosomal formulation possessed maximum (39.8±2.9)% of soluble protein.Ciprofloxacin markedly (P<0.05) decreased the antibody titre. In contrast, chloramphenicol did not reduce the antibody titre significantly in comparison to control group (P>0.05). It is necessary to explore the effect of a vaccine antigen when a candidate is medicated with a therapeutic agent, which might help in programming a new drug management and vaccination programme.

  10. STUDIES ON LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS,HUMORAL IMMUNITY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH SELENIUM IN PATIENTS WITH KASHIN-BECK DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治伦; 郭汝宁; 陈静宏; 陈燕; 丁方羽; 吴劲; 周扬

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the humoral immunity status and distribution pattern of lymphocyte subgroups of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in patients with Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD), and their relationship with erythrocyte selenium. Methods 23 X-ray diagnosed patients, 22 age- and sex- matched healthy children in KBD affected area (KAA), and 25 in KBD non-affected area (KNAA) were randomly selected. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD20 was conducted to analyze the lymphocyte subsets. Serum IgM, IgA, IgG, Complement C3 and C4 were assayed using rate nephelometry (Array 360 System, USA). The contents of erythrocyte selenium was determined by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene fluorescence assay. Results CD4+ and CD8+ cells percentage in PBMCs and serum IgA were significantly lower in KAA than those in KNAA(P0.05) was found. Conclusion These results suggested that children in KAA had a comparably low cellular immunity level and their humoral immunity status was also in a state of moderate immune suppression. Of this immune disorder in Kashin-Beck disease patients, selenium deficiency probably played a critical role via affecting the distribution pattern of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Selenium-deficiency and immune impairment maybe both have something to do with the cause-effect chain of KBD.

  11. [A study of the humoral immunity of mice injected with beryllium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, S; Sakaguchi, T; Nakamura, I; Kudo, Y

    1992-12-01

    We studied changes of humoral immunity, such as complement pathway activity, C3 contents and contents of immunoglobulin, in mice injected subcutaneously with BeCl2 or CuCl2 once a week for 12 weeks. Mean body weights of JCL: ICR female mice were approximately 30g in control mice (control group; n = 7), in mice injected with Be (Be group; n = 8) and in mice injected with Cu (Cu group; n = 8). Values of classical complement pathway activity (CH50) were 18.8 +/- 1.4 U per ml, 15.3 +/- 1.8 U per ml and 16.7 +/- 1.3 U per ml in the control group, Be group and Cu group, respectively. The CH50 values of Be and Cu groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.01). In contrast, values of alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) and contents of C3 were almost constant in the three groups. The immunoglobulin content in the Be group tended to increase. The activity of alanine aminotransferase in the Be group was markedly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the aspartate aminotransferase activity was also high. The CH50 value of mice injected with a small amount of Be once a week over a 12-week period decreased markedly, although either the ACH50 value or C3 content was the same as in the control group. The immunoglobulin content somewhat increased in the Be group. These results suggest the possibility that immune complex is induced by Be.

  12. Autoimmunity in ulcerative colitis: humoral and cellular immune response bytropomyosin in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Geng; Masato Taniguchi; Hui Hui Dai; JJ-C Lin; Jim Lin; Kiron Moy Das

    2000-01-01

    AIM Autoimmunity has been emphasized in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We reported thattropomyosin (TM) or TM related protein is a putative autoantigen in UC. In human fibroblast, at least 8isoforms of TM have been identified with molecular weight range from 30kD to 40kD, depending upon theisoforms, and human TM isoforms (hTM5) has been found the main isoform in human intestinal epithelialcells. In this study, hTM5 was used as a putative auto-antigen for the humoral and T cell immune responses inpatients with UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy subjects (HS) as controls.METHODS Anti-bTM antibody was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human sera(UC 59, CD 28, HS 26) against hTM isoforms. The IFN-γ production by peripheral blood T cells followingstimulation by recombinant hTM5 was analyzed by ELISPOT assay.RESULTS Anti-hTM5 antibody (IgG1) was detected in 15/59 (25.4%) patients with UC, 3/28 (10.γ%)with CD, and 3/26 (11.5%) of HS. The OD value in UC was significantly higher than in CD and HS groups(P < 0.05; P < 0.01 respectively). Western blot analysis demonstrated immunoreactivity against hTM5 inseveral UC sera. ELISPOT assay demonstrated that IFN-γ production is significantly higher in UC (7/18),39.0%), compared with CD (0/8, 0%) and HS (0/7, 0%), (P<0.05).CONCLUSION A significantly higher immune response to hTM5 was present in UC compared to CD andHS. Further studies of the hTM5/peptides may provide immuno-biochemical mechanism of autoimmuneprocess in UC.

  13. Effect of Zinc on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity of Broilers Vaccinated Against Coccidiosis

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    Milad Moazeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was the comparison of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ‎broilers fed with different levels of zinc during a coccidiosis challenge.‎Methods: One hundred and forty-‎four one-day-old broiler chicks were used with three ‎dietary zinc ‎(40, 120 and 200 mg/kg. At 14 d of age, all birds were inoculated orally with 5×103 sporulated oocysts of E. Tenella. ‎At ‎2, 22, 32, 42 ‎days of age, the blood serums were tested for ‎antibody titer against‎ Newcas­tle disease vaccine, using ‎the standard HI test. On day 42 the sum of nitrite ‎and nitrate based on the reduction of nitrate ‎to nitrite by cadmium ‎and white blood cell count (WBC using a hemocytometer were measured.Results: At 42 d, levels of ‎120 and 200 mg significantly (P< 0.05 increased the antibody titer in compare with the control. The peak response of CBH was observed at the level of 200 mg Zn/kg diet. Also both level of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet increased WBC count and sum of nitrite and nitrate‎ in serum compared with the control.Conclusion: The levels of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet could be considered as a non-pharmacologic booster of immunity in broilers chicks infected with E. Tenella.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

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    S Sharbatdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the highest and the lowest weight gain, respectively (P0.05. In connection with feed conversion ratio, the highest and the lowest means belonged to the treatments containing 40 and 120 mg Zn/kg respectively (P0.05. Regarding Bronchitis antibody titer in 13th and 19th days, the lowest titer belonged to the birds on the control and 40 mg Zn/kg and the highest titer belonged to the birds fed with 160 mg Zn/kg. The difference between this treatment and the others was significant (P0.05. In secondary SRBC at 36 days of age the best and the lowest titer were shown by 40 mg Zn/kg and 160 mg Zn/kg of diet, respectively(P0.05. Finally, the results indicated that addition of 120 mg Zn/kg, of diet improved weight gain and feed conversion ration. The levels of 40 and 160 mg Zn/kg of diet showed the highest immunity response against SRBC and Bronchitis respectively.

  15. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slike, Bonnie M; Creegan, Matthew; Marovich, Mary; Ngauy, Viseth

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35-49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  16. Effect of humoral immunity on HIV-1 dynamics with virus-to-target and infected-to-target infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaiw, A. M.; Raezah, A. A.; Alofi, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We consider an HIV-1 dynamics model by incorporating (i) two routes of infection via, respectively, binding of a virus to a receptor on the surface of a target cell to start genetic reactions (virus-to-target infection), and the direct transmission from infected cells to uninfected cells through the concept of virological synapse in vivo (infected-to-target infection); (ii) two types of distributed-time delays to describe the time between the virus or infected cell contacts an uninfected CD4+ T cell and the emission of new active viruses; (iii) humoral immune response, where the HIV-1 particles are attacked by the antibodies that are produced from the B lymphocytes. The existence and stability of all steady states are completely established by two bifurcation parameters, R 0 (the basic reproduction number) and R 1 (the viral reproduction number at the chronic-infection steady state without humoral immune response). By constructing Lyapunov functionals and using LaSalle's invariance principle, we have proven that, if R 0 ≤ 1 , then the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable, if R 1 ≤ 1 1 , then the chronic-infection steady state with humoral immune response is globally asymptotically stable. We have performed numerical simulations to confirm our theoretical results.

  17. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Dad13 on Humoral Immune Response of Balb/C Mice Infected with Salmonella typhimurium

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    Ika Dyah Kusumawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of lactic acid bacterium (LAB identified as Lactobacillus spp. Dad13 (Dad13, isolatedfrom traditional fermented buffalo milk, was found to be potential as probiotic. The aim of this research was to studythe effect of probiotic Dad13 on humoral immune response of Balb/C mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Thespecific objective was to find out the effect of different Dad13 consumption time (before and along with infection of S.typhimurium on the humoral immune response of Balb/C mice. The experiment was conducted by in vivo trial on 20males of Balb/C mice, age of 6-8 weeks, fed with AIN-93 standard diet. The mice were assigned into 4 groups. Eachgroup received the following treatments, ie. Dad13 only, Dad13 before infection, Dad13 along with infection andSalmonella infection only. A volume of 100 μl Dad13 cell suspensions (1010 CFU/ml were given by oral forced feedingdaily for a week, at week 3 for group before infection and at week 4 for group of Dad13 only and Dad13 along withinfection. Salmonella infection (109 CFU/ml was given once orally at week 4 to all groups except group treated withDad13 only. The humoral immune response of Balb/C mice was detected 2 weeks after infection by measuring thetiters of IgG and IgA specific from serum and mucosal intestinal liquid samples using Enzyme-linked ImmunosorbentAssay (ELISA method. The result indicated that humoral immune response of Balb/C mice consuming Dad13 beforeand along with Salmonella infection were significantly different (p<0.05. Dad13 consumption along with Salmonellainfection increased circulated IgG and IgA as well as secretory IgA. It can be concluded that Dad13 probiotic feedingalong with infection increased humoral immune response more significantly compared to that before infection.Key words : Probiotic, Lactobacillus sp. Dad13, Immune response, Salmonella typhimurium

  18. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... L10H chickens than in the infected and noninfected L10L chickens. Thus, these results indicate that MBL is produced locally and may be involved in the regulation of the cellular immune response after an IBV infection. However, MBL did not appear to influence the humoral immune response after IBV...

  19. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  20. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production.......To investigate immune responses upon re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis, local and peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to primary and challenge inoculations were studied in 22 pigs. Pigs were orally inoculated with virulent L. intracellularis at the age of 5-6 weeks...

  1. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors

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    Ariel Sobarzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000–2001. Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  2. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

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    Patricia Keiko Saito

    Full Text Available Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA. The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.. The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7% patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3% patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1% were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4% were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5% were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  3. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Aparecida, Erica Pereira; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Verissimo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO) combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA). The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.). The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7%) patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3%) patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1%) were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4%) were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5%) were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  4. Expression and humoral immune response to Hepatitis C virus using a plasmid DNA construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to clone a c-DNA fragment of hepatitis C virus in a eukaryotic expression vector and to measure the efficacy of humoral immune responses in mice inoculated with this recombinant plasmid. This study was an attempt to lay a foundation for HCV nucleic acid vaccine development in the future. METHODS: A c-DNA fragment of BK146, a clone of HCV type 1b, was sub-cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pMT3. HepG2 and COS cells were transfected with this construct, named pMT3-BK146. The expression of HCV mRNA and proteins was studied by reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction, radio Immunoprecipitation (RIPA and immunofluorescence (IFA. The DNA of this construct was injected into the footpad of BALB/c mice and antibody response was tested by enzyme immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: COS and HepG2 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant plasmid pMT3-BK146 showed the expression of HCV proteins by RT-PCR, RIPA and immunofluorescence. This DNA clone when injected into Balb/c mice was able to generate specific antibody response to hepatitis C virus by ELISA and IFA. CONCLUSIONS: A c-DNA fragment of HCV cloned in an eukaryotic expression vector was able to express core protein. This DNA clone was also able to elicit antibody response in mice. This can be an initial step towards the development of a potential DNA vaccine for hepatitis C virus infection.

  5. Humoral immune response to an allogenic foetus in normal fertile women and recurrent aborters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra LC

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several humoral immune factors are responsible for a successful pregnancy. There are a few studies, which demonstrate the role of antipaternal cytotoxic antibodies (APCA and mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking factor (MLR-Bf in the maintenance of pregnancy. However, these factors have not been studied in women with history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. We designed this study to review the role of APCA and MLR-Bf in normal pregnancy as well as in women with a history of RSA. Methods One hundred and five women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were included in the present study. These women were screened for all other known causes of recurrent abortion. We also included 60 normal fertile women, fifteen from each trimester and fifteen women during the post partum period (up to six months. RSA and controls (normal pregnancy were matched for age, caste, and socio economic background and also for parity. APCA and MLR-Bf were evaluated in all the groups. All women with RSA who conceived during the study period were on follow up. Results We have analyzed the status of APCA and MLR-Bf in normal pregnancy (different gestational periods and during post partum, and in women with history of RSA. Our results show that APCA was significantly higher in controls as compared to RSA women. MLR-Bf was directed against the husbands' cells in normal pregnancy and was virtually absent in RSA women. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a significantly low titer of APCA and MLR-Bf in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. This highlights the role of these factors in the maintenance of successful pregnancy.

  6. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. (Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute-Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  7. Dietary sodium propionate improved performance, mucosal and humoral immune responses in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of sodium propionate (SP) on Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry growth performance, skin mucus immune response as well as humoral immune parameters. Fish were divided into 5 groups repeated in triplicates and each group were fed on experimental diets for 7 weeks. Growth performance parameters, skin mucus total immunoglobulin (Ig) level, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as the non-specific humoral immune response (total Ig, lysozyme, alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) were determined at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that supplementation of diet with 0.25% SP significantly improved growth performance compared control group (P  0.05), except 0.25% SP treatment which was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). These results revealed that inclusion of administration of 0.25% and 0.5% SP in early stage of the Caspian white fish culture could improve mucosal and non-specific immune responses as well as performance.

  8. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  9. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebina, Ismail; James, Kylie R.; Soon, Megan S. F.; Best, Shannon E.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Amante, Fiona H.; Thomas, Bryce S.; Beattie, Lynette; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Smyth, Mark J.; Hertzog, Paul J.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS) and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC) B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria. PMID:27812214

  10. SAP gene transfer restores cellular and humoral immune function in a murine model of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivat, Christine; Booth, Claire; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria; Blundell, Michael; Sebire, Neil J; Thrasher, Adrian J; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2013-02-14

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) arises from mutations in the gene encoding SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and leads to abnormalities of NKT-cell development, NK-cell cytotoxicity, and T-dependent humoral function. Curative treatment is limited to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. We tested whether HSC gene therapy could correct the multilineage defects seen in SAP(-/-) mice. SAP(-/-) murine HSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing either SAP or reporter gene before transplantation into irradiated recipients. NKT-cell development was significantly higher and NK-cell cytotoxicity restored to wild-type levels in mice receiving the SAP vector in comparison to control mice. Baseline immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased and T-dependent humoral responses to NP-CGG, including germinal center formation, were restored in SAP-transduced mice.We demonstrate for the first time that HSC gene transfer corrects the cellular and humoral defects in SAP(-/-) mice providing proof of concept for gene therapy in XLP1.

  11. Plasmid DNA Vaccine Co-Immunisation Modulates Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses Induced by Intranasal Inoculation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah F L King

    Full Text Available An effective HIV vaccine will likely require induction of both mucosal and systemic cellular and humoral immune responses. We investigated whether intramuscular (IM delivery of electroporated plasmid DNA vaccine and simultaneous protein vaccinations by intranasal (IN and IM routes could be combined to induce mucosal and systemic cellular and humoral immune responses to a model HIV-1 CN54 gp140 antigen in mice.Co-immunisation of DNA with intranasal protein successfully elicited both serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses, whereas DNA and IM protein co-delivery did not induce systemic or mucosal IgA responses. Cellular IFNγ responses were preserved in co-immunisation protocols compared to protein-only vaccination groups. The addition of DNA to IN protein vaccination reduced the strong Th2 bias observed with IN protein vaccination alone. Luminex analysis also revealed that co-immunisation with DNA and IN protein induced expression of cytokines that promote B-cell function, generation of TFH cells and CCR5 ligands that can reduce HIV infectivity.These data suggest that while IN inoculation alone elicits both cellular and humoral responses, co-administration with homologous DNA vaccination can tailor these towards a more balanced Th1/Th2 phenotype modulating the cellular cytokine profile while eliciting high-levels of antigen-specific antibody. This work provides insights on how to generate differential immune responses within the same vaccination visit, and supports co-immunisation with DNA and protein by a mucosal route as a potential delivery strategy for HIV vaccines.

  12. Humoral immunity to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C in patients with pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbee, H R; Fruin, A; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J; Ingham, E

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the humoral immune responses to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C of 10 patients with pityriasis versicolor, 10 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. A transferable solid-phase ELISA was used to determine titres of total Igs, IgM, IgA and IgG specific to M. furfur serovars A, B and C. The results demonstrated that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of total Igs to serovar A than patients with pityriasis versicolor; and that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of IgA to serovar C than patients with pityriasis versicolor. The titres of total Igs for controls and patients with seborrheic dermatitis were significantly lower to serovar B than to serovar C. A modified TSP ELISA was used to determine the titres of the IgG subclasses. Titres of IgG1,3,4 to serovar B were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients and titres of IgG3 to serovar A were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients. However, despite the differences between the patient groups, none of these results was significantly different to those of controls. Thus, this study did not demonstrate any differences in humoral immunity of patients suffering from Malassezia-associated dermatoses when compared to normal controls. These results may suggest that the humoral immune response to M. furfur is not related to the pathogenesis of Malassezia-associated dermatoses, but simply to the carriage of M. furfur on the skin.

  13. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

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    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  14. Heat killed multi-serotype Shigella immunogens induced humoral immunity and protection against heterologous challenge in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Barman, Soumik; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Shinoda, Sumio; Chakrabarti, M K; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have shown the homologous protective efficacy of heat killed multi-serotype Shigella (HKMS) immunogens in a guinea pig colitis model. In our present study, we have advanced our research by immunizing rabbits with a reduced number of oral doses and evaluating the host's adaptive immune responses. The duration of immunogenicity and subsequently protective efficacy was determined against wild type heterologous Shigella strains in a rabbit luminal model. After three successive oral immunizations with HKMS immunogens, serum and lymphocyte supernatant antibody titer against the heterologous shigellae were reciprocally increased and remained at an elevated level up to 180 days. Serogroup and serotype specific O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide and immunogenic proteins of heterologous challenge strains were detected by immunoblot assay. Up-regulation of IL-12p35, IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA expression was detected in immunized rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after stimulation with HKMS in vitro. HKMS-specific plasma cell response was confirmed by production of a relatively higher level of HKMS-specific IgG in immunized PBMC supernatant compared to control group. Furthermore, the immunized groups of rabbits exhibited complete protection against wild type heterologous shigellae challenge. Thus HKMS immunogens induced humoral and Th1-mediated adaptive immunity and provided complete protection in a rabbit model. These immunogens could be a broad spectrum non-living vaccine candidate for human use in the near future.

  15. A Shift from Cellular to Humoral Responses Contributes to Innate Immune Memory in the Vector Snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Silvain; Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Nowacki, Fanny C; Olive, Marie-Aude; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past ten years have provided evidence that invertebrate antiparasitic responses may be primed in a sustainable manner, leading to the failure of a secondary encounter with the same pathogen. This phenomenon called "immune priming" or "innate immune memory" was mainly phenomenological. The demonstration of this process remains to be obtained and the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered and exhaustively tested with rigorous functional and molecular methods, to eliminate all alternative explanations. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, the present study focuses on the Lophotrochozoan snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, in which innate immune memory was recently reported. We provide herein the first evidence that a shift from a cellular immune response (encapsulation) to a humoral immune response (biomphalysin) occurs during the development of innate memory. The molecular characterisation of this process in Biomphalaria/Schistosoma system was undertaken to reconcile mechanisms with phenomena, opening the way to a better comprehension of innate immune memory in invertebrates. This prompted us to revisit the artificial dichotomy between innate and memory immunity in invertebrate systems.

  16. Plasmodium Riboprotein PfP0 Induces a Deviant Humoral Immune Response in Balb/c Mice

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    Sulabha Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunization with antibodies to recombinant Plasmodium falciparum P0 riboprotein (rPfP0, 61–316 amino acids provides protection against malaria. Carboxy-terminal 16 amino acids of the protein (PfP0C0 are conserved and show 69% identity to human and mouse P0. Antibodies to this domain are found in 10–15% of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We probed the nature of humoral response to PfP0C0 by repeatedly immunizing mice with rPfP0. We failed to raise stable anti-PfP0C0 hybridomas from any of the 21 mice. The average serum anti-PfP0C0 titer remained low (5.1±1.3×104. Pathological changes were observed in the mice after seven boosts. Adsorption with dinitrophenyl hapten revealed that the anti-PfP0C0 response was largely polyreactive. This polyreactivity was distributed across all isotypes. Similar polyreactive responses to PfP0 and PfP0C0 were observed in sera from malaria patients. Our data suggests that PfP0 induces a deviant humoral response, and this may contribute to immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite.

  17. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  18. EFFECTS OF HBV preS AS A HUMORAL ENHANCER ON THE ABILITIES OF HCV E2 PROTEIN TO INDUCE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN THE DNA-IMMUNIZED MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢尧; 陶其敏; 高建恩

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To study whether the abilities of hepatitis C virus(HCV)E2 gene immunization to induce humoral and cellular immune responses to E2 protein were affected by hepatitis B virus(HBV)preS gene when they were fused in DNA-immunized mice.Methods.Mice were immunized with E2,preS-E2(preS gene was upstream of E2 gene),and E2-preS(preS gene was downstream of E2 gene)gene by their eukaryotic expression vectors,respectively.The anti-E2 or anti-preS antibodies were detected using the E2 and preS antigens.The cellular immune response to E2 pro-tein in immunized mice was presented by its survival time after injecting SP2/O myeloma cells expressing HCV E2 protein into the abdominal cavity.Results. Chimeric E2 and preS gene immunization can induce mice to develop anti-preS and anti-E2 antibodies.The number of the mice developing anti-E2 antibody and the antibody titers in preS-E2 gene-injected group were higher than those in E2-preS gene-immunized group.However,the mice injected with E2 gene did not develop the detectable anti-E2 antibodies until 12 weeks after DNA immunization.After the mice was injected with target cells,the average survival time of the mice in the group immunized with E2 gene alone was longer than that of the group injected with E2 gene fused with HBV preS and was significantly longer than that of the control(P< 0.05).Conclusion.HBV preS might be a humoral enhancer that can affect the abilities of HCV E2 protein to in-duce immune responses in DNA-immunized mice.

  19. Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immune Responses after Immunization of Calves with a Recombinant Multiantigenic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subunit Vaccine at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neonates and juvenile ruminants are very susceptible to paratuberculosis infection. This is likely due to a high degree of exposure from their dams and an immature immune system. To test the influence of age on vaccine-induced responses, a cocktail of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subsp...... and 12 relative to the first vaccination. Vaccine-induced immune responses, the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) cytokine secretion and antibody responses, were followed for 20 weeks. In general, the specific responses were significantly elevated in all three vaccination groups after the first booster...... vaccination with no or only a minor effect from the second booster. However, significant differences were observed in the immunogenicity levels of the different proteins, and it appears that the older age group produced a more consistent IFN-γ response. In contrast, the humoral immune response is seemingly...

  20. Effects of Electro-acupuncture on T Cell Subpopulations, NK Activity,Humoral Immunity and Leukocyte Count in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Fang; Liu Deshan; Wang Shuli; Xu Lan; Wang Xinzhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture on T cell subpopulations, natural killer cell (NK)activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods:Electro-acupuncture was added for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Tests were done on T cell subpopulations, NK activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count before treatment and after 4 courses of treatment. Results: After 4 courses of treatment with chemotherapy and electro-acupuncture, no obvious changes were found in T cell subpopulations, NK activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count (P > 0.05) as compared with those before treatment. Patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with electro-acupuncture showed obviously higher leukocyte count than that of the control group given no leukogenic drugs (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture may reduce immunologic damage caused by chemotherapy, thus it can be used as the auxiliary therapy for patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  1. Science Letters: Effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zeng-fu; WU Tian-xing; CAI Li-sheng; ZHANG Li-jing; ZHENG Xiao-dong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichthys miiuy were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200~260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. The animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with C. butyricum at doses of 103 (CB1), l05 (CB2), 107 (CB3) or 109 (CB4) CFU/g.Compared with the control, the serum phenoloxidase activity was significantly increased by the supplementation (P<0.05), acid phosphatases activity was increased significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 109 CFU/g. Serum lysozyme activity peaked at dose of 107 CFU/g and in the skin mucus at dose of 109 CFU/g. Immunoglobulin M level in the serum and skin mucus was increased except at dose of 103 CFU/g (P<0.05). The growth at the dose of 109 CFU/g was higher than that of the control (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation ofC. butyricum can mediate the humoral immune responses and improve the growth performance in Miichthys miiuy.

  2. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajati H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500 with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate. Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide or probiotic (Protexin® for 17 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured weekly during 26-40 wks of age. The hatchability of eggs was recorded on weeks 38, 39, and 40. Antibody production was recorded after 8 wks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of egg production and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as well as dead embryo-in-shells. Antibody titers against influenza and reovirus were higher in prebiotic fed group, but there were no significant differences among the other blood antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In conclusion, findings of present study showed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.

  3. CD8α− Dendritic Cells Induce Antigen-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells Generating Efficient Humoral Immune Responses

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    Changsik Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on T follicular helper (Tfh cells have significantly advanced our understanding of T cell-dependent B cell responses. However, little is known about the early stage of Tfh cell commitment by dendritic cells (DCs, particularly by the conventional CD8α+ and CD8α− DC subsets. We show that CD8α− DCs localized at the interfollicular zone play a pivotal role in the induction of antigen-specific Tfh cells by upregulating the expression of Icosl and Ox40l through the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. Tfh cells induced by CD8α− DCs function as true B cell helpers, resulting in significantly increased humoral immune responses against various human pathogenic antigens, including Yersinia pestis LcrV, HIV Gag, and hepatitis B surface antigen. Our findings uncover a mechanistic role of CD8α− DCs in the initiation of Tfh cell differentiation and thereby provide a rationale for investigating CD8α− DCs in enhancing antigen-specific humoral immune responses for improving vaccines and therapeutics.

  4. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  5. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  6. scFv from Antibody That Mimics gp43 Modulates the Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Tavares, Aldo Henrique F P; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; Ferreira, Karen Spadari

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides species is a prevalent systemic and progressive mycosis that occurs in Latin America. It is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Immunization with dendritic cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the scFv (pMAC/PS-scFv) that mimics the main antigen of P. brasiliensis (gp43) confers protection in experimental PCM. DCs link innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing invading pathogens and selecting the type of effector T cell to mediate the immune response. Here, we showed that DC-pMAC/PS-scFv induces the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with P. brasiliensis and treated with DC-pMAC/PS-scFv showed the induction of specific IgG production against gp43 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines. Analysis of regional lymph nodes revealed increases in the expression of clec7a, myd88, tlr2, gata3 and tbx21, which are involved in the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that the scFv modulates the humoral and cellular immune responses and presents epitopes to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  7. scFv from Antibody That Mimics gp43 Modulates the Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by Paracoccidioides species is a prevalent systemic and progressive mycosis that occurs in Latin America. It is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Immunization with dendritic cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the scFv (pMAC/PS-scFv that mimics the main antigen of P. brasiliensis (gp43 confers protection in experimental PCM. DCs link innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing invading pathogens and selecting the type of effector T cell to mediate the immune response. Here, we showed that DC-pMAC/PS-scFv induces the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with P. brasiliensis and treated with DC-pMAC/PS-scFv showed the induction of specific IgG production against gp43 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines. Analysis of regional lymph nodes revealed increases in the expression of clec7a, myd88, tlr2, gata3 and tbx21, which are involved in the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that the scFv modulates the humoral and cellular immune responses and presents epitopes to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  8. Evaluation of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate on humoral immune response and immune-related genes in Pacific red snapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Maldonado-García, Minerva; Guluarte, Crystal; León-Gallo, Amalia; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ascencio, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenicity of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate was evaluated in a double immunostimulation scheme in Pacific red snapper after V. parahaemolyticus infection. Three groups of Pacific red snapper were intraperitonealy (i.p.) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), ToxA of V. parahaemolyticus (ToxA-Vp group) or V. parahaemolyticus lysate (lysate-Vp group) (first injection, day 1; second injection, day 7). Fish were subsequently infected with live V. parahaemolyticus. Humoral immune parameters in skin mucus and serum were evaluated on days 1, 7, 8 and 14 days post-immunostimulation and 7 days post-infection. Moreover expression of immune-related genes was quantified by real time PCR in head-kidney leukocytes, spleen, liver, and intestine. The ToxA-Vp-treated group showed a higher anti-protease and catalase activity in skin mucus when compared with the PBS group. Measurements of SOD and CAT activities showed an increment in both activities a day after the second boost with ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp. Interestingly, IgM levels in mucus and transcripts were enhanced followed the ToxA-Vp treatment even after challenge. Furthermore, IL-1β was strongly expressed in all analyzed cell or tissues followed ToxA-Vp or Vp-lysate treatments. Finally, SOD and CAT gene expression was up-regulated in fish immunostimulated with either treatment ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp, mainly after infection in head-kidney leukocytes and intestine. This is the first study where the effects of ToxA from V. parahaemolyticus in the immune system of Pacific red snapper was evaluated. These results suggest that ToxA-Vp would positively affect humoral immune response and up-regulate expression of genes involved in the immune system function; and could help in the control of V. parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, an economic important fish in Mexico.

  9. [Correlation study of HIV/AIDS abnormal immune activation and disease progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Xin-Fang; Li, Yong; Zeng, Yi

    2013-08-01

    To learn the levels of immune function and immune activation of HIV/AIDS patients in China and find the correlation between the immune activation and CD4+ T lymphocyte and disease progression. And discuss the relevance of immune activation with HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. Two hundred and eighty seven cases of HIV/AIDS patients in different disease stages who never accept HAART before and 40 healthy HIV negative donors have been involved in the research. Their immune function and abnormal immune activation markers are detected by flow cytometry counts, and the immune activation markers include CD8 CD38+ T cells and CD8+ HLA-DR+ T cell. Compare the difference of abnormal immune activation between patients of various disease stages. And by Pearson correlation test analysis, the correlation between the immune activation levels and abnormal CD4+ T lymphocyte count and disease progression will be found. The immune abnormal activation levels were significantly different between patients of different disease stages (P HIV infection may lead to decreased CD4+ T cell count and disease progression.

  10. Enhancement of humoral immunity in mice by coupling pUCpGs10 and aluminium to the HCV recombinant immunogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Na

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate the enhancement of humoral immunity when CpG ODN (cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminium adjuvants are complexed with the HCV (Hepatitis C virus recombinant immunogen in mice. Methods After immunizing Balb/c mice with the recombination HCV antigen adjuvanted with pUCpGs10 and/or aluminium(antigen+CpG+alum, antigen+CpG, antigen+alum, antigen+PBS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure the specific serum antibody titers of IgG, to determine the neutralization response to various peptide genotypes, and to determine the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of in vitro cultured splenic lymphocytes. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT was used to quantify the non-specific and specific splenic antibody-secreting cells (ASCs, and flow cytometry (FCM determined the ratio of different splenic lymphocytes. The serum of rabbits immunized with the recombinant pBVGST/HVR1 antigen immunoprecipitated the HCV isolated from 12 patients' serum. Results The sera antibody titers were 1:51200, 1:9051, 1:18102, 1:6400 respectively after the final immunization and demonstrated good neutralization responses to the six gene peptide containing 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a and 6a. The aluminum adjuvant increased the population of both specific ASCs (P +CD27+ (P +CD38+ splenic lymphocytes with the aluminum and pUCpGs10 adjuvant present compared to the control group(P Conclusions 1. The aluminum adjuvant induces a potent Th2-biased immune response by increasing both the populations of specific and total ASCs and the ratio of CD19+CD27+ cells. 2. The pUCpGs10 complexed with the aluminum adjuvant boosts the population of plasma cells and increase the efficiency of the immune response. 3. The two adjuvants have synergistic effects on humoral immunity. 4. The recombinant HVR1 protein has the possibility of generating broadly reactive anti-HVR1 antibody.

  11. THE HUMORAL AND CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES INDUCED BY HPV18L1-E6/E7 DNA VACCINES IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jin; Li Xu; Li Ang; Wang Yili; Si Lüsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective To construct eukaryotic expression vector of HPV18 L1- E6, E7 chimeric gene and examine the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by this DNA vaccines in mice. Methods The C-terminal of major capsid protein L1 gene and mutant zinc finger domains of early E6/7 oncogenes in HPV18 were integrated and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to generate vaccines pVAX1-L1E6Mxx, E7Mxx. CHO cells were transiently transfected with the individual construct. Target protein expressions in the lysate of the transfected cells were measured by ELISA and immunocytochemistry. After BALB/c mice were vaccinated with various recombinant plasmids(pVAX1-L1-E6M3 or pVAX1-L1-E7M3) and immunie adjuvants (pLXHDmB7-2 or LTB) through different administration routes (intramuscular or intranasal) , the great cellular immune responses were produced as revealed by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and lymphocyte proliferation, and the expression of IL-4 and IFN- γ cells in CD4+ and CD8+subpopulations. Results The highly efficient expression of pVAX1-L1E6Mxx, E7Mxx vector in host eukaryotic cells were demonstrated both by ELISA and immunocytochemistry. The level of specific serum IgG against HPV in experiment groups mice was much higher than that of control group, and intranuscular immunization group had the highest antibody level. Intramuscular immunization groups were superior to intranasal immunization groups in DTH response, splenocyte proliferation and CD8+ IFN-γ + cells number, but CD4+ IL4+ cell number was higher in intranasal immunization groups. The immunization groups using pLXHDmB7-2 as adjuvant were superior to other groups in immunoresponse. Conclusion These DNA vaccines produce remarkable cellular and humoral immuneresponses in the mouse and may provide as prophylatic and therapeutic candidates for HPV induced cancer treatment.

  12. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  13. CORRECTION OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY DYSFUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS AND DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovichenko N.I.

    2015-05-01

    subgroup CTD2+ T1DM received therapy according to the scheme of CTC2. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by the general state of the patients according to oropharyngoscopy and humoral immunity after 45 days of observation. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. According to the accepted level of reliability index value between the groups (p, which constituted or were less than 0.05. Results and discussion As a result of immunological studies, it was determined that the exacerbation of chronic process in oropharyngeal mucosa is characterized by immunological failure, such as reduced levels of sIgA, IgA and IgG in the oropharyngeal secret. Content of SLPI in patients with CT before treatment was significantly below control values. Lysozyme level before treatment was significantly reduced in groups CTD and CTD+T1DM. Lactoferrin level was increased in groups CTC and CTD, but in group CTD+ T1DM it was reduced. According to our study, patients with CT combined with diabetes had reduced levels of sIgA, IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin and SLPI, but elevated levels of IgG. After standard therapy content of almost all measured parameters in experimental groups differed from controls. The level of sIgA was reduced relative to control group and before treatment. IgA level was reduced in the group CTD1 + T1DM relative control, but significantly higher relative indicators before treatment in groups CTD1and CTD1 + T1DM. The level of IgG in groups CTC1and CTD1 was increased relative to control group and in groups before treatment. In the group CTD1 + T1DM levels of IgG were decreased relative before treatment, but were higher than the control. The level of lysozyme after standard therapy did not differ from the control except group CTD1 + T1DM and was significantly higher than the corresponding values before treatment in all groups. The level of lactoferrin in groups CTC1 and CTD1 did not differ from control, but significantly different

  14. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  15. Pathogen-Mimicking Polymeric Nanoparticles based on Dopamine Polymerization as Vaccines Adjuvants Induce Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jia, Jilei; Yang, Tingyuan; Fan, Qingze; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-04-06

    Aiming to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines, a novel antigen delivery and adjuvant system based on dopamine polymerization on the surface of poly(D,L-lactic-glycolic-acid) nanoparticles (NPs) with multiple mechanisms of immunity enhancement is developed. The mussel-inspired biomimetic polydopamine (pD) not only serves as a coating to NPs but also functionalizes NP surfaces. The method is facile and mild including simple incubation of the preformed NPs in the weak alkaline dopamine solution, and incorporation of hepatitis B surface antigen and TLR9 agonist unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motif with the pD surface. The as-constructed NPs possess pathogen-mimicking manners owing to their size, shape, and surface molecular immune-activating properties given by CpG. The biocompatibility and biosafety of these pathogen-mimicking NPs are confirmed using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Pathogen-mimicking NPs hold great potential as vaccine delivery and adjuvant system due to their ability to: 1) enhance cytokine secretion and immune cell recruitment at the injection site; 2) significantly activate and maturate dendritic cells; 3) induce stronger humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo. Furthermore, this simple and versatile dopamine polymerization method can be applicable to endow NPs with characteristics to mimic pathogen structure and function, and manipulate NPs for the generation of efficacious vaccine adjuvants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  17. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-gang TANG; Tian-xing WU; Zhan-yu ZHAO; Xiao-dong PAN

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75±23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m×3 m×3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemerited with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%,the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively.

  18. Loss of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella during Current or Convalescent Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Malawian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Tonney S; Nyirenda, James T; Tembo, Dumizulu L; Storm, Janet; Dube, Queen; Msefula, Chisomo L; Jambo, Kondwani C; Mwandumba, Henry C; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A; Mandala, Wilson L

    2017-07-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the humoral and cellular immunity of the host to NTS, which increases the susceptibility of the host to iNTS infection. We prospectively recruited children aged between 6 and 60 months at a Community Health Centre in Blantyre, Malawi, and allocated them to the following groups; febrile with uncomplicated malaria, febrile malaria negative, and nonfebrile malaria negative. Levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-specific serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBBA), complement C3 deposition, and neutrophil respiratory burst activity (NRBA) were measured. Levels of SBA with respect to S Typhimurium were reduced in febrile P. falciparum-infected children (median, -0.20 log10 [interquartile range {IQR}, -1.85, 0.32]) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, -1.42 log10 [IQR, -2.0, -0.47], P = 0.052). In relation to SBA, C3 deposition on S Typhimurium was significantly reduced in febrile P. falciparum-infected children (median, 7.5% [IQR, 4.1, 15.0]) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, 29% [IQR, 11.8, 48.0], P = 0.048). WBBA with respect to S Typhimurium was significantly reduced in febrile P. falciparum-infected children (median, 0.25 log10 [IQR, -0.73, 1.13], P = 0.0001) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, -1.0 log10 [IQR, -1.68, -0.16]). In relation to WBBA, S Typhimurium-specific NRBA was reduced in febrile P. falciparum-infected children (median, 8.8% [IQR, 3.7, 20], P = 0.0001) compared to nonfebrile malaria-negative children (median, 40.5% [IQR, 33, 65.8]). P. falciparum infection impairs humoral and cellular immunity to S Typhimurium in children during malaria episodes, which may explain the increased risk of iNTS observed in

  19. Isolation, antiproliferation on tumor cell and immunomodulatory activity of BSP-I, a novel bursal peptide from chicken humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Taoqing; Wang, Fangquan; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Xiang; Chen, Puyan; Zhang, Hui

    2011-06-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is acknowledged as central humoral immune organ unique to birds. Our purpose was to identify the potential function of a novel bursal-derived bioactive peptide. A bursal septpeptide (BSP-I), EPASGMM, first isolated from BF, reduced MCF and Hela tumor cells proliferation, and enhanced antitumor factor p53 luciferase activity and protein expression. Further, we found the significantly immune inducing function of BSP-I on antigen-specific immune response in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally immunized with inactivated avian influence virus (AIV, H(9)N(2) subtype) vaccine, including of enhancing the antibody (IgG, the isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a) production, and stimulating cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ level, and inducing T cell immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation. These results suggested that as the bioactive peptide from avian humoral immune system, various biological function of BSP-I may have far-reaching implication on immune system significance, which might provide novel insight on linking between humoral immune system and development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human cancers diseases.

  20. The in vivo effects of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-10 on the humoral immune response in young and aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, R.; Tielemans, M.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether age-related changes in the composition and functional properties of murine CD4+ T cells are reflected in vivo by a changed humoral response to influenza vaccine in aged mice. After the primary immunization, the titers of influenza-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2

  1. Humoral immune response against proteins E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma patients positive for human papilloma virus type 16 during treatment and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, MFD; Duk, JM; Burger, MPM; de Bruijn, HWA; Stolz, E; Herbrink, P

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the humoral immune response to transforming proteins E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 before and after treatment and during follow-up, consecutive serum samples from 36 cervical cancer patients whose tumours were found to contain human papillomavirus type 16 DNA by use of the

  2. Opposing Signals from Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns and IL-10 Are Critical for Optimal Dendritic Cell Induction of In Vivo Humoral Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    patterns and IL-10 for optimization of DC induction of an in vivo humoral immune response. Bone marrow-derived, CD8 DC pulsed with Streptococcus ... pneumoniae in vitro induce in vivo protein- and polysaccharide-specific Ig isotype responses upon adoptive transfer into naive mice. Following bacterial

  3. Capture of influenza by medullary dendritic cells via SIGN-R1 is essential for humoral immunity in draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Kuligowski, Michael P.;

    2010-01-01

    A major pathway for B cell acquisition of lymph-borne particulate antigens relies on antigen capture by subcapsular sinus macrophages of the lymph node. Here we tested whether this mechanism is also important for humoral immunity to inactivated influenza virus. By multiple approaches, including m...

  4. Humoral and cellular immune responses to synthetic peptides of the Leishmania donovani kinetoplastid membrane protein-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gasim, S; Ismail, A

    1998-01-01

    Native kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11), purified from crude extracts of Leishmania donovani parasites, activates T cells from individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis. In this work we used three 38-mer peptides spanning the amino acid sequence of the L. donovani KMP-11...... as solid-phase ligands in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and as stimulating antigens in lymphoproliferative assays in order to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to well-defined sequences of the protein. Antibody reactivity against the three peptides was measured in plasma from 63...... Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL) and the percentage of patients with anti-KMP-11 antibodies in ELISA were 37% (KMP-11-1), 30% (KMP-11-2) and 58% (KMP-11-3). The fraction of VL patients with measurable antibody reactivity in one or more of the three ELISAs was 79%. Cross-reactivity to the KMP...

  5. Evaluation of a botulinum fragment C-based ELISA for measuring the humoral immune response in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Smith, Leonard A; West, Michael W; Boles, James W; Brown, J Edward

    2003-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using botulinum neurotoxin serotype B recombinant fragment C (rBoNTB(HC)) was developed to measure specific humoral immune responses of monkeys vaccinated with a vaccine consisting of rBoNTB(HC). Several fundamental parameters for a bioassay were evaluated. The evaluation results demonstrated that using BoNTB(HC) as the capture antigen led to a specific and sensitive ELISA for botulinum type B antibody with excellent precision, accuracy, and linearity. There was a good correlation (r=0.91) between ELISA titers and neutralization bioassay titers. Experimental results suggested that the ELISA could be useful for detecting botulinum type B antibody levels and may supplement mouse neutralization bioassays during planned clinical manufacturing and clinical trials of rBoNTB(HC) vaccine.

  6. [Changes of local resistance of oral cavity and humoral immunity among workers of metallurgical and chemical production during parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, M V; Dzhashi, L M; Chelidze, L N; Gogebashvili, N V

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the data of immunological investigations of 142 workers of metallurgical (melting shops of Zestaphoni's Farroalloy Plant) and chemical (electrolytic shops of manganese and dioxide manganese of Farroalloy Plant and "Azoti") production it was found that during parodontitis among studied contingent local resistance of mouth cavity and humoral immunity are changed, the compound of lysozyme and amylase in saliva is lowered, in the layers of saliva and blood is revealed the misbalance of immunoglobulin's system. First of all was established, that during parodontitis among the studied workers autoimmune processes are developed directed against the I-st type collagen and the tissue of gum. Changes of local and common homeostasis as well as the changes of intensity of autoimmune process are in direct correlation with the severity of parodontitis and the pollution of production environment with the spray of manganese dioxide.

  7. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22580290

  8. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway.

  9. Net positive charge of HIV-1 CRF01_AE V3 sequence regulates viral sensitivity to humoral immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Naganawa

    Full Text Available The third variable region (V3 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope gp120 subunit participates in determination of viral infection coreceptor tropism and host humoral immune responses. Positive charge of the V3 plays a key role in determining viral coreceptor tropism. Here, we examined by bioinformatics, experimental, and protein modelling approaches whether the net positive charge of V3 sequence regulates viral sensitivity to humoral immunity. We chose HIV-1 CRF01_AE strain as a model virus to address the question. Diversity analyses using CRF01_AE V3 sequences from 37 countries during 1984 and 2005 (n = 1361 revealed that reduction in the V3's net positive charge makes V3 less variable due to limited positive selection. Consistently, neutralization assay using CRF01_AE V3 recombinant viruses (n = 30 showed that the reduction in the V3's net positive charge rendered HIV-1 less sensitive to neutralization by the blood anti-V3 antibodies. The especially neutralization resistant V3 sequences were the particular subset of the CCR5-tropic V3 sequences with net positive charges of +2 to +4. Molecular dynamics simulation of the gp120 monomers showed that the V3's net positive charge regulates the V3 configuration. This and reported gp120 structural data predict a less-exposed V3 with a reduced net positive charge in the native gp120 trimer context. Taken together, these data suggest a key role of the V3's net positive charge in the immunological escape and coreceptor tropism evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in vivo. The findings have molecular implications for the adaptive evolution and vaccine design of HIV-1.

  10. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-08-21

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely.

  11. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate transaminase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT. The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely.

  12. Avian CD154 enhances humoral and cellular immune responses induced by an adenovirus vector-based vaccine in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ramos, Oliberto; González Pose, Alain; Gómez-Puerta, Silvia; Noda Gomez, Julia; Vega Redondo, Armando; Águila Benites, Julio César; Suárez Amarán, Lester; Parra, Natalie C; Toledo Alonso, Jorge R

    2011-05-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors have emerged as an attractive system for veterinary vaccines development. However, for poultry vaccination a very important criterion for an ideal vaccine is its low cost. The objective of this study was to test the ability of chicken CD154 to enhance the immunogenicity of an adenoviral vector-based vaccine against avian influenza virus in order to reduce the amount of antigen required to induce an effective immune response in avian. Chickens were vaccinated with three different doses of adenoviral vectors encoding either HA (AdHA), or HA fused to extracellular domain chicken's CD154 (AdHACD). Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and relative quantification of IFN-γ showed that the adenoviral vector encoding for the chimeric antigen is able to elicit an improved humoral and cellular immune response, which demonstrated that CD154 can be used as a molecular adjuvant allowing to reduce in about 50-fold the amount of adenoviral vector vaccine required to induce an effective immune response.

  13. Evidence of a humoral immune response against the prokaryotic expressed N-terminal autoprotease (Npro) protein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niranjan Mishra; Katherukamem Rajukumar; Shruti Shrikant Pitale; Anil Prakash; Ram Kumar Nema; Sthita Pragnya Behera; Shiv Chandra Dubey

    2010-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep belonging to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (Npro) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV Npro–His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it in rabbits. The antigenicity of the Npro protein was confirmed by western blot using anti-BVDV hyperimmune cattle, sheep and goat serum, and anti-Npro rabbit serum. When rabbits were immunized with the Npro protein, a humoral immune response was evident by 4 weeks and persisted till 10 weeks post immunization as detected by ELISA and western blot. Despite Npro-specific antibodies remaining undetectable in 80 serum samples from BVDV-infected sheep and goats, BVDV hyperimmune sera along with some of the field cattle, sheep and goat sera with high BVDV neutralizing antibody titres were found positive for Npro antibodies. Our results provide evidence that despite the low immunogenicity of the BVDV Npro protein, a humoral immune response is induced in cattle, sheep and goats only with repeated BVDV exposure.

  14. Development of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-supplemented adjuvant and its effects on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in male rats immunized against sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOGUCHI, Junko; WATANABE, Shinya; NGUYEN, Thanh Q. Dang; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was found to enhance the adjuvant effects of a veterinary vaccine adjuvant (ISA 71VG®). Sperm immunization using 71VG as an adjuvant in the immature period induced infertility in 25% of male rats, whereas this increased to 62.5% after immunization with 71VG + LPS or Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA). Mean testicular weight of non-sterile males in the 71VG + LPS group was significantly lower than that in the 71VG or FCA group. Histological examination of testicular tissue from sterile males demonstrated severe impairment of spermatogenesis due to experimental autoimmune orchitis, a cell-mediated autoimmune condition. The serum anti-sperm titer was elevated in the three sperm-immunized groups relative to male rats treated with adjuvant alone, but the titer was higher in the 71VG + LPS and FCA groups than in the 71VG group. We consider that this LPS-supplemented adjuvant stimulates both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to an extent comparable to FCA. PMID:27890874

  15. Humoral Immunity through Immunoglobulin M Protects Mice from an Experimental Actinomycetoma Infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium. PMID:15385456

  16. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Shuo; Liang, Mifang; Gu, Wen; Li, Chuan; Miao, Fang; Wang, Xiaofang; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fushun; Zhang, Quanfu; Jiang, Lifang; Li, Mengfeng; Li, Dexin

    2011-01-01

    .... Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated...

  17. The role of metalloproteinase ADAM17 in regulating ICOS ligand-mediated humoral immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marczynska, Joanna; Ozga, Aleksandra; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    cells. Shedding is largely attributed to a family of a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain (ADAM) metalloproteases, including ADAM17. Although ADAM17 is well known to contribute to the innate immune response, mainly by releasing TNF-α, much less is known about whether/how this metalloprotease...... regulates adaptive immunity. To determine whether ADAM17 contributes to regulating adaptive immune responses, we took advantage of ADAM17 hypomorphic (ADAM17(ex/ex)) mice, in which ADAM17 expression is reduced by 90-95% compared with wild-type littermates. In this study, we show that that ADAM17 deficiency...... suggest a functional link between ADAM17 and ICOSL in controlling adaptive immune responses....

  18. HPV 6b L1 VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES ELICIT HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuehua(刘跃华); Liu Wenjun(刘文军); Liu Xiaosong(刘晓松); Ian H.Frazer

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To test whether intrarnuscular,intranasal, intrarectal and intravaginal administration of HPV 6b L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) could induce immune response in mice and to assess whether intra muscular and mucosal vaccination against HPV is feasible. Methods. HPV6b L1 proteins self-assembled into VLPs in Sf-9 cell in vitro. Mice were immunized on day 0 and 21 with 50 μg HPV 6b L1 VLPs intramuscularly, intranasally, intrarectally and intravagi nally respectively. Sera were collected for testing IgG titer after a further 7 days and 3 months respec tively. Results. After immunizations, all mice developed significant anti-HPV 6b L1 antibody titers in serum by 7 days after the second immunization. The titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs in the intramuscularly immunized group was higher than that in the intranasally, intrarectally and intravaginally immunized groups respectively, indicating that both muscular and mucosal administration of HPV 6b L1 VLPs can stimulate a systemic HPV-specific antibody response. Sera of the mice in the in tramuscularly immunized group still maintained a high titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs 3 months after the immunization. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that the HPV 6b L1 VLPs maintain strong antigenicity. Immu nization with HPV 6b L1 VLPs via intramuscular and mucosal routes, without adjuvant, can elicit spe cific antibody in sera. These findings suggest that the VLPs are able to induce protective antibodies.

  19. Cellular and humoral cross-immunity against two H3N2v influenza strains in presumably unexposed healthy and HIV-infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Agrati

    Full Text Available Human cases of infection due to a novel swine-origin variant of influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2v have recently been identified in the United States. Pre-existing humoral and cellular immunity has been recognized as one of the key factors in limiting the infection burden of an emerging influenza virus strain, contributing to restrict its circulation and to mitigate clinical presentation. Aim of this study was to assess humoral and cell-mediated cross immune responses to H3N2v in immuno-competent (healthy donors, n = 45 and immuno-compromised hosts (HIV-infected subjects, n = 46 never exposed to H3N2v influenza strain. Humoral response against i H3N2v (A/H3N2/Ind/08/11, ii animal vaccine H3N2 strain (A/H3N2/Min/11/10, and iii pandemic H1N1 virus (A/H1N1/Cal/07/09 was analysed by hemagglutination inhibition assay; cell-mediated response against the same influenza strains was analysed by ELISpot assay. A large proportion of healthy and HIV subjects displayed cross-reacting humoral and cellular immune responses against two H3N2v strains, suggesting the presence of B- and T-cell clones able to recognize epitopes from emerging viral strains in both groups. Specifically, humoral response was lower in HIV subjects than in HD, and a specific age-related pattern of antibody response against different influenza strains was observed both in HD and in HIV. Cellular immune response was similar between HD and HIV groups and no relationship with age was reported. Finally, no correlation between humoral and cellular immune response was observed. Overall, a high prevalence of HD and HIV patients showing cross reactive immunity against two H3N2v strains was observed, with a slightly lower proportion in HIV persons. Other studies focused on HIV subjects at different stages of diseases are needed in order to define how cross immunity can be affected by advanced immunosuppression.

  20. Hair-type sheep generate an accelerated and longer-lived humoral immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdridge, Scott; MacKinnon, Kathryn; McCann, Joshua C; Zajac, Anne M; Notter, David R

    2013-09-01

    Antibody levels produced in response to gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasite infection are typically higher in GIN-resistant breeds than susceptible breeds. Consequently, GIN-resistant ewes should generate greater parasite-specific antibody in colostrum and milk, potentially providing greater passive immunity to young lambs. To test this hypothesis, we monitored immunoglobulin levels in wool and hair-type sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus for 35 days following the end of a 45-day autumn breeding season and subsequently for 6 weeks around the time of parturition. Ten, first-parity ewes of each type were infected with 12,000 H. contortus L3 larvae following the end of breeding. In response to infection, hair ewes generated greater serum IgA (Pcolostrum and milk of either breed. These data further demonstrate that hair-type sheep can rapidly reduce fecal egg output and generate greater humoral immunity as evidenced by higher levels of circulating antigen-specific antibody, but there is no evidence to suggest GIN-resistant sheep preferentially mobilize antigen-specific IgA to colostrum or milk. Thus, no clear difference exists between types of sheep in ability to deliver parasite-specific IgA to their offspring.

  1. Tetanus toxoid-loaded cationic non-aggregated nanostructured lipid particles triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Jyoti, Kiran; Rai, Shweta; Sidhu, Rupinder; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Madan, Jitender

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, non-aggregated cationic and unmodified nanoparticles (TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1) were prepared of about 49.2 ± 6.8-nm and 40.8 ± 8.3-nm, respectively. In addition, spherical shape, crystalline architecture and cationic charge were also noticed. Furthermore, integrity and conformational stability of TT were maintained in both TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1, as evidenced by symmetrical position of bands and superimposed spectra, respectively in SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism. Cellular uptake in RAW264.7 cells indicating the concentration-dependent internalisation of nanoparticles. Qualitatively, CLSM exhibited enhanced cellular uptake of non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 owing to interaction with negatively charged plasma membrane and clevaloe mediated/independent endocytosis. In last, in vivo immunisation with non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 elicited strong humoral (anti-TT IgG) and cellular (IFN-γ) immune responses at day 42, as compared to non-aggregated TT-NLPs1 and TT-Alum following booster immunisation at day 14 and 28. Thus, non-aggregated cationic lipid nanoparticles may be a potent immune-adjuvant for parenteral delivery of weak antigens.

  2. Solid bioneedle-delivered influenza vaccines are highly thermostable and induce both humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Soema

    Full Text Available The potential of bioneedles to deliver influenza vaccines was investigated. Four influenza vaccine formulations were screened to determine the optimal formulation for use with bioneedles. The stability of the formulations after freeze-drying was checked to predict the stability of the influenza vaccines in the bioneedles. Subunit, split, virosomal and whole inactivated influenza (WIV vaccine were formulated and lyophilized in bioneedles, and subsequently administered to C57BL/6 mice. Humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed after vaccination. The thermostability of lyophilized vaccines was determined after one-month storage at elevated temperatures. Bioneedle influenza vaccines induced HI titers that are comparable to those induced by intramuscular WIV vaccination. Delivery by bioneedles did not alter the type of immune response induced by the influenza vaccines. Stability studies showed that lyophilized influenza vaccines have superior thermostability compared to conventional liquid vaccines, and remained stable after one-month storage at 60°C. Influenza vaccines delivered by bioneedles are a viable alternative to conventional liquid influenza vaccines. WIV was determined to be the most potent vaccine formulation for administration by bioneedles. Lyophilized influenza vaccines in bioneedles are independent of a cold-chain, due to their increased thermostability, which makes distribution and stockpiling easier.

  3. Limited ability of humoral immune responses in control of viremia during infection with SIVsmmD215 strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribiero, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the impact of humoral immunity on SIV replication, 11 rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with the neutralization-sensitive strain SIVsmmD215. Seven RMs were treated every three weeks, with 50 mglkg of an anti-CD20 antibody (Rituxan, gift from Genentech) starting from day -7 p.i., as follows: four RMs were treated for two months, and three were treated for five months. The remaining four RMs were used as controls. Three RMs were completely depleted of CD20 cells. Four RMs only partially depleted CD20 cells in the LNs and intestine. The efficacy of tissue CD20 depletion predicted the ablation of antibody production, with SIVsmm seroconversion being delayed in the animals with complete tissue CD20 depletion, and neutralizing antibody production being significantly delayed and at low levels in all CD20-depleted RMs. There was no significant difference in acute or chronic VLs between CD20-depleted RMs and control monkeys, with a tendency for lower set-point VLs in CD20-depleted RMs. At 6 weeks p.i., cellular immune responses were significantly stronger in CD20 depleted RMs than in controls. After two years p.i., there was no significant difference in survival between CD20-depleted and control RMs. We concluded that CD20 depletion plays no significant role in the control of SIV replication or disease progression in SIVsmmD215-infected RMs.

  4.  Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune responses after implantation of a PTFE vascular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skóra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:The experiment was designed in order to determine the immunological processes that occur during the healing in synthetic vascular grafts, especially to establish the differences in the location of the complement system proteins between the proximal and distal anastomosis and the differences in the arrangement of inflammatory cells in those anastomoses. The understanding of those processes will provide a true basis for determining risk factors for complications after arterial repair procedures.Material/Methods:The experiment was carried out on 16 dogs that underwent implantation of unilateral aorto-femoral bypass with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE. After 6 months all animals were euthanized to dissect the vascular grafts. Immunohistochemical assays and electron microscopic examinations were performed.Results:Immunohistochemical findings in the structure of neointima between anastomoses of vascular prostheses demonstrated significant differences between humoral and cellular responses. The area of proximal anastomosis revealed the presence of fibroblasts, but no macrophages were detected. The histological structure of the proximal anastomosis indicates that inflammatory processes were ended during the prosthesis healing. The immunological response obtained in the distal anastomosis corresponded to the chronic inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages, myofibroblasts and deposits of complement C3.Discussion:The identification of differences in the presence of macrophages and myofibroblasts and the presence of the C3 component between the anastomoses is the original achievement of the present study. In the available literature, no such significant differences have been shown so far in the humoral and cellular immune response caused by the presence of an artificial vessel in the arterial system.

  5. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomovici, A; Barreto, L; Zickler, P; Meekison, W; Noya, F; Voloshen, T; Lavigne, P

    2012-03-30

    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier clinical trials. Outcome measures were seroprotection (tetanus and diphtheria) or seropositivity (pertussis) and geometric mean concentrations. Humoral immune responses to all antigens were robust 1 month after initial immunization, decreased at subsequent measurements, but continued to exceed pre-immunization levels 1, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin persisted in 99.3% of adolescents 10 years after a booster dose of Tdap. Seropositivity to 1 or more pertussis antigens also persisted in most adolescents for 10 years. Although tetanus antitoxin responses were similar in adults to those observed in adolescents, diphtheria antitoxin titers were lower, reflecting the fact that a smaller proportion of adults had received diphtheria toxoid in the previous 10 years compared to adolescents. These data will contribute to the selection of the optimal interval for repeat doses of Tdap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of chemotherapy for lymphoma in canine parvovirus DNA distribution and specific humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M A; Duarte, A; Nunes, T; Lourenço, A M; Braz, B S; Vicente, G; Henriques, J; Tavares, L

    2014-12-01

    In man, the combination of cancer and its treatment increases patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections, due to immune system impairment. In veterinary medicine little information is available concerning this issue. In order to evaluate if a similar dysfunction is induced in small animals undergoing chemotherapy, we assessed the complete blood count, leukocytic, plasma and fecal canine parvovirus (CPV) viral load, and anti-CPV protective antibody titers, in dogs with lymphoma treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) protocol, before and during chemotherapy. There was no evidence of decreased immune response, either at admission or after two chemotherapy cycles, indicating that the previously established immunity against CPV was not significantly impaired, supporting the idea that immunosuppression as a result of hematopoietic neoplasms and their treatment in dogs requires further investigation and conclusions cannot be extrapolated from human literature.

  7. The pathogenesis of arthritis in Lyme disease: humoral immune responses and the role of intra-articular immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. A.; Steere, A. C.; Malawista, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    We studied 78 patients with Lyme disease to determine how immune complexes and autoantibodies are related to the development of chronic Lyme arthritis. Circulating C1q binding material was found in nearly all patients at onset of erythema chronicum migrans, the skin lesion that marks the onset of infection with the causative spirochete. In patients with only subsequent arthritis this material tended to localize to joints where it gradually increased in concentrations with greater duration of joint inflammation. In joints, its concentration correlated positively with the number of synovial fluid polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Despite the prolonged presence of putative immune complexes, rheumatoid factors could not be demonstrated. These observations suggest that phlogistic immune complexes based on spirochete antigens form locally within joints during chronic Lyme arthritis. PMID:6334939

  8. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  9. BLyS inhibition eliminates primary B cells but leaves natural and acquired humoral immunity intact

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Jean L.; Crowley, Jenni E.; Tomayko, Mary M.; Steinel, Natalie; O'Neill, Patrick J.; Quinn, William J; Goenka, Radhika; Miller, Juli P; Cho, Yun Hee; Long, Vatana; Ward, Chris; Migone, Thi-Sau; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Cancro, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    We have used an inhibiting antibody to determine whether preimmune versus antigen-experienced B cells differ in their requisites for BLyS, a cytokine that controls differentiation and survival. Whereas in vivo BLyS inhibition profoundly reduced naïve B cell numbers and primary immune responses, it had a markedly smaller effect on memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells, as well as secondary immune responses. There was heterogeneity within the memory pools, because IgM-bearing memory cells ...

  10. PIKA Provides an Adjuvant Effect to Induce Strong Mucosal and Systemic Humoral Immunity Against SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei Gai; Yan Zhang; Di-han Zhou; Yao-qing Chen; Jing-yi Yang; Hui-min Yan

    2011-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS)is a deadly infectious disease caused by SARS Coronavirus(SARS-CoV).Inactivated SARS-CoV has been explored as a vaccine against SARS-CoV.However,safe and potent adjuvants,especially with more efficient and economical needle-free vaccination are always needed more urgently in a pandemic.The development of a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant and vaccine for prevention of emergent infectious diseases such as SARS will be an important advancement.PIKA,a stabilized derivative of Poly(I:C),was previously reported to be safe and potent as adjuvant in mouse models.In the present study,we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal and intranasal co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine together with this improved Poly(I:C)derivative induced strong anti-SARS-CoV mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses with neutralizing activity against pseudotyped virus.Although intraperitoneal immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine alone could induce a certain level of neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites,co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine with PIKA as adjuvant could induce a much higher neutralizing activity.When intranasal immunization was used,PIKA was obligatorily for inducing neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites and was correlated with both mucosal IgA and mucosal IgG response.Overall,PIKA could be a good mucosal adjuvant candidate for inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine for use in possible future pandemic.

  11. Humoral and cellular immunity to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 and protection from infection with blood-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Ann M; Sumba, Peter Odada; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Fang, Hua; Tisch, Daniel J; Dent, Arlene E; John, Chandy C; Long, Carole A; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W

    2013-07-01

     Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts.  The relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody and both interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) responses to the 42-kD C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) and the risk of (re)infection were examined following drug-mediated clearance of parasitemia in 94 adults and 95 children in an area of holoendemicity of western Kenya.  Positive IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) responses to MSP142 3D7 were associated with delayed time to (re)infection, whereas high-titer IgG antibodies to MSP142 3D7 or FVO alleles were not independently predictive of the risk of (re)infection. When IFN-γ and IL-10 responses were both present, the protective effect of IFN-γ was abrogated. A Cox proportional hazard model including IFN-γ, IL-10, MSP142 3D7 IgG antibody responses, hemoglobin S genotype, age, and infection status at baseline showed that the time to blood-stage infection correlated positively with IFN-γ responses and negatively with IL-10 responses, younger age, and asymptomatic parasitemia.  Evaluating combined allele-specific cellular and humoral immunity elicited by malaria provides a more informative measure of protection relative to evaluation of either measure alone.

  12. Impaired innate, humoral, and cellular immunity despite a take in smallpox vaccine recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Oberg, Ann L; Asmann, Yan W; Grill, Diane E; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-06-14

    Smallpox vaccine is highly effective, inducing protective immunity to smallpox and diseases caused by related orthopoxviruses. Smallpox vaccine efficacy was historically defined by the appearance of a lesion or "take" at the vaccine site, which leaves behind a characteristic scar. Both the take and scar are readily recognizable and were used during the eradication effort to indicate successful vaccination and to categorize individuals as "protected." However, the development of a typical vaccine take may not equate to the successful development of a robust, protective immune response. In this report, we examined two large (>1000) cohorts of recipients of either Dryvax(®) or ACAM2000 using a testing and replication study design and identified subgroups of individuals who had documented vaccine takes, but who failed to develop robust neutralizing antibody titers. Examination of these individuals revealed that they had suboptimal cellular immune responses as well. Further testing indicated these low responders had a diminished innate antiviral gene expression pattern (IFNA1, CXCL10, CXCL11, OASL) upon in vitro stimulation with vaccinia virus, perhaps indicative of a dysregulated innate response. Our results suggest that poor activation of innate antiviral pathways may result in suboptimal immune responses to the smallpox vaccine. These genes and pathways may serve as suitable targets for adjuvants in new attenuated smallpox vaccines and/or effective antiviral therapy targets against poxvirus infections.

  13. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  14. Analysis of humoral immune responses to LM1 ganglioside in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yajuan; Chen, Zi-Wei; Siegel, Allan; Koshy, Ranie; Ramirez, Cristhian; Raabe, Timothy D; Devries, George H; Ilyas, Amjad A

    2012-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated disease triggered by a preceding infection. A substantial body of evidence implicates antibodies to various gangliosides in subtypes of GBS. A significant proportion of patients with acute demyelinating subset of GBS have IgG antibodies against peripheral nervous system myelin specific neolactogangliosides such as LM1 and Hex-LM1. Although anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in GBS were described more than two decades ago, their pathogenic role in neuropathy remains unknown due to the lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we immunized ten guinea pigs with purified LM1 ganglioside mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control guinea pigs were injected with KLH emulsified in CFA only. The animals were bled every four week intervals. The animals were boosted 3 times every four weeks. Experiments were terminated four months after initial immunization. Nine of 10 guinea pigs immunized with LM1 exhibited antibody responses to LM1. Anti-LM1 IgG titers in nine guinea pigs ranged from 1:400 to 1:12,800 at 16-weeks after initial immunization. Anti-LM1 antibodies were predominantly of IgG2 subclass. One guinea pig with the highest levels of IgG antibodies exhibited mild signs of neuropathy. There was no evidence of demyelination or inflammation in the sciatic nerves of LM1-immunized guinea pigs. Anti-LM1 antibodies bound to rat sciatic nerve myelin and to isolated rat Schwann cells. In summary, our findings suggest that relatively high levels of anti-LM1 IgG antibodies can be induced in guinea pigs and that LM1 is localized in peripheral nerve myelin and in Schwann cells. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in neuropathy.

  15. The pH-sensitive fusogenic 3-methyl-glutarylated hyperbranched poly(glycidol)-conjugated liposome induces antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebishima, Takehisa; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Aida, Yoko

    2012-09-01

    We examined the ability of a novel liposome, surface modified by 3-methyl-glutarylated hyperbranched poly(glycidol) (MGlu-HPG), to enhance antigen-specific immunity in vitro and in vivo and to function as a vaccine carrier. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells took up ovalbumin (OVA) encapsulated in MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes more effectively than free OVA or OVA encapsulated in unmodified liposomes. Immunization of mice with OVA-containing MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes induced antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation and production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) more strongly than did immunization with free OVA or OVA encapsulated in unmodified liposomes. The immune responses induced by OVA encapsulated in MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes were significantly suppressed by addition of anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II monoclonal antibodies, indicating the involvement of antigen presentation via MHC class I and II. Furthermore, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and OVA-specific antibodies were induced more effectively in mice immunized with OVA encapsulated by MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes than with unencapsulated OVA or OVA encapsulated in unmodified liposomes. These results suggested that MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes effectively induced both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Collectively, this study is the first to demonstrate the induction of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in vivo by MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes.

  16. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos LESCANO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canisand grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day 10 days postinfection (dpi; G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocaraantibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- ToxocaraIgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ.

  17. Modulation of human humoral immune response through orally administered bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F; Tuomola, E; Arvilommi, H; Salminen, S

    2001-08-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized into two treatment groups and consumed liquid prepackaged bovine colostrum whey and placebo for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. The circulating antibody secreting cells and the expression of phagocytosis receptors of the subjects before and after oral immunization were measured with the ELISPOT assay and flow cytometry. All subjects responded well to the vaccine. No significant differences were observed in ELISPOT values for IgA, IgG, IgM, Fcgamma and CR receptor expression on neutrophils and monocytes between the two groups. There was a trend towards greater increase in specific IgA among the subjects receiving their vaccine with bovine colostrum. These results suggest that bovine colostrum may possess some potential to enhance human special immune responses.

  18. Humoral immune responses to inactivated oil-emulsified Marek's disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L F; Witter, R L

    1991-01-01

    When inactivated Md11/75C vaccine was inoculated into 1-day-old chickens, it stimulated antibodies detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at a titer of 6400) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (at a titer of 640), but lacking virus-neutralizing activity. Chickens passively inoculated with these antibodies were protected against bursal atrophy, weight loss, and early mortality when challenged with the virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). That led to the conclusion that virus-neutralizing activity is not a prerequisite for protection. In another experiment, antibody titers of adult chickens previously primed by exposure to live turkey herpesvirus and MDV did not increase after immunization with inactivated oil-emulsion MDV vaccines. This result provides little hope that Marek's disease can be controlled in progeny chickens by maternal immunity derived from hyperimmunized parents.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in host antiviral genes: associations with humoral and cellular immunity to measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Umlauf, Benjamin J; Vierkant, Robert A; Shane Pankratz, V; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2011-11-08

    Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans. Genetic variants within the DDX58/RIG-I gene, including a coding polymorphism (rs3205166/Val800Val), were associated as single-SNPs (p≤0.017; although these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for false discovery rate/FDR) and in haplotype-level analysis, with measles-specific antibody variations in Caucasians (haplotype allele p-value=0.021; haplotype global p-value=0.076). Four DDX58 polymorphisms, in high LD, demonstrated also associations (after correction for FDR) with variations in both measles-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in Caucasians (p≤0.001, q=0.193). Two intronic OAS1 polymorphisms, including the functional OAS1 SNP rs10774671 (p=0.003), demonstrated evidence of association with a significant allele-dose-related increase in neutralizing antibody levels in African-Americans. Genotype and haplotype-level associations demonstrated the role of ADAR genetic variants, including a non-synonymous SNP (rs2229857/Arg384Lys; p=0.01), in regulating measles virus-specific IFN-γ Elispot responses in Caucasians (haplotype global p-value=0.017). After correction for FDR, 15 single-SNP associations (11 SNPs in Caucasians and 4 SNPs in African-Americans) still remained significant at the q-valuemeasles vaccine in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  20. Comparison of humoral immune responses in dairy heifers vaccinated with 3 different commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesCôteaux, Luc; Cécyre, Dominique; Elsener, Johanne; Beauchamp, Guy

    2003-10-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the humoral immune response to 3 different commercial vaccines in dairy heifers housed in 3 different dairy farms in Quebec. All heifers were seronegative to type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (Singer strain), type 2 BVDV (NVSL 125c strain), and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) at the beginning of the trial. In addition, control heifers in group 1 remained seronegative to the 2 viruses till the end of the trial. Significant differences in humoral immune responses occurred among the 3 commercial vaccines at 4 weeks and 6 months following vaccination. The vaccine in group 2 elicited higher mean antibody titers and seroconversion rates to both type 1 and type 2 BVDV than that in groups 3 or 4. Vaccines in groups 2 and 3 induced higher mean antibody titers to BHV-1 than did the vaccine in group 4.

  1. 早产儿体液免疫变化及影响因素研究%Study on changes and influence of humoral immunity in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 魏建和; 刘振奎; 肖佩霞; 张雅静; 袁二伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study changes of humoral immunity of the premature infants in different pathological conditions and detect the reason of the deficiency of humoral immunity in premature infants .Methods Two hundred and forty-six prematur were enrolled and 30 healthy neonates were selected as control group .The percentages of IgG ,IgA ,IgM and comp lement C3 ,C4 were detected by full automatic biochemical analyzer .Results The results showed that IgG ,IgM ,IgA ,C3 and C4 in the premature in-fants were lower than those in the normal term infants and there was a highly significant difference with the decrease of fetal age . IgG ,IgM ,IgA ,C3 and C4 of the group of the premature infants ranging from 32 to 36 weeks had reduced in different degree ,rela-tive to the groups of BW <2 000 g ,hypertension during pregnancy ,cesarean section(P<0 .05) .Conclusion The results showed that function of humoral immunity in the premature infants was depressed and low gestational age ,low birth weight ,cesarean sec-tion and hypertension during pregnancy may be the leading cause of the deficiency of humoral immunity .%目的研究早产儿体液免疫功能变化,探讨早产儿体液免疫功能低下的病因。方法收集246例早产儿组和30例健康新生儿(健康对照组)静脉血标本3 mL ,采用全自动生化分析仪检测各组新生儿IgG、IgM、IgA和补体C3、C4水平。结果

  2. Immunoblot detection of class-specific humoral immune response to outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi in humans with typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, V; Isibasi, A; García-Ortigoza, E; Kumate, J.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported here were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce a humoral immune response in humans with typhoid fever. OMPs were isolated with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed protein bands with molecular size ranges from 17 to 70 kilodaltons; the major groups of proteins we...

  3. Complement and Humoral Adaptive Immunity in the Human Choroid Plexus: Roles for Stromal Concretions, Basement Membranes, and Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G R Wayne; Laule, Cornelia; Leung, Esther; Pavlova, Vladimira; Morgan, B Paul; Esiri, Margaret M

    2016-05-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) provides a barrier to entry of toxic molecules from the blood into the brain and transports vital molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid. While a great deal is known about CP physiology, relatively little is known about its immunology. Here, we show immunohistochemical data that help define the role of the CP in innate and adaptive humoral immunity. The results show that complement, in the form of C1q, C3d, C9, or C9neo, is preferentially deposited in stromal concretions. In contrast, immunoglobulin (Ig) G (IgG) and IgA are more often found in CP epithelial cells, and IgM is found in either locale. C4d, IgD, and IgE are rarely, if ever, seen in the CP. In multiple sclerosis CP, basement membrane C9 or stromal IgA patterns were common but were not specific for the disease. These findings indicate that the CP may orchestrate the clearance of complement, particularly by deposition in its concretions, IgA and IgG preferentially via its epithelium, and IgM by either mechanism.

  4. A temporal analysis of the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luciane; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Carobrez, Sonia Gonçalves; Gasparotto, Odival Cezar

    2008-10-10

    The exposure to different kinds of stress impacts on the reactive oxygen species production with potential risk to the integrity of the tissues. Psychological or biological stress is responsible for a significant increase in the oxidative stress markers and also for activation of the antioxidant defense system. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses. Groups of male Swiss mice were subjected to different lengths of social stress exposure (social confrontation) which varied from 1 up to 13 days. As a biological stressor, 10(9) sheep red blood cells (SRBC)/mL were injected by intraperitoneal route. As controls, animals not subjected to social stress and/or injected with vehicle solution were used. The serum samples and the cerebral cortex were collected at 4 h, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 days after the end of social confrontation. The results indicated that the antioxidant enzymes activities were affected by psychological as well as by biological stressor. These alterations were dependent on the timing of stress exposure which resulted in a positive or in a negative correlation between the antibody titres to SRBC and antioxidant enzymes. We also discuss the possible role of SRBC injection in the modulation of the effects of psychosocial stress on antioxidant metabolism.

  5. B cell-specific deficiencies in mTOR limit humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuling; Pruitt, Margaret; Tran, Dena; Du Bois, Wendy; Zhang, Ke; Patel, Rushi; Hoover, Shelley; Simpson, R Mark; Simmons, John; Gary, Joy; Snapper, Clifford M; Casellas, Rafael; Mock, Beverly A

    2013-08-15

    Generation of high-affinity Abs in response to Ags/infectious agents is essential for developing long-lasting immune responses. B cell maturation and Ab responses to Ag stimulation require Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) for high-affinity responses. Upon immunization with either the model Ag 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten (NP) conjugated to chicken γ globulin lysine (NP-CGG) or heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular type 14 protein (Pn14), knock-in (KI) mice hypomorphic for mTOR function had a decreased ability to form germinal centers, develop high-affinity anti-NP-specific or anti-Pn14-specific Abs, and perform SHM/CSR. Hypomorphic mTOR mice also had a high mortality (40%) compared with wild-type (WT) (0%) littermates and had lower pneumococcal surface protein A-specific Ab titers when immunized and challenged with live S. pneumoniae infection. Mice with mTOR deleted in their B cell lineage (knockout [KO]) also produced fewer splenic germinal centers and decreased high-affinity Ab responses to NP-CGG than did their WT littermates. CSR rates were lower in mTOR KI and KO mice, and pharmacologic inhibition of mTOR in WT B cells resulted in decreased rates of ex vivo CSR. RNA and protein levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a protein essential for SHM and CSR, were lower in B cells from both KI and B cell-specific KO mice, concomitant with increases in phosphorylated AKT and FOXO1. Rescue experiments increasing AID expression in KI B cells restored CSR levels to those in WT B cells. Thus, mTOR plays an important immunoregulatory role in the germinal center, at least partially through AID signaling, in generating high-affinity Abs.

  6. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  7. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  8. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  9. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Tanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378 reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention, Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate, and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate. The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01. Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01 at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA levels (p < 0.05 at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria.

  10. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  11. The Regulation of Polysaccharide Specific Humoral Immune Response Against Intact Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-19

    1985). Most of the naïve T cells express abundant amounts of CCR7 and thus strong chemotactic responses to CCL19 and CCL21. T cells migrate within the...the balance between upregulation of CCR7 ligands as well as expression of CXCR5 and CXCL13 (Cyster 2005). In addition, adaptive immunity within the... CCR7 but upregulate the expression of CXCR4 which is critical for homing of plasma cells into the red pulp (Hargreaves, Hyman et al. 2001). GCs are

  12. A recombinant varicella vaccine harboring a respiratory syncytial virus gene induces humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kouki; Matsuura, Masaaki; Ota, Megumi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-11-09

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) is highly efficient and causes few adverse events; therefore, it is used worldwide. We previously constructed recombinant vOka (rvOka) harboring the mumps virus gene. Immunizing guinea pigs with rvOka induced the production of neutralizing antibodies against the mumps virus and VZV. Here, we constructed recombinant vOka viruses containing either the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroup A fusion glycoprotein (RSV A-F) gene or RSV subgroup B fusion glycoprotein (RSV B-F) gene (rvOka-RSV A-F or rvOka-RSV B-F). Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses confirmed the expression of each recombinant RSV protein in virus-infected cells. Immunizing guinea pigs with rvOka-RSV A-F or rvOka-RSV B-F led to the induction of antibodies against RSV proteins. These results suggest that the current varicella vaccine genome can be used to generate custom-made vaccine vectors to develop the next generation of live vaccines.

  13. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BLyS inhibition eliminates primary B cells but leaves natural and acquired humoral immunity intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jean L; Crowley, Jenni E; Tomayko, Mary M; Steinel, Natalie; O'Neill, Patrick J; Quinn, William J; Goenka, Radhika; Miller, Juli P; Cho, Yun Hee; Long, Vatana; Ward, Chris; Migone, Thi-Sau; Shlomchik, Mark J; Cancro, Michael P

    2008-10-07

    We have used an inhibiting antibody to determine whether preimmune versus antigen-experienced B cells differ in their requisites for BLyS, a cytokine that controls differentiation and survival. Whereas in vivo BLyS inhibition profoundly reduced naïve B cell numbers and primary immune responses, it had a markedly smaller effect on memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells, as well as secondary immune responses. There was heterogeneity within the memory pools, because IgM-bearing memory cells were sensitive to BLyS depletion whereas IgG-bearing memory cells were not, although both were more resistant than naïve cells. There was also heterogeneity within B1 pools, as splenic but not peritoneal B1 cells were diminished by anti-BLyS treatment, yet the number of natural antibody-secreting cells remained constant. Together, these findings show that memory B cells and natural antibody-secreting cells are BLyS-independent and suggest that these pools can be separately manipulated.

  15. Obtaining hyperimmune anti-Cryptosporidium parvum ovine colostrum. A study of the humoral immune response in immunized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, S; Alvarez-Sánchez, M A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2006-01-01

    Three ewes were immunized five times over a 2-month period prior to giving birth by intramuscular injection, oral administration and intramammary infusion of antigen and viable or freeze-dried Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst solution emulsified with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant. Two animals served as controls and another two as adjuvant controls. Serum was collected at first immunization and thereafter every 2 to 4 weeks. Colostrum and milk were collected as well. All samples were assayed for C. parvum-specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology, and Western blotting was used to recognize the C. parvum antigens. Hyperimmunization resulted in a progressive and significant increase in specific anti-C. parvum serum IgG, IgA and IgM titres, with the highest values noted at the point of lambing. Titres decreased slightly in milk, although they were in all cases higher than those in the control animals. Moreover, some 30 bands of C. parvum were recognized.

  16. Resolution of abnormal cardiac MRI T2 signal following immune suppression for cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouser, Elliott D; Ruden, Emily; Julian, Mark W; Raman, Subha V

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac MR (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement is commonly used to detect cardiac damage in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis. The addition of T2 mapping to CMR was recently shown to enhance cardiac sarcoidosis detection and correlates with increased cardiac arrhythmia risk. This study was conducted to determine if CMR T2 abnormalities and related arrhythmias are reversible following immune suppression therapy. A retrospective study of subjects with cardiac sarcoidosis with abnormal T2 signal on baseline CMR and a follow-up CMR study at least 4 months later was conducted at The Ohio State University from 2011 to 2015. Immune suppression treated participants had a significant reduction in peak myocardial T2 value (70.0±5.5 vs 59.2±6.1 ms, pretreatment vs post-treatment; p=0.017), and 83% of immune suppression treated subjects had objective improvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Two subjects who had received inadequate immune suppression treatment experienced progression of cardiac sarcoidosis. This report indicates that abnormal CMR T2 signal represents an acute inflammatory manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis that is potentially reversible with adequate immune suppression therapy.

  17. Single-Dose Hepatitis A Immunization: 7.5-Year Observational Pilot Study in Nicaraguan Children to Assess Protective Effectiveness and Humoral Immune Memory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Orlando; Bühler, Silja; Jaeger, Veronika K; Bally, Seraina; Hatz, Christoph; Frösner, Gert; Protzer, Ulrike; Van Damme, Pierre; Egger, Matthias; Herzog, Christian

    2016-11-15

     Universal 2-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination of toddlers effectively controls hepatitis A. High vaccine costs, however, impede implementation in endemic countries. To test single-dose vaccination as a possible alternative, we initiated an observational, longitudinal study in Nicaragua, to assess protective effectiveness and-through challenge vaccination-humoral immune memory response.  After a 2003 serosurvey, 130 originally seronegative children received one dose of virosomal HAV vaccine in 2005, followed by yearly serological and clinical assessments until 2012. After 7.5 years, a vaccine booster was administered. Concurrent antibody screening of patients presenting with hepatitis symptoms documented persistent HAV circulation in the communities studied.  Between serosurvey and vaccination, 25 children contracted hepatitis A subclinically (>8000 mIU/mL anti-HAV). In the remaining 105 children, immunization resulted in anti-HAV levels of 17-572 mIU/mL. Based on the ≥15% annual infection risk, an estimated 60% of children were exposed to HAV encounters during follow-up. No child presented with hepatitis symptoms. Serological breakthrough infection (7106 mIU/mL) was documented in 1 child, representing an estimated protective effectiveness of 98.3% (95% confidence interval, 87.9-99.8). Boosting elicited an average 29.7-fold increase of anti-HAV levels.  In children living in hyperendemic settings, a single dose of virosomal HAV vaccine is sufficient to activate immune memory and may provide long-term protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of maternal seaweed extract supplementation on suckling piglet growth, humoral immunity, selected microflora, and immune response after an ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation (n = 10 sows/treatment) with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) from d 107 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on neonatal piglet growth, humoral immunity, intestinal morphology, selected intestinal microflora, and VFA concentrations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of dietary treatment on the immune response after an ex vivo Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tissue challenge at weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The main factors consisted of sow dietary treatment (SWE or control) and immunological challenge (yes or no). The SWE supplement (10.0 g/d) contained laminarin (1.0 g), fucoidan (0.8 g), and ash (8.2 g) and was extracted from a Laminaria spp. The SWE-supplemented sows had greater colostrum IgA (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater serum IgG (P piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had a decreased colonic E. coli population at weaning (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater TNF-α mRNA expression after ex vivo LPS challenge compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P Piglet BW at birth and weaning, and small intestinal morphology were unaffected by sow dietary treatment under current experimental conditions. In summary, these results demonstrate an important immunomodulatory role of SWE supplementation characterized by enhanced colostral IgA and IgG concentrations, greater piglet circulatory IgG concentrations on d 14 of lactation, and enhanced TNF-α mRNA expression in the ileum after an ex vivo LPS challenge. These results indicate that SWE supplementation enhanced piglet immune function and colonic microflora at weaning.

  19. Immunoglobulin genes influence the magnitude of humoral immunity to cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janardan P; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Radwan, Faisal F; Kaur, Navtej; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Black, Laurel; Butler, Mary Ann; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M

    2014-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a risk factor for many human diseases, but among exposed individuals, not everyone is equally likely to develop HCMV-spurred diseases, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate immunity to this virus. Here, we show that antibody responsiveness to HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) is significantly associated with particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes. Anti-HCMV gB antibody levels were highest in GM 17/17 homozygotes, intermediate in GM 3/17 heterozygotes, and lowest in GM 3/3 homozygotes (28.2, 19.0, and 8.1 µg/mL, respectively; P=.014). These findings provide mechanistic insights in the etiopathogenesis of HCMV-spurred diseases.

  20. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan, which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In particular, this extract can modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into Th1 subsets and enhance the innate cytokine response. As a consequence, this extract will have a profound effect in controlling disease, caused by intracellular infectious agents (bacteria and viruses. However, further studies are needed to determine the immunomodulating effects of Aloe vera in multi-component extracts equivalent to what are being used commonly in traditional medicine.

  1. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

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    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  2. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Shana P C; Nico, Dirlei; Nascimento, Danielle; Santos, Ana Clara V; Couceiro, José Nelson S S; Bozza, Fernando A; Ferreira, Ana M A; Ferreira, Davis F; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Souza, Thiago Moreno L; Gomes, Andre M O; Silva, Jerson L; Oliveira, Andréa C

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling). Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  3. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  4. Immunoglobulin K light chain deficiency: A rare, but probably underestimated, humoral immune defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Pierguido; Colatutto, Antonio; Fabbro, Dora; Mariuzzi, Laura; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Perosa, Anna R; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Human immunoglobulin molecules are generated by a pair of identical heavy chains, which identify the immunoglobulin class, and a pair of identical light chains, Kappa or Lambda alternatively, which characterize the immunoglobulin type. In normal conditions, Kappa light chains represent approximately 2/3 of the light chains of total immunoglobulins, both circulating and lymphocyte surface bound. Very few cases of immunoglobulin Kappa or Lambda light chain defects have been reported. Furthermore, the genetic basis of this defect has been extensively explored only in a single case. We report a case of a patient suffering of serious recurrent bacterial infections, which was caused by a very rare form of immunoglobulin disorder, consisting of a pure defect of Kappa light chain. We evaluated major serum immunoglobulin concentrations, as well as total and free Kappa and Lambda light chain concentrations. Lymphocyte phenotyping was also performed and finally we tested the Kappa chain VJ rearrangement as well as the constant Kappa region sequence. Studies performed on VJ rearrangement showed a polyclonal genetic arrangement, whereas the gene sequencing for the constant region of Kappa chain showed a homozygous T to G substitution at the position 1288 (rs200765148). This mutation causes a substitution from Cys to Gly in the protein sequence and, therefore, determines the abnormal folding of the constant region of Kappa chain. We suggest that this defect could lead to an effective reduction of the variability of total antibody repertoire and a consequent defect of an apparently normal immunoglobulin response to common antigens.

  5. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with synthetic Candida cell wall mannan derived heptamannoside-protein conjugate: immunomodulatory properties of heptamannoside-BSA conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Lucia; Paulovičová, Ema; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bystrický, Slavomír

    2012-10-01

    Chemically defined glycoprotein conjugate composed of synthetically prepared mannan-derived heptamannoside with terminal β-1,2-linked mannose residue attached to the α-1,3-linked mannose residues and BSA as carrier protein (M7-BSA conjugate) was analysed for the capacity to induce protective humoral immunity and appropriate alteration cellular immunity. To identify protective antigenic structure of Candida cell wall mannan M7-BSA conjugate was used for BALB/c mice immunization. The obtained results were compared with placebo group and with heat-inactivated C. albicans whole cells immunization. The administration route of M7-BSA conjugate secondary booster injection significantly affected the intensity of humoral immune response and the specificity of produced antibodies. All prepared sera were able to elevate candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in cooperation with complement. Moreover, polyclonal sera obtained after secondary subcutaneous (s.c.) booster injection of M7-BSA conjugate were able to induce candidacidal activity of PMN also in complement independent manner. M7-BSA conjugate immunization induced increases of phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of granulocytes, caused a raise of the proportion of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and increased the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio. We observed also an increasing proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells compared to immunization with heat inactivated whole C. albicans cells, which in turn promoted an increase of the CD8(+)CD25(+) cell proportion. Immunization with M7-BSA conjugate induced Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses as indicated by the elevation of relevant cytokines levels. These data provide some insights on the immunomodulatory properties of oligomannosides and contribute to the development of synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against fungal diseases.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY ANTIENDOTOXIN RESPONSE TO INDICATORS OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

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    D. V. Shaduro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE — severe autoimmune disease that has a high level of morbidity and mortality. With each decade the SLE incidence rate grows up. Current researches do not allow to identify the etiology of this disease. The polyclonal stimulation of T and B lymphocytes processes are prevailed in pathogenetic picture of the disease. One of the most powerful triggers of stimulation may be a gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin (ET. The impact activity is regulated by a specific humoral and cellular antiendotoxin immune response.Materials and methods. The study group involved 48 patients with SLE, the control group consisted of 40 healthy donors. The material of the study was the venous blood. The following indicators have been identified: the levels of specific anti-endotoxin antibodies (antiLPS IgA, IgM and IgG, by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; concentration of total immunoglobulins IgA, IgM and IgG — microturbidimethric method; the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP — ELISA; endogenous intoxication (EI — a method of determining the average molecular weight for the absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum; circulating immune complexes (CIC — the method of precipitation in polyethylene glycol. Statistical processing was performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and MedStat®.Results. The study showed a statistically significant increase in anti-LPSIgG SLE patients by 2.5 times compared with the control group. A slight increase in total IgG by 5%. Endogenous intoxication index in SLE patients was higher by 13.9%, CIC by 150%. The level of CRP in the study group was 6.8 times higher compared with the control. There were also identified the inverse correlation between anti-LPS-IgG and CRP, the inverse correlation between anti-LPS-IgG and EI, direct correlation between anti-LPS-IgA and the age of patients.Discussion. These results indicate the presence of

  7. Insight on cellular and humoral components of innate immunity in Squilla mantis (Crustacea, Stomatopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Chiara; Schiavon, Filippo; Ballarin, Loriano

    2011-09-01

    For deeper insights into the function of crustacean haemocytes in immune responses, we studied the morphology and enzyme content of circulating cells of the mantis shrimp Squilla mantis from the North Adriatic Sea, together with their ability to phagocytose foreign cells. We also assayed the enzyme content and the agglutinating and haemolytic activities of cell-free haemolymph. Three haemocyte types, i.e., hyalinocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes, can be distinguished, according to cell and nuclear morphology and the presence of cytoplasmic granules. All of them share the same patterns of enzyme activities and are recognised by the same lectins. Spreading cells (hyalinocytes and semigranulocytes) can ingest foreign cells; granules of semigranular and granular cells have similar cytochemical properties. Injection of Micrococcus luteus into the heart sinus results in an increase in the frequency of hyaline cells and a decrease in the frequency of granulocytes. After 24 h from the injection, a decrease in the number of phagocytosing hyalinocytes, and a general decrease in the frequency of acid phosphatase-positive cells was reported. Our data match previous results and suggest the existence of a single differentiation pathway for Squilla haemocytes with the three haemocyte morphs as different stages of cell differentiation. Results also indicate that Squilla haemolymph performs immunosurveillance, through rapid changes in haemocyte distribution, increase of antimicrobial and antioxidant enzymes and secretion of lectins stimulating agglutination, phagocytosis and encapsulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Humoral immune responses induced by Kudoa sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida antigens in BALB/c mice

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    Martínez de Velasco G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Kudoa species infect the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. As there is no effective method to detect infected fish without destroying them these parasited fish reach the consumer. This work was developed to determine whether this parasite contains antigenic compounds capable of provoking an immune response in laboratory animals, in order to consider the possible immunopathological effects in man by the ingestion of Kudoa infected fish. BALB/c mice were injected by the subcutaneous route with the following extracts suspended in aluminium hydroxide: group 1 (black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract, group 2 (white Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract, and group 3 (non-infected hake meat extract. Specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA against homologous and heterologous antigens. The highest responses were obtained from the black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract (group 1.The low optic density levels detected in group 3 proved that the results obtained in groups 1 and 2 were a consequence of the parasitic extract injection. The IgG1 was the predominant subclass. IgE detected in groups 1 and 2 showed the possible allergenic nature of some of the components of the parasitic extract. High IgA levels and medium IgG2a and IgG3 levels were obtained in groups 1 and 2. Low IgG2b responses were shown. No cross-reactions between Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts and the non-infected hake meat extract were observed.

  9. Humoral immune responses induced by Kudoa sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) antigens in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Velasco, G; Rodero, M; Zapatero, L; Cuéllar, C

    2002-12-01

    The majority of Kudoa species infect the somatic muscle of fish establishing cysts. As there is no effective method to detect infected fish without destroying them these parasited fish reach the consumer. This work was developed to determine whether this parasite contains antigenic compounds capable of provoking an immune response in laboratory animals, in order to consider the possible immunopathological effects in man by the ingestion of Kudoa infected fish. BALB/c mice were injected by the subcutaneous route with the following extracts suspended in aluminium hydroxide: group 1 (black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract), group 2 (white Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract), and group 3 (non-infected hake meat extract). Specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA against homologous and heterologous antigens. The highest responses were obtained from the black Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extract (group 1). The low optic density levels detected in group 3 proved that the results obtained in groups 1 and 2 were a consequence of the parasitic extract injection. The IgG1 was the predominant subclass. IgE detected in groups 1 and 2 showed the possible allergenic nature of some of the components of the parasitic extract. High IgA levels and medium IgG2a and IgG3 levels were obtained in groups 1 and 2. Low IgG2b responses were shown. No cross-reactions between Kudoa sp. pseudocyst extracts and the non-infected hake meat extract were observed.

  10. A study of the localized humoral immune response to implicated microorganisms in juvenile periodontitis

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    Hall, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken using an in vitro explant culture system to determine the presence of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) in the supernatant fluids (SF) of disease gingival tissue explant cultures. Studies were also undertaken to determine if the de novo biosynthesis of {sup 14}C-immunoglobulins could be observed in the explant cultures of diseased tissues from juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Radiolabeled proteins were detected in the SF and immunodiffusion studies using goat antihuman gamma, alpha or mu chain serum revealed the presence of IgG and IgA but no IgM present in the SF of the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma chain serum with Staph protein A isolated IgG fractions of the SF, followed by autoradiography of the IgG precipitation lines demonstrated the biosynthesis of IgG by the JP gingival tissue explant cultures. The serological studies suggested that local immune response in JP was to a polymicrobic infection. The SF of JP showed significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to B. intermedius, C. ochracea, E. nodatum and P. micros as compared to healthy tissues. The local antibody response to the microorganisms tested differed from that observed in the sera of the patients.

  11. DHA Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Affects Infants' Cellular but Not Humoral Immune Response

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    Esther Granot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is currently recommended that diet of pregnant mothers contain 200–300 mg DHA/day. Aim. To determine whether DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation affects infants' immune response. Methods. 60 women in ≥3rd pregnancy studied; 30 randomly assigned to receive DHA 400 mg/day from 12th week gestation until 4 months postpartum. From breast-fed infants, blood obtained for anti-HBs antibodies, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subset phenotyping, and intracellular cytokine production. Results. CD4+ lymphocytes did not differ between groups, but CD4CD45RA/CD4 (naïve cells significantly higher in infants in DHA+ group. Proportion of CD4 and CD8 cells producing IFNγ significantly lower in DHA+ group, with no differences in proportion of IL4-producing cells. Immunoglobulins and anti-HBs levels did not differ between groups. Conclusions. In infants of mothers receiving DHA supplementation, a higher percentage of CD4 naïve cells and decreased CD4 and CD8 IFNγ production is compatible with attenuation of a proinflammatory response.

  12. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  13. Immunisation with ID83 fusion protein induces antigen-specific cell mediated and humoral immune responses in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth J; Steinbach, Sabine; Clifford, Derek; Baldwin, Susan L; Ireton, Gregory C; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Vordermeier, H Martin

    2013-10-25

    In this study we have investigated the potential of mycobacterial proteins as candidate subunit vaccines for bovine tuberculosis. In addition, we have explored the use of TLR-ligands as potential adjuvants in cattle. In vitro screening assays with whole blood from Mycobacterium bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle demonstrated that fusion protein constructs were most commonly recognised, and the ID83 fusion protein was selected for further immunisation studies. Furthermore, glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) and resiquimod (R848), agonists for TLR4 and TLR7/8 respectively, stimulated cytokine production (IL-12, TNF-α, MIP-1β and IL-10) in bovine dendritic cell cultures, and these were formulated as novel oil-in-water emulsions (GLA-SE and R848-SE) for immunisation studies. Immunisation with ID83 in a water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant (ISA70) induced both cell mediated and humoral immune responses, as characterised by antigen-specific IFN-γ production, cell proliferation, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody production. In comparison, ID83 immunisation with the novel adjuvants induced weaker (ID83/R848-SE) or no (ID83/GLA-SE) antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cell proliferation. However, both did induce ID83-specific antibody production, which was restricted to IgG1 antibody isotype. Overall, these results provide encouraging preliminary data for the further development of ID83 in vaccine strategies for bovine TB. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gambiense human african trypanosomiasis and immunological memory: effect on phenotypic lymphocyte profiles and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Kestens, Luc; Boel, Luc; Barbé, Barbara; Kande Betu, Victor; van Griensven, Johan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    In mice, experimental infection with Trypanosoma brucei causes decreased bone marrow B-cell development, abolished splenic B-cell maturation and loss of antibody mediated protection including vaccine induced memory responses. Nothing is known about this phenomenon in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but if occurring, it would imply the need of revaccination of HAT patients after therapy and abolish hope for a HAT vaccine. The effect of gambiense HAT on peripheral blood memory T- and B-cells and on innate and vaccine induced antibody levels was examined. The percentage of memory B- and T-cells was quantified in peripheral blood, prospectively collected in DR Congo from 117 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected HAT patients before and six months after treatment and 117 controls at the same time points. Antibodies against carbohydrate antigens on red blood cells and against measles were quantified. Before treatment, significantly higher percentages of memory B-cells, mainly T-independent memory B-cells, were observed in HAT patients compared to controls (CD20+CD27+IgM+, 13.0% versus 2.0%, p<0.001). The percentage of memory T-cells, mainly early effector/memory T-cells, was higher in HAT (CD3+CD45RO+CD27+, 19.4% versus 16.7%, p = 0.003). After treatment, the percentage of memory T-cells normalized, the percentage of memory B-cells did not. The median anti-red blood cell carbohydrate IgM level was one titer lower in HAT patients than in controls (p<0.004), and partially normalized after treatment. Anti-measles antibody concentrations were lower in HAT patients than in controls (medians of 1500 versus 2250 mIU/ml, p = 0.02), and remained so after treatment, but were above the cut-off level assumed to provide protection in 94.8% of HAT patients, before and after treatment (versus 98.3% of controls, p = 0.3). Although functionality of the B-cells was not verified, the results suggest that immunity was conserved in T.b. gambiense infected HAT patients and

  15. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.

  16. Oct2 and Obf1 as facilitators of B:T cell collaboration during a humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M Corcoran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oct2 protein, encoded by the Pou2f2 gene, was originally predicted to act as a DNA binding transcriptional activator of immunoglobulin (Ig in B lineage cells. This prediction flowed from the earlier observation that an 8 bp sequence, the octamer motif, was a highly conserved component of most Ig gene promoters and enhancers, and evidence from over-expression and reporter assays confirmed Oct2-mediated, octamer-dependent gene expression. Complexity was added to the story when Oct1, an independently encoded protein, ubiquitously expressed from the Pou2f 1 gene, was characterised and found to bind to the octamer motif with almost identical specificity, and later, when the co-activator Obf1 (OCA-B, Bob.1, encoded by the Pou2af1 gene, was cloned. Obf1 joins Oct2 (and Oct1 on the DNA of a subset of octamer motifs to enhance their transactivation strength. While these proteins variously carried the mantle of determinants of Ig gene expression in B cells for many years, such a role has not been borne out for them by characterisation of mice lacking functional copies of the genes, either as single or as compound mutants. Instead, we and others have shown that Oct2 and Obf1 are required for B cells to mature fully in vivo, for B cells to respond to the T cell cytokines IL5 and IL4, and for B cells to produce IL6 normally during a T cell dependent immune response. We show here that Oct2 affects Syk gene expression, thus influencing B cell receptor signalling, and that Oct2 loss blocks Slamf1 expression in vivo as a result of incomplete B cell maturation. Upon IL4 signalling, Stat6 up-regulates Obf1, indirectly via Xbp1, to enable plasma cell differentiation. Thus, Oct2 and Obf1 enable B cells to respond normally to antigen receptor signals, to express surface receptors that mediate physical interaction with T cells, or to produce and respond to cytokines that are critical drivers of B cell and T cell differentiation during a humoral immune response.

  17. PIKA as an Adjuvant Enhances Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Following the Vaccination of Mice with HBsAg plus PIKA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erxia Shen; Li Li; Lietao Li; Lianqiang Feng; Lin Lu; Ziliang Yao; Haixiang Lin; Changyou Wu

    2007-01-01

    An adjuvant is usually used to enhance the immune response induced by vaccines. The choice of adjuvant or immune enhancer determines the effectiveness of the immune response. Currently, aluminium (Alum, a generic term for salts of aluminium) is the only FDA-approved adjuvant. Alum predominantly induces the differentiation of Th2 cells and thus mediates an antibody immune response. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new adjuvants that enhance not only humoral but also cellular immune responses. In the present study, we demonstrates that PIKA (a stabilized dsRNA) as an adjuvant directly induces the activation and the proliferation of both B and NK cells in vitro. Injection of PIKA into mice results in the production of cytokines in vivo. In addition, the study demonstrates that PIKA promotes the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) including up-regulation of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86 and CD40, and the induction of cytokines such as IL-12p70, IL-12p40 and IL-6. Importantly, after immunization of mice with HBsAg plus PIKA, the presence of PIKA enhances the titers of HBsAg-specific IgG and HBsAg-specific IFN-γ production. These results demonstrate that PIKA as an adjuvant can promote both humoral and cellular immune responses. These might have an implication in applying PIKA as an adjuvant to be used in the design and development of both therapeutic and preventive vaccines, and used in the clinical study.

  18. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  19. Estado immune humoral frente al virus del Moquillo canino, el Parvovirus canino y Leptospiras en un criadero (Humoral immune status against Distemper Virus, Canine Parvovirus and Leptospira in a breeding kennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón-Valencia MC

    2009-04-01

    studied to evaluate antibody titresagainst Distemper Virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV andLeptospira spp (LPT after vaccination to detect potential factorsinfluencing humoral immune response.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 207 dogs (80adults and 127 puppies of Golden Retriever (GR, Labrador Retriever(LR, and Pyrenean Mountain dog (PM. Sera samples of puppieswere taken in four moments related with vaccination against CDV,CPV and LPT, since they were 6 weeks old. Adults were annuallyvaccinated on Mars and April and one serum sample was taken fromadult dogs on July.Antibodies (Ab against CDV, CPV and Leptospira were detected bySeroneutralization test, Haemoaglutination Inhibition Test and ELISArespectively.Results: Adult dogs had a higher mean of Ab against CPV and LPT butlower against CDV than puppies (p ≤ 0,05. Breed was associatedwith differences on media of Ab titers where PM breed showed thelower values against the three agents in the hole population. Therewas a statistical association in antibodies against CPV (p ≤ 0,05.It was detected association (p ≤ 0,05 between the moment ofvaccinarfion and the media of Ab reached against the three agentes.The first vaccinacion induced a great increase on media of Ab(seroconversión, but following vaccinations only induced a slightincrease on media. GR puppies produced the best response after the first vaccinarion against the three agents but only was detectedassociation (p ≤ 0,05 on Ab against CPV.Puppies showed un increase on media of Ab against LPT from 6 to 8weeks old, without being vaccinated suggesting contact withpathogenic Leptospira in their environment, apart form the existenceof rodents, the low media of Ab found in their mothers could berelated with the existence of renal carriers.

  20. Cdc42 is a key regulator of B cell differentiation and is required for antiviral humoral immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbage, Marianne; Keppler, Selina J; Gasparrini, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The small Rho GTPase Cdc42, known to interact with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, is an important regulator of actin remodeling. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Cdc42 exclusively in the B cell lineage is sufficient to render mice unable to mount antibody responses. Indeed Cdc42-de...... and actin remodeling; defective antigen presentation and in vivo interaction with T cells; and a severe B cell-intrinsic block in plasma cell differentiation. Thus, our study presents a new perspective on Cdc42 as key regulator of B cell physiology.......The small Rho GTPase Cdc42, known to interact with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, is an important regulator of actin remodeling. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Cdc42 exclusively in the B cell lineage is sufficient to render mice unable to mount antibody responses. Indeed Cdc42......-deficient mice are incapable of forming germinal centers or generating plasma B cells upon either viral infection or immunization. Such severe immune deficiency is caused by multiple and profound B cell abnormalities, including early blocks during B cell development; impaired antigen-driven BCR signaling...

  1. Study of some parameters of humoral immunity in asthmatic elderly patients Estudio de algunos parámetros de inmunidad humoral en pacientes asmáticos de la tercera edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García Torres

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging process affects the whole body, including the respiratory and immune systems. Reductions of immunoglobulin secretion, together with environmental factors, increases susceptibility of elderly people to a more severe type of asthma. One of the effective ways of evaluating their immune system is the study of humoral immunity through immunoglobulin quantification. Objective: To analyse the characteristics of immunoglobulin G, A and M quantification in a sample of elderly patients. Methods: Descriptive study of two case series: a group of 60 years-old asthmatic patients and a group of patients younger than 60 years. All of them were received in Cienfuegos Allergy External Consultation, during one year and quantities of immunoglobulin G, A and M were measured. Results: There was higher incidence in female patients and patients between 60 and 79 years. We confirmed irregularities in immunoglobulin G quantification, not in IgA and IgM. Conclusions: Knowledge about humoral immunity in asthmatic elderly patients allows being more careful in their treatment.
    Fundamento: El envejecimiento afecta todos los sistemas; el respiratorio y el inmunológico no escapan a ello. La disminución en la secreción de inmunoglobulinas, sumada a factores del ambiente, hace al anciano susceptible de padecer un asma más severa. Una de las medidas eficaces para evaluar su sistema inmunológico es el estudio de la inmunidad humoral a través de la cuantificación de las inmunoglobulinas. Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento de la cuantificación de las inmunoglobulinas G, A y M en una muestra de pacientes de la tercera edad. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de dos serie de casos, un grupo de pacientes asmáticos de 60 años y más y un grupo de menos de 60 años, atendidos en la consulta externa municipal de alergia de la

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

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    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  3. The Opposite Associations of Lycopene and Body Fat Mass with HumoralImmunity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Possible Role in Atherogenesis

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    Tirang R. Neyestani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possible effects of lycopene at physiological dosage and body fat mass on the humoral immune response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.A total of 35 patients with Typ2 diabetes mellitus from both sexes aged 54±9 yrs from the Iranian Diabetes Society were introduced into a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial conducted for 2 months. After a 2-week lycopene free diet washout period, patients were allocated to either lycopene supplementation group (10mg/d (n=16 or placebo age- and sex matched group (n=19 for 8 weeks.Patients were instructed to keep their diets and physical activities as unchanged as possible.Lycopene supplements increased serum lycopene levels (pand nutrients did not change in either groups, the ratio of total antioxidant capacity tomalondialdehyde increased significantly in the lycopene group (p=0.007. There was an inversecorrelation between serum levels of lycopene and those of IgG (r= -0.338, p=0.008. On the contrary, changes of serum levels of lycopene directly correlated with those of IgM (r=0.466, p=0.005. Interestingly, changes of the amount of fat mass correlated directly with those of serum IgG (r=0.415, p=0.044 but inversely with of serum IgM (r= -0.469, p=0.021.While truncal fat might promote adaptive humoral immunity, lycopene probably by inhibitingMDA-LDL formation might attenuate T cell dependent adaptive (pro-atherogenic humoral immune response. These findings may have preventive implications in long term diabetic complications, notably atherogenesis.

  4. DNA-based vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses against hepatitis B virus surface antigen in mice without activation of C-myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-San; Qin, Shan; Zhou, Tao-You; Tang, Hong; Liu, Li; Lei, Bing-Jun

    2000-04-01

    AIM:To develop a safe and effective DNA vaccine for inducing humoral and cellular immunological responses against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg).METHODS:BALB/c mice were inoculated with NV-HB/s, a recombinant plasmid that had been inserted S gene of hepatitis B virus genome and could express HBsAg in eukaryotes. HBsAg expression was measured by ABC immunohis tochemical assay, generation of anti-HBs by ELISA and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), by MTT method, existence of vaccine DNA by Southern blot hybridization and activation of oncogene C-myc by in situ hybridization.RESULTS:With NV-HB/s vaccination by intramuscular injection, anti-HBs was initially positive 2 weeks after inoculation while all mice tested were HBsAg positive in the muscles.The titers and seroconversion rate of anti-HBs were steadily increasing as time went on and were dose dependent. All the mice inoculated with 100&mgr;g NV-HB/s were anti-HBs positive one month after inoculation, the titer was 1 1024 or more. The humoral immune response was similar induced by either intramuscular or intradermal injection. CTL activities were much stronger (45.26%) in NV-HB/s DNA immunized mice as compared with those (only 6%) in plasma-derived HBsAg vaccine immunized mice. Two months after inoculation, all muscle samples were positive by Southernblot hybridization for NV-HB/s DNA detection, but decreased to 25% and all were undetectable by in situ hybridiza-tion after 6 months.No oncogene C-myc activation was found in the muscle of inoculation site.CONCLUSION:NV-HB/s could generate humoral and cellular immunolo-gical responses against HBsAg that had been safely expressed in situ by NV-HB/s vaccination.

  5. Effect of adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy on nerve injury degree as well as cytokines and humoral immunity in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy on nerve injury degree as well as cytokines and humoral immunity in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury. Methods:94 patients with severe craniocerebral injury treated in our hospital between March 2013 and March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the ganglioside sodium group (GM1 group) and control group. Before treatment as well as after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, serum levels of nerve injury molecules, nerve injury cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and humoral immune molecules were determined respectively.Results: After 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β protein (S100β), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH L1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) content of both groups were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05) while brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), and serum NSE, S100β, UCH-L1, GFAP, hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 content of GM1 group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05) while BDNF, NGF, IgG, IgM and IgA content were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Adjuvant ganglioside sodium therapy can relieve the nerve injury, inhibit the inflammatory reaction and improve the humoral immune response in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury.

  6. Augmentation of humoral and cellular immunity in response to Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids by supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashankar, Bindhya; Singh, Divya; Tanwar, Himanshi; Mishra, K P; Murthy, Swetha; Chanda, Sudipta; Mishra, Jigni; Tulswani, R; Misra, K; Singh, S B; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-03-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids. The dynamic changes in the immune response were measured in terms of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We have seen the effect of SCEs on immunoglobulin subtypes and secondary immune response generation. In addition, the effect of SCEs on antigen specific cellular immunity was evaluated. Our results show that SCEs 300ET and 350ET significantly enhanced antibody titers in response to both TT and DT antigens. The secondary immune response generated was significantly increased in case of TT immunized animals. SCEs also enhanced cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α and IL-1β) and increased lymphoproliferation. Besides, both SCEs did not show any toxic effects. Therefore, the study suggests that SCEs are safe and have potent immunostimulatory activity and hence, seems to be a promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvant for various veterinary as well as human vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. HIVIS-DNA or HIVISopt-DNA priming followed by CMDR vaccinia-based boosts induce both humoral and cellular murine immune responses to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hinkula

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: HIVIS-DNA was modified to obtain HIVISopt-DNA that had fewer plasmids, and additional epitopes. Even with one DNA prime followed by two MVA-CMDR boosts, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were readily induced by priming with either DNA construct composition. Priming by HIV-DNA augmented neutralizing antibody responses revealed by boosting with the vaccinia-based heterologous sequences. Cellular and antibody responses covered selected strains representing HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C and CRF01_AE. We assume this is related to the inclusion of heterologous full genes in the vaccine schedule.

  8. Suboptimal Humoral Immune Response against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Is Related to Its Internal Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew C. Y.; Zhu, Houshun; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Li, Can; Wang, Pui; Li, Chuangen; Chen, Honglin; Hung, Ivan F. N.; To, Kelvin K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A(H7N9) virus pneumonia is associated with a high case fatality rate in humans. Multiple viral factors have been postulated to account for the high virulence of the virus. It has been reported that patients with influenza A(H7N9) virus infection have relatively low titers of neutralizing antibodies compared to those with seasonal influenza virus infections. In this study, we compared serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) antibody titers of mice challenged with wild-type A(H7N9) viruses [H7N9(Anhui) and H7N9(Zhejiang)], an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus [pH1N1(2009)], and a recombinant A(H7N9) virus with PR8/H1N1 internal genes (rg-PR8-H7-N9). All mice infected by H7N9(Anhui) and H7N9(Zhejiang) developed serum HI antibodies at 14 days postinfection (dpi) but no detectable MN antibodies, even at 28 dpi. A low level of neutralizing activity was detected in H7N9(Anhui)- and H7N9(Zhejiang)-infected mice using fluorescent focus MN assay, but convalescent-phase serum samples obtained from H7N9(Anhui)-infected mice did not reduce the mortality of naive mice after homologous virus challenge. Reinfection with homologous A(H7N9) virus induced higher HI and MN titers than first infection. In contrast, pH1N1(2009) virus infection induced robust HI and MN antibody responses, even during the first infection. Moreover, rg-PR8-H7-N9 induced significantly higher HI and MN antibody titers than H7N9(Zhejiang). In conclusion, the internal genes of A(H7N9) virus can affect the humoral immune response against homologous viral surface proteins, which may also contribute to the virulence of A(H7N9) virus. PMID:26446420

  9. Humoral immune response of horses experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi/ Resposta imune humoral de eqüinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Padilha Cury Thomaz de Aquino

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Six adult horses were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (106 parasites. Three other adult horses served as negative control. Serum samples of the experimentally infected horses with T. evansi and non-infected controls horses were obtained before inoculation, and daily thereafter until 14 days post infection (DPI. After that time the serum samples were obtained weekly. Sera of the infected and non-infected control horses was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies against T. evansi. Both ELISA and IFAT detected trypanosomal antibodies shortly after infection and showed progressive increases in antibodies levels during early stages of infection. The responses started on the eighth and eleventh DPI. Maximum IFAT and ELISA values were reached after four weeks of infection and were maintained at this level until the end of the period of study.Seis eqüinos foram inoculados com 106 tripomastigota sangüícolas de Trypanosoma evansi. Três outros animais foram mantidos como testemunhas. Amostras de soro sangüíneo foram obtidas de todos os animais, antes da inoculação, e diariamente até o 14º dia pós inoculação (DPI; após este período uma vez por semana. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti- T. evansi, foram realizadas através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI e do ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA. A resposta imune humoral, detectada através da RIFI e do ELISA, iniciou-se, em média, a partir do oitavo DPI, alcançando títulos máximos após quatro semanas de evolução, e os titulos de anticorpos anti- T. evansi mantiveram-se elevadas até o término das observações.

  10. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  11. [A novel immunization strategy to induce strong humoral responses against HIV-1 using combined DNA, recombinant vaccinia virus and protein vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Shu-hui; Ren, Li; Hao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Liu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the immunization strategy against HIV-1, a DNA vaccine was combined with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rTV) vaccine and a protein vaccine. Immune responses against HIV-1 were detected in 30 female guinea pigs divided into six groups. Three groups of guinea pigs were primed with HIV-1 DNA vaccine three times, boosted with rTV at week 14, and then boosted with gp140 protein at intervals of 4, 8 or 12 weeks. Simultaneously, the other three groups of animals were primed with rTV vaccine once, and then boosted with gp140 after 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The HIV-1 specific binding antibody and neutralizing antibody, in addition to the relative affinity of these antibodies, were detected at different time points after the final administration of vaccine in each group. The DNA-rTV-gp140 immune regimen induced higher titers and affinity levels of HIV-1 gp120/gp140 antibodies and stronger V1V2-gp70 antibodies than the rTV-gp140 regimen. In the guinea pigs that underwent the DNA-rTV-gp140 regimen, the highest V1V2-gp70 antibody was induced in the 12-week-interval group. However, the avidity of antibodies was improved in the 4-week-interval group. Using the rTV-gp140 immunization strategy, guinea pigs boosted at 8 or 12 weeks after rTV priming elicited stronger humoral responses than those boosted at 4 weeks after priming. In conclusion, this study shows that the immunization strategy of HIV-1 DNA vaccine priming, followed by rTV and protein vaccine boosting, could strengthen the humoral response against HIV-1. Longer intervals were better to induce V1V2-gp70-specific antibodies, while shorter intervals were more beneficial to enhance the avidity of antibodies.

  12. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Dzharullaeva, Alina S; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Shmarov, Maxim M; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gudkov, Andrei V; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  13. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Furukawa, Ouki; Tsutsui, Hidemi; Koshida, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. PMID:28245626

  14. Humoral immune responses induced by anti-idiotypic antibody fusion protein of 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background We have previously developed and characterized a monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, designated 6B11, which mimics an ovarian carcinoma associated antigen OC166-9 and whose corresponding monoclonal antibody is COC166-9 (Ab1). In this study, we evaluate the humoral immune responses induced by the fusion protein 6B11 single-chain variable fragment (scFv)/human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) and 6B11scFv in BALB/c mice. Methods The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF was constructed by fusing a recombinant single-chain variable fragment of 6B11scFv to GM-CSF. BALB/c mice were administrated by 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF and 6B11scFv, respectively. Results The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF retained binding to the anti-mouse F(ab)2' and was also biologically active as measured by proliferation of human GM-CSF dependent cell TF1 in vitro. After immunization with the 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF and 6B11ScFv, BALB/c mice showed significantly enhanced Ab3 antibody responses to 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF compared with the 6B11scFv alone. The level of Ab3 was the highest after the first week and maintained for five weeks after the last immunization. Another booster was given when the Ab3 titer descended, and it would reach to the high level in a week. Conclusion The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF can induce humoral immunity against ovarian carcinoma in vivo. We also provide the theoretical foundation for the application of the fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF for active immunotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  15. Effect of a polysaccharide from Poria cocos on humoral response in mice immunized by H1N1 influenza and HBsAg vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Li, Shuai; Li, Haixia; Zhao, Chunzhi; Ma, Hao; Zhao, Xiunan; Wu, Junhua; Liu, Kunlu; Shan, Junjie; Wang, Yuxia

    2016-10-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in China. Polysaccharides and their derivatives in the medicine exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. In this study, a new polysaccharide (PCP-II) was isolated from sclerotium of Poria cocos. Its physico-chemical characters were identified and its adjuvant activity was investigated in mice co-immunized with H1N1 influenza vaccine and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results revealed that PCP-II has a molecular weight of 29.0kDa. It was composed of fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose in molar ration of 1.00:1.63:0.16:6.29 respectively. Pharmacological data demonstrated that PCP-II increased antigen-specific antibody levels in mice immunized with influenza vaccine. PCP-II also elicited anti-HBsAg antibodies at significantly higher titers and generated robust and durable immunity compared to mice immunized with HBsAg-alum following two administrations. PCP-II improved proliferation of splenocytes, stimulated IL-12p70 and TNF-α productions in dendritic cells and macrophages respectively. These results suggested that PCP-II-adjuvanted vaccines enhanced humoral and cellular immunity. PCP-II could be developed as an efficacious adjuvant in human and animal vaccines.

  16. Suppression of humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine in BALB/c mice by 1-methyl-tryptophan co-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sparopoulou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available   Background and the purpose of the study:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO suppresses adaptive immune response. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the IDO inhibitor namely 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (DL-1-MT on antibody production after vaccination with hepatitis B surface (HBs antigen. Methods:Four groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with a HBs antigen vaccine. In the first group the vaccine had no DL-1-MT, whereas in the other three groups the vaccine contained 1 mg , 10 mg and 20 mg DL-1-MT. Blood samples were collected 5 weeks post-vaccination and anti-HBs antibodies in the serum were measured by ELISA. Results:Compared to the three groups of mice that were immunized with the vaccines containing DL-1-MT, serum anti-HBs level was much higher in the mice that were immunized with the vaccine with out DL-1-MT. Conclusions:Inhibition of IDO at the time of vaccination decreased humoral immune response to HBs antigen vaccine. The idea that IDO activity is simply immunosuppressive may need to be re-evaluated.

  17. Cooperation between CD4+ T Cells and Humoral Immunity Is Critical for Protection against Dengue Using a DNA Vaccine Based on the NS1 Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio J S Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. At present, the control of dengue disease is mainly hampered by the absence of antivirals or a vaccine, which results in an estimated half worldwide population at risk of infection. The immune response against DENV is not yet fully understood and a better knowledge of it is now recognized as one of the main challenge for vaccine development. In previous studies, we reported that a DNA vaccine containing the signal peptide sequence from the human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA fused to the DENV2 NS1 gene (pcTPANS1 induced protection against dengue in mice. In the present work, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of cellular and humoral responses elicited by this vaccine candidate for protective immunity. We observed that pcTPANS1 exerts a robust protection against dengue, inducing considerable levels of anti-NS1 antibodies and T cell responses. Passive immunization with anti-NS1 antibodies conferred partial protection in mice infected with low virus load (4 LD50, which was abrogated with the increase of viral dose (40 LD50. The pcTPANS1 also induced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We detected production of IFN-γ and a cytotoxic activity by CD8+ T lymphocytes induced by this vaccine, although its contribution in the protection was not so evident when compared to CD4+ cells. Depletion of CD4+ cells in immunized mice completely abolished protection. Furthermore, transfer experiments revealed that animals receiving CD4+ T cells combined with anti-NS1 antiserum, both obtained from vaccinated mice, survived virus infection with survival rates not significantly different from pcTPANS1-immunized animals. Taken together, results showed that the protective immune response induced by the expression of NS1 antigen mediated by the pcTPANS1 requires a cooperation between CD4+ T cells and the humoral immunity.

  18. Cooperation between CD4+ T Cells and Humoral Immunity Is Critical for Protection against Dengue Using a DNA Vaccine Based on the NS1 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Oliveira, Edson R A; Costa, Simone M; Paes, Marciano V; Silva, Juliana F A; Azevedo, Adriana S; Mantuano-Barradas, Marcio; Nogueira, Ana Cristina M A; Almeida, Cecília J; Alves, Ada M B

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. At present, the control of dengue disease is mainly hampered by the absence of antivirals or a vaccine, which results in an estimated half worldwide population at risk of infection. The immune response against DENV is not yet fully understood and a better knowledge of it is now recognized as one of the main challenge for vaccine development. In previous studies, we reported that a DNA vaccine containing the signal peptide sequence from the human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) fused to the DENV2 NS1 gene (pcTPANS1) induced protection against dengue in mice. In the present work, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of cellular and humoral responses elicited by this vaccine candidate for protective immunity. We observed that pcTPANS1 exerts a robust protection against dengue, inducing considerable levels of anti-NS1 antibodies and T cell responses. Passive immunization with anti-NS1 antibodies conferred partial protection in mice infected with low virus load (4 LD50), which was abrogated with the increase of viral dose (40 LD50). The pcTPANS1 also induced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We detected production of IFN-γ and a cytotoxic activity by CD8+ T lymphocytes induced by this vaccine, although its contribution in the protection was not so evident when compared to CD4+ cells. Depletion of CD4+ cells in immunized mice completely abolished protection. Furthermore, transfer experiments revealed that animals receiving CD4+ T cells combined with anti-NS1 antiserum, both obtained from vaccinated mice, survived virus infection with survival rates not significantly different from pcTPANS1-immunized animals. Taken together, results showed that the protective immune response induced by the expression of NS1 antigen mediated by the pcTPANS1 requires a cooperation between CD4+ T cells and the humoral immunity.

  19. Immune Dysfunction Associated with Abnormal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells in Senescence Accelerated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Senescence accelerated mice (SAM are a group of mice that show aging-related diseases, and SAM prone 10 (SAMP10 show spontaneous brain atrophy and defects in learning and memory. Our previous report showed that the thymus and the percentage of T lymphocytes are abnormal in the SAMP10, but it was unclear whether the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMMSCs were abnormal, and whether they played an important role in regenerative medicine. We thus compared BMMSCs from SAMP10 and their control, SAM-resistant (SAMR1, in terms of cell cycle, oxidative stress, and the expression of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Our cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase in the SAMP10. We also found increased reactive oxygen stress and decreased PI3K and MAPK on the BMMSCs. These results suggested the BMMSCs were abnormal in SAMP10, and that this might be related to the immune system dysfunction in these mice.

  20. Specific humoral immune responses in rhesus monkeys vaccinated with the Alzheimer's disease-associated β-amyloid 1-15 peptide vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-bing; WANG Hua-qiao; LIN Xian; XU Jie; XIE Yao; YUAN Qun-fang; YAO Zhi-bin

    2005-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by overproduction of β-amyloid (Aβ), with the subsequent pathologic deposition of Aβ which is important for memory and cognition. Recent studies showed murine models of AD and AD patients inoculated with Aβ1-42 peptide vaccine had a halted or delayed pathological progression of AD. Unfortunately, the clinical phase Ⅱa trial of Aβ1-42 peptide vaccine (AN1792) was halted prematurely because of episodes of menigoencephalitis in 18 of the vaccinated patients. The vaccination of BALB/c or Tg2576 transgenic mouse with Aβ1-15 peptide vaccine is safe and the immune effects are satisfactory. This study further characterizes the specific humoral immune responses in adult rhesus monkeys induced by Aβ1-15 peptide vaccine.Methods Five male adult rhesus monkeys were injected intramuscularly with Aβ1-15 peptide vaccine at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22. The titers and IgG isotypes of the antibody against Aβ1-42 in serum was measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The specificity of the antibody against Aβ1-42 was determined by Western blot. The Aβ plaques in Tg2576 transgenic mouse brain were stained with the antiserum using immunohistochemistry method.Results At the eighth week after the vaccination, antibody against Aβ1-42 began to develop significantly in serum. The titers of the antibody increased following vaccine boosted and reached 1∶3840 at the twenty-fourth week, then decreased after the termination of inoculation. The IgG1 was accounted for the highest level in the antiserum pool. The antibody against Aβ1-42 showed high specificity. The Aβ plaques in Tg2576 transgenic mouse brain were labeled with the antiserum.Conclusion Aβ1-15 vaccine can induce vigorously specific humoral immune responses in adult rhesus monkey.

  1. Cell and humoral immunity in endemic pemphigus foliaceus Imunidade humoral e celular no pênfigo foliáceo endêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina C. Sartori Barravieira

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 16 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, ten of them with the localized form (group G1 and six with the disseminated form (group G2. These patients were submitted to full blood counts, quantitation of mononuclear cell subpopulations by monoclonal antibodies, study of blastic lymphocyte transformation, and quantitation of circulating antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence test, in order to correlate their clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory data with their immunological profile, and to determine the relationship between circulating autoantibody titers and lesion intensity and course of lesions under treatment. Leucocytosis was observed especially in group G2. All patients showed decreased relative CD3+ and CD4+ values and a tendency to decreased relative values of the CD8+ subpopulation. Blastic lymphocyte transformation indices in the presence of phytohemagglutinin were higher in patients (group G1+G2 than in controls. The indirect immunofluorescence test was positive in 100% of G2 patients and in 80% of G1 patients. The median value for the titers was higher in group G2 than in group G1. Analysis of the results as a whole permits us to conclude that cell immunity was preserved and that there was a relationship between antibody titers detected by the direct immunofluorescence test and extent of skin lesions.Foram avaliados dezesseis doentes portadores de pênfigo foliáceo endêmico, dez com a forma localizada da doença (Grupo G1 e seis com a forma disseminada (Grupo G2, com os objetivos de correlacionar o quadro clínico e laboratorial desses pacientes com o perfil imunológico dos mesmos, e verificar a relação dos títulos dos anticorpos antiepiderme circulantes, identificados pela imunofluorescência indireta, com intensidade da lesão e com a evolução das lesões em tratamento. Foram realizados: hemograma completo, quantificação de subpopulação de células mononucleares por anticorpos monoclonais

  2. Equine influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis, in vaccinated horses with commercial and experimental vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Equine Influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis, in horses vaccinated with commercial and experimental vaccines. From 4 equine groups, the antibody protection levels against influenza were evaluted through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis. One group of these animals received immunization from 2 doses of influenza vaccine, of experimental preparation, at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brasil (IB. Two other horse groups, regularly vaccinated received the annual booster dose from both commercial and experimental vaccines (IB. A control group remained without vaccination. Differences were observed among the antibody level medians of the serum samples harvested prior and post immunization of those vaccinated animals. No evident differences were detected among the antibody level medians from animals that received annual booster doses, due to the persistence of the protective antibody level, 12 months after the regular immunization. In the control group, the animals showed low antibody levels, for both serum samples. In fact these results suggested the good serologic response of both vaccines, the commercial and the experimental, tested preparations.

  3. Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats

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    S. J. Bunglavan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental research was conducted at Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. 63 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 equal groups on the basis of their mean body weight (BW (124.3±3.1 g BW following completely randomized design. Experimental feeding was similar in all the groups except for the source and level of selenium (Se in the diet. While Group 1 (control was fed a basal diet with no Se supplementation, in Groups 2 and 3, 150 ppb Se was supplemented either as sodium selenite or Se nanoparticles, respectively. In Groups 4, 5, 6 and 7, Se was supplemented as its nanoparticles at 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% levels respectively i.e. at 75 ppb, 37.5 ppb, 18.75 ppb and 9.375 ppb levels respectively. In Groups 8 and 9, 300 ppb Se was supplemented either as Se nanoparticles or sodium selenite, respectively. Experimental feeding was conducted for a period of 91 days. At the end of the experimental trial, blood samples were collected to analyze the blood serum biochemical profile (serum glucose, serum total protein (TP, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin: globulin ratio [A:G ratio], serum total cholesterol and humoral immunity. Results: The levels of serum glucose, serum TP and serum albumin were comparable (p>0.05 among the nine groups of male Wistar rats. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001 lowered in all the Se supplemented Wistar rats compared to the control group. The mean serum globulin level was significantly (p<0.05 higher and A:G ratio was significantly (p<0.05 lowered in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles followed by Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 as compared to the control group. The mean serum antibody titer was significantly (p<0.001 higher

  4. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Endogenous enzymes such as phytase have been widely used in swine production to increase phosphorus, amino acid and energy availability from feeds. This study aimed to evaluate the immune system through quantification of blood components associated to iron metabolism and determine humoral immune response elements in pigs fed phytase-added diets without micro minerals and vitamins and partial or total deletion of inorganic phosphorus. Forty-eight crossbred females with initial weight of 60 kg were randomly sorted into six groups of eight animals each, as follows: G1 -standard (complete ration (control group; G2 - standard ration except that micromineral and vitamin supplement was deleted; G3 - group 2 ration with phytase, G4 - group 2 ration less 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase, G5 -  group 2 ration less 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase and G6 - group 2 ration without inorganic P with phytase. Statistical difference (p>0,05 was not recorded neither in white cells and platelet counts nor hemoglobin, serum iron levels, considering all the animals in all treatments. Nevertheless, pigs up to 100 kg that consumed diet without micro minerals and vitamins, total deletion of inorganic P and phytase addition presented increased ferritin levels (p>0,05 when compared to animals fed similar diet with inorganic phosphorus and phytase. The enzyme guaranteed maintenance of iron stocks even in the absence of supplementation. Such difference was not recorded with 120-kg animals fed similar rations. Average total protein, IgG and IgM levels were not influenced by phytase, mineral and vitamin supplementation or inorganic phosphorus levels. The results demonstrate that decrease of inorganic phos-phorus, withdrawal of vitamin and mineral supplements and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs do not lead to significant changes in hematological, biochemical and humoral immune response parameters.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil......This study investigated the influence of different fat sources and vitamin E supplementation on performance, humoral immune responses, plasma biochemical responses, mucosal fatty acid profile, and α-tocopherol status in serum and intestine of pigs after weaning (days 28-56 of age). The experiment...... responses, concentration of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, and fatty acid composition of mucosal samples. Vitamin E supplementation increased the α-tocopherol status of pigs 14 days after weaning, and a dietary concentration of 150 mg vitamin E/kg diet (at the present fat level of 50 g/kg diet...

  6. The opposite associations of lycopene and body fat mass with humoral immunity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible role in atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyestani, Tirang R; Shariat-Zadeh, Nastaran; Gharavi, A'azam; Kalayi, Ali; Khalaji, Niloufar

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the possible effects of lycopene at physiological dosage and body fat mass on the humoral immune response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 35 patients with Typ2 diabetes mellitus from both sexes aged 54+/-9 yrs from the Iranian Diabetes Society were introduced into a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial conducted for 2 months. After a 2-week lycopene free diet washout period, patients were allocated to either lycopene supplementation group (10mg/d) (n=16) or placebo age- and sex matched group (n=19) for 8 weeks. Patients were instructed to keep their diets and physical activities as unchanged as possible. Lycopene supplements increased serum lycopene levels (pdiabetic complications, notably atherogenesis.

  7. The Mycoplasma hominis P120 membrane protein contains a 216 amino acid hypervariable domain that is recognized by the human humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    domain. Based on restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the hypervariable domain the 18 isolates could be divided into four cases. Reactivity with both mAb 26.7D and pAb 121 confirmed these classes. The hypervariable, but not the constant, part of P120 was recognized by the human humoral immune...... and found to have a sequence identity of 91% with the gene of strain 7488. One hypervariable and two semivariable regions were detected. The epitope for mAb 26.7D was mapped to the hypervariable domain by expression of various parts of this domain in Escherichia coli using expression vector systems....... A polyclonal antiserum (pAb 121) generated against the hypervariable region of P120 from PG21 identified the P120 homologue in M. hominis PG21. Fusion proteins of the hypervariable and constant parts of the proteins were constructed and tested for reactivity with 21 human sera. Twelve sera reacted...

  8. Comparisons of the humoral and cellular immunity induced by live A16R attenuated spore and AVA-like anthrax vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jin; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Lu, Xun; Zhang, Hao; Wei, Lin; Gao, Jun; Hu, Bin; Hu, Wen-Wei; Hu, Dun-Zhong; Jia, Na; Feng, Xin

    2017-03-01

    The live attenuated anthrax vaccine and anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) are two main types of anthrax vaccines currently used in human. However, the immunoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we compared humoral and cellular immunity induced by live A16R spore vaccine and A16R strain derived AVA-like vaccine in mice peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Both A16R spores and AVA-like vaccines induced a sustained IgG antibody response with IgG1/IgG2b subtype dominance. However, A16R spores vaccine induced higher titer of IgG2a compared with AVA-like vaccine, indicating a stronger Th1 response to A16R spores. Using antigen-specific ELISpot assay, we observed a significant response of ASCs (antibody secreting cells) and IL4-CSCs (cytokine secreting cells) in mice. Specially, there was a positive correlation between the frequencies of antigen specific ASCs and IL4-CSCs in bone marrow derived cells, either by A16R spore or AVA-like vaccine vaccination. Moreover, we also found A16R spore vaccine, not AVA-like vaccine, could induce sustained frequency of IFN-γ-CSCs in bone marrow derived cells. Collectively, both the vaccines induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response with Th2 dominance in mice and A16R spore vaccine might provide a more comprehensive protection because of humoral and cellular immunity induced in bone marrow. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Humoral immunity of dTap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) administered one month after dT-IPV vaccine (REVAXIS®) in adults with unknown vaccination history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaudie, Sylvie; Guiso, Nicole; Baptiste, Charles; Desaint, Corinne; Desforges, Lionel; Lebon, Pierre; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Launay, Odile

    2010-10-01

    This study was to assess the humoral immune response induced by a vaccination schedule routinely used in France in 18-50 year old adults with unknown vaccination history. In this monocentric, prospective study, subjects received one dose of REVAXIS® (dT-IPV, diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed, reduced antigen(s) content)) (Visit 1) followed by one dose of REPEVAX® (dTap-IPV, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component) and poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed, reduced antigen(s) content)) one month later (Visit 2). Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis types 1, 2 and 3, and pertussis toxin (PT) were measured one month after the administration of REPEVAX® (Visit 3). A total of 136 subjects were included in the study, but blood samples were available for only 73 subjects. Their mean age at inclusion was 33.2 ± 7.3 years. 49.3% of the 73 subjects originated from the WHO African Region, 6.8% from the WHO Western Pacific Region and 5.5% from the WHO European Region. One month after REPEVAX® administration, all subjects had seroprotective antibody titers against diphtheria and tetanus (≥0.1 IU/mL), poliomyelitis types 2 and 3 (≥ 8 1/dil); one subject (1.4%) did not have antibodies against poliomyelitis type 1. The rate of anti-PT seropositivity (≥8 EU/mL) was 94.4%. One dose of REPEVAX® administered one month after a dose of REVAXIS® in subjects with unknown vaccination history induced a high humoral response. These results validate a vaccination schedule routinely used for years that rapidly elicits effective immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis.

  10. Cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep vaccinated with candidate antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J; Begg, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in ruminants using commercially available vaccine reduces production losses, mortality, fecal shedding and histopathological lesions but does not provide complete protection from infection and interferes with serological diagnosis of Johne's disease and bovine tuberculosis. At this time no recombinant antigens have been found to provide superior protection compared to whole killed or live-attenuated MAP vaccines. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate more candidate MAP antigens. In this study recombinant MAP antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 were formulated with four different MONTANIDE™ (ISA 50V2, 61VG, 71VG, and 201VG) adjuvants and evaluated for their ability to produce specific immune responses in vaccinated sheep. The cellular immune response was measured with an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay and the humoral immune response was measured by antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant vaccine formulation with the antigen MAP2698c and MONTANIDE™ ISA 201VG adjuvant produced strong whole-MAP as well as MAP2698c-specific IFN-γ responses in a high proportion of the vaccinated sheep. The formulation caused less severe injection site lesions in comparison to other formulations. The findings from this study suggest that the MAP2698c + 201VG should be evaluated in a challenge trial to determine the efficacy of this vaccine candidate.

  11. Cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep vaccinated with candidate antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna eGurung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Control of Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP in ruminants using commercially available vaccine reduces production losses, mortality, faecal shedding and histopathological lesions but does not provide complete protection from infection and interferes with serological diagnosis of Johne’s disease and bovine tuberculosis. At this time no recombinant antigens have been found to provide superior protection compared to whole killed or live-attenuated MAP vaccines. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate more candidate MAP antigens. In this study recombinant MAP antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 were formulated with four different MONTANIDE (ISA 50V2, 61VG, 71VG and 201VG adjuvants and evaluated for their ability to produce specific immune responses in vaccinated sheep. The cellular immune response was measured with an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assay and the humoral immune response was measured by antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant vaccine formulation with the antigen MAP2698c and MONTANIDE ISA 201VG adjuvant produced strong whole-MAP as well as MAP2698c-specific IFN-γ responses in a high proportion of the vaccinated sheep. The formulation caused less severe injection site lesions in comparison to other formulations. The findings from this study suggest that the MAP2698c + 201VG should be evaluated in a challenge trial to determine the efficacy of this vaccine candidate.

  12. Cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep vaccinated with candidate antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.; Begg, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in ruminants using commercially available vaccine reduces production losses, mortality, fecal shedding and histopathological lesions but does not provide complete protection from infection and interferes with serological diagnosis of Johne's disease and bovine tuberculosis. At this time no recombinant antigens have been found to provide superior protection compared to whole killed or live-attenuated MAP vaccines. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate more candidate MAP antigens. In this study recombinant MAP antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 were formulated with four different MONTANIDE™ (ISA 50V2, 61VG, 71VG, and 201VG) adjuvants and evaluated for their ability to produce specific immune responses in vaccinated sheep. The cellular immune response was measured with an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay and the humoral immune response was measured by antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant vaccine formulation with the antigen MAP2698c and MONTANIDE™ ISA 201VG adjuvant produced strong whole-MAP as well as MAP2698c-specific IFN-γ responses in a high proportion of the vaccinated sheep. The formulation caused less severe injection site lesions in comparison to other formulations. The findings from this study suggest that the MAP2698c + 201VG should be evaluated in a challenge trial to determine the efficacy of this vaccine candidate. PMID:25077074

  13. Diferentes fontes e níveis de selênio sobre a imunidade humoral de frangos de corte Different sources and levels of selenium on humoral immunity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal Funari Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da variação de níveis e fontes de selênio (Se sobre a imunidade humoral de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1440 pintos de um dia, machos, criados até os 42 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis dietas experimentais (A: 0,15mg kg-1 Se inorgânico (inorg.; B: 0,15mg kg-1 Se orgânico; C: 0,15mg kg-1 Se inorg.+orgânico; D: 0,45mg kg-1 Se inorgânico; E: 0,45mg kg-1 Se orgânico; F: 0,45mg kg-1 Se inorg.+orgânico calculadas para fornecerem a quantidade de Se descritas, e seis repetições com 40 aves cada. Foi utilizado um arranjo fatorial 3x2 e os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, com nível de significância a 5%. A imunidade foi avaliada por meio da resposta à vacina contra a Doença de Newcastle e resposta à sensibilização prévia com eritrócitos de carneiro (SRBC. Não foi observada diferença estatística ao nível de significância de 5%, para os títulos de anticorpos contra a vacina da Doença de Newcastle (P>0,05. Entretanto aos 14 dias o fator fonte obteve probabilidade (P=0,0580, resultado que mostra uma tendência de influência da fonte inorgânica na manutenção da imunidade materna, pois nesta idade as aves ainda não haviam sido vacinadas contra a Doença de Newcastle. Não foi observado nenhum efeito para variável de resposta a sensibilização prévia com SRBC (P>0,05. Os resultados mostram que as aves responderam imunologicamente ao estímulo, porém a variação da fonte e do nível de Se não foi capaz de induzir uma diferença significativa na resposta imunológica das aves. Os níveis e fontes de Se não têm efeito sobre a resposta imunológica aos eritrócitos de carneiro (SRBC e, resposta imunológica a vacina contra a Doença de Newcastle.The use of organic trace minerals is getting strength and is an alternative to increase production and improve other characteristics such as humoral immunity

  14. Rate of constitutive innate humoral immune development in Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) chicks is negatively correlated with growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauck, R.A.; Matson, K.D.; Philipsborn, J.; Ricklefs, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    1 Using a simple technique for assessing constitutive innate immune function recently adapted for use in wild populations, we characterize changes in avian immune system development by repeated measurements of individuals over the period of nestling growth in a wild population of Leach's Storm-Petre

  15. Genetic vaccination with Flt3-L and GM-CSF as adjuvants:Enhancement of cellular and humoral immune responses that results in protective immunity in a murine model of hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Encke; Jomo Bernardin; Jasmin Geib; Gocha Barbakadze; Raymond Bujdoso; Wolfgang Stremmel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether transfection of plasmid DNA encoding these cytokines enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a murine model.METHODS: We established a tumor model of HCV infection using syngenic mouse myeloma cells stably transfected with NS5. Co-vaccination of DNA encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and Fit-3 ligand together with a plasmid encoding for the HCV NS5 protein was carried out. Mice were sacrificed 14 d after the last immunization event with collection of spleen cells and serum to determine humoral and cellular immune responses.RESULTS: Co-vaccination of DNA encoding GM-CSF and Flt-3 ligand together with a plasmid encoding for the HCV NS5 protein induced increased antibody responses and CD4+ T cell proliferation to this protein. Vaccination with DNA encoding GM-CSF and Flt-3L promoted protection against tumor formation and/or reduction in mice coimmunized with cytokine-encoding DNA constructs. This suggests this strategy is capable of generating cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in vivo. Following inoculation with plasmid DNA encoding Flt-3L, no increase in spleen size or in dendritic cell (DC) and natural killer cell numbers was observed. This was in contrast to a dramatic increase of both cell types after administration of recombinant Flt3-L in vivo. This suggests that vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding cytokines that regulate DC generation and mobilization may not promote unwanted side effects, such as autoimmunity, splenic fibrosis or hematopoietic malignancies that may occur with administration of recombinant forms of these proteins.CONCLUSION: Our data support the view that plasmid DNA vaccination is a promising approach for HCV immunization, and may provide a general adjuvant vaccination strategy against malignancies and other pathogens.

  16. Humoral Immune Reconstitution Kinetics after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children: A Maturation Block of IgM Memory B Cells May Lead to Impaired Antibody Immune Reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Elshoury, Amro; Mahadeo, Kris M; Parkman, Robertson; Kapoor, Neena

    2017-09-01

    Although T cell immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71 pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Although tetanus toxoid antibody levels were normal at 1 year after allo-HSCT, antipolysaccharide carbohydrate antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5 years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6 months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2 years (P = .01); switched memory B cell deficiency normalized by 1 year after allo-HSCT. CD4(+) T cell immune reconstitution correlated with that of switched memory B cells as early as 6 months after allo-HSCT (r = .55, P = .002) but did not correlate with IgM memory B cells at any time point after allo-HSCT. Taken together, this suggests that allo-HSCT recipients have impaired antibody immune reconstitution, mainly due to IgM memory B cell maturation block, compared with more prompt T cell-dependent switched memory cell immune reconstitution. We further explored other factors that might affect humoral immune reconstitution. The use of total body irradiation was associated with lower naive B cells counts at 6 months after HSCT (P = .04) and lower IgM (P = .008) and switched (P = .003) memory B cells up to 2 years. Allo-HSCT recipients with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease had lower IgM memory B cell counts (P = .03) up to 2 years after allo-HSCT. The use of cord blood was associated with better naive (P = .01), IgM (P = .0005), and switched memory (P = .006) B cells immune reconstitution. These findings may inform future prophylaxis and treatment strategies regarding risk of overwhelming infection, graft-versus-host disease, and post-allogeneic HSCT revaccination. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Melatonin improves humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of male golden hamster following stress induced by dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2013-06-15

    Melatonin is known as an antistress and immunostimulator compound while glucocorticoids have immunosuppressive function. The mechanism of action of both the hormones on immune cells is still a question. We found that melatonin improved the effect of dexamethasone (synthetic glucocorticoid) induced immunosuppression of splenocytes and bone marrow GM-CFU along with increased production of serum IL-2, IgG and the receptor expression for melatonin and glucocorticoid in spleen that might be responsible for the proliferation of immune cells. Thus, seasonal variation in peripheral melatonin might be responsible for the improvement of immune status under different stress conditions experienced by the rodents for better survival.

  18. A suicidal DNA vaccine expressing the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus induces both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yue, Xiaolin; Jin, Hongyan; Liu, Guangqing; Pan, Ling; Wang, Guijun; Guo, Hao; Li, Gang; Li, Yongdong

    2015-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a highly contagious disease induced by PPR virus (PPRV), affects sheep and goats. PPRV fusion (F) protein is important for the induction of immune responses against PPRV. We constructed a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon-vectored DNA vaccine ("suicidal DNA vaccine") and evaluated its immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. The F gene of PPRV was cloned and inserted into the SFV replicon-based vector pSCA1. The antigenicity of the resultant plasmid pSCA1/F was identified by indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting. BALB/c mice were then intramuscularly injected with pSCA1/F three times at 14-d intervals. Specific antibodies and virus-neutralizing antibodies against PPRV were quantified by indirect ELISA and microneutralization tests, respectively. Cell-mediated immune responses were examined by cytokine and lymphocyte proliferation assays. The pSCA1/F expressed F protein in vitro and induced specific and neutralizing antibody production, and lymphocyte proliferation in mice. Mice vaccinated with pSCA1/F had increased IL-2 and IL-10 levels after 24-h post first immunization. IFN-γ and TNF-α levels increased from that time point and gradually decreased thereafter. Thus, the Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine expressing the F protein of PPRV induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. This could be considered as a novel strategy for vaccine development against PPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The complementary roles of cellular and humoral immunity in resistance to re-infection with LCM virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1988-01-01

    used for rechallenge (10(6) - 10(8) LD50), significant re-infection as well as reactivation of cytotoxicity were observed. Both resistance and memory expression were controlled by an antigen-specific, radio-resistant factor in the immune mouse. Transfusion of serum from immune mice to naive recipients...... conclude that preformed antibodies constitute a primary barrier to re-infection with LCMV; only if the first line of defence fails, does memory function become critical and a secondary immune response induced. In the latter case the accelerated kinetics of this response will ensure that the infection...... is controlled before substantial cell damage has occurred. We find no need to invoke active suppression of immunity in order to explain the difficulty to obtain a typical memory response in situ....

  20. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Lima de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; Paoli, Rosana de Lima; Giuffrida,Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after ...

  1. Head-to-head comparison of humoral immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide and Salmonella Typhi Ty21a typhoid vaccines--a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Kantele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two typhoid vaccines, the parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide and the oral live whole-cell Salmonella Typhi Ty21a vaccine, provide similar levels of protection in field trials. Sharing no antigens, they are thought to confer protection by different mechanisms. This is the first head-to-head study to compare the humoral immune responses to these two vaccines. METHODS: 50 age- and gender-matched volunteers were immunized, 25 with the Vi and 25 with the Ty21a vaccine. Circulating plasmablasts reactive with whole-cell Salmonella Typhi or one of the typhoidal antigenic structures, Vi, O-9,12, and H-d antigens, were identified as antibody-secreting cells (ASC with ELISPOT. Homing receptor (HR expressions were determined. These results were compared with ASC in four patients with typhoid fever. Antibodies to S. Typhi lipopolysaccharides were assessed in cultures of ALS (antibodies in lymphocyte supernatants and in serum with ELISA. RESULTS: In 49 out of 50 vaccinees, no typhoid-specific plasmablasts were seen before vaccination. On day 7, response to Vi antigen was mounted in 24/25 volunteers in the Vi, and none in the Ty21a group; response to S. Typhi and O-9,12 was mounted in 49/50 vaccinees; and to H-d in 3/50. The numbers of typhoid-specific plasmablasts (total of ASC to Vi, O-9,12 and H-d antigens proved equal in the vaccination groups. The HR expressions indicated a mainly systemic homing in the Vi and intestinal in the Ty21a group, the latter resembling that in natural infection. Plasmablasts proved more sensitive than serum and ALS in assessing the immune response. CONCLUSIONS: The typhoid-specific humoral responses to Vi and Ty21a vaccines are similar in magnitude, but differ in expected localization and antigen-specificity. The unforeseen O antigen-specific response in the Vi group is probably due to lipopolysaccharide contaminating the vaccine preparation. Only the response to Ty21a vaccine was found to imitate that in

  2. A synthetic lymph node containing inactivated Treponema pallidum cells elicits strong, antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V; Drapp, Rebecca L

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a synthetic lymph node (SLN) for delivery of Treponema pallidum (Tp) antigens. Immune responses of C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after SLN implantation. Group 1 mice received SLN with no antigen; Group 2, SLN with formalin-inactivated Tp (f-Tp); and Group 3, SLN with f-Tp plus a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. When tested by ELISA, sera from Group 2 and Group 3 mice showed stronger IgG antibody reactivity than sera from Group 1 mice to sonicates of f-Tp or untreated Tp, but not to sonicate of normal rabbit testicular extract at all times. The IgG1 level was higher than IgG2c level for Group 2 mice at all times and for Group 3 mice at 4 and 8 weeks. IgG1 and IgG2c levels were nearly equivalent for Group 3 mice at 12 weeks. Immunoblotting showed that IgG from Group 2 and Group 3 mice recognized several Tp proteins at all times. Supernatants of splenocytes from Group 2 and Group 3 mice contained significantly more IFNγ than those from Group 1 mice after stimulation with f-Tp at all times. A significant level of IL-4 was not detected in any supernatants. These data show that strong humoral and cellular immune responses to Tp can be elicited via a SLN.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus-induced NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) natural killer cells are effectors dependent on humoral antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeguang; Sinzger, Christian; Frascaroli, Giada; Reichel, Johanna; Bayer, Carina; Wang, Li; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Mertens, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that expansion of NKG2C-positive natural killer (NK) cells is associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV); however, their activity in response to HCMV-infected cells remains unclear. We show that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells gated on CD3(neg) CD56(dim) cells can be phenotypically identified as HCMV-induced NK cells that can be activated by HCMV-infected cells. Using HCMV-infected autologous macrophages as targets, we were able to show that these NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are highly responsive to HCMV-infected macrophages only in the presence of HCMV-specific antibodies, whereas they are functionally poor effectors of natural cytotoxicity. We further demonstrate that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are intrinsically responsive to signaling through CD16 cross-linking. Our findings show that the activity of pathogen-induced innate immune cells can be enhanced by adaptive humoral immunity. Understanding the activity of NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells against HCMV-infected cells will be of relevance for the further development of adoptive immunotherapy.

  4. Additives and Protein-DNA Combinations Modulate the Humoral Immune Response Elicited by a Hepatitis C Virus Core-encoding Plasmid in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Lajonchere Liz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Humoral and cellular immune responses are currently induced against hepatitis C virus (HCV core following vaccination with core-encoding plasmids. However, the anti-core antibody response is frequently weak or transient. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of different additives and DNA-protein combinations on the anti-core antibody response. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly injected with an expression plasmid (pIDKCo, encoding a C-terminal truncated variant of the HCV core protein, alone or combined with CaCl2, PEG 6000, Freund's adjuvant, sonicated calf thymus DNA and a recombinant core protein (Co.120. Mixture of pIDKCo with PEG 6000 and Freund's adjuvant accelerated the development of the anti-core Ab response. Combination with PEG 6000 also induced a bias to IgG2a subclass predominance among anti-core antibodies. The kinetics, IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and epitope specificity of the anti-core antibody response elicited by Co.120 alone or combined with pIDKCo was different regarding that induced by the pIDKCo alone. Our data indicate that the antibody response induced following DNA immunization can be modified by formulation strategies.

  5. Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi T. cruzi I strains with different degrees of virulence induce diverse humoral and cellular immune responses in a murine experimental infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, B; Rico, T; Sosa, S; Oaxaca, E; Vizcaino-Castillo, A; Caballero, M L; Martínez, I

    2010-01-01

    It is has been shown that the majority of T. cruzi strains isolated from Mexico belong to the T. cruzi I (TCI). The immune response produced in response to Mexican T. cruzi I strains has not been well characterized. In this study, two Mexican T. cruzi I strains were used to infect Balb/c mice. The Queretaro (TBAR/MX/0000/Queretaro)(Qro) strain resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, no mortality was observed in mice infected with the Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain. Both strains produced extended lymphocyte infiltrates in cardiac tissue. Ninoa infection induced a diverse humoral response with a higher variety of immunoglobulin isotypes than were found in Qro-infected mice. Also, a stronger inflammatory TH1 response, represented by IL-12p40, IFNgamma, RANTES, MIG, MIP-1beta, and MCP-1 production was observed in Qro-infected mice when compared with Ninoa-infected mice. We propose that an exacerbated TH1 immune response is a likely cause of pathological damage observed in cardiac tissue and the primary cause of death in Qro-infected mice.

  6. Immunoblot detection of class-specific humoral immune response to outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi in humans with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, V; Isibasi, A; García-Ortigoza, E; Kumate, J

    1989-07-01

    The studies reported here were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce a humoral immune response in humans with typhoid fever. OMPs were isolated with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed protein bands with molecular size ranges from 17 to 70 kilodaltons; the major groups of proteins were those that correspond to the porins and OmpA of gram-negative bacteria. Rabbit antiserum to OMPs or to S. typhi recognized OMPs after absorption with lipopolysaccharide. Sera from patients with typhoid fever contained immunoglobulin M antibodies which reacted with a protein of 28 kilodaltons and immunoglobulin G antibodies which reacted mainly with the porins, as determined by immunoblotting. These results indicate that the porins are the major immunogenic OMPs from S. typhi and that the immune response induced in the infection could be related to the protective status.

  7. Immunoblot detection of class-specific humoral immune response to outer membrane proteins isolated from Salmonella typhi in humans with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, V; Isibasi, A; García-Ortigoza, E; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported here were undertaken to assess the ability of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi to induce a humoral immune response in humans with typhoid fever. OMPs were isolated with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and were found to be contaminated with approximately 4% lipopolysaccharide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed protein bands with molecular size ranges from 17 to 70 kilodaltons; the major groups of proteins were those that correspond to the porins and OmpA of gram-negative bacteria. Rabbit antiserum to OMPs or to S. typhi recognized OMPs after absorption with lipopolysaccharide. Sera from patients with typhoid fever contained immunoglobulin M antibodies which reacted with a protein of 28 kilodaltons and immunoglobulin G antibodies which reacted mainly with the porins, as determined by immunoblotting. These results indicate that the porins are the major immunogenic OMPs from S. typhi and that the immune response induced in the infection could be related to the protective status. Images PMID:2768450

  8. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Dey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, possesses conserved binding sites for interaction with the primary virus receptor, CD4, and also for the co-receptor, generally CCR5. Although gp120 is a major target for virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, the gp120 variable elements and its malleable nature contribute to evasion of effective host-neutralizing antibodies. To understand the conformational character and immunogenicity of the gp120 receptor binding sites as potential vaccine targets, we introduced structure-based modifications to stabilize gp120 core proteins (deleted of the gp120 major variable regions into the conformation recognized by both receptors. Thermodynamic analysis of the re-engineered core with selected ligands revealed significant stabilization of the receptor-binding regions. Stabilization of the co-receptor-binding region was associated with a marked increase in on-rate of ligand binding to this site as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Rabbit immunization studies showed that the conformational stabilization of core proteins, along with increased ligand affinity, was associated with strikingly enhanced humoral immune responses against the co-receptor-binding site. These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region.

  9. Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi (TCI Strains with Different Degrees of Virulence Induce Diverse Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in a Murine Experimental Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is has been shown that the majority of T. cruzi strains isolated from Mexico belong to the T. cruzi I (TCI. The immune response produced in response to Mexican T. cruzi I strains has not been well characterized. In this study, two Mexican T. cruzi I strains were used to infect Balb/c mice. The Queretaro (TBAR/MX/0000/Queretaro(Qro strain resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, no mortality was observed in mice infected with the Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa strain. Both strains produced extended lymphocyte infiltrates in cardiac tissue. Ninoa infection induced a diverse humoral response with a higher variety of immunoglobulin isotypes than were found in Qro-infected mice. Also, a stronger inflammatory TH1 response, represented by IL-12p40, IFNγ, RANTES, MIG, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 production was observed in Qro-infected mice when compared with Ninoa-infected mice. We propose that an exacerbated TH1 immune response is a likely cause of pathological damage observed in cardiac tissue and the primary cause of death in Qro-infected mice.

  10. Modulation of cellular and humoral immune responses to anHIV-1 DNA vaccine by interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 DNA immunization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永涛; 王福祥; 孙永年; 徐哲; 王临旭; 刘娟; 白雪帆; 黄长形

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-18 (IL-18)DNA immunization on immune response induced by HIV-1 DNA vaccine and to explore new strategies for therapeutic HIV DNA vaccine.Methods: The recombinant expression vector pCI-neoGAG was constructed by inserting HIV Gag gene into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI-neo. Balb/c mice were immunized with pCI-neoGAG alone or co-immunized with the DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18. Anti-HIV antibody and IFN-γ were tested by ELISA, and splenocytes were isolated for detecting antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses and specific CTL response by MTT assay and LDH assay respectively. Results: The antiHIV antibody titers of mice co-immunized with pCI-neoGAG and the DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18 were lower than that of mice immunized with pCI-neoGAG alone( P < 0.01). In contrast, the IFN-γ level of mice co-immunized with pCI-neoGAG and the DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18 was higher than that of mice immunized with pCI-neoGAG alone ( P <0.01). Furthermore, compared with mice injected with pCI-neoGAG alone, the specific CTL cytotoxity activity and antigenspecific lymphoproliferative responses of mice immunized with pCI-neoGAG and the DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18 were significantly enhanced respectively ( P < 0.01). Conclusion: The DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18 together with HIV DNA vaccine may enhance specific Th-1 responses and cellular immune response elicited in mice. Hence, the DNA encoding for IL-12 or IL-18 are promising immune adjuvants for HIV-1 DNA vaccine.

  11. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala.

  12. Enhanced humoral immunity in mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors (Cnr1-/-/Cnr2-/- mice) is not due to increased splenic noradrenergic neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tyrell; Crawford, Robert B; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral sympathetic noradrenergic neurons originating in the celiac mesenteric plexus have axons that terminate in close proximity to antibody-producing B cells in the spleen. Norepinephrine (NE) released from these neurons is reported to augment antibody production in response to an immune challenge via an action at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Cannabinoids are immunosuppressive, and mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors (Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice) have augmented cell-mediated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to determine if Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice also exhibit enhanced humoral immunity and if that is associated with corresponding changes in noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen. The results reveal that IgM and IgG are enhanced in Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice as compared to WT both in immunologically naïve and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. While the elevated antibody production was correlated with increased expression of β2AR on splenic B cells and increased splenic capsule NE concentrations, the activity of noradrenergic neurons was suppressed in spleens from Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice as compared with WT controls. Together, these results suggest that Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice exhibit enhanced NE vesicular storage in axon terminals in these neurons, which might limit the NE available to bind β2AR on target cells, such as B cells. The results also demonstrate that enhanced antibody responses in the absence of CB1 and CB2 receptors are not due to increased sympathetic noradrenergic neuronal activity in the spleen.

  13. Suppression of humoral immunity and lymphocyte responsiveness during experimental trypanosoma cruzi infections Supresión de la inmunidade humoral y de la respuesta linfocitaria durante la infección experimental con Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. O'daly

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available C3H/He and C57B1/6 mice were inoculated with 500 Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes (Strain Y. During the acute phase infected mice presented parasitemia and enlargement of lymph nodes and spleens and intracellular parasites were observed in the heart. Examinations of cells derived from spleen and lymph nodes showed increased numbers of IgM and IgG-bearing cells. During the peak of splenomegaly, about day 17 post-infections, splenic lymphocytes showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to T and B-cell mitogens, parasite antigens and plaque forming cells (PFC to sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Unfractionated or plastic adherent splenic cells from mice, obtained during the acute phase were able to suppress the response to mitogens by lymphocytes from uninfected mice. During the chronic phase. Disappearance of parasitemia and intracellular parasites in the hearts as well as a decrease in spleen size, was observed. These changes preceded the complete recovery of responsiveness to mitogens and T. cruzi antigens by C57B1/6 splenic lymphocytes. However, this recovery was only partial in the C3H/He mice, known to be more sensitive to T. cruzi infection. Partial recovery of humoral immune response also occurred in both strains of mice during the chronic phase.Ratones C3H/He y C57B1/6 inoculados con 500 tripomastigotes de la cepa Y de T. cruzi muestran durante la fase aguda de la enferme-dad, parasitemia, aumento del bazo y gânglios linfáticos así como parásitos intracelulares en el corazón. Análisis de las células presentes en ganglios linfáticos y bazo presenta aumento de células IgM e IgG. Cuando la esplenomegalia es mayor, alrededor del día 17 postínfección, los linfocitos esplénicos mostraron un descenso marcado en la respuesta a mitógenos de células B y T, antígenos de T. cruzi y células formadoras de placas contra glóbulos rojos de carnero. Células de bazo o células esplénicas adherentes a plástico, obtenidas de ratones durante

  14. The course of preexistent immune abnormalities in HIV-negative hemophiliacs treated for 2 years with a monoclonal purified factor-VIII concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W. M.; van der Meer, J.; Smit, J. W.; Halie, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    The administration of factor VIII concentrates has been associated with immune abnormalities in patients with severe haemophilia A, even in the absence of HIV infection. The effects of a monoclonal purified factor VIII concentrate, Hemofil M (Baxter), on preexistent immune abnormalities were

  15. Medición de respuesta inmune humoral y celular frente a antígenos de Brucella abortus RB51 en bovinos (Evaluation of Humoral and cellular immune response evaluation against Brucella abortus strain RB51 antigens in bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Montaña S.

    1998-01-01

    strain B. abortus 2308. 30 days after challenge the protection level was evaluated. The humoral immune response was evaluated using conventional Rose Bengal agglutination test, complement fixation test, radial immunodiffusion as well as ELISA, western blot and dot blot assays at days 0, 8, 15, 30, 60 and 90. Additionally, the specific IgG2 isotype response was determined by double sandwich ELISA. To evaluate cellular immune responses, lymphocyte proliferation was measured by timidine incorporation and expressed as stimulation index (S.I., IFN-? activity by ELISA and CD4/CD8 ratio by fluorocitometry. Animals vaccinated with live strains presented 100% protection against challenge, while a 66% protection was observed in those vaccinated with purified antigens. The diagnostic advantage of B. abortus strain RB51 was evidenced by the lack of humoral immune responses against sLPS in all vaccinated groups except for the strain 19 group. No significant differences (p0.05 were detected in any of the groups by lymphoproliferation when stimulated in vitro with purified OMP-II, O-chain or sLPS. When crude soluble RB51 protein was used, S.I. turned significant (p<0.05 and indicated a better response induced by the live vaccines. IFN-?-ELISA tests with stimulated tissue cultures performed better when measured 72 hour after antigen exposure. In reference to the experimental groups, higher levels were detected in the groups immunised with live vaccine, mainly strain 19. When CD4/CD8 ratio were considered the values were constant during the observation and no differences were observed. The results confirm that B. abortus strain RB51 induced level of protection similar to strain 19, and had the advantage of differential diagnosis. Purified antigens OMP-II and OMP-II-O-chain, induced a lower level of protection but they performed similar to replicating vaccines indicating the immunodominance of OMP-II, but suggesting the need of multiple doses to reach the same level of protection. It is

  16. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  17. Slow recovery of follicular B cells and marginal zone B cells after chemotherapy : implications for humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; Klok, PA; Dammers, PM; Kroese, FGM; Timens, W

    2001-01-01

    Although most chemotherapeutic agents are known to cause primarily reduction or suppression of immune responses, surprisingly little is known about the influence of cytostatic agents on lymphoid tissue compartments such as the splenic marginal zone. The marginal zone plays an important role in the d

  18. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  19. Cellular and humoral immunity after infection with B. pertussis : the role of age, antigen and vaccination history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, I

    2017-01-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough), is a bacterial disease of the respiratory tract, caused by the human pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Vaccination against pertussis has dramatically lowered pertussis incidence and mortality rates; however pertussis still occurs. The duration of immunity to B. pertussis aft

  20. Single and mixed-species trypanosome and microsporidia infections elicit distinct, ephemeral cellular and humoral immune responses in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Frequently encountered parasite species impart strong selective pressures on host immune system evolution and are more apt to concurrently infect the same host, yet molecular impacts in light of this are often overlooked. We have contrasted immune responses in honey bees to two common eukaryotic endoparasites by establishing single and mixed-species infections using the long-associated parasite Crithidia mellificae and the emergent parasite Nosema ceranae. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to screen host immune gene expression at 9 time points post inoculation. Systemic responses in abdomens during early stages of parasite establishment revealed conserved receptor (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, Dscam and nimrod C1, nimC1), signaling (MyD88 and Imd) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) effector (Defensin 2) responses. Late, established infections were distinct with a refined 2 AMP response to C. mellificae that contrasted starkly with a 5 AMP response to N. ceranae. Mixed species infections induced a moderate 3 AMPs. Transcription in gut tissues highlighted important local roles for Dscam toward both parasites and Imd signaling toward N. ceranae. At both systemic and local levels Dscam, MyD88 and Imd transcription was consistently correlated based on clustering analysis. Significant gene suppression occurred in two cases from midgut to ileum tissue: Dscam was lowered during mixed infections compared to N. ceranae infections and both C. mellificae and mixed infections had reduced nimC1 transcription compared to uninfected controls. We show that honey bees rapidly mount complex immune responses to both Nosema and Crithidia that are dynamic over time and that mixed-species infections significantly alter local and systemic immune gene transcription.

  1. Protective Antigen-Specific Memory B Cells Persist Years after Anthrax Vaccination and Correlate with Humoral Immunity

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    Lori Garman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA generates short-lived protective antigen (PA specific IgG that correlates with in vitro toxin neutralization and protection from Bacillus anthracis challenge. Animal studies suggest that when PA-specific IgG has waned, survival after spore challenge correlates with an activation of PA-specific memory B cells. Here, we characterize the quantity and the longevity of AVA-induced memory B cell responses in humans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from individuals vaccinated ≥3 times with AVA (n = 50 were collected early (3–6 months, n = 27 or late after their last vaccination (2–5 years, n = 23, pan-stimulated, and assayed by ELISPOT for total and PA-specific memory B cells differentiated into antibody secreting cells (ASCs. PA-specific ASC percentages ranged from 0.02% to 6.25% (median: 1.57% and did not differ between early and late post-vaccination individuals. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with plasma PA-specific IgG (r = 0.42, p = 0.03 and toxin neutralization (r = 0.52, p = 0.003 early post vaccination. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with supernatant anti-PA both early (r = 0.60, p = 0.001 and late post vaccination (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001. These data suggest PA-specific memory B cell responses are long-lived and can be estimated after recent vaccination by the magnitude and neutralization capacity of the humoral response.

  2. Humoral immune response of C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with irradiated tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain and oral challenge with ME-49 strain

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    Jimenez Galisteo Junior, Andres [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia; E-mail: galisteo@usp.br; Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia; Alves, Janaina Baptista; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi [instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a prevalent widespread infection in man and animals, is mainly transmitted by oral route, through ingestion of oocysts from water and food contaminated with cat feces or infected animal tissue cysts in undercooked meat. Vaccine development implies in effective intestinal immunity, the first site of parasite entry. Radiation (255 Gy/{sup 60}Co) sterilized T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites (RST) induced significant protection when parentally administered, similar to chronically infected and acute disease protected animal. We study the humoral immune response in C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with 10{sup 7} RST, by oral (with aluminium hydroxide 3%) or parenteral 3 biweekly administrations. T. gondii antigens specific ELISA for IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b detection was performed in weekly blood samples during immunization. Also we evaluate of the intestinal epithelial of immunized mice the integrity of the radiated parasites by electronic microscopy. After 2 weeks, immunized and control animals were challenged with 10 cysts of ME-49 strain p.o. Protection was determined at the 30th day by brain cyst counting. As it was possible to observe in the intestinal mucosal, the aluminium hydroxide seems to maintain unchanged the parasite morphology and its mechanisms of invasion, probably due to keeping it safe from extreme pH condition of stomach. All immunized groups presented significant protection when challenged with ME-49; however, BALB/c mice showed better protection levels, with only one positive animal on brain microscopic analysis. IgG production in the serum of the animals was higher in groups immunized by i.p route, however, IgA and IgG1 levels were higher in BALB/c mice immunized by oral route. This higher protection found in BALB/c group could probably also be related to the Th2 response, demonstrated by higher IgG1 levels. All these data provide insights in oral immunization schedules for toxoplasmosis prevention, suggesting that oral

  3. TLR4 ligand formulation causes distinct effects on antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Vergara, Julie; Desbien, Anthony L; Nana, Ghislain I; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2013-12-02

    The formulation of TLR ligands and other immunomodulators has a critical effect on their vaccine adjuvant activity. In this work, the synthetic TLR4 ligand GLA was formulated with three distinct vaccine delivery system platforms (aqueous suspension, liposome, or oil-in-water emulsion). The effect of the different formulations on the adaptive immune response to protein subunit vaccines was evaluated in the context of a recombinant malaria antigen, Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein (PbCSP). Antibody responses in vaccinated mice were similar for the different formulations of GLA. However, cell-mediated responses differed significantly depending on the adjuvant system; in particular, the emulsion formulation of the TLR4 ligand induced significantly enhanced cellular IFN-γ and TNF-α responses compared to the other formulations. The effects of differences in adjuvant formulation composition and physical characteristics on biological activity are discussed. These results illustrate the importance of formulation of immunostimulatory adjuvants (e.g. TLR ligands) on the resulting immune responses to adjuvanted vaccines and may play a critical role for combating diseases where T cell immunity is advantageous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cationic micelle based vaccine induced potent humoral immune response through enhancing antigen uptake and formation of germinal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zichao; Shi, Shuai; Jin, Ling; Xu, Lu; Yu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Li, Xingyi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles have been proven to be an effective vaccine delivery system that can boost immune responses to subunit vaccines. Herein, we developed and characterized a cationic polymeric polyethylene glycol2000-poly ϵ-caprolactone2000-polyethylenimine2000 (mPEG2000-PCL2000-g-PEI2000) micelle as a potent vaccine delivery system to boost the immune response in vivo. The micelles that we developed exhibited great antigen-loading capability and minimal cytotoxicity in vitro. Meanwhile, micelles facilitated OVA antigen uptake by dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, a micelle-formulated OVA vaccine could significantly promote anti-OVA antibody production by 190-fold and potently enhance T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-5 and IFN-γ. We attributed these effects to its ability to promote antigen uptake, antigen deposition, and germinal center formation. In conclusion, the mPEG2000-PCL2000-PEI2000 micelle that we developed has potential as potent vaccine delivery system to induce Th2 immune response.

  5. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  6. Proteomics-Based Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response in Sporotrichosis: Toward Discovery of Potential Diagnostic and Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Della Terra, Paula Portella; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Burger, Eva; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2015-01-01

    Background Sporothrix schenckii and associated species are agents of human and animal sporotrichosis that cause large sapronoses and zoonoses worldwide. Epidemiological surveillance has highlighted an overwhelming occurrence of the highly pathogenic fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis during feline outbreaks, leading to massive transmissions to humans. Early diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis by demonstrating the presence of a surrogate marker of infection can have a key role for selecting appropriate disease control measures and minimizing zoonotic transmission to humans. Methodology We explored the presence and diversity of serum antibodies (IgG) specific against Sporothrix antigens in cats with sporotrichosis and evaluated the utility of these antibodies for serodiagnosis. Antigen profiling included protein extracts from the closest known relatives S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblotting enabled us to characterize the major antigens of feline sporotrichosis from sera from cats with sporotrichosis (n = 49), healthy cats (n = 19), and cats with other diseases (n = 20). Principal Findings Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based quantitation of anti-Sporothrix IgG exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in cats with sporotrichosis (area under the curve, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–1; PSporothrix antigens were remarkably cross-reactive, supporting the hypothesis that antigenic epitopes may be conserved among closely related agents. One-dimensional immunoblotting indicated that 3-carboxymuconate cyclase (a 60-kDa protein in S. brasiliensis and a 70-kDa protein in S. schenckii) is the immunodominant antigen in feline sporotrichosis. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed six IgG-reactive isoforms of gp60 in the S. brasiliensis proteome, similar to the humoral response found in human sporotrichosis. Conclusions A convergent IgG-response in various hosts (mice, cats, and humans) has important implications for our

  7. Proteomics-Based Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response in Sporotrichosis: Toward Discovery of Potential Diagnostic and Vaccine Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Messias Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii and associated species are agents of human and animal sporotrichosis that cause large sapronoses and zoonoses worldwide. Epidemiological surveillance has highlighted an overwhelming occurrence of the highly pathogenic fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis during feline outbreaks, leading to massive transmissions to humans. Early diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis by demonstrating the presence of a surrogate marker of infection can have a key role for selecting appropriate disease control measures and minimizing zoonotic transmission to humans.We explored the presence and diversity of serum antibodies (IgG specific against Sporothrix antigens in cats with sporotrichosis and evaluated the utility of these antibodies for serodiagnosis. Antigen profiling included protein extracts from the closest known relatives S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblotting enabled us to characterize the major antigens of feline sporotrichosis from sera from cats with sporotrichosis (n = 49, healthy cats (n = 19, and cats with other diseases (n = 20.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based quantitation of anti-Sporothrix IgG exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in cats with sporotrichosis (area under the curve, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1; P<0.0001 versus controls. The two sets of Sporothrix antigens were remarkably cross-reactive, supporting the hypothesis that antigenic epitopes may be conserved among closely related agents. One-dimensional immunoblotting indicated that 3-carboxymuconate cyclase (a 60-kDa protein in S. brasiliensis and a 70-kDa protein in S. schenckii is the immunodominant antigen in feline sporotrichosis. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed six IgG-reactive isoforms of gp60 in the S. brasiliensis proteome, similar to the humoral response found in human sporotrichosis.A convergent IgG-response in various hosts (mice, cats, and humans has important implications for our

  8. Features of the Humoral Immune Response in School-age Children with Early-Onset Bronchial Asthma Depending on Acetylation Polymorphism

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    U.I. Marusyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the individual indicators of the humoral immune system in school-age children with early-onset bronchial asthma (BA, considering acetylation phenotypes to improve treatment outcomes. There has been carried out a comprehensive examination of 34 school-age children with early-onset BA (disease first manifested at an early age. Depending on the course of the disease, patients were divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group included 16 patients with slow acetylation (average content of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was less than 75.0 %. The second clinical group consisted of 18 pupils with fast acetylation (average level of acetylated sulfadimine in urine was over 75.0 %. All children underwent immunological blood test of II–III levels. The studies found that slow acetylation in patients with early-onset asthma increases the risk of reduction in the amount of interleukin-8 in blood serum < 5.3 pg/ml with odds ratio (OR 4.5 (95% confident interval (CI: 2.3–8.9, as well as the risk of higher concentration of IL-4 more than 4.0 pg/ml (OR = 1.9 that is associated with atopic inflammation of the body and allows you to personalize treatment tactics in these patients.

  9. Assessment of yeast cell wall as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets: effects on performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Haldar, S; Bedford, M R; Muthusami, N; Samanta, I

    2012-04-01

    The study compared the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast cell wall (YCW) on performance, microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine and humoral immune responses in Ross 308 broilers. The treatments (eight replicates/treatment, n = 12/replicate) were negative control (NC, without AGP), positive control (PC, supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate, 400 mg/kg), Y and YCW (supplemented with yeast and YCW, respectively, 1000 mg/kg). Live weight at 42 days improved (p = 0.086) in the PC, Y and YCW groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (p = 0.039) in the YCW group compared with the other groups. Antibiotic growth promoter in the PC group shortened the villi in duodenum (p = 0.044). Mucosal Escherichia coli number was higher in the PC group (p Yeast cell wall -treated birds exhibited better (p yeast and the yeast cell wall may have effects identical to BMD on performance of broilers and thus may constitute an effective replacement strategy in the dietary regimens for broiler chickens.

  10. Effects of hydrolysed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and yeast cell wall components on live performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, N; Haldar, S; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of enzymatically hydrolysed whole Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (HY) and the pellets of yeast cell wall (YCW) on production traits, the microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine, and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), of Ross 308 broilers were investigated. 2. The control group received a maize-soyabean meal based basal diet for 42 days. In the treated groups the basal diet was supplemented with 1 g/kg of HY and YCW. There were 8 replicate pens per group (n = 12 birds/pen). 3. HY and YCW supplementation improved live weight (P = 0·006) and FCR (P = 0·003) at 42-d as compared with the control group. 4. In the small intestine, Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli numbers were higher (P = 0·01) in the mucosa and lower (P = 0·01) in the digesta of the HY and the YCW fed groups at 25 d of age. Lactobacillus in the duodenal and jejunal digesta was higher (P yeast cell wall may be a better dietary tool than the hydrolysed whole yeast cell as a performance enhancer for broilers.

  11. [Humoral immune anti-Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 and MSP1 response in two ethnic groups living in sympatry in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, A; Coulibaly, M; Maïga, B; Daou, M; Arama, C; Troye-Blomberg, M; Doumbo, O

    2012-12-01

    Fulani of Mali are known for their lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria than their neighbours, the Dogon, despite similar transmission conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are poorly understood, particularly those concerning antigenspecific immune responses. The Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) and the Merozoite Surface Antigen 1 (MSP1) are two malaria vaccine candidates, which play a pivotal role during the invasion of parasites into erythrocytes, and in the case of AMA1, of hepatocytes. Therefore, we analyzed the level of anti-AMA1 and anti-MSP1 antibodies (FVO and 3D7 alleles), by using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay) to investigate whether there are differences between the two ethnic groups. Our results show that the splenic rate, the level of anti-AMA1 and anti-MSP1 were significantly higher in Fulani compared to Dogon; while the parasite rate was lower in Fulani group compared to Dogon. Our results suggest that the lower susceptibility of Fulani to malaria could be due to the higher specific humoral responses against AMA1 and MSP 1 in Fulani's ethnic group compared to Dogon.

  12. A trifunctional dextran-based nanovaccine targets and activates murine dendritic cells, and induces potent cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Shen

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute an attractive target for specific delivery of nanovaccines for immunotherapeutic applications. Here we tested nano-sized dextran (DEX particles to serve as a DC-addressing nanocarrier platform. Non-functionalized DEX particles had no immunomodulatory effect on bone marrow (BM-derived murine DCs in vitro. However, when adsorbed with ovalbumine (OVA, DEX particles were efficiently engulfed by BM-DCs in a mannose receptor-dependent manner. A DEX-based nanovaccine containing OVA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a DC stimulus induced strong OVA peptide-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell proliferation both in vitro and upon systemic application in mice, as well as a robust OVA-specific humoral immune response (IgG1>IgG2a in vivo. Accordingly, this nanovaccine also raised both a more pronounced delayed-type hypersensitivity response and a stronger induction of cytotoxic CD8(+ T cells than obtained upon administration of OVA and LPS in soluble form. Therefore, DEX-based nanoparticles constitute a potent, versatile and easy to prepare nanovaccine platform for immunotherapeutic approaches.

  13. Immunization with the Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA with alum, CpG or imiquimod generates a persistent humoral immune response that recognizes the bacterial surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Melissa; Choudhary, Neelima R; Riebe, Kristina J; Shterev, Ivo; Staats, Herman F; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2016-02-24

    The Ducreyi serum resistance A (DsrA) protein of Haemophilus ducreyi belongs to a large family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins termed trimeric autotransporter adhesins responsible for resistance to the bactericidal activity of human complement (serum resistance), agglutination and adhesion. The ability of DsrA to confer serum resistance and bind extracellular matrix proteins lies in its N-terminal passenger domain. We have previously reported that immunization with a recombinant form of the passenger domain of DsrA, rNT-DsrA, in complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant, protects against a homologous challenge in swine. We present herein the results of an immunogenicity study in mice aimed at investigating the persistence, type of immune response, and the effect of immunization route and adjuvants on surrogates of protection. Our results indicate that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with alum elicited antisera with comparable bacterial surface reactivity to that obtained with complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant. At that dose, high titers and bacterial surface reactivity persisted for 211 days after the first immunization. Administration of rNT-DsrA with CpG or imiquimod as adjuvants elicited a humoral response with similar quantity and quality of antibodies (Abs) as seen with Freund's adjuvant. Furthermore, intramuscular administration of rNT-DsrA elicited high-titer Abs with significantly higher reactivity to the bacterial surface than those obtained with subcutaneous immunization. All rNT-DsrA/adjuvant combinations tested, save CpG, elicited a Th2-type response. Taken together, these findings show that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with the adjuvants alum, CpG or imiquimod elicits high-quality Abs with reactivity to the bacterial surface that could protect against an H. ducreyi infection.

  14. Abnormal context-reward associations in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental mouse model with relevance to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouesse, M A; Langhans, W; Meyer, U

    2015-09-15

    Impairments in central reward processing constitute an important aspect of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite its clinical relevance, the etiology of deficient reward processing in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Here, we used an epidemiologically informed mouse model of schizophrenia to explore the effects of prenatal immune activation on reward-related functions. The model is based on maternal administration of the viral mimic PolyI:C and has been developed in relation to the epidemiological evidence demonstrating enhanced risk of schizophrenia and related disorders following prenatal maternal infection. We show that prenatal immune activation induces selective deficits in the expression (but not acquisition) of conditioned place preference for a natural reward (sucrose) without changing hedonic or neophobic responses to the reward. On the other hand, prenatal immune activation led to enhanced place preference for the psychostimulant drug cocaine, while it attenuated the locomotor reaction to the drug. The prenatal exposure did not alter negative reinforcement learning as assessed using a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. Our findings suggest that the nature of reward-related abnormalities following prenatal immune challenge depends on the specificity of the reward (natural reward vs drug of abuse) as well as on the valence domain (positive vs negative reinforcement learning). Moreover, our data indicate that reward abnormalities emerging in prenatally immune-challenged offspring may, at least in part, stem from an inability to retrieve previously established context-reward associations and to integrate such information for appropriate goal-directed behavior.

  15. Abnormal context–reward associations in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental mouse model with relevance to schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouesse, M A; Langhans, W; Meyer, U

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in central reward processing constitute an important aspect of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite its clinical relevance, the etiology of deficient reward processing in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Here, we used an epidemiologically informed mouse model of schizophrenia to explore the effects of prenatal immune activation on reward-related functions. The model is based on maternal administration of the viral mimic PolyI:C and has been developed in relation to the epidemiological evidence demonstrating enhanced risk of schizophrenia and related disorders following prenatal maternal infection. We show that prenatal immune activation induces selective deficits in the expression (but not acquisition) of conditioned place preference for a natural reward (sucrose) without changing hedonic or neophobic responses to the reward. On the other hand, prenatal immune activation led to enhanced place preference for the psychostimulant drug cocaine, while it attenuated the locomotor reaction to the drug. The prenatal exposure did not alter negative reinforcement learning as assessed using a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. Our findings suggest that the nature of reward-related abnormalities following prenatal immune challenge depends on the specificity of the reward (natural reward vs drug of abuse) as well as on the valence domain (positive vs negative reinforcement learning). Moreover, our data indicate that reward abnormalities emerging in prenatally immune-challenged offspring may, at least in part, stem from an inability to retrieve previously established context–reward associations and to integrate such information for appropriate goal-directed behavior. PMID:26371765

  16. A novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F subunit vaccine adjuvanted with GLA-SE elicits robust protective TH1-type humoral and cellular immunity in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L Lambert

    Full Text Available Illness associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV remains an unmet medical need in both full-term infants and older adults. The fusion glycoprotein (F of RSV, which plays a key role in RSV infection and is a target of neutralizing antibodies, is an attractive vaccine target for inducing RSV-specific immunity.BALB/c mice and cotton rats, two well-characterized rodent models of RSV infection, were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of intramuscularly administered RSV vaccine candidates consisting of purified soluble F (sF protein formulated with TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA, stable emulsion (SE, GLA-SE, or alum adjuvants. Protection from RSV challenge, serum RSV neutralizing responses, and anti-F IgG responses were induced by all of the tested adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine formulations. However, only RSV sF + GLA-SE induced robust F-specific TH1-biased humoral and cellular responses. In mice, these F-specific cellular responses include both CD4 and CD8 T cells, with F-specific polyfunctional CD8 T cells that traffic to the mouse lung following RSV challenge. This RSV sF + GLA-SE vaccine formulation can also induce robust RSV neutralizing titers and prime IFNγ-producing T cell responses in Sprague Dawley rats.These studies indicate that a protein subunit vaccine consisting of RSV sF + GLA-SE can induce robust neutralizing antibody and T cell responses to RSV, enhancing viral clearance via a TH1 immune-mediated mechanism. This vaccine may benefit older populations at risk for RSV disease.

  17. Characterization of humoral immune responses against p16, p53, HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 in patients with HPV-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; Waterboer, Tim; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Einenkel, Jens; Dillner, Joakim; Hamsikova, Eva; Eschenbach, Denise; Zimmer, Heike; Heilig, Bernhard; Kopitz, Jürgen; Pawlita, Michael; Doeberitz, Magnus von Knebel; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    The cellular tumor suppressor p16 is strongly overexpressed in cervical cancers and precancers. We have previously demonstrated that infiltrating T lymphocytes reactive against p16 can be found in cervical cancer patients. Here, we analyzed whether p16 induces humoral immune responses. Sera of patients with cervical cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, colorectal cancer and autoimmune disease were included. A total of 919 sera were analyzed, including 486 matched sera from a cervical cancer case control study. p16 antibodies were analyzed in Western blot and a newly developed peptide ELISA covering the complete p16 protein. In addition, a Luminex-based multiplex assay was used for simultaneous detection of antibodies directed against p16, p53, HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7. In all entities, only low p16 antibody reactivity was observed. Epitope mapping revealed 2 predominant epitope regions of the p16 protein. No significant difference in p16 antibody frequency (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.6-1.3) and p53 antibody frequency (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.3-1.2) was found between patients and healthy controls in the cervical cancer case control study. Antibodies against the HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 were detected more frequently in cervical cancer patients when compared with healthy controls (E6 OR = 27.8; 95% CI = 11.1-69.7, E7 OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.9-11.1). In conclusion, despite the strong expression of p16 and the observed induction of cellular immune responses, antibody reactivity against p16 was observed only at very low levels independent of the disease background.

  18. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to BP26 and OMP31 epitopes in the attenuated Brucella melitensis vaccinated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Wu, Jingbo; Qiao, Jun; Weng, Yunceng; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Qingyu; Qiu, Jinlang; Chen, Chuangfu; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, the number of cases of human brucellosis has been increasing by approximately 10% per year in China. Most cases were caused by Brucella melitensis through contacts with infected sheep, goats or their products. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used to vaccinate both animals in China. This vaccine has not been investigated for critical parameters such as immune response and its association with protective efficacy. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response to the periplasmic protein BP26 and the outer membrane protein OMP31 were evaluated in M5-90 vaccinated Chinese merino and Kazak sheep. Antibodies to BP26 or OMP31 were detected at low levels, and specific IFN-γ response was quantified. Strongly reactive peptides derived from BP26 and OMP31 identified five T-cell epitopes (BP26-6, -8, -11, -12 and OMP31-23) common to both sheep species, five species-specific epitopes (BP26-10, -18, -21 and -22 and OMP31-12) and four animal-specific epitopes (BP26-15, -23, OMP31-6 and -21), which stimulated specific IFN-γ response in vaccinated sheep. Among those T-cell epitopes, reactivity to BP26-18 and -21 epitopes was significantly associated with MHC-I B allele (P=0.024). However, a specific T-cell response induced by the M5-90 vaccine was relatively week and did not sustain long enough, which might be suppressed by rapid activation of T-regulatory (Treg) cells following vaccination. These findings provide an insight in designing a safer and more effective vaccine for use in animals and in humans.

  19. Glycans from avian influenza virus are recognized by chicken dendritic cells and are targets for the humoral immune response in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eveline D; Tefsen, Boris; van Haarlem, Daphne A; van Eden, Willem; van Die, Irma; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2013-12-01

    To increase our understanding of the interaction between avian influenza virus and its chicken host, we identified receptors for putative avian influenza virus (AIV) glycan determinants on chicken dendritic cells. Chicken dendritic cells (DCs) were found to recognize glycan determinants containing terminal αGalNAc, Galα1-3Gal, GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ (chitotriose) and Galα1-2Gal. Infection of chicken dendritic cells with either low pathogenic (LP) or highly pathogenic (HP) AIV results in elevated mRNA expression of homologs of the mouse C-type lectins DEC205 and macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), whereas expression levels of the human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) homolog remained unchanged. Following uptake and subsequent presentation of avian influenza virus by DCs, adaptive immunity, including humoral immune responses are induced. We have investigated the antibody responses against virus glycan epitopes after avian influenza virus infection. Using glycan micro-array analysis we showed that chicken contained antibodies that predominantly recognize terminal Galα1-3Gal-R, chitotriose and Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (H-type 2). After influenza-infection, glycan array analysis showed that both levels and repertoire of glycan-recognizing antibodies decreased. However, analysis of the sera by ELISA indicated that the levels of different isotypes of anti-glycan Abs against specific glycan antigens was increased after influenza-infection, suggesting that the presentation of the glycan antigens and iso-type of the Abs are critical parameters to take into account when measuring anti-glycan Abs. This novel approach in avian influenza research may contribute to the development of a broad spectrum vaccine and improves our mechanistic understanding of innate and adaptive responses to glycans.

  20. Immunopotentiation of Different Adjuvants on Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Induced by HA1-2 Subunit Vaccines of H7N9 Influenza in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Song

    Full Text Available In spring 2013, human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9 virus were reported in China. The number of cases has increased with over 200 mortalities reported to date. However, there is currently no vaccine available for the H7 subtype of influenza A virus. Virus-specific cellular immune responses play a critical role in virus clearance during influenza infection. In this study, we undertook a side-by-side evaluation of two different adjuvants, Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (fliC and polyethyleneimine (PEI, through intraperitoneal administration to assess their effects on the immunogenicity of the recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine of H7N9 influenza. The fusion protein HA1-2-fliC and HA1-2 combined with PEI could induce significantly higher HA1-2-specific IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers than HA1-2 alone at 12 days post-boost, with superior HA1-2 specific IgG titers in the HA1-2-fliC group compared with the PEI adjuvanted group. The PEI adjuvanted vaccine induced higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio and significantly increased numbers of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells than HA1-2 alone, suggesting a mixed Th1/Th2-type cellular immune response with a Th2 bias. Meanwhile, the HA1-2-fliC induced higher IgG2a and IgG1 levels, which is indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2-type profile. Consistent with this, significant levels, and equal numbers, of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells were detected after HA1-2-fliC vaccination. Moreover, the marked increase in CD69 expression and the proliferative index with the HA1-2-fliC and PEI adjuvanted vaccines indicated that both adjuvanted vaccine candidates effectively induced antigen-specific cellular immune responses. Taken together, our findings indicate that the two adjuvanted vaccine candidates elicit effective and HA1-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, offering significant promise for the development of a successful recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine for H7N9 influenza.

  1. Immunopotentiation of Different Adjuvants on Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Induced by HA1-2 Subunit Vaccines of H7N9 Influenza in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Hu, Maozhi; Kang, Xilong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2013, human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in China. The number of cases has increased with over 200 mortalities reported to date. However, there is currently no vaccine available for the H7 subtype of influenza A virus. Virus-specific cellular immune responses play a critical role in virus clearance during influenza infection. In this study, we undertook a side-by-side evaluation of two different adjuvants, Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), through intraperitoneal administration to assess their effects on the immunogenicity of the recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine of H7N9 influenza. The fusion protein HA1-2-fliC and HA1-2 combined with PEI could induce significantly higher HA1-2-specific IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers than HA1-2 alone at 12 days post-boost, with superior HA1-2 specific IgG titers in the HA1-2-fliC group compared with the PEI adjuvanted group. The PEI adjuvanted vaccine induced higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio and significantly increased numbers of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells than HA1-2 alone, suggesting a mixed Th1/Th2-type cellular immune response with a Th2 bias. Meanwhile, the HA1-2-fliC induced higher IgG2a and IgG1 levels, which is indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2-type profile. Consistent with this, significant levels, and equal numbers, of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells were detected after HA1-2-fliC vaccination. Moreover, the marked increase in CD69 expression and the proliferative index with the HA1-2-fliC and PEI adjuvanted vaccines indicated that both adjuvanted vaccine candidates effectively induced antigen-specific cellular immune responses. Taken together, our findings indicate that the two adjuvanted vaccine candidates elicit effective and HA1-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, offering significant promise for the development of a successful recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine for H7N9 influenza. PMID:26930068

  2. Immunopotentiation of Different Adjuvants on Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Induced by HA1-2 Subunit Vaccines of H7N9 Influenza in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Hu, Maozhi; Kang, Xilong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2013, human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in China. The number of cases has increased with over 200 mortalities reported to date. However, there is currently no vaccine available for the H7 subtype of influenza A virus. Virus-specific cellular immune responses play a critical role in virus clearance during influenza infection. In this study, we undertook a side-by-side evaluation of two different adjuvants, Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), through intraperitoneal administration to assess their effects on the immunogenicity of the recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine of H7N9 influenza. The fusion protein HA1-2-fliC and HA1-2 combined with PEI could induce significantly higher HA1-2-specific IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers than HA1-2 alone at 12 days post-boost, with superior HA1-2 specific IgG titers in the HA1-2-fliC group compared with the PEI adjuvanted group. The PEI adjuvanted vaccine induced higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio and significantly increased numbers of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells than HA1-2 alone, suggesting a mixed Th1/Th2-type cellular immune response with a Th2 bias. Meanwhile, the HA1-2-fliC induced higher IgG2a and IgG1 levels, which is indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2-type profile. Consistent with this, significant levels, and equal numbers, of IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing cells were detected after HA1-2-fliC vaccination. Moreover, the marked increase in CD69 expression and the proliferative index with the HA1-2-fliC and PEI adjuvanted vaccines indicated that both adjuvanted vaccine candidates effectively induced antigen-specific cellular immune responses. Taken together, our findings indicate that the two adjuvanted vaccine candidates elicit effective and HA1-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, offering significant promise for the development of a successful recombinant HA1-2 subunit vaccine for H7N9 influenza.

  3. Development of an ELISA to detect the humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovisi, Alessandra; La Grange, Louis Jacobus; Gómez Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    Crocodiles are known reservoir hosts of Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis, two zoonotic parasites that also infect mammals. Since commercial crocodile farming represents a key source of income in several countries, it is important to monitor this nematode infection in both farmed crocodiles and in breeding stocks which are frequently introduced from the wild. For this purpose, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect the anti-Trichinella immune response in crocodile sera. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with pooled sera from non-infected farmed crocodiles in the presence of Freund's complete adjuvant. The anti-crocodile serum was then conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Serum samples from four Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis and from four uninfected crocodiles were used to set up the ELISA. The larval burden per gram of muscle tissue was determined by muscle biopsy. The test was performed on serum samples from an additional 15 experimentally infected crocodiles as well as eight wild Nile crocodiles. Among the 19 experimentally infected crocodiles, seroconversion was observed in 11 animals. The highest antibody response was observed six weeks post infection (p.i.), but in most of these animals, antibodies were not detectable after six weeks p.i. even though live larvae were present in the muscles up to six months p.i.

  4. Abnormal immunity and gene mutation in patients with severe hepatitis-B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yan Wang; Pei Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the abnormal immunity and gene mutation at precore 1896 site in patients with severe hepatitis-B.METHODS: This study included 23 patients with severe hepatitis-B, 22 patients with acute hepatitis-B and 20 controls.Mutation at precore 1896 site of HBV gene was confirmed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.Cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-y, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured with ELISA, and T subgroups were detected with alkaline phosphatase anti alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) technique.RESULTS: In patients with severe hepatitis-B, the infective rate of HBV mutant strain was 52.5% (12/23), and only one patient with acute hepatitis-B was infected with the mutant strain. The percentage of CD8+ T lymphocyte was obviously lower (0.16±0.02%) and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ was obviously higher (2.35±0.89) in mutant group than in wildtype group (0.28±0.05% and 1.31±0.18%, respectively,P<0.01 or P<0.05). The levels of cytokines in patients with severe hepatitis-B were higher (TNF-α 359.0±17.2 ng/L, IFNγ 234.7±16.5 ng/L, IL-6 347.5±31.3 ng/L, IL-8 181.1±19.6ng/L) than those in acute hepatitis-B (TNF-α 220.6±8.9ng/L, IFN-γ 174.9±12.0 ng/L, IL-6 285.8±16.5 ng/L, IL-8118.4±5.1 ng/L, P<0.01 or 0.05). In patients with severe hepatitis-B, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were higher in mutant group (273.4±26.6 ng/L, 387.7±32.5 ng/L) than in wild-type group (207.8±12.8 ng/L, 300.9±16.3 ng/L). The mortality of patients infected with HBV mutant strain was higher (100%)than that with wild-type (0.9%).CONCLUSION: In severe hepatitis-B, the infective rate of HBV mutant strain was high. The mutant strain induces more severe immune disorders in host, resulting in the activation of lymphocyte and release of cytokines. HBV DNA mutates easily in response to the altered immunity. Ultimately liver damage is more prominent.

  5. Immune and inflammatory responses in TNF alpha-deficient mice: a critical requirement for TNF alpha in the formation of primary B cell follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks and germinal centers, and in the maturation of the humoral immune response

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of TNF alpha in the development of in vivo immune response we have generated TNF alpha-deficient mice by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile, develop lymph nodes and Peyer's patches and show no apparent phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that TNF alpha is not required for normal mouse development. In the absence of TNF alpha mice readily succumb to L. monocytogenes infections and show reduced contact hypersensitivity responses. Furthermore, ...

  6. Measles Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Children Aged 5–10 Years After Primary Measles Immunization Administered at 6 or 9 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Hayley A.; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Sung, Phillip; Sullivan, Barbara; DeHovitz, Ross; Audet, Susette; Beeler, Judy; Arvin, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the high infant measles mortality rate, there is interest in whether a measles immunization regimen beginning at Measles-specific immune responses were evaluated in 70 children aged 5–10 years after primary measles vaccine administered at 6, 9, or 12 months. Results. At 5–10 years of age, the stimulation index for measles T-cell proliferation was 11.4 (SE, 1.3), 10.9 (SE, 1.5), and 14.4 (SE 2.1) when the first measles dose was given at 6, 9, or 12 months, respectively. Neutralizing antibody concentration (geometric mean titer [GMT]) in those immunized at 6 months of age was 125 mIU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 42–377) in the presence of passive antibodies (PAs) and 335 mIU/mL (95% CI, 211–531) in those without PAs; in those immunized at 9 months, GMTs were 186 mIU/mL (95% CI, 103–335) and 1080 mIU/mL (95% CI, 642–1827) in the presence and absence of PAs, respectively. The GMT was 707 mIU/mL (95% CI, 456–1095) when vaccine was administered at 12 months (P ≤ .04). Conclusions. Measles-specific T-cell responses were sustained at 5–10 years of age regardless of age at time of primary measles immunization. Neutralizing antibody concentrations were lower in cohorts given the first vaccine dose at 6 months of age and in the presence of PAs; however, responses could be boosted by subsequent doses. Starting measles vaccination at measles outbreaks or in endemic areas. PMID:23300162

  7. A novel dengue virus serotype-2 nanovaccine induces robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsawong, Taweewun; Sunintaboon, Panya; Warit, Saradee; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Yoon, In-Kyu; Ubol, Sukathida; Fernandez, Stefan

    2015-03-30

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, can be transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue has increased worldwide over the past few decades. Inadequate vector control, changing global ecology, increased urbanization, and faster global travel are factors enhancing the rapid spread of the virus and its vector. In the absence of specific antiviral treatments, the search for a safe and effective vaccine grows more imperative. Many strategies have been utilized to develop dengue vaccines. Here, we demonstrate the immunogenic properties of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV), composed of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-inactivated DENV-2, which has been loaded into the nanoparticles containing chitosan/Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (CS/BCG-NPs). We investigated the immunogenicity of DNV in a Swiss albino mouse model. Inoculation with various concentrations of vaccine (0.3, 1, 3 and 10μg/dose) with three doses, 15-day apart, induced strong anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies in the mouse serum along with neutralizing antibody against DENV-2 reference strain (16681), a clinical-isolate strain (00745/10) and the mouse-adapted New Guinea-C (NGC) strain. Cytokine and chemokine secretion in the serum of DNV-immunized mice showed elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-17, eotaxin and RANTES, all of which have varying immune functions. Furthermore, we observed a DNV dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells after in vitro stimulation of nucleated cells. Based on these findings, DNV has the potential to become a candidate dengue vaccine.

  8. Suppression of the humoral immune response by cannabinoids is partially mediated through inhibition of adenylate cyclase by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, N E; Koh, W S; Yang, K H; Lee, M; Kessler, F K

    1994-11-16

    Cannabinoid compounds, including the major psychoactive component of marihuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), have been widely established as being inhibitory on a broad array of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The presence of cannabinoid receptors has been identified recently on mouse spleen cells, which possess structural and functional characteristics similar to those of the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor originally identified in rat brain. These findings, together with those demonstrating that delta 9-THC inhibits adenylate cyclase in splenocytes, strongly suggest that certain aspects of immune inhibition by cannabinoids may be mediated through a cannabinoid receptor-associated mechanism. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether inhibition of adenylate cyclase is relevant to mouse spleen cell immune function and, if so, whether this inhibition is mediated through a Gi-protein coupled mechanism as previously described in neuronal tissue. Spleen cell activation by the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), plus the calcium ionophore ionomycin, produced a rapid but transient increase in cytosolic cAMP, which was inhibited completely by immunosuppressive concentrations of delta 9-THC (22 microM) and the synthetic bicyclic cannabinoid CP-55940 (5.2 microM), which produced no effect on cell viability. Inhibition by cannabinoids of lymphocyte proliferative responses to PMA plus ionomycin and sheep erythrocyte (sRBC) IgM antibody-forming cell (AFC) response, was abrogated completely by low concentrations of dibutyryl-cAMP (10-100 microM). Inhibition of the sRBC AFC response by both delta 9-THC (22 microM) and CP-55940 (5.2 microM) was also abrogated by preincubation of splenocytes for 24 hr with pertussis toxin (0.1-100 ng/mL). Pertussis toxin pretreatment of spleen cells was also found to directly abrogate cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase, as measured by forskolin-stimulated accumulation

  9. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  10. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  11. A two year BTV-8 vaccination follow up: molecular diagnostics and assessment of humoral and cellular immune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Alexandra; Gollnick, Nicole; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Lahm, Harald; Büttner, Mathias

    2012-01-27

    The compulsory vaccination campaign against Bluetongue virus serotype eight (BTV-8) in Germany was exercised in the state of Bavaria using three commercial monovalent inactivated vaccines given provisional marketing authorisation for emergency use. In eleven Bavarian farms representing a cross sectional area of the state the immune reactions of sheep and cattle were followed over a two year period (2008-2009) using cELISA, a serum neutralisation test (SNT) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT. For molecular diagnostics of BTV genome presence two recommended real time quantitative RT-PCR protocols were applied. The recommended vaccination scheme led to low or even undetectable antibody titers (ELISA) in serum samples of both cattle and sheep. A fourfold increase of the vaccine dose in cattle, however, induced higher ELISA titers and virus neutralising antibodies. Accordingly, repeated vaccination in sheep caused an increase in ELISA-antibody titers. BTV-8 neutralising antibodies occurred in most animals only after multiple vaccinations in the second year of the campaign. The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in ELISPOT after in vitro re-stimulation of PBMC of BTV-8 vaccinated animals with BTV was evaluated in the field for the first time. Sera of BTV-8 infected or vaccinated animals neutralising BTV-8 could also neutralise an Italian BTV serotype 1 cell culture adapted strain and PBMC of such animals secreted IFN-γ when stimulated with BTV-1.

  12. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of Curcumin on blood parameters, humoral immunity, and jejunum histology in Hy-line hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Arshami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn is a medicinal plant that contains curcumin. There is a growing interest in using curcumin powder (CP as feed additives for antioxidative and antimicrobial properties to improve human health. This study was conducted to determine the appropriate levels of CP on blood parameters, immunity, and histology of jejunum in hens. Materials and Methods: A total of 200, 58-wk-old Hy-line hens were randomly distributed into 4 treatments (0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5% CP or 0, 5, 15, and 25 g/kg feed, respectively with 5 replicates (10 birds each for 8 weeks using the completely randomized design. Blood samples were taken from 2 birds per replicate at weeks 61 and 65 to evaluate blood parameters. On weeks 63 and 65, two birds from each replicate received 0.5 ml SRBC (25% injection in breast muscle and 7 days later, blood samples were collected to evaluate total Ig, IgG, and IgM titers in serum. Two hens were sacrificed at week 65 for the histological study of  jejunum. Results: Curcumin reduced triglycerides at 1.5% and 2.5% and cholesterol and LDL at 2.5% (p

  13. 美沙酮替代疗法患者体液免疫变化的研究%Influenceof methadone substitution therapy on humoral immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 韦桂兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of methadone substitution treatment on humoral immunity in heroin addicts .Methods IgG ,IgA ,IgM ,C3 and C4 levels were detected in 200 heroin addicts before and after metha-done substitution treatment ,and 100 healthy subjects were enrolled and control group .Results Levels of IgG ,IgA and IgM were higher ,but those of C3 and C4 were lower in heroin addicts before treatment than healthy subjects (P0 .05) ,but the difference of IgG and IgM were still with significance (P<0 .01) .Conclusion Monitoring of humoral immunity could be with great significance in heroin addicts receiving methadone substitution treatment .%目的探讨海洛因依赖者经美沙酮替代疗法后体液免疫功能变化的状况,以期指导临床治疗。方法将200例美沙酮替代疗法患者设为实验组,100例健康体检者设为对照组,比较实验组治疗半年前后,其体液免疫各指标(IgG、IgA、IgM、C3、C4)的差异;同时比较实验组治疗前后与对照组体液免疫各指标的差异。结果海洛因依赖者治疗前与对照组比较IgG、IgA、IgM均明显升高(P<0.01),补体C3、C4均明显下降(P<0.01);经美沙酮替代疗法治疗后与治疗前比较,IgG 、IgA、IgM均明显下降(P<0.01),补体C3、C4均明显升高(P<0.01);治疗后与对照组比较,IgA、C3、C4差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),IgG、IgM 差异仍有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论对美沙酮替代疗法患者进行体液免疫指标的定期检测具有重要的临床指导意义。

  14. High immune activation and abnormal expression of cytokines contribute to death of SHIV89.6-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ren-Rong; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Lin-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Lin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Chinese rhesus macaques (CRMs) are ideal experimental animals for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and for vaccine research. SHIV89.6 has been reported to be an attenuated virus because, in most cases, SHIV89.6 infection only causes limited alteration of immune cells and tissues, and it has been used commonly for vaccine research. After two serial passages in vivo, SHIV (SHIV-89.6P) induces CD4 lymphopenia and an AIDS-like disease with wasting and opportunistic infections. However, the pathogenic ability of SHIV89.6 is not well understood. In this study, we found that 6 of 14 SHIV89.6-infected CRMs died within 127 weeks after infection. We found especially high immune activation, low IFN-α expression, and distinctive cytokine expression profiles in the infected and dead (ID) group of monkeys, while there was only few change in the CD4(+) T counts and distribution of T cell subsets in the ID group monkeys. Also, there was a similar dynamic of viral load between infected and surviving (IS) and ID group monkeys. Furthermore, we found various correlations among immune activation, IFN-α expression, and frequencies of cytokine-secreting cells. These results suggest that SHIV89.6 infections have pathogenic potential in CRMs and that high immune activation and abnormal expression of cytokines contribute to death of SHIV89.6-infected CRMs. This also implies that high immune activation may be relevant to dysfunction of immune cells. It is proposed that high immune activation and dysfunction of immune cells may be good predictors for disease progression and markers for therapy.

  15. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs. heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW (7.6 vs. 6.7 and 3.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.19 log, respectively). In summary, decreasing WBG supplementation frequency (7 vs. 3 times weekly) or rate (1.0 vs. 0.5% of BW) for recently weaned beef heifers did not affect growth but decreased vaccine-induced antibody production against pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease during a 42-d preconditioning period.

  16. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  17. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, humoral and mucosal immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Sakai, Masahiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis at different levels (0% control, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) was evaluated to find out the effects on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, humoral and skin innate immune responses and disease resistance in the great sturgeon (Huso huso). After 8 weeks of experimental trial, growth parameters, intestinal lactic acid bacteria count, protease and lipase activities were significantly high in 10% S. platensis fed group (P < 0.05). Similarly, in this group, respiratory burst activity of leucocytes and total protein of serum were also significantly high. Furthermore, supplementation of S. platensis at 5 or 10% exhibited higher serum IgM and lysozyme activity than the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). On the contrary, serum triglycerides and number of blood lymphocytes were lower in experimental groups than that of control group. Total proteins, lysozyme, protease and esterase, as well as in vitro bactericidal activity (against Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Lactococcus garviea) were significantly high in skin mucus from fish fed 5% and 10% S. platensis, while, alkaline phosphatase was significantly high in fish fed 10% S. platensis (P < 0.05). Further, fish infected with Streptococcus iniae bacteria increased mortality, but it was alleviated by a diet supplemented with S. platensis. The present results demonstrate that this dietary supplementation with S. platensis (mainly at 10% level) could be useful for maintaining the overall health status of great sturgeon.

  18. 脑性瘫痪儿童的体液免疫水平%Humoral Immune Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鸿翔; 林波; 刘合建; 刘楠; 邬刚燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查脑瘫患儿免疫功能水平。方法脑瘫患儿59例,采用粗大运动功能分级系统(GMFCS)进行评估,检测患儿及非脑瘫儿童61名(对照组)血清IgG、IgA、lgM,补体C3、C4水平。结果与对照组相比,脑瘫患儿血清免疫球蛋白(Ig)G、IgA、lgM,补体C3、C4水平显著降低(P0.05)。结论脑瘫患儿可能存在体液免疫功能异常,并可能与疾病严重程度有关,应引起注意。%Objective To investigate the levels of immunoglobulins and complement in children with cerebral palsy. Methods 59 chil-dren with cerebral palsy were assessed with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and the serum levels of immunoglobu-lin (Ig)G, IgA, lgM, complements C3 and C4 were measured in the children with cerebral palsy and other 61 children without cerebral palsy (controls). Results The serum levels of IgG, IgA, lgM, complement C3 and C4 decreased significantly in the children with cerebral palsy compared with the controls (P0.05). Conclusion There is humoral im-mune dysfunction in some children with cerebral palsy, which may associated with the severity of the disease.

  19. Peripheral immune abnormalities in two high-risk populations for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Brouwer, R.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; de Wit, H; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Objective: Mounting data support the hypothesis for a role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine immune alterations in two unique familial high-risk cohorts for bipolar disorder. Methods: The study population comprised bipolar

  20. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P 0.05), with the exception of Treg cells, which were significantly

  1. Vaccination of Mice with Virulence-Associated Protein G (VapG Antigen Confers Partial Protection against Rhodococcus equi Infection through Induced Humoral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel M. Trevisani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium causing severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia, ulcerative enterocolitis, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy in foals aged less than 6 months. Less frequently, this pathogen affects various other species, such as pigs, cattle, cats, and even humans. Although rhodococcosis is treated with a combination of antimicrobial agents, resistance is developed in some cases, and thus, antimicrobial susceptibility must be monitored and managed. Considering these limitations of the current therapy and unavailability of a vaccine to prevent the disease, research is particularly focused on the development of an effective vaccine against rhodococcosis. Most vaccines undergoing development utilize the virulence-associated protein (Vap A antigen, which was identified previously as a key virulence factor of R. equi. Nevertheless, other proteins, such as VapG, present in most virulent R. equi strains, are also encoded by vap genes located on the R. equi bacterial virulence plasmid. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of VapG immunization on the survival of R. equi-challenged mice. We used attenuated Salmonella as a carrier for VapG (Salmonella-vapG+, a procedure previously adopted to develop a VapA-based vaccine. We observed that vaccination with Salmonella-vapG+ induced both an increased IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α production, and a decreased bacterial burden in organs of the R. equi-challenged mice. Nevertheless, Salmonella-vapG+ vaccination protected only 50% of the mice challenged with a lethal dose of R. equi. Interestingly, we observed an increased frequency of B cells in the spleen of Salmonella-vapG+-vaccinated mice and showed that Salmonella-vapG+-vaccinated R. equi-challenged B-cell-knockout mice did not reduce the bacterial burden. Given these results, we discussed the potential role of the humoral immune response induced by Salmonella-vapG+ vaccination in conferring protection against R. equi

  2. Vaccination of Mice with Virulence-Associated Protein G (VapG) Antigen Confers Partial Protection against Rhodococcus equi Infection through Induced Humoral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Marcel M; Hanna, Ebert S; Oliveira, Aline F; Cardoso, Silvia A; Roque-Barreira, Maria C; Soares, Sandro G

    2017-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium causing severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia, ulcerative enterocolitis, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy in foals aged less than 6 months. Less frequently, this pathogen affects various other species, such as pigs, cattle, cats, and even humans. Although rhodococcosis is treated with a combination of antimicrobial agents, resistance is developed in some cases, and thus, antimicrobial susceptibility must be monitored and managed. Considering these limitations of the current therapy and unavailability of a vaccine to prevent the disease, research is particularly focused on the development of an effective vaccine against rhodococcosis. Most vaccines undergoing development utilize the virulence-associated protein (Vap) A antigen, which was identified previously as a key virulence factor of R. equi. Nevertheless, other proteins, such as VapG, present in most virulent R. equi strains, are also encoded by vap genes located on the R. equi bacterial virulence plasmid. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of VapG immunization on the survival of R. equi-challenged mice. We used attenuated Salmonella as a carrier for VapG (Salmonella-vapG+), a procedure previously adopted to develop a VapA-based vaccine. We observed that vaccination with Salmonella-vapG+ induced both an increased IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α production, and a decreased bacterial burden in organs of the R. equi-challenged mice. Nevertheless, Salmonella-vapG+ vaccination protected only 50% of the mice challenged with a lethal dose of R. equi. Interestingly, we observed an increased frequency of B cells in the spleen of Salmonella-vapG+-vaccinated mice and showed that Salmonella-vapG+-vaccinated R. equi-challenged B-cell-knockout mice did not reduce the bacterial burden. Given these results, we discussed the potential role of the humoral immune response induced by Salmonella-vapG+ vaccination in conferring protection against R. equi infection, as well as

  3. Safety and persistence of the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by 2 doses of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine administered to infants, children and adolescents: Two open, uncontrolled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sicilia, José; Arístegui, Javier; Omeñaca, Félix; Carmona, Alfonso; Tejedor, Juan C; Merino, José M; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Walravens, Karl; Bambure, Vinod; Moris, Philippe; Caplanusi, Adrian; Gillard, Paul; Dieussaert, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    In children, 2 AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine doses given 21 days apart were previously shown to induce a high humoral immune response and to have an acceptable safety profile up to 42 days following the first vaccination. Here, we analyzed the persistence data from 2 open-label studies, which assessed the safety, and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by 2 doses of this vaccine. The first study was a phase II, randomized trial conducted in 104 children aged 6-35 months vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 1.9 µg haemagglutinin antigen (HA) and AS03B (5.93 mg tocopherol) and the second study, a phase III, non-randomized trial conducted in 210 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 3.75 µg HA and AS03A (11.86 mg tocopherol). Approximately one year after the first dose, all children with available data were seropositive for haemagglutinin inhibition and neutralising antibody titres, but a decline in geometric mean antibody titres was noted. The vaccine induced a cell-mediated immune response in terms of antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cells, which persisted up to one year post-vaccination. The vaccine did not raise any safety concern, though these trials were not designed to detect rare events. In conclusion, 2 doses of the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 2 different dosages had a clinically acceptable safety profile, and induced high and persistent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in children aged 6-35 months and 3-17 years. These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00971321 and NCT00964158.

  4. Alleviation of chronic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of betaine and turmeric rhizome powder: dynamics of performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Salamat, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. THeat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. The treatment groups were as follows: thermoneutral control (TN-CON), HS-CON, HS-Bet, HS-TRP, and HS-BT (fed Bet and TRP). The results showed that decreases in body weight gain, feed intake, and increases in feed-to-gain ratio and mortality induced by HS were partially restored by dietary supplementation of Bet and TRP. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total, and IgG antibody titers against sheep red blood cell for secondary responses in the HS-TRP and HS-BT groups were also similar to those of the broilers in the TN

  5. Involvement of cellular immunity and humoral immunity in mixed allergy induced by trichloroethylene%三氯乙烯致细胞免疫和体液免疫参与的混合型变态反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新云; 李学余; 刘月峰

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨三氯乙烯(TCE)致变态反应是否存在细胞免疫和体液免疫共同参与,为研究其发病机制提供科学依据.方法 应用豚鼠和大鼠进行实验,分别设立阴性对照组、阳性对照组、TCE实验组,用皮内注射方式分别注射橄榄油、2,4-二硝基氯苯(DNCB)和TCE.实验结束后收集大鼠外周血液,用流式细胞仪检测淋巴细胞CD3+、CD4+、CD8+比例;收集豚鼠外周血液测定IgG、IgA、IgM、C3、C4水平;收集豚鼠脾淋巴细胞,用荧光定量PCR检测免疫相关基因GATA3、T-bet、CTLA4和Foxp3的mRNA表达水平.此外,选取TCE药疹样皮炎患者作为病例组,采用荧光定量PCR检测外周血Foxp3、GATA3、CTLA4、T-bet的mRNA表达水平.结果 (1)TCE对豚鼠皮肤有明显致敏作用,致敏率为83.3%;TCE实验组和阳性对照组IgG水平比阴性对照组显著升高(P<0.01);TCE实验组和阳性对照组GATA3、T-bet、CTLA4 mRNA表达水平显著高于阴性对照组,Foxp3 mRNA表达水平低于阴性对照组.(2)TCE实验组和阳性对照组大鼠外周血淋巴细胞CD3+比例高于阴性对照组,TCE实验组CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+与阴性对照组比较无统计学差异.(3)TCE病例组Foxp3、GATA3、CTLA4 mRNA表达水平比对照组分别升高115%、97%和241%(P<0.01),T-bet mRNA表达水平下降47%(P<0.01).结论 TCE可引起细胞免疫和体液免疫发生明显改变,说明TCE导致的免疫损伤属于细胞免疫和体液免疫共同参与的混合型变态反应,可能是Ⅳ型和Ⅱ型变态反应.%Objective To investigate whether cellular immunity and humoral immunity are involved in trichlorethylene (TCE)-induced mixed allergy,then provide the scientific basis for the mechanism of this disease.Methods Guinea pigs and rats were tested for this study by application of guinea pig maximization test (GPMT),the animals were randomly divided into negative control,positive control and TCE treatment groups.Animals of these groups were

  6. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for X-linked agammaglobulinemia using reduced intensity conditioning as a model of the reconstitution of humoral immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ikegame

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We herein report the first case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA that underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC. We chronologically observed the reconstitution of humoral immunity in this case. Case presentation The patient was a 28-year-old Japanese male with XLA who previously had life-threatening infectious episodes and was referred for the possible indication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. After a thorough discussion within specialists from different backgrounds, we decided to perform allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation from his HLA-identical elder brother. Due to the non-malignant nature of XLA, we selected RIC consisting of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, anti-thymocyte globulin, and 3 Gy of total body irradiation. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved on day 11 with complete donor chimerism. No major complications, except for stage 1 skin graft-versus-host disease, were observed. The patient was discharged on day 75 and has been followed as an outpatient without any infectious episodes for more than 500 days. Conclusions Regarding immune reconstitution, CD19+ cells, IgA, and IgM, which were undetectable before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT, started to increase in number 10 days after allo-SCT and continued to increase for more than 1 year. Anti-B antibodies appeared as early as day 10. Total IgG levels decreased after the discontinuation of IgG replacement and spontaneously recovered after day 350. However, most anti-viral IgG titers, except EB virus-virus capsid antigen IgG, disappeared after the discontinuation of IgG replacement. A seasonal vaccination to influenza was performed on day 148, with neither anti-influenza type A nor type B being positive after the vaccination. The transient transfer of allergic immunity to orchard grass was observed. Similar Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK expression levels in monocytes and B

  7. Humoral immune response to outer surface protein C of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease: role of the immunoglobulin M response in the serodiagnosis of early infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, B P; McHugh, G L; Leong, J M; Steere, A C

    1994-08-01

    We determined the humoral immune response to outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and investigated the use of this antigen in the serodiagnosis of early infection. The ospC gene from the low-passage human isolate 297, a North American B. burgdorferi strain, was used to make a recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-OspC fusion protein for serologic tests. This gene showed 84 to 85% nucleotide sequence identity and 76 to 79% amino acid identity with ospC of B. burgdorferi B31 and 2591. The antibody responses to MBP-OspC were determined in serial sera from 15 patients with Lyme disease who were monitored for 4 to 12 years of illness, in single-serum samples from 189 patients with early or late manifestations of the disorder, and in serum samples from 106 control patients. Early in the infection, patients with erythema migrans or meningitis commonly had weak to strong immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses to OspC and sometimes weak to moderate IgG responses. Months to years later, weak to strong IgG reactivity with this protein was often apparent in patients with arthritis, but this response was weak or absent in patients with chronic neuroborreliosis. When acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from patients with erythema migrans were tested for reactivity against MBP-OspC, the sensitivity of the IgM test was 73% and the specificity was 98%, with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blotting. We conclude that the majority of patients with Lyme disease have a prominent IgM response to OspC early in the illness, which is often followed by a prominent IgG response in patients with arthritis. For the serodiagnosis of early infection, the sensitivity and specificity of IgM ELISA and Western blotting were comparable or slightly improved when MBP-OspC was used as the antigen compared with tests in which spirochetal lysates were used.

  8. Abnormalities of Thymic Stroma may Contribute to Immune Dysregulation in Murine Models of Leaky Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Caraffi, Stefano; Paganini, Tiziana; Fontana, Elena; Giliani, Silvia; Alt, Frederick W.; Notarangelo, Luigi Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Lymphostromal cross-talk in the thymus is essential to allow generation of a diversified repertoire of T lymphocytes and to prevent autoimmunity by self-reactive T cells. Hypomorphic mutations in genes that control T cell development have been associated with immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation both in humans and in mice. We have studied T cell development and thymic stroma architecture and maturation in two mouse models of leaky severe combined immune deficiency, carrying hypomorphic mutations in rag1 and lig4 genes. Defective T cell development was associated with abnormalities of thymic architecture that predominantly affect the thymic medulla, with reduction of the pool of mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). While the ability of mTECs to express autoimmune regulator (Aire) is preserved in mutant mice, the frequency of mature mTECs expressing Aire and tissue-specific antigens is severely reduced. Similarly, the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells is preserved in rag1 and lig4 mutant mice, but their number is greatly reduced. These data indicate that hypomorphic defects in T cell development may cause defective lymphostromal cross-talk and impinge on thymic stromal cells maturation, and thus favor immune dysregulation. PMID:21822418

  9. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  10. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  11. Decreasing the frequency of energy supplementation from daily to three times weekly impairs growth and humoral immune response of preconditioning beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, L F A; Moriel, P; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of frequency of energy supplementation on growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune responses of preconditioning beef steers following vaccination. Angus steers ( = 24; 221 ± 6.3 kg; 177 ± 4 d of age) were weaned on d -7 and kept in a single drylot pen with free access to tall fescue hay and concentrate DMI at 0.5% of BW (50:50 mix of soyhulls and corn gluten pellets; DM basis) from d -7 to 0. On d 0, steers were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 feedlot pens (3 steers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (4 pens/treatment) and consisted of steers provided daily free access to ground tall fescue hay and similar weekly concentrate DMI (1% of BW times 7 d), which was divided and offered either daily (S7) or 3 times weekly (S3; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) from d 0 to 42. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42, after 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Steers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and clostridium on d 7 and 21. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d -7 and 4 h after concentrate supplementation on d 0, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 35, and 42. Steers offered concentrate daily had greater ( ≤ 0.02) BW on d 42, overall ADG, and total DMI, but similar ( = 0.14) G:F, than S3 steers. On days that S7 and S3 steers were offered concentrate, total DMI was greater and hay DMI was less for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.05). On days that only S7 steers were supplemented, hay DMI was greater, but total DMI was less for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.05). Mean CP and NEg intake were greater ( ≤ 0.03) for S7 vs. S3 steers. Plasma cortisol concentrations on d 7 and 28, and mean plasma haptoglobin concentrations, but not liver mRNA expression of haptoglobin ( = 0.75), were greater for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.03). Plasma IGF-1 concentrations on d 0 and urea nitrogen on d 1 and 3, relative to vaccination

  12. Analysis on humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease%手足口病患儿体液免疫分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉刚; 薛扬; 张利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the function of humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD). Methods 625 HFMD children(mild group=551:severe group=74)were selected and studied from patients in hospital from November first 2011 to July thirty-first 2013. The level of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 were detected on the admission day, and then the results were compared. At the same time, clinical facture and out-comes were studied according to the two groups, respectively. Results The level of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 were not significantly different between the mild group and severe group.Conclusions The levels of IgG,IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 in patients with HFMD were not directly related between mild and severe cases.%目的:观察和分析手足口病患儿体液免疫状况。方法汇总分析2011年11月1日到2013年7月31日期间出院手足口病患儿体液免疫检测结果、临床表现及预后。期间共收治住院手足口病患儿859例,选取其中有体液免疫检测结果的完整病例625例,轻症551例,重症及危重症74例(死亡4例)。结果轻症组手足口病患儿血清IgG、IgA、IgM、C3及C4值分别为:8.61±2.33、0.76±0.32、1.53±0.47、1.34±0.14及0.25±0.07;重症及危重症组各项分别为:8.53±2.28、0.75±0.36、1.46±0.53、1.27±0.19及0.26±0.08;两组之间比较差异无统计学意义。结论手足口病患儿血清IgA、IgM、IgG及补体C3、C4水平变化与病情轻重无直接相关性。

  13. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  14. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  15. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and persistence of the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by 2 doses of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine administered to infants, children and adolescents: Two open, uncontrolled studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sicilia, José; Arístegui, Javier; Omeñaca, Félix; Carmona, Alfonso; Tejedor, Juan C; Merino, José M; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Walravens, Karl; Bambure, Vinod; Moris, Philippe; Caplanusi, Adrian; Gillard, Paul; Dieussaert, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    In children, 2 AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine doses given 21 days apart were previously shown to induce a high humoral immune response and to have an acceptable safety profile up to 42 days following the first vaccination. Here, we analyzed the persistence data from 2 open-label studies, which assessed the safety, and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by 2 doses of this vaccine. The first study was a phase II, randomized trial conducted in 104 children aged 6–35 months vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 1.9 µg haemagglutinin antigen (HA) and AS03B (5.93 mg tocopherol) and the second study, a phase III, non-randomized trial conducted in 210 children and adolescents aged 3–17 years vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 3.75 µg HA and AS03A (11.86 mg tocopherol). Approximately one year after the first dose, all children with available data were seropositive for haemagglutinin inhibition and neutralising antibody titres, but a decline in geometric mean antibody titres was noted. The vaccine induced a cell-mediated immune response in terms of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells, which persisted up to one year post-vaccination. The vaccine did not raise any safety concern, though these trials were not designed to detect rare events. In conclusion, 2 doses of the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 2 different dosages had a clinically acceptable safety profile, and induced high and persistent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in children aged 6–35 months and 3–17 years. These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00971321 and NCT00964158. PMID:26176592

  17. Young girl with abnormal behavior: Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor immune encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Suri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti N Methyl D Aspartate receptor immune encephalitis (Anti NMDARE is a recently defined, under-recognized and often misdiagnosed disease, which typically occurs in young females and may be associated with an underlying tumor, usually ovarian teratoma. If diagnosed early, initiation of immunotherapy and tumor removal (if present may result in recovery. We report a case of a 17 years old girl with Anti NMDARE who was initially misdiagnosed as Functional psychosis, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Sepsis syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of anti NMDARE being reported from India. This case report underscores the need for a greater awareness of this entity across multiple specialties, e.g., general medicine, psychiatry and neurology, to ensure a heightened diagnostic suspicion, which can lead to timely diagnosis and adequate therapy of this treatable disease.

  18. Abnormalities of thymic stroma may contribute to immune dysregulation in murine models of leaky severe combined immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eRucci

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphostromal cross-talk in the thymus is essential to allow generation of a diversified repertoire of T lymphocytes and to prevent autoimmunity by self-reactive T cells. Hypomorphic mutations in genes that control T cell development have been associated with immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation both in humans and in mice. We have studied T cell development and thymic stroma architecture and maturation in two mouse models of leaky SCID, carrying hypomorphic mutations in Rag1 and Lig4 genes. Defective T cell development was associated with abnormalities of thymic architecture that predominantly affect the thymic medulla, with reduction of the pool of mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs. While the ability of mTECs to express Aire is preserved in mutant mice, the frequency of mature mTECs expressing Aire and tissue-specific antigens (TSAs is severely reduced. Similarly, the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells is preserved in Rag1 and Lig4 mutant mice, but their number is greatly reduced. These data indicate that hypomorphic defects in T cell development may cause defective lymphostromal cross-talk and impinge on thymic stromal cells maturation, and thus favor immune dysregulation.

  19. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  20. HIV-1 proteins in infected cells determine the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I and class II molecules and the nature of the cellular and humoral antiviral immune responses--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Y

    1994-07-01

    The goals of molecular virology and immunology during the second half of the 20th century have been to provide the conceptual approaches and the tools for the development of safe and efficient virus vaccines for the human population. The success of the vaccination approach to prevent virus epidemics was attributed to the ability of inactivated and live virus vaccines to induce a humoral immune response and to produce antiviral neutralizing antibodies in the vaccinees. The successful development of antiviral vaccines and their application to most of the human population led to a marked decrease in virus epidemics around the globe. Despite this remarkable achievement, the developing epidemics of HIV-caused AIDS (accompanied by activation of latent herpesviruses in AIDS patients), epidemics of Dengue fever, and infections with respiratory syncytial virus may indicate that conventional approaches to the development of virus vaccines that induce antiviral humoral responses may not suffice. This may indicate that virus vaccines that induce a cellular immune response, leading to the destruction of virus-infected cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may be needed. Antiviral CD8+ CTLs are induced by viral peptides presented within the peptide binding grooves of HLA class I molecules present on the surface of infected cells. Studies in the last decade provided an insight into the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I molecules to CD8+ T cells. These studies are here reviewed, together with a review of the molecular events of virus replication, to obtain an overview of how viral peptides associate with the HLA class I molecules. A similar review is provided on the molecular pathway by which viral proteins, used as subunit vaccines or inactivated virus particles, are taken up by endosomes in the endosome pathway and are processed by proteolytic enzymes into peptides that interact with HLA class II molecules during their transport to the plasma membrane of antigen

  1. Reduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 viremia by a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity after experimental PCV2 challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hwi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to elucidate the humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms by which a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine reduces the PCV2 viremia. Forty PCV2 seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (T01, vaccinated non-challenged (T02, non-vaccinated challenged (T03, and non-vaccinated non-challenged (T04 animals. The pigs in groups T01 and T02 were immunized with a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine (Fostera™ PCV; Pfizer Animal Health administered as a 2.0 ml dose at 21 days of age. At 35 days of age (0 days post-challenge, the pigs in groups T01 and T03 were inoculated intranasally with 2 ml each of PCV2b. Results A reduction of PCV2 viremia coincided with the appearance of both PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA and interferon-γ-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SCs in the vaccinated animals. However, the presence of anti-PCV2 IgG antibodies did not correlate with the reduction of PCV2 viremia. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that the numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased in vaccinated animals but the numbers of CD4+ cells decreased transiently in non-vaccinated animals. The observation of a delayed type hypersensitivity response in only the vaccinated animals also supports a CD4+ cell-associated protective cellular immune response induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine. Conclusions The induction of PCV2-specific NA and IFN-γ-SCs, and CD4+ cells by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine is the important protective immune response leading to reduction of the PCV2 viremia and control of the PCV2 infection. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of protective humoral and cellular immunity induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine and its effect on reduction of PCV2 viremia by vaccination.

  2. DNA Vaccine Encoding HPV16 Oncogenes E6 and E7 Induces Potent Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity Which Protects in Tumor Challenge and Drives E7-expressing Skin Graft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Janin; Dutton, Julie L; Li, Bo; Woo, Wai-Ping; Xu, Yan; Tolley, Lynn K; Yong, Michelle; Wells, James W; R Leggatt, Graham; Finlayson, Neil; Frazer, Ian H

    We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors. In addition, it suppresses growth of readily established tumors and shows enhanced efficacy when combined with immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD-L1. This vaccine also facilitates rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts that demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia with characteristics of cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of this vaccine in patients with HPV16 premalignancies are planned.

  3. DNA Vaccine Encoding HPV16 Oncogenes E6 and E7 Induces Potent Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity Which Protects in Tumor Challenge and Drives E7-expressing Skin Graft Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Janin; Dutton, Julie L.; Li, Bo; Woo, Wai-Ping; Xu, Yan; Tolley, Lynn K.; Yong, Michelle; Wells, James W.; R. Leggatt, Graham; Finlayson, Neil

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors. In addition, it suppresses growth of readily established tumors and shows enhanced efficacy when combined with immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD-L1. This vaccine also facilitates rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts that demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia with characteristics of cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of this vaccine in patients with HPV16+ premalignancies are planned. PMID:28166181

  4. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  5. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  6. MF59- and Al(OH3-adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus (4C-Staph vaccines induce sustained protective humoral and cellular immune responses, with a critical role for effector CD4 T cells at low antibody titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMonaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive life-threatening infections like sepsis and pneumonia. Due to increasing antibiotic-resistance, the development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus is needed. Although a correlate of protection against staphylococcal diseases is not yet established, several findings suggest that both antibodies and CD4 T cells might contribute to optimal immunity. In this study, we show that adjuvanting a multivalent vaccine (4C-Staph with MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion licensed in human vaccines, further potentiated antigen-specific IgG titers and CD4 T cell responses compared to alum and conferred protection in the peritonitis model of S. aureus infection. Moreover, we showed that MF59- and alum-adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines induced persistent antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses, and protected mice from infection up to 4 months after immunization. Furthermore, 4C-Staph formulated with MF59 was used to investigate which immune compartment is involved in vaccine-induced protection. Using CD4 T cell-depleted mice or B cell deficient mice, we demonstrated that both T and B cell responses contributed to 4C-Staph vaccine-mediated protective immunity. However, the role of CD4 T cells seemed more evident in the presence of low antibody responses. This study provides preclinical data further supporting the use of the adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines against S. aureus diseases, and provides critical insights on the correlates of protective immunity necessary to combat this pathogen.

  7. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  8. Protective anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa humoral and cellular mucosal immunity by AdC7-mediated expression of the P. aeruginosa protein OprF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anja; Whu, Wen Zhu; Xu, Yaqin; Joh, Ju; Crystal, Ronald G; Worgall, Stefan

    2011-03-03

    Replication-deficient adenoviral (Ad) vectors are an attractive platform for a vaccine against lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ad vectors based on non-human serotypes have been developed to circumvent the problem of pre-existing anti-Ad immunity in humans. The present study analyzes the anti-P. aeruginosa systemic and lung mucosal immunity elicited by a non-human primate-based AdC7 vector expressing the outer membrane protein F (AdC7OprF) of P. aeruginosa. Intramuscular immunization of mice with AdC7OprF induced similar levels of serum and mucosal anti-OprF IgG and increased levels of anti-OprF IgA in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) compared to immunization with a human serotype Ad5OprF vector (p>0.05). OprF-specific INF-γ in splenic T cells stimulated with OprF-pulsed syngeneic splenic dendritic cells (DC) was similar following immunization with AdC7OprF compared to Ad5OprF (p>0.05). In contrast, OprF-specific INF-γ responses in lung T cells stimulated with either spleen or lung DC were increased following immunization with AdC7OprF compared to Ad5OprF (pmucosal immunity.

  9. Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Kelor terhadap Respons Imun Humoral pada Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (ACTIVITY OF KELOR LEAF EXTRACT ON HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MICE POST SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hefni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the activity of  kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extract onhumoral immune response in mice infected with Salmonella typhi. Mice were divided into two groups : non-infected and infectedS. typhi groups. Each group was administered orally for 20 days with varied doses ofkelor leaf extract i.e. dose (0 mg/kg BW, dose 1 (14 mg/kg BW, dose 2 (42 mg /kg BW, and dose 3 (84 mg/kg BW.  Then all of the sample in infected groups were injected with 108 cells S. typhi. The humoralimmunity responses were determined by observing the number of lymphoid B cell (B220 and naive Thecell (CD4+CD62L+ by using software BD CellQuest Flowcytometry. The data were analysed using Two-Way ANOVA (P<0.05, with SPSS 16.0 for Windows.  The kelor leaf extract showed imunostimulatoryactivity by significantly improved the number of lymphocyte B cell (B220,  and naive Th Cell (CD4+CD62L+in mice infected with S. typhi.  The lower doses (dose of 14 mg/kg BW, and 42 mg/kg BW of kelor leafextracts was more effective than the highest dose (84 mg/kg BW. On the other  hand, the high dose showedimunosupresor activity on naive Teessor Th Cell.  However, immunosupressor activity on naïve Th cell wasobserved on the mice given the highest dose of extract.

  10. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  11. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  12. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  13. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  14. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  15. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  16. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVimmunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  17. Effects of inhalation exposure to a binary mixture of benzene and toluene on vitamin a status and humoral and cell-mediated immunity in wild and captive American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Trask, Brenda R; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Benzene and toluene are representative volatile organic compounds (VOC) released during production, storage, and transportation associated with the oil and gas industry and are chemicals of concern, as they are released in greater and possibly more biologically significant concentrations than other compounds. Most studies of air pollution in high oil and gas activity areas have neglected to consider risks to birds, including top-level predators. Birds can be used as highly sensitive monitors of air quality and since the avian respiratory tract is physiologically different from a rodent respiratory tract, effects of gases cannot be safely extrapolated from rodent studies. Wild and captive male American kestrels were exposed for approximately 1 h daily for 28 d to high (rodent lowest-observed-adverse-effect level [LOAEL] of 10 ppm and 80 ppm, respectively) or environmentally relevant (0.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, respectively) levels of benzene and toluene. Altered immune responses characteristic of those seen in mammalian exposures were evident in kestrels. A decreased cell-mediated immunity, measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity testing, was evident in all exposed birds. There was no effect on humoral immunity. Plasma retinol levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were decreased in wild and captive kestrels exposed to the rodent LOAEL for combined benzene and toluene. This study indicates that American kestrels are sensitive to combined benzene and toluene. The study also illustrates the need for reference concentrations for airborne pollutants to be calculated, including sensitive endpoints specific to birds. Based on these findings, future studies need to include immune endpoints to determine the possible increased susceptibility of birds to inhaled toxicants.

  18. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood ce...

  20. Comparative assessment of humoral immune responses of aluminum hydroxide and oil-emulsion adjuvants in Influenza (H9N2) and Newcastle inactive vaccines to chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahdie; Moghaddam Pour, Masoud; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Masoudi, Shahin; Bayat, Zahra

    2017-02-01

    Context Adjuvants are compounds used in the preparation of inactive vaccines to enhance the immune response. Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is one of the first compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration, which is used as adjuvants in vaccine products for humans. Montanide ISA 70 is an oil-emulsion adjuvant and is used in poultry inactive vaccines. Objective In this study, the effects of alum adjuvant on the efficiency and induction of immune response in inactive vaccines of Influenza and Newcastle are compared with those of ISA 70. Materials and methods Six groups of 7-d-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the prepared vaccines via the subcutaneous route in the neck. Immune response in each group after 7, 14, 21, 31, 41, and 45 d was evaluated using the technique of hemagglutination inhibition. Results The results were compared using SPSS software. Results showed that vaccines containing adjuvant ISA 70 depicted a higher increase in the immune response and adjuvant of 20% alum is similar to adjuvant of ISA 70 in boosting the immune system. There was no statistically significant difference between 10% and 20% alum, but these adjuvants are visibly different from ISA 70. Conclusion In conclusion, alum can be used as an easily accessible, harmless, and effective adjuvant; however, to increase the immune period using the inactive vaccines for poultry, more research would be necessary.

  1. Induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses in a mouse model following gene fusion of HSP70C and Hantaan virus Gn and S0.7 in an adenoviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs display adjuvant functions when given as fusion proteins to enhance vaccination efficiency. To evaluate enhanced potency of Hantaan virus (HTNV glycoprotein (GP and nucleocapsid protein (NP immunogenicity by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, a recombinant adenovirus rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C expression vector was developed by genetically linking the HSP70 C-terminal gene (HSP70 359-610 aa, HSP70C to the Gn and 0.7 kb fragment of the NP (aa1-274-S0.7. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with these recombinant adenoviral vectors. A series of immunological assays determined the immunogenicity of the recombinant adenoviral vectors. The results showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C induced a stronger humoral and cellular immune response than other recombinant adenoviruses (rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG and rAd-GnS0.7 and the HFRS vaccine control. Animal protection experiments showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C was effective at protecting C57BL/6 mice from HTNV infection. The results of the immunological experiments showed that HSP70C lead to enhanced vaccine potency, and suggested significant potential in the development of genetically engineered vaccines against HTNV.

  2. Humoral and In Vivo Cellular Immunity against the Raw Insect-Derived Recombinant Leishmania infantum Antigens KMPII, TRYP, LACK, and papLe22 in Dogs from an Endemic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todolí, Felicitat; Solano-Gallego, Laia; de Juan, Rafael; Morell, Pere; del Carmen Núñez, Maria; Lasa, Rodrigo; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M.; Alberola, Jordi; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis, a severe zoonotic and systemic disease that is fatal if left untreated. Identification of the antigens involved in Leishmania-specific protective immune response is a research priority for the development of effective control measures. For this purpose, we evaluated, in 27 dogs from an enzootic zone, specific humoral and cellular immune response by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test both against total L. infantum antigen and the raw Trichoplusia ni insect-derived kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (rKMPII), tryparedoxin peroxidase (rTRYP), Leishmania homologue of receptors for activated C kinase (rLACK), and 22-kDa potentially aggravating protein of Leishmania (rpapLe22) antigens from this parasite. rTRYP induced the highest number of positive DTH responses (55% of leishmanin skin test [LST]-positive dogs), showing that TRYP antigen is an important T cell immunogen, and it could be a promising vaccine candidate against this disease. When TRYP-DTH and KMPII-DTH tests were evaluated in parallel, 82% of LST-positive dogs were detected, suggesting that both antigens could be considered as components of a standardized DTH immunodiagnostic tool for dogs. PMID:21118936

  3. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish.

  4. The 17D-204 Vaccine Strain-Induced Protection against Virulent Yellow Fever Virus Is Mediated by Humoral Immunity and CD4+ but not CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Lam, L K Metthew; Klimstra, William B; Ryman, Kate D

    2016-07-01

    A gold standard of antiviral vaccination has been the safe and effective live-attenuated 17D-based yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccines. Among more than 500 million vaccinees, only a handful of cases have been reported in which vaccinees developed a virulent wild type YFV infection. This efficacy is presumed to be the result of both neutralizing antibodies and a robust T cell response. However, the particular immune components required for protection against YFV have never been evaluated. An understanding of the immune mechanisms that underlie 17D-based vaccine efficacy is critical to the development of next-generation vaccines against flaviviruses and other pathogens. Here we have addressed this question for the first time using a murine model of disease. Similar to humans, vaccination elicited long-term protection against challenge, characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers and a robust T cell response that formed long-lived memory. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were polyfunctional and cytolytic. Adoptive transfer of immune sera or CD4+ T cells provided partial protection against YFV, but complete protection was achieved by transfer of both immune sera and CD4+ T cells. Thus, robust CD4+ T cell activity may be a critical contributor to protective immunity elicited by highly effective live attenuated vaccines.

  5. The 17D-204 Vaccine Strain-Induced Protection against Virulent Yellow Fever Virus Is Mediated by Humoral Immunity and CD4+ but not CD8+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A gold standard of antiviral vaccination has been the safe and effective live-attenuated 17D-based yellow fever virus (YFV vaccines. Among more than 500 million vaccinees, only a handful of cases have been reported in which vaccinees developed a virulent wild type YFV infection. This efficacy is presumed to be the result of both neutralizing antibodies and a robust T cell response. However, the particular immune components required for protection against YFV have never been evaluated. An understanding of the immune mechanisms that underlie 17D-based vaccine efficacy is critical to the development of next-generation vaccines against flaviviruses and other pathogens. Here we have addressed this question for the first time using a murine model of disease. Similar to humans, vaccination elicited long-term protection against challenge, characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers and a robust T cell response that formed long-lived memory. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were polyfunctional and cytolytic. Adoptive transfer of immune sera or CD4+ T cells provided partial protection against YFV, but complete protection was achieved by transfer of both immune sera and CD4+ T cells. Thus, robust CD4+ T cell activity may be a critical contributor to protective immunity elicited by highly effective live attenuated vaccines.

  6. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  7. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  8. Humoral immune responses to Candida albicans complement receptor 3-related protein in the atopic subjects with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Novel sensitive marker for Candida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Ema; Bujdáková, Helena; Chupáčová, Jarmila; Paulovičová, Lucia; Kertys, Pavol; Hrubiško, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In vitro evaluation of specific anti-Candida albicans sera antibodies based on synthetically prepared complement receptor 3-related protein (CR3-RP) mimicking the structure of native complement receptor 3 in a cohort of 72 patients with atopy and recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis (RVC) revealed effective humoral response against Candida CR3-RP. The most significant have been IgM and IgA isotype antibodies (33 and 47% positive cases, respectively). The quantitative evaluation of anti-CR3RP isotype antibodies was confronted with results of commercial ELISA anti-C. albicans antibodies diagnostics based on C. albicans cell wall mannan and β-glucan antigens, the most significant correlation being observed with anti-CR3-RP IgM and anti-β-D-glucan IgM (r(2) = 0.624) followed by isotype IgA (r(2) = 0.381). The immunogenicity and immunoreactivity of CR3RP antigen in RVC patients' sera had been evaluated with regard to the results reached by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay. Obviously, synthetically prepared CR3-RP mimicking the Candida cell-wall-derived structure moiety represents a promising immunological tool not only for Candida serodiagnostics, but also prospectively for follow-up of targeted antifungal therapy and as promising Candida vaccine candidate.

  9. A polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine applied by needle-free intradermal delivery induces cross-reactive humoral and cellular immune responses in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, and the infection is widely prevalent in swine herds throughout the world. Current commercial influenza vaccines for pigs induce a narrow immune response and are not very effective against antigenically diverse viruses. To control...... influenza in pigs, the development of more effective swine influenza vaccines inducing broader cross-protective immune responses is needed. Previously, we have shown that a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine using vectors containing antibiotic resistance genes induced a broadly protective immune response...... of the optimized DNA vaccine were evaluated in groups of five to six pigs. The DNA vaccine consisted of six selected influenza genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. RESULTS: Needle-free vaccination of growing pigs...

  10. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  11. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  12. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  13. Co-administration of Interleukin-2 Enhances Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses to HIV Vaccine DNA Prime/MVA Boost Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chun-lai; YU Xiang-hui; WU Yong-ge; LI Wei; KONG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Interleukine-2(IL-2) is a growth factor for antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is responsible for T-cell clonal expansion after antigen recognition. It has been demonstrated that DNA vaccine-elicited immune responses in mice could be augmented substantially by using either an IL-2 protein or a plasmid expressing IL-2. Twenty mice, divided into four experimental groups, were immunized with: (1) sham plasmid; (2) HIV-1 DNA vaccine alone; (3) HIV-1 DNA vaccine and IL-2 protein; or (4) HIV-1 DNA vaccine and IL-2 plasmid, separately. All the groups were immunized 3 times at a 2-week interval. Fourteen days after the last DNA vaccine injection, recombinant MVA was injected into all the mice except those in group 1. ELISA and ELISPOT were employed to investigate the effect of IL-2 on DNA vaccine immune responses. The obtained results strongly indicate that the efficacy of HIV vaccine can be enhanced by co-administration of a plasmid encoding IL-2.

  14. cDNA immunization of mice with human thyroglobulin generates both humoral and T cell responses: a novel model of thyroid autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Jacobson

    Full Text Available Thyroglobulin (Tg represents one of the largest known self-antigens involved in autoimmunity. Numerous studies have implicated it in triggering and perpetuating the autoimmune response in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD. Indeed, traditional models of autoimmune thyroid disease, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT, are generated by immunizing mice with thyroglobulin protein in conjunction with an adjuvant, or by high repeated doses of Tg alone, without adjuvant. These extant models are limited in their experimental flexibility, i.e. the ability to make modifications to the Tg used in immunizations. In this study, we have immunized mice with a plasmid cDNA encoding the full-length human Tg (hTG protein, in order to generate a model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis which is closer to the human disease and does not require adjuvants to breakdown tolerance. Human thyroglobulin cDNA was injected and subsequently electroporated into skeletal muscle using a square wave generator. Following hTg cDNA immunizations, the mice developed both B and T cell responses to Tg, albeit with no evidence of lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. This novel model will afford investigators the means to test various hypotheses which were unavailable with the previous EAT models, specifically the effects of hTg sequence variations on the induction of thyroiditis.

  15. HUMORAL IMMUNE-RESPONSE TO 2,4-DINITROPHENYL KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN IN ANTIGEN-FREE, GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL BALB/C MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, NA; PLOPLIS, VA

    The B cell immune response to 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) keyhole limpet hemocyanin was compared in antigen-free, germ-free and conventional BALB/c mice. The numbers of total and of DNP-specific IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells in the spleen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent plaque assays

  16. Interactions of the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 with the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components. ...

  17. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  18. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  19. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  20. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  1. DNA encoding an HIV-1 Gag/human lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 chimera elicits a broad cellular and humoral immune response in Rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Chikhlikar

    Full Text Available Previous studies of HIV-1 p55Gag immunization of mice have demonstrated the usefulness of targeting antigens to the cellular compartment containing the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC II complex molecules by use of a DNA antigen formulation encoding Gag as a chimera with the mouse lysosome-associated membrane protein (mLAMP/gag. In the present study, we have analyzed the magnitude and breadth of Gag-specific T-lymphocyte and antibody responses elicited in Rhesus macaques after immunization with DNA encoding a human LAMP/gag (hLAMP/gag chimera. ELISPOT analyses indicated that the average Gag-specific IFN-gamma response elicited by the hLAMP/gag chimera was detectable after only two or three naked DNA immunizations in all five immunized macaques and reached an average of 1000 spot-forming cells (SFC/10(6 PBMCs. High IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses were detected in CD8(+-depleted cells, indicating that CD4(+ T-cells play a major role in these responses. The T-cell responses of four of the macaques were also tested by use of ELISPOT to 12 overlapping 15-amino acids (aa peptide pools containing ten peptides each, encompassing the complete Gag protein sequence. The two Mamu 08 immunized macaques responded to eight and twelve of the pools, the Mamu B01 to six, and the other macaque to five pools indicating that the hLAMP/gag DNA antigen formulation elicits a broad T-cell response against Gag. Additionally, there was a strong HIV-1-specific IgG response. The IgG antibody titers increased after each DNA injection, indicating a strong amnestic B-cell response, and were highly elevated in all the macaques after three immunizations. Moreover, the serum of each macaque recognized 13 of the 49 peptides of a 20-aa peptide library covering the complete Gag amino acid sequence. In addition, HIV-1-specific IgA antibodies were present in the plasma and external secretions, including nasal washes. These data support the findings of increased

  2. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by purified iridoid mixture that inhibits penetration of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae upon topical treatment of mice tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Ruppel, Andreas; Maghraby, Amany S

    2005-08-01

    When tested for possible blocking effect on the cercarial, serine proteinase, elastase (CE) activity, an iridoid mixture extracted from leaves of Citharexylum quadrangular abolished 31% of the enzyme activity at final concentration 15 microg. When formulated in jojoba oil and applied to mice tails followed by infection with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, the iridoid mixture blocked cercarial penetration and caused significant reducetion (94%; P < 0.05) in worm burden in treated mice in comparison to controls. Also, immunomodulatory effects of iridoid mixture, iridoid-treated S. mansoni worm homogenate on mice were studied by measuring IgG and IgM levels against E. coli lysates (ECL), solube S. mansoni worm antigenic preparation (SWAP) and cancer bladder homogenates (CBH) as antigens by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were studied by calculating mean percent of CD4+, CD8(+)-T, B-mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) and CD4+, CD8(+)-T thymocytes by direct immunofluorescence staining in treated mice as compared to untreated homogenate given mice or untreated mice. Injecting mice with serial dilutions of iridoid mixture resulted in fluctuation, peaks and troughs, in both IgG and IgM responses against the above mentioned antigens. 1st and 2nd immunizations with iridoid mixture treated homogenate resulted in significantly elevated (P < 0.05). IgM and IgG levels against the 3 used antigens in comparison with sera from control mice. Immunized mice with homogenate treated with iridoid mixture showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CD4+T thymocytes, a non significant increase in CD8+T thymocytes, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CD4+T lymphocytes (MLNC) and a non significant increase in CD8+ T- and B-lymphocytes (MLNC) compared with mice immunized with untreated homogenate or non-injected normal mice.

  3. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: Humoral immune response, estimation of specific IgG avidity and the challenges of reproducing vertical transmission in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Grimm, Felix; Ruetten, Maja; Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp. 3). Besides, six 4.5 week-old piglets inoculated per os with 5×10(3) oocysts were also included in the serological investigations. All animals seroconverted (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine ELISA, Prionics, Switzerland) by 2-3 weeks post inoculation (wpi) and remained seropositive for at least 38 weeks or until euthanasia. Four chronically infected sows from Exp. 1 and 2 were serologically monitored during a further pregnancy and no reactivation, but a decrease of the antibody levels was observed at farrowing (Exp. 4). In all experiments, the specific IgG-avidity was initially low, increased during the course of infection and after re-inoculations. An avidity index (AI) ≥40% could be used to rule out recent infections (sows (Exp. 1 and 2), maternal antibodies were still detectable at 2 months (but not by 3 months) of age, with constant high avidity values, comparable to those of the dams at farrowing. In all experiments, the sows remained asymptomatic and delivered non-infected offspring at term. A total of 208 normal and 5 stillborn piglets delivered by the inoculated sows (Exp. 1-4) tested serologically negative before colostrum uptake. Placentas (n=88) from all sows and tissues (brain, liver, lung, heart, and masseter muscle) from 56 delivered piglets were analysed histopathologically and by real-time PCR for T. gondii with negative results. Colostrum and milk samples from all sows were negative by

  4. Evaluation of anti-rabies vaccination and supplementation with probiotic in the humoral immune response in cattle / Avaliação da vacinação anti-rábica e da suplementação com probiótico na resposta imune humoral em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Souza Lima de Souza Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the humoral immune response of a new rabies vaccine developed by the Instituto Butantan (potency of 3.27 UI/ml in primovaccinated cattle and the effect of probiotic on this response. Thirty-four 15-month old Nelore cattle were randomly divided into 2 groups (17 animals/group. All the animals were vaccinated on day 0 (zero and then animals in one group received probiotic added to a mineral mixture (GP while the others were given only the mineral mixture (GC. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 75 and 150 for rabies neutralizing antibodies titers by seroneutralization assay on BHK21 cells (RFFIT. Protective antibody titers (?0.5 UI/mL were found in 82.4% of the animals from GP and in 76.5% of the animals from GC and no statistical difference (p > 0.05 between antibody titers in GP and GC was detected on days 75 and 150. It was also observed that in both groups antibody titers was decreased on day 150 (p Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta imune humoral a uma nova vacina anti-rábica, desenvolvida no Instituto Butantan em bovinos primovacinados e o efeito do probiótico nesta resposta. Trinta e quatro bovinos da raça Nelore com idade de 15 meses foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos (17 bovinos/grupo: os animais foram vacinados no dia zero e um dos grupos recebeu uma mistura mineral com probiótico (GP, enquanto o outro apenas a mistura (GC. Colheu-se sangue dos animais nos dias 0, 75 e 150 após a vacinação para determinação dos títulos de anticorpos anti-rábicos neutralizantes pela técnica de soroneutralização em células BHK21 (RFFIT. Foram encontrados títulos de anticorpos protetores ( ? 0,5 UI/mL em 82,4% dos animais do grupo GP e 76,5% do grupo GC. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 nos títulos de anticorpos entre os soros coletados dos dois grupos de animais nos dias 75 e 150. Verificou-se também que para ambos os grupos no dia 150 houve uma redução significativa (p < 0,01 nos títulos de

  5. Study on specific humoral immune response in children with rotavirus diarrhea%轮状病毒腹泻小儿特异性体液免疫应答的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 沈文莉; 吴春青

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过对轮状病毒腹泻小儿特异性体液免疫应答的研究,为有效预防和治疗轮状病毒感染提供理论依据.方法 75例粪轮状病毒检测阳性患儿(腹泻组)及45例近期无腹泻和其他感染性疾病小儿(对照组),采用ELISA法检测抗原及血浆和粪标本中的特异性抗体;采用反转录PCR法确定轮状病毒基因型;采用荧光定量PCR法进行外周血单个核细胞细胞因子mRNA表达的检测.结果 腹泻组轮状病毒G分型以G3型(77.3%,58/75)为主,P分型以P8型(82.7%,62/75)为主;腹泻组血浆中特异性抗体滴度均明显高于对照组,粪标本中IgA抗体滴度的增高尤为显著;腹泻组患儿CD19+细胞比率为(30.8±7.9)%,显著高于对照组的(23.1±7.7)%(P=0.009).CD4+细胞比率明显下降(P=0.005),IL-12p40 mRNA的表达水平在疾病全程均比对照组明显升高(P<0.01).结论 轮状病毒感染小儿免疫应答以特异性体液免疫,尤其是黏膜免疫的显著增强为主要特点.%Objective To apply the theory basis for effectively preventing and treating rotavirus infection by studying on specific humoral immune response in children with rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Seventy-five patients of children (diarrhea group ) and 45 controls (control group) were selected. The antigen and specific antibody in plasma and stool were detected by ELISA method;the type of viral gene was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR method;the expression of mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell was measured by fluorescent light quantitation PCR method. Results In diarrhea group, rotavirus G typing to G3 dominated, accounting for 77.3% (58/75), P sub-type to P8 mainly, accounting for 82.7% (62/75). Rotavirus-specific antibody titers of plasma in diarrhea group were significantly higher than those in control group, IgA antibody titers of stool increased significantly, not only higher than that in control group and plasma. The percentage of CD19+ cells in diarrhea group [(30

  6. Genetic variants of immunoglobulin γ and κ chains influence humoral immunity to the cancer-testis antigen XAGE-1b (GAGED2a) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J P; Namboodiri, A M; Ohue, Y; Oka, M; Nakayama, E

    2014-04-01

    GM (γ marker) allotypes, genetic variants of immunoglobulin γ chains, have been reported to be associated strongly with susceptibility to lung cancer, but the mechanism(s) underlying this association is not known. One mechanism could involve their contribution to humoral immunity to lung tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we aimed to determine whether particular GM and KM (κ marker) allotypes were associated with antibody responsiveness to XAGE-1b, a highly immunogenic lung tumour-associated cancer-testis antigen. Sera from 89 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were allotyped for eight GM and two KM determinants and characterized for antibodies to a synthetic XAGE-1b protein. The distribution of various GM phenotypes was significantly different between XAGE-1b antibody-positive and -negative patients (P = 0·023), as well as in the subgroup of XAGE-1b antigen-positive advanced NSCLC (P = 0·007). None of the patients with the GM 1,17 21 phenotype was positive for the XAGE-1b antibody. In patients with antigen-positive advanced disease, the prevalence of GM 1,2,17 21 was significantly higher in the antibody-positive group than in those who lacked the XAGE-1b antibody (P = 0·026). This phenotype also interacted with a particular KM phenotype: subjects with GM 1,2,17 21 and KM 3,3 phenotypes were almost four times (odds ratio = 3·8) as likely to be positive for the XAGE-1b antibody as the subjects who lacked these phenotypes. This is the first report presenting evidence for the involvement of immunoglobulin allotypes in immunity to a cancer-testis antigen, which has important implications for XAGE-1b-based immunotherapeutic interventions in lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. A novel chimeric Hepatitis B virus S/preS1 antigen produced in mammalian and plant cells elicits stronger humoral and cellular immune response than the standard vaccine-constituent, S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrica, Mihaela-Olivia; Lazar, Catalin; Paruch, Lisa; Skomedal, Hanne; Steen, Hege; Haugslien, Sissel; Tucureanu, Catalin; Caras, Iuliana; Onu, Adrian; Ciulean, Sonya; Branzan, Alexandru; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Stavaru, Crina; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-08-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most cost-effective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS1(21-47) chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS’s, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24904584

  9. Recombinant E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus induces a solid humoral neutralizing immune response but fails to confer total protection in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chimeno Zoth

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant baculoviruses were produced in order to obtain a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV immunogen: AcNPV/E2 expressing E2 glycoprotein, and AcNPV/E0E1E2 expressing the polyprotein region coding for the three structural proteins of BVDV (E0, E1, and E2. Mice were immunized with Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses in a water in oil formulation and the production of neutralizing antibodies was evaluated. Since E2 elicited higher neutralizing antibody titers than E0-E1-E2 polyprotein, it was selected to immunize cattle. Calves received two doses of recombinant E2 vaccine and were challenged with homologous BVDV 37 days later. The recombinant immunogen induced neutralizing titers which showed a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.27 on the day of challenge and reached a top value of 3.36 ± 0.36, 47 days later (84 days post-vaccination. On the other hand, sera from animals which received mock-infected Sf9 cells did not show neutralizing activity until 25 days post-challenge (62 days post-vaccination, suggesting that these antibodies were produced as a consequence of BVDV challenge. Even when no total protection was observed in cattle, in vitro viral neutralization assays revealed that the recombinant immunogen was able to induce neutralizing antibody synthesis against the homologous strain as well as against heterologous strains in a very efficient way.

  10. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  11. 芪杞参颗粒对小鼠的细胞免疫和体液免疫功能的影响%The Influence of Qiqishen Granules on the Cellular and Humoral Immune Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 戴学文; 房志仲; 高卫真

    2013-01-01

      目的研究芪杞参颗粒对小鼠的细胞免疫和体液免疫功能的影响。方法6周龄昆明种小鼠分空白对照组、芪杞参颗粒高、中、低剂量组,小鼠腹腔注射鸡红细胞混悬液,观察芪杞参颗粒对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬功能的影响;制备绵羊红细胞(SRBC),观察血球凝集程度,测定血清溶血素;以靶细胞(YAC-1细胞)与脾细胞(效应细胞)的反应检测芪杞参颗粒对小鼠自然杀伤(NK)细胞活性的影响;采用淋巴细胞转化法观察芪杞参颗粒对细胞免疫的影响;计算小鼠胸腺质量/体质量及脾脏质量/体质量为脏器系数观察芪杞参颗粒对小鼠脏器的影响。结果与对照组比较,芪杞参颗粒显著增加小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬功能;对小鼠体液免疫功能有一定的增强作用;可增强小鼠NK细胞活性;对刀豆蛋白(Con)A诱导下的小鼠淋巴细胞转化有增强作用;对脏器系数没有显著的影响。结论芪杞参颗粒具有明显的免疫调节作用,预示其有良好的应用前景。%Objective To study the influence of qiqishen granules on the cellular and humoral immune functions in model mice. Methods Six-week-old mice were divided into control group and qiqishen granule (high, medium and low dose) groups. The suspension of chicken red blood cells was injected into the mouse abdominal cavity. The influence of qiq-ishen granules on the phagocytic function of the macrophages in mouse abdominal cavity was observed. The sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were prepared. The blood corpuscle coagulation was observed, and the serum hemolysin was detected. The ac-tivity of the mouse natural killer (NK) cells were detected by the interaction between the target cell (YAC-1) and spleen cell (the response cell). The influence of qiqishen granules on the cellular immunity was detected by the lymphocyte transforming assay. The influence of qiqishen granules on organ/body weight ratio

  12. Maysin and Its Flavonoid Derivative from Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques by Inducting Humoral Immune Response with Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response in the Tg (APPswe, PS1dE9) Alzheimer’s Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Won, Chung-Kil; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, SungBeom; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG) (i.e., EA-CG) contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ) by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9) AD mouse model. We have investigated the EA-CG efficacy as novel anti-AD likely preventing amyloid plaques using immunofluorescence staining to visually analyze Aβ40/42 and fibril formation with Thioflavin-S or 6E10 which are the profile of immunoreactivity against epitope Aβ1–16 or neuritic plaque, the quantitation of humoral immune response against Aβ, and the inflammatory cytokine responses (Th1 and Th2) using ELISA and QRT-PCR. To minimize the toxicity of the extracted CG, we addressed the liver toxicity in response to the CG extract treatment in Tg mice using relevant markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measurements in serum. The EA-CG extract significantly reduced the Aβ burden, the concentration of soluble Aβ40/42 protein, and fibril formation in the hippocampus and cortex of the Tg mice treated with EA-CG (50 mg/kg BW/day) for 6 months compared with the Tg mice treated with a normal diet. Additionally, the profile of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed that the levels of Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) cytokines are more significantly increased than Th1 (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2(IL-2)) in the sera. These results suggest that the EA-CG fraction induces IL-4/IL-10-dependent anti-inflammatory cytokines (Th2) rather than pro

  13. Enhanced humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses with Fluzone adjuvanted with a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Shaverdian, Narek; Goto, Yasuyuki; Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Evers, Tara; Mompoint, Farah; Vedvick, Thomas S; Bertholet, Sylvie; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2009-10-09

    Impairments in anti-influenza T helper 1 (Th1) responses are associated with greater risk of influenza-related mortality in the elderly. Addition of adjuvants to existing influenza vaccines could improve immune responses in the elderly. In this study, the activity of three adjuvants, an oil-in-water emulsion and a synthetic lipid A adjuvant formulated with or without the emulsion, is compared. Our results show that Fluzone combined with lipid A plus an emulsion effectively leads to greater vaccine-specific IgG2a and IgG titers, enhances hemagglutination-inhibition titers and induces Type 1 cytokine responses (IFN-gamma and IL-2) to each of the Fluzone components.

  14. The role of the humoral immune response to Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Infection: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, J.; Taylor, A.L.; Rao, K.; Huffnagle, G.; Young, V.B.; Rajkumar, C.; Cohen, J.; Papatheodorou, P.; Aronoff, D.M.; Llewelyn, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody levels to Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA), but not toxin B (TcdB), have been found to determine risk of C. difficile infection (CDI). Historically, TcdA was thought to be the key virulence factor; however the importance of TcdB in disease is now established. We re-evaluated the role of antibodies to TcdA and TcdB in determining patient susceptibility to CDI in two separate patient cohorts. In contrast to earlier studies, we find that CDI patients have lower pre-existing IgA titres to TcdB, but not TcdA, when compared to control patients. Our findings suggest that mucosal immunity to TcdB may be important in the early stages of infection and identifies a possible target for preventing CDI progression. PMID:24708941

  15. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul; Bowden, George H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The secretory immune response in saliva to colonization by Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 was studied in 10 human infants from birth to 2 years of age. Actinomyces species were not recovered from the mouths of the infants until approximately 4 months after the eruption of teeth. However, low levels of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (SIgA1) and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were detected within the first month after birth. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 over this period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, the A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. The fine specificities of A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies were examined by Western blotting of envelope proteins. Similarities in the molecular masses of proteins recognized by SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies, both within and between subjects over time, were examined by cluster analysis and showed considerable variability. Taken overall, our data suggest that among the mechanisms Actinomyces species employ to persist in the oral cavity are the induction of a limited immune response and clonal replacement with strains differing in their antigen profiles. PMID:9712779

  16. Molecular phenotyping of immune cells from young NOD mice reveals abnormal metabolic pathways in the early induction phase of autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Kakoola, Dorothy N; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Desiderio, Dominic M; Marshall, Dana R; Gerling, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse--a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The molecular events that lead to insulitis and initiate autoimmune diabetes are poorly understood. Since TID is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. We evaluated the molecular phenotype (mRNA and protein expression) and molecular networks of ex vivo unfractionated spleen leukocytes from 2 and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles and hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (~90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice were repressed. Furthermore, analysis using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis identified key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways. These included five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Based on the literature, genes that may play a role in regulating metabolic pathways at 2 weeks include Myc and HNF4A, and at 4 weeks, beta-estradiol, p53, Akt, HNF4A and AR. Our data suggest that abnormalities in regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune cells of young NOD mice lead to abnormalities in the immune response pathways and as such may play a role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, targeting metabolism may provide novel approaches to preventing and/or treating autoimmune diabetes.

  17. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  18. Adaptive HIV-specific B cell-derived humoral immune defenses of the intestinal mucosa in children exposed to HIV via breast-feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Moussa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. METHODS: Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n = 14 and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n = 8 and HIV-infected (n = 6 babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and breastfed babies (n = 10 as controls, were prospectively included at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM and anti-gp160 antibodies from mother's milk and stools of breastfed children were quantified by ELISA. Immunoaffinity purified anti-gp160 antibodies were characterized functionally regarding their capacity to reduce attachment and/or infection of R5- and X4- tropic HIV-1 strains on human colorectal epithelial HT29 cells line or monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM. RESULTS: The levels of total IgA and IgG were increased in milk of HIV-infected mothers and stools of HIV-exposed children, indicating the activation of B cell-derived mucosal immunity. Breast milk samples as well as stool samples from HIV-negative and HIV-infected babies exposed to HIV by breast-feeding, contained high levels of HIV-specific antibodies, mainly IgG antibodies, less frequently IgA antibodies, and rarely IgM antibodies. Relative ratios of excretion by reference to lactoferrin calculated for HIV-specific IgA, IgG and IgM in stools of HIV-exposed children were largely superior to 1, indicating active production of HIV-specific antibodies by the intestinal mucosa. Antibodies to gp160 purified from pooled stools of HIV-exposed breastfed children inhibited the attachment of HIV-1NDK on HT29 cells by 63% and on MDM by 77%, and the attachment of HIV-1JRCSF on MDM by 40%; and the infection of MDM by HIV-1JRCSF by 93%. CONCLUSIONS: The intestinal mucosa of children exposed to HIV by breast-feeding produces HIV-specific antibodies harbouring

  19. Humoral and intestinal immunity induced by new schedules of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and one or two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Latin American infants: an open-label randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asturias, Edwin J; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Self, Steve; Rivera, Luis; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Lopez, Eduardo; Melgar, Mario; Gaensbauer, James T; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Borate, Bhavesh R; Gast, Chris; Clemens, Ralf; Orenstein, Walter; O'Ryan G, Miguel; Jimeno, José; Clemens, Sue Ann Costa; Ward, Joel; Rüttimann, Ricardo

    2016-07-09

    Replacement of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) with bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are major steps in the polio endgame strategy. In this study, we assessed humoral and intestinal immunity in Latin American infants after three doses of bOPV combined with zero, one, or two doses of IPV. This open-label randomised controlled multicentre trial was part of a larger study. 6-week-old full-term infants due for their first polio vaccinations, who were healthy on physical examination, with no obvious medical conditions and no known chronic medical disorders, were enrolled from four investigational sites in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Panama. The infants were randomly assigned by permuted block randomisation (through the use of a computer-generated list, block size 36) to nine groups, of which five will be discussed in this report. These five groups were randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to four permutations of schedule: groups 1 and 2 (control groups) received bOPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks; group 3 (also a control group, which did not count as a permutation) received tOPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks; group 4 received bOPV plus one dose of IPV at 14 weeks; and group 5 received bOPV plus two doses of IPV at 14 and 36 weeks. Infants in all groups were challenged with monovalent type 2 vaccine (mOPV2) at 18 weeks (groups 1, 3, and 4) or 40 weeks (groups 2 and 5). The primary objective was to assess the superiority of bOPV-IPV schedules over bOPV alone, as assessed by the primary endpoints of humoral immunity (neutralising antibodies-ie, seroconversion) to all three serotypes and intestinal immunity (faecal viral shedding post-challenge) to serotype 2, analysed in the per-protocol population. Serious and medically important adverse events were monitored for up to 6 months after the study vaccination. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01831050, and has

  20. Humoral immune responses in rabbits induced by an experimental inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus vaccine prepared from F69 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传海; 郭中敏; 郑焕英; 陆家海; 王一飞; 鄢心革; 赵勇; 杜雄威; 张欣; 方苓; 凌文华; 戚树源; 余新炳; 钟南山

    2004-01-01

    Background The etiologic agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been confirmed to be a novel coronavirus (CoV), namely SARS-CoV. Developing safe and effective SARS-CoV vaccines is essential for us to prevent the possible reemergence of its epidemic. Previous experiences indicate that inactivated vaccine is conventional and more hopeful to be successfully developed. Immunogenicity evaluation of an experimental inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine in rabbits was conducted and reported in this paper.Methods The large-scale cultured SARS-CoV F69 strain was inactivated with 0.4% formaldehyde and purified, then used as the immunogen combined with Freund's adjuvant. Eight adult New Zealand rabbits were immunized four times with this experimental inactivated vaccine. Twelve sets of rabbit serum were sampled from the third day to the seventy-fourth day after the first vaccination. The titers of specific anti-SARS-CoV IgG antibody were determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the neutralizing antibody titers were detected with micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test.Conclusions The inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine made from F69 strain owns strong immunogenicity, and the cross neutralization response between the two different SARS-CoV strains gives a hint of the similar neutralizing epitopes, which provide stable bases for the development of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccines.

  1. RESPONSE OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS TO CANCER-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMORAL FACTORS OF IMMUNITY, AND PATHOHISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH GENITAL MALIGNANCIES CERVICAL EPITHELIAL DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Autenshlus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In vitro response of blood mononuclear cells to cancer-associated antigens was studied in women with genital pathology, and these results were compared with serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors of immunity, like as with histological features of genital cancer and cervical epithelial dysplasia. In vitro cellular response was regarded as positive, if relative amounts of CD8-positive lymphocytes increased by > 15% following incubation of blood mononuclears with cancer-associated antigens. Positive reaction and elevated serum levels of anti-TNFα and anti-IFNγ antibodies were associated with lesser malignancy of tumor, as proven by histological findings in the women with genital cancer. A positive cellular reaction was associated with increased serum levels of IFNγ and anti-TNFα in women with grade II–III cervical epithelial dysplasia. It is concluded about potential applicability of testing mononuclears with fetal proteins, to determine a grade of malignancy for the female genital tumors, as well as a degree of regenerative disturbances of cervical epithelium.

  2. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  3. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  4. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  5. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  6. The effects of reduced gluten barley diet on humoral and cell-mediated systemic immune responses of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P; Liu, David X; Moehs, Charles P

    2015-03-06

    Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading-by co-administration of additional treatments.

  7. Toxicology and humoral immunity assessment of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) following a 28-day whole body vapor inhalation exposure in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klykken, P C; Galbraith, T W; Kolesar, G B; Jean, P A; Woolhiser, M R; Elwell, M R; Burns-Naas, L A; Mast, R W; McCay, J A; White, K L; Munson, A E

    1999-11-01

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, D4, is a low viscosity, silicone fluid consisting of four dimethyl-siloxy units ((CH3)2SiO)4 in a cyclic structure. It is primarily used as a building block in the industrial synthesis of long chain silicone polymers. The combination of D4 with decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is commonly referred to as cyclomethicone which has a wide range of applications as a formulation aid in personal care products. To extend the existing database regarding the biological activities of D4, a 28 day whole body vapor inhalation study was conducted using Fischer 344 rats at 0 (room air), 7, 20, 60, 180 and 540 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week. Parameters measured included body weights, organ weights, gross pathology, histopathology, serum chemistries, and urinalysis. In addition to these standard toxicological endpoints, the ability of D4 exposed animals to mount an IgM antibody response was evaluated by a splenic antibody forming cell (AFC) assay and a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). The results of this 28-day inhalation study indicate that D4 exposure caused no adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, or urinalysis parameters. In addition, there were no exposure related histopathological alterations at any site for any exposure group. A statistically significant increase in liver weight and the liver to body weight ratio was observed in both male (180-540 ppm) and female (20-540 ppm) rats, which was not observed in the 14-day recovery group animals. There were no other significant organ weight changes. Although statistically significant changes were observed in several hematological and serum chemistry parameters in both the terminal and 14-day recovery animals, the changes were marginal and within the normal range of values for the rat. Under these experimental conditions, there were no alterations noted in immune system function at any of the D4 exposure levels.

  8. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-8 (IL-8 by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments.

  9. 工频电磁场对变电站作业人员体液免疫功能影响研究%Effects of exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields on humoral immune function in transformer substation workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎丽春; 闫雪华; 陈慧峰; 温薇; 李丽; 李华亮; 莫平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of long-term exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields on the humoral immune function in transformer substation workers.Methods By simple random sampling method, 64 workers with length of service longer than 5.0 years in 500 kV transformer substation were chosen as exposure group and 57 general administrative staffs without exposure to power frequency electromagnetic field were chosen as control group.Venous blood was collected from subjects of these two groups and the levels of immunoglobulin ( Ig) A, IgG, IgM, complement ( C) 3 and C4 in plasma were examined by immunoturbidimetry.Results Compared with the control group, the levels of both IgA and IgG increased (P10.0 years.Conclusion Long-term exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields may activate the humoral immune function in transformer substation workers.%目的:探讨长期接触工频电磁场对变电站作业人员体液免疫功能的影响。方法以单纯随机抽样方法抽取64名工龄5.0年以上的在500 kV变电站从事工频电磁场作业的人员为接触组,以57名无职业性接触工频电磁场的供电局后勤行政人员为对照组。采集2组人员肘静脉血,采用免疫比浊法测定血浆中免疫球蛋白( Ig) A、IgG、IgM、补体3和补体4水平。结果与对照组比较,接触组人群血浆中IgA和IgG水平均升高( P<0.05),补体3和补体4水平均下降(P<0.05)。与对照组比较,接触组工龄≤10.0年亚组人群血浆中IgG水平升高(P<0.05),补体3和补体4水平均下降(P<0.05);接触组工龄>10.0年亚组人群血浆中补体4水平下降(P<0.05)。结论长期职业性接触工频电磁场可能对作业人群体液免疫功能产生一定的激活作用。

  10. The effect of stellate ganglion block on humoral immunity at perioperative period in patients with breastcancer%星状神经节阻滞对乳腺癌围手术期体液免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡海峰; 王玉虎; 赵刚; 王钧

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on humoral immunity func-tion in patients who received modified radical mastectory (MRM). Methods Eigty female patients were randomly divided into control group(group Ⅰ ,n =40) and intervention group (group Ⅱ,n =40). Blood samples were taken pre-intervention (T1), after intervention ( T2 ) and 30 rain after operation ( T3 ) for the determination of lgG, IgA, IgM. Results Compared with T1, IgG, IgA, IgM at T2 and T3 in two groups were lowered, IgG [ ( 11.8±2.2 ) g/L vs (9.5 + 1.5) g/L,t = 5. 4630,P =0.0041 ] and IgA [(1.9±0.3)g/L vs (1.7±0.4) g/L,t =2. 5298,P = 0.0134 ] at T3 in group Ⅱ were significantly different as compared with that of group Ⅰ ; IgM at T2 [ (2.5±0.8 ) g/L vs (2.1±0.6)g/L,t =2.8276,P=0.0072] and T3[ (2.1±0.5)g/L vs (1.6±0.5)g/L,t =4.4721,P = 0.0000 ] was significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Preoperative-SGB can improve the inhibi-tion degree of humoral immunity caused by modified radical mastectory.%目的 观察星状神经节阻滞(SGB)对乳腺癌患者围手术期体液免疫的影响.方法 选择乳腺癌改良根治术女性患者80例,随机分为对照组40例,干预组40例.观察采用星状神经节阻滞干预前(T1)、干预后(T2)和术毕30min(T3)时IgG、IgA、IgM的变化并与时照组进行对比.结果 与T1比较,T2、T3时间点2组IgG、IgA、IgM均有不同程度下降(P<0.05,P<0.01).干预组与对照组比较T3时间点IgG[(11.8±2.2)g/L与(9.5±1.5)g/L,t=5.4630,P=0.0041]、IgA[(1.9±0.3)g/L与(1.7±0.4)g/L,t=2.5298,P=0.0134]差异均有统计学意义;干预组与对照组比较T2时间点IgM[(2.5±0.8)g/L与(2.1±0.6)g/L,t=2.8276,P=0.0072]、T3[(2.1±0.5)g/L与(1.6±0.5)g/L,t=4.4721,P=0.0000]差异均有统计学意义.结论 术前星状神经节阻滞可减轻乳腺癌改良根治术患者体液免疫的抑制程度.

  11. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  12. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  13. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  14. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  15. Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K

    1998-01-01

    with the HIV MN gp160 envelope plasmid induced a slow and low titred anti-MN V3 antibody response at 12 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) and a late appearing (7 weeks), weak and variable CTL response. In contrast, DNA vaccination with the HBsAg-encoding plasmid induced a rapid and high titred anti-HBsAg antibody...... response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V3/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL......-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of V3 in DNA vaccines, a plasmid expressing MN V3 as a fusion protein with the highly immunogenic middle (pre-S2 + S) surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) was constructed. Epidermal inoculation...

  16. Improved humoral and cellular immune response against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatites B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Nielsen, H.V.; Bryder, K.

    1998-01-01

    MN gp160 envelope plasmid induced a slow and low titred anti-MN V3 antibody response at 12 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) and a late appearing (7 weeks), weak and variable CTL response. In contrast, DNA vaccination with the HBsAg-encoding plasmid induced a rapid and high titred anti-HBsAg antibody...... response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V2/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL......-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of V3 in DNA vaccines, a plasmid expressing MN V3 as a fusion protein with the highly immunogenic middle (pre-S2+S) surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) was constructed. Epidermal inoculation...

  17. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  18. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by f