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Sample records for abnormal head posture

  1. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

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    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  2. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

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    Di Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP when watching television (TV in children 7-14y of age. METHODS: Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC and fusional divergence (FD amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4△, recovery point 8.7±5.4△. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3△, recovery point 10.3±5.1△. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7△, recovery point 2.6±2.3△ compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2△, recovery point 12.4±4.5△. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0△, recovery point 16.1±5.7△. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1△, recovery point 4.6±1.9△. Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction.

  3. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

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    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  4. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

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    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  5. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

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    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  6. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

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    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  7. Effect of 4-Horizontal Rectus Muscle Tenotomy on Visual Function and Eye Movement Records in Patients with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome without Abnormal Head Posture and Strabismus: A Prospective Study

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    Ahmad Ameri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tenotomy on visual function and eye movement records in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS without abnormal head posture (AHP and strabismusMethods: A prospective interventional case-series of patients with INS with no AHP or strabismus. Patients underwent 4-horizontal muscle tenotomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and eye movement recordings were compared pre and postoperatively.Results: Eight patients were recruited in this study with 3 to 15.5 months of follow-up. Patients showed significant improvement in their visual function. Overall nystagmus amplitude and velocity was decreased 30.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Improvements were more marked at right and left gazes. Conclusion: Tenotomy improves both visual function and eye movement records in INS with no strabismus and eccentric null point. The procedure has more effect on lateral gazes with worse waveforms, thus can broaden area with better visual function. We recommend this surgery in patients with INS but no associated AHP or strabismus.

  8. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  9. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

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    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  10. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

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    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TMJ DISORDER AND HEAD AND NECK POSTURE

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    Sesi R. Puspita Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders may be caused by variety of factors; one of which is the posture of head and neck. However, this remains controversial and a subject of debate by experts. The objective of this study was to know whether there was a relation between temporomandibular disorders and the head and neck posture seen radiographically. Subjects were 40 dental students from University of Indonesia who met the inclusion criteria, selected through questionnaire, and subjective examination based on Helkimo’s dysfunction index. Then, lateral cephalometric radiographs were done to all subjects. In the radiogram, a horizontal line was made from the nasion point to the sella tursica, and a vertical line was drawn along the prominent bone of C1 – C5. The angle between the two lines was measured, and used to represent the head and neck posture. The design of the study was cross sectional. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant relationship between the anamnestic dysfunction index as well as the clinical dysfunction index that represented the temporomandibular joint disorders and the posture of the head and neck seen radiographically.

  12. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

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    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  13. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

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    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  14. POSTURAL TACHYCARDIA IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS – WHAT IS ABNORMAL?

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    Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Opfer-Gehrking, Tonette L.; Brands, Chad K.; Fischer, Philip R.; Low, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the use of adult heart rate (HR) criteria is appropriate for diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic intolerance (OI) in children and adolescents and to establish normative data and diagnostic criteria for pediatric POTS and OI. Study design 106 normal controls between the ages 8 and 19 years (14.5±3.3 years) underwent standardized autonomic testing, including 5 minutes of 70 degree head-up tilt. The orthostatic HR increment and absolute orthostatic HR were assessed and retrospectively compared with 654 pediatric patients of similar age (15.5±2.3 years), who were referred to our Clinical Autonomic Laboratory with symptoms of OI. Results The HR increment was mildly higher in patients referred for POTS/OI but there was considerable overlap between patient and control group. 42% of normal controls had a HR increment of 30bpm or more. The 95th percentile for the orthostatic HR increment in normal controls was 42.9bpm. Absolute orthostatic HR showed a greater and more consistent difference between groups, although there was still considerable overlap. Conclusions The diagnostic criteria for OI/POTS in adults are inadequate for children and adolescents. Based on our normative data, new criteria are proposed for the diagnosis of OI and POTS in children and adolescents. PMID:21996154

  15. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

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    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  16. Influence of head posture on the visual acuity of children with nystagmus

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    Ana Carla Ramos Vieira da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluate the relationship between the postural alignment of the head and possible interference in the view of children. Methods: We evaluated 11 children between 2 and 7 years of age of both sexes, with the visually impaired, who had nystagmus and head lock position. The test Lea Grating Acuity Test® was used to collect measurements of visual acuity. This applied on two occasions: with and without postural alignment of the head. For reliability of the postural alignment of the head, the slopes were measured by Fisiologic® software. Results: The children had a poorer performance after physiological postural alignment. This poor performance is possible due to loss of position lock nystagmus to gain postural alignment, said to be ideal. Postural compensations were observed, and sharply increased eyestrain. Conclusion: The pursuit of traditional postural alignment affect the visual response of children with visual impairments.

  17. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

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    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  18. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders.

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    Lee, W Y; Okeson, J P; Lindroth, J

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorder symptoms. Thirty-three temporomandibular disorder patients with predominant complaints of masticatory muscle pain were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Head position was measured from photographs taken with a plumb line drawn from the ceiling to the lateral malleolus of the ankle and with a horizontal plane that was perpendicular to the plumb line and that passed through the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The distances from the plumb line to the ear, to the seventh vertebra, and to the shoulder were measured. Two angles were also measured: (1) ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane and (2) eye-ear-seventh cervical vertebra. The only measurement that revealed a statistically significant difference was angle ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane. This angle was smaller in the patients with temporomandibular disorders than in the control subjects. In other words, when evaluating the ear position with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra, the head was positioned more forward in the group with temporomandibular disorders than in the control group (P < .05).

  19. Photographic measurement of head and cervical posture when viewing mobile phone: a pilot study.

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    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Zeng, Ying; Su, Hang; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    With the dramatic growth of mobile phone usage, concerns have been raised with regard to the adverse health effects of mobile phone on spinal posture. The aim of this study was to determine the head and cervical postures by photogrammetry when viewing the mobile phone screen, compared with those in neutral standing posture. A total of 186 subjects (81 females and 105 males) aged from 17 to 31 years old participated in this study. Subjects were instructed to stand neutrally and using mobile phone as in daily life. Using a photographic method, the sagittal head and cervical postures were assessed by head tilt angle, neck tilt angle, forward head shift and gaze angle. The photographic method showed a high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in measuring the sagittal posture of cervical spine and gaze angle (ICCs ranged from 0.80 to 0.99). When looking at mobile phone, the head tilt angle significantly increased (from 74.55° to 95.22°, p = 0.000) and the neck angle decreased (from 54.68° to 38.77°, p = 0.000). The forward head posture was also confirmed by the significantly increased head shift (from 10.90 to 13.85 cm, p = 0.000). The posture assumed in mobile phone use was significantly correlated with neutral posture (p phone use. Compared to neutral standing, subjects display a more forward head posture when viewing the mobile phone screen, which is correlated with neutral posture, gaze angle and gender. Future studies will be needed to investigate a dose-response relationship between mobile phone use and assumed posture.

  20. STUDY OF POSTURAL ABNORMALITIES OF MALE STUDENTS OF SAHAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

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    Hefzollesan Mehrdad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been accomplished in order to examine the prevalence of postural abnormalities of male students. The statistical community was the whole male students in the university. From this community 300 students within the ages range of 18 - 22 were selected randomly as the investigation subjects. Data were obtained by a questionnaire, podoscope, a digital camera (taking photos of the subjects from Anterior, Posterior and lateral views and the software for corrective exercises provided by Iran ministry of education. After that the investigation was finished the abundance percentage was used to express the postural abnormalities percentage of the research subjects. The results show that cervical lordosis and flat foot are the most prevalent abnormalities with18.66 and 17.66 percent respectively, and torticollis and knee hyperextension have less prevalence in investigation subjects. The results show that among all of the participants in the investigation, 140 students (46.66 % have no abnormalities, 160 students (53.34 % have at least one, and 70 students (23.33 % have more than one. From this study it is obvious that the prevalence of the postural abnormalities among the statistical subjects is high. Therefore the need to a serious program concerning the abnormalities, especially ordering corrective exercises and also preparing the way for students to have physical activities seems to be inevitable.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

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    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals.

  2. Effect of awareness through movement on the head posture of bruxist children.

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    Quintero, Y; Restrepo, C C; Tamayo, V; Tamayo, M; Vélez, A L; Gallego, G; Peláez-Vargas, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy to improve the head posture and reduce the signs of bruxism in a group of bruxist children. A single-blind randomized clinical trial was performed. All the subjects were 3- to 6-year old, had complete primary dentition, dental and skeletal class I occlusion and were classified as bruxist according to the minimal criteria of the ICSD for bruxism. For each child, a clinical, photographic and radiographic evaluation of the head and cervical posture were realized with standardized techniques. The children were randomized in an experimental (n = 13) and a control (n = 13) group. A physiotherapeutic intervention was applied to the children of the experimental group once a week, until 10 sessions were completed. Afterwards, the cephalogram and the clinical and photographic evaluation of the head posture were measured again. The data were analysed with the t-test and Mann-Whitney test. The subjects of the experimental group showed statistically significant improvement in the natural head posture. The physiotherapeutic intervention showed to be efficient to improve the head posture at the moment of measurement in the studied children. The relationship between bruxism and head posture, if exists, seems to be worthwhile to examine.

  3. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP® case report.

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    Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.

  4. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were...... posture were made on profile radiographs. RESULTS: Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more...... extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P posture was associated with craniofacial morphology: extended posture was associated with a large cranial base angle...

  5. Neck muscle endurance and head posture: A comparison between adolescents with and without neck pain.

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    Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-04-01

    The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The study of correlation between forward head posture and neck pain in Iranian office workers.

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    Nejati, Parisa; Lotfian, Sara; Moezy, Azar; Nejati, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as prolonged sitting at work or improper posture of head during work may have a great role in neck pain occurrence among office employees, particularly among those who work with computers. Although some studies claim a significant difference in head posture between patients and pain-free participants, in literature the forward head posture (FHP) has not always been associated with neck pain. Since head, cervical and thoracic postures and their relation with neck pain has not been studied in Iranian office employees, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between some work-related and individual factors, such as poor posture, with neck pain in the office employees. It was a cross-sectional correlation study carried out to explore the relationship between neck pain and sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine among office employees in forward looking position and also in a working position. Forty-six subjects without neck pain and 55 with neck pain were examined using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured using the high thoracic (HT) and craniovertebral (CV) angles, respectively. High thoracic and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p 0.05). Our findings have revealed that office employees had a defective posture while working and that the improper posture was more severe in the office employees who suffered from the neck pain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Assessment of forward head posture in females: observational and photogrammetry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahzadeh, Zahra; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Behtash, Hamid; Razmjoo, Arash; Gohari, Mahmoud; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    There are different methods to assess forward head posture (FHP) but the accuracy and discrimination ability of these methods are not clear. Here, we want to compare three postural angles for FHP assessment and also study the discrimination accuracy of three photogrammetric methods to differentiate groups categorized based on observational method. All Seventy-eight healthy female participants (23 ± 2.63 years), were classified into three groups: moderate-severe FHP, slight FHP and non FHP based on observational postural assessment rules. Applying three photogrammetric methods - craniovertebral angle, head title angle and head position angle - to measure FHP objectively. One - way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in three categorized group's craniovertebral angle (P< 0.05, F=83.07). There was no dramatic difference in head tilt angle and head position angle methods in three groups. According to Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) results, the canonical discriminant function (Wilks'Lambda) was 0.311 for craniovertebral angle with 79.5% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Our results showed that, craniovertebral angle method may discriminate the females with moderate-severe and non FHP more accurate than head position angle and head tilt angle. The photogrammetric method had excellent inter and intra rater reliability to assess the head and cervical posture.

  8. Posture, head stability, and orientation recovery during vestibular regeneration in pigeons.

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    Dickman, J David; Lim, Insook

    2004-09-01

    Compensatory behavior such as oculomotor, gaze, and postural responses that occur during movement largely depend upon a functioning vestibular system. In the present study, the initial loss and subsequent recovery of postural and head stability in pigeons undergoing vestibular regeneration were examined. Adult pigeons were trained to manipulate a straight run chamber to peck an illuminated key for fluid reward. Six behavioral measures assessing performance, posture, and head stability were quantified. These included run latency, steps (walking), path negotiation (lane changes), gaze saccades, head bobs, and head shakes. Once normative values were obtained for four birds, complete lesion of all receptor cells and denervation of the epithelia in the vestibular endorgans were produced using a single intralabyrinthine application of streptomycin sulfate. Each bird was then tested at specific times during regeneration and the same behavioral measures examined. At 7 days post-streptomycin treatment (PST), all birds exhibited severe postural and head instability, with tremors, head shakes, staggering, and circling predominating. No normal trial runs, walking, gaze saccades, or head bobs were present. Many of these dysfunctions persisted through 3-4 weeks PST. Gradually, tremor and head shakes diminished and were replaced with an increasing number of normal head bobs during steps and gaze saccades. Beginning at 4 weeks PST, but largely inaccurate, was the observed initiation of directed steps, less staggering, and some successful path negotiation. As regeneration progressed, spatial orientation and navigation ability increased and, by 49 days PST, most trials were successful. By 70 days PST, all birds had recovered to pretreatment levels. Thus, it was observed that ataxia must subside, coincident with normalized head and postural stability prior to the recovery of spatial orientation and path navigation recovery. Parallels in recovery were drawn to hair cell regeneration

  9. Functional synergies underlying control of upright posture during changes in head orientation.

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    Eunse Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of human upright posture typically have stressed the need to control ankle and hip joints to achieve postural stability. Recent studies, however, suggest that postural stability involves multi degree-of-freedom (DOF coordination, especially when performing supra-postural tasks. This study investigated kinematic synergies related to control of the body's position in space (two, four and six DOF models and changes in the head's orientation (six DOF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects either tracked a vertically moving target with a head-mounted laser pointer or fixated a stationary point during 4-min trials. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis was performed across tracking cycles at each point in time to determine the structure of joint configuration variance related to postural stability or tracking consistency. The effect of simulated removal of covariance among joints on that structure was investigated to further determine the role of multijoint coordination. Results indicated that cervical joint motion was poorly coordinated with other joints to stabilize the position of the body center of mass (CM. However, cervical joints were coordinated in a flexible manner with more caudal joints to achieve consistent changes in head orientation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An understanding of multijoint coordination requires reference to the stability/control of important performance variables. The nature of that coordination differs depending on the reference variable. Stability of upright posture primarily involved multijoint coordination of lower extremity and lower trunk joints. Consistent changes in the orientation of the head, however, required flexible coordination of those joints with motion of the cervical spine. A two-segment model of postural control was unable to account for the observed stability of the CM position during the tracking task, further supporting the need to consider multijoint coordination to

  10. The association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Susan Armijo; Bravo, Jaime; Magee, David J; Thie, Norman M R; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    To carry out a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in all languages with the help of a health sciences librarian. Key words used in the search were posture, head posture, cervical spine or neck, vertebrae, cervical lordosis, craniomandibular disorders or temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, and orofacial pain or facial pain. Abstracts which appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles and their references were hand-searched for possible missing articles. Twelve studies met all inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail for their methodology and information quality. Nine articles that analyzed the association between head posture and TMD included patients with mixed TMD diagnosis; 1 article differentiated among muscular, articular, and mixed symptomatology; and 3 articles analyzed information from patients with only articular problems. Finally, 2 studies evaluated the association between head posture and TMD in patients with muscular TMD. Several methodological defects were noted in the 12 studies. Since most of the studies included in this systematic review were of poor methodological quality, the findings of the studies should be interpreted with caution. The association between intra-articular and muscular TMD and head and cervical posture is still unclear, and better controlled studies with comprehensive TMD diagnoses, greater sample sizes, and objective posture evaluation are necessary.

  11. Nintendo Wii remote controllers for head posture measurement: accuracy, validity, and reliability of the infrared optical head tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Ik Gyu; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture. The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20-37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT. In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively. The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test-retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture-measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture-measuring device in clinical practice.

  12. The impact of elbow and knee joint lesions on abnormal gait and posture of sows

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    Jørgensen Bente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint lesions occur widespread in the Danish sow population and they are the most frequent cause for euthanasia. Clinically, it is generally impossible to differentiate between various types of non-inflammatory joint lesions. Consequently, it is often necessary to perform a post mortem examination in order to diagnose these lesions. A study was performed in order to examine the relation of abnormal gait and posture in sows with specific joint lesions, and thereby obtaining a clinical diagnostic tool, to be used by farmers and veterinarians for the evaluation of sows with joint problems. Methods The gait, posture and lesions in elbow- and knee joints of 60 randomly selected sows from one herd were scored clinically and pathologically. Associations between the scorings were estimated. Results The variables 'fore- and hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in front and rear' were associated with lesions in the elbow joint, and the variables 'hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in rear' were associated with lesions in the knee joint. Conclusion It was shown that specified gait and posture variables reflected certain joint lesions. However, further studies are needed to strengthen and optimize the diagnostic tool.

  13. Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggare, J A; Raustia, A M

    1992-07-01

    A relationship between particular characteristics of dental occlusion and craniomandibular disorders (CMD) has been reported, while less attention has been focused on the possible effect of dysfunction of the masticatory system on head posture or cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology. Natural head position roentgen-cephalograms of 16 young adults with complete dentition taken before and after stomatognathic treatment displayed an extended head posture, smaller size of the uppermost cervical vertebrae, decreased posterior to anterior face height ratio, and a flattened cranial base as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The lordosis of the cervical spine straightened after stomatognathic treatment. The results are an indication of the close interrelationship between the masticatory muscle system and the muscles supporting the head, and lead to speculation on the principles of treating craniomandibular disorders.

  14. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

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    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns

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    Thompson, Lara A.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one, single animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals’ posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body’s center-of-mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison to the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction. PMID:27405997

  16. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

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    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with 99m Tc or 113m In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Postural responses of head and foot cutaneous microvascular flow and their sensitivity to bed rest

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    Aratow, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.; Meyer, J.-UWE; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the mechanism for facial puffiness, headache, and nasal congestion associated with microgravity and cephalad fluid shifts, the postural responses of the cutaneous microcirculation (CMC) in the forehead and dorsum of the foot of eight healthy men were studied by changing body position on a tilt table and measuring blood flows with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Increasing arterial pressure in the feet by moving from a -6-deg head-down tilt to a 60-deg head-up posture decreased foot CMC by 46.5 + or - 12.0 percent. Raising arterial pressure in the head increased forehead CMC by 25.5 + or - 0.7 percent (p less than 0.05). To investigate the possibility that these opposite responses could be modified by simulated microgravity, tilt test were repeated after 7 d of -6-deg head-down-tilt bed rest. The responses were not significantly different from those recorded before bed rest. Therefore, CMC in the feet is well regulated to prevent edema when shifting to an upright position, whereas there is less regulation in the head CMC.

  18. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  19. The relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and head and cervical posture.

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    Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Menezes, Alynne Vieira; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of any correlation between disc displacement and parameters used for evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine: craniocervical angle, suboccipital space between C0-C1, cervical curvature and position of the hyoid bone in individuals with and without symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. The patients were evaluated following the guidelines set forth by RDC/TMD. Evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for establishment of disc positioning in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 30 volunteer patients without temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and 30 patients with symptoms. Evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine was performed on lateral cephalograms achieved with the individual in natural head position. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. To measure the degree of reproducibility/agreements between surveys, the kappa (K) statistics was used. Significant differences were observed between C0-C1 measurement for both symptomatic (p=0.04) and asymptomatic (p=0.02). No statistical differences were observed regarding craniocervical angle, C1-C2 and hyoid bone position in relation to the TMJs with and without disc displacement. Although statistically significant difference was found in the C0-C1 space, no association between these and internal temporomandibular joint disorder can be considered. Based on the results observed in this study, no direct relationship could be determined between the presence of disc displacement and the variables assessed.

  20. The relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and head and cervical posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Matheus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of any correlation between disc displacement and parameters used for evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine: craniocervical angle, suboccipital space between C0-C1, cervical curvature and position of the hyoid bone in individuals with and without symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients were evaluated following the guidelines set forth by RDC/TMD. Evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for establishment of disc positioning in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 30 volunteer patients without temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and 30 patients with symptoms. Evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine was performed on lateral cephalograms achieved with the individual in natural head position. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. To measure the degree of reproducibility/agreements between surveys, the kappa (K statistics was used. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between C0-C1 measurement for both symptomatic (p=0.04 and asymptomatic (p=0.02. No statistical differences were observed regarding craniocervical angle, C1-C2 and hyoid bone position in relation to the TMJs with and without disc displacement. Although statistically significant difference was found in the C0-C1 space, no association between these and internal temporomandibular joint disorder can be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results observed in this study, no direct relationship could be determined between the presence of disc displacement and the variables assessed.

  1. Ocular Causes of Abnormal Head Position: Strabismus Clinic Data

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    Kadriye Erkan Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the most common ocular causes and types of abnormal head position (AHP and describe their clinical features. Materials and Methods: Patients with AHP who had been followed in the strabismus unit were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features and orthoptic characteristics were recorded. Results: A total of 163 patients including 61 women (37.4% and 102 men (62.6%, with a mean age of 19.9±18.3 were recruited. The most common causes of AHP were determined as fourth cranial nerve palsy (33.7%, Duane retraction syndrome (21.5%, sixth cranial nerve palsy (11%, nystagmus blockage syndrome (9.8% and Brown syndrome (6.7%. Other less frequent causes were A-V pattern strabismus, comitant strabismus, thyroid orbitopathy and third cranial nerve palsy. The most common types of AHP were head tilt (45.4% and face turn (36.8%. Out of 142 patients whose visual acuity could be evaluated, 28.2% had amblyopia. The frequency of amblyopia varied depending on the diagnosis (p<0.001, while there was no relation between amblyopia and different types of AHP (p=0.497. Stereopsis and fusion could be tested in 128 patients and 43.8% of them had stereopsis and fusion. The presence of stereopsis and fusion was found to be related with the diagnosis (p=0.001, whereas it was not related with the types of AHP (p=0.580. The presence of amblyopia was not significantly associated with fusion (p=1.000 or stereopsis (p=0.602. Conclusion: There are many ocular pathologies that cause AHP. Patients with similar diagnoses may have different types of AHP. Patients may have amblyopia and impaired binocularity despite AHP. Therefore, all patients with AHP should be examined in detail and these points should be considered in the treatment plan.

  2. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of abnormal posture and gait disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Agari, Takashi; Date, Isao

    2012-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with axial symptoms, including abnormal posture, postural instability, and gait disorder. Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective for pain, little is known about the effect of SCS on motor function in PD patients. The present study investigated the effect of SCS on posture and gait in 15 PD patients, 5 men and 10 women aged 63-79 years (mean 71.1 years), with low back pain and leg pain who received SCS. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain evaluation pre- and postoperatively. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Timed Up and Go tests, and Timed 10-Meter Walk tests were used to evaluate motor function and activities of daily living of patients. Preoperative mean VAS score was 8.9 (range 7.8-10), which showed significant postoperative improvement at 3 months to mean VAS score of 2.0 (range 0-3.3). The improvements in VAS scores persisted at 12 months after surgery with mean VAS score of 2.3 (range 0-4). Posture and postural stability motor subscores were improved at 3 months after SCS, and gait had significantly improved at 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Timed 10-Meter Walk tests also demonstrated that patient gait was significantly improved at 3 months and 12 months after surgery. Most advanced stage PD patients suffer considerable pain that causes abnormal posture and gait disturbance. SCS is expected to lead to both amelioration of pain and improvement of motor function in such patients.

  3. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  4. Postural control and head stability during natural gaze behaviour in 6- to 12-year-old children.

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    Schärli, A M; van de Langenberg, R; Murer, K; Müller, R M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated how the influence of natural exploratory gaze behaviour on postural control develops from childhood into adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, we compared four age groups: 6-, 9-, 12-year-olds and young adults. Two experimental trials were performed: quiet stance with a fixed gaze (fixed) and quiet stance with natural exploratory gaze behaviour (exploratory). The latter was elicited by having participants watch an animated short film on a large screen in front of them. 3D head rotations in space and centre of pressure (COP) excursions on the ground plane were measured. Across conditions, both head rotation and COP displacement decreased with increasing age. Head movement was greater in the exploratory condition in all age groups. In all children-but not in adults-COP displacement was markedly greater in the exploratory condition. Bivariate correlations across groups showed highly significant positive correlations between COP displacement in ML direction and head rotation in yaw, roll, and pitch in both conditions. The regularity of COP displacements did not show a clear developmental trend, which indicates that COP dynamics were qualitatively similar across age groups. Together, the results suggest that the contribution of head movement to eye-head saccades decreases with age and that head instability-in part resulting from such gaze-related head movements-is an important limiting factor in children's postural control. The lack of head stabilisation might particularly affect children in everyday activities in which both postural control and visual exploration are required.

  5. Successful treatment of pill-swallowing difficulties with head posture practice.

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    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Steiger, Roberta A; Pope, Jamie; Marsh, Ashley; Sharp, Maegan; Crawford, Susan G

    2010-05-01

    Clinics often encounter neurologically intact patients who are unable to swallow pills. All of the interventions published previously have used traditional behavioural techniques, which are time consuming and often not helpful. To determine whether children who had never been able to swallow a whole pill could become successful as a result of an intervention based on head posture. A novel intervention was developed based on published research showing that changing head position alters swallowing dynamics. The method was developed in two studies of 240 adults and children, pilot tested in a study of 108 university students with very mild pill-swallowing discomfort, and then evaluated in a study of 41 children who had never successfully swallowed a pill in spite of much instruction and coaxing. Children were recruited from a tertiary paediatric hospital: 34 were clinic patients, four were their siblings or friends, and three were children of hospital staff. The primary intervention involved teaching five head positions (centre, up, down, left and right) followed by a two-week period of daily practice. EIGHT CHILDREN (ALL CLINIC REFERRALS) WITHDREW WITHOUT PRACTICING: four were too ill to practice (primarily due to sedation or nausea) and four simply refused to do the homework practice. All 33 of the children who were able and willing to practice daily were successful. Practice with head posture variations was successful in treating pill-swallowing difficulties in all 33 children who practiced for 14 days. A training video can be viewed at www.ucalgary.ca/research4kids/pillswallowing.

  6. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture

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    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities. PMID:27821966

  7. The Evaluation of Head and Craniocervical Posture among Patients with and without Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddu, Shweta Channavir; Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Valappila, Nidhin J; Ravi, Beena Varma

    2015-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common non-dental cause of orofacial pain with a multifactorial aetiology. To evaluate the head and craniocervical posture between individuals with and without TMD and its sub types by photographic and radiographic method. Thirty four TMD patients diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD's (RDC/TMD) and were divided into 2 groups: Group I (muscle disorder), Group II (disc displacement). Control group comprised of 34 age and sex matched subjects without TMD. Lateral view photographs were taken and the head posture angle was measured. Craniocervical posture was assessed on lateral skull radiograph with two angles (Craniocervical Angle, Cervical Curvature Angle) and two distances (Suboccipital Space, Atlas-Axis Distance). To compare the results, t-test was used with significance level of 0.05. Head posture showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) between Group I, II and control group in both photographic and radiographic methods. The cervical curvature angle showed significant difference (p = 0.045) in Group I only. Atlas-Axis Distance was statistically significant in Group II (p = 0.001). The present study confirmed that there is a negative association of head posture and TMD whereas, cervical lordosis was present in Group I only.

  8. [Abnormal head turn in a patient with Brown's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waveren, M; Krzizok, T; Besch, D

    2008-08-01

    We report on an eight-year-old boy, who was presented in our clinic because of head turn. The cause of the tortecollis (ocular or general) in this case was and still cannot be explained. Only by applying extensive prism adaptation tests it was possible to prove the ocular character of the head turn. An eight-year-old boy with Brown's syndrome was referred to us because of a head tilt to the left side. Six months previously surgery on the M. obl. superior of the right eye was performed in another clinic. No improvement of the head tilt could be observed after the operation. In addition, an exotropia became decompensated. Under a 3-day occlusion of one eye, no change of the head turn and the squint could be measured. No other cause of the head turn could be found by an orthopaedist and a paediatrist. Under a prism of 20 cm/m basis in and 10 cm/m basis against the positive vertical deviation, the head tilt decreased, so that we decided to do a second surgery. The head tilting had not resumed at one year after the surgery. Although the initial diagnostic findings ruled out an ocular cause, it was possible to lessen the head tilting with the aid of the prism adaptation test. This case study emphasises the usefulness of a prism adaptation test of several days duration in order to validate an ocular cause of head turn and to determine an adequate indication for surgery.

  9. Relationship between head posture and lumbar curve in a sitting position: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilene Maria Cota Aroeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The sitting position routinely used for a wide variety of tasks increases the potential of developing forward head posture, which can seriously compromise the health of different systems in the human body. Objective: A static equilibrium analysis was conducted, comparing the position of the head with the lumbar curve in three different sitting positions. Methods: The approximate force and flexion moment of the head extensor muscles in static equilibrium was calculated in each of the following positions: (A without a backrest; (B using a backrest with a 100° tilt angle; (C using a 100° tilted backrest associated with a cylindrical lumbar support cushion at the level of the L3 vertebra. Results: The C7-tragus angles were 43°, 50° and 52°; Frankfort horizontal plane (FH angles were 5°, 9° and 9°; force of the head extensor muscles was 53.0N, 59.7N and 43.5N and flexion moments were 2.60Nm, 2.05Nm and 1.78Nm, in positions A, B and C, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that the sitting position using a 100° tilted backrest and lumbar support with the smallest L3-tragus horizontal distance required less effort by the head and neck extensor muscles to retain the head in equilibrium. This study demonstrated the need to preserve the physiology of the lumbar spine, characterized by the position of the L3 vertebra, in order to ensure good head position.

  10. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  11. Repetitive head impacts do not affect postural control following a competitive athletic season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas G; Grimes, Katelyn E; Shiflett, Eric D; Munkasy, Barry A; D'Amico, Nathan R; Mormile, Megan E; Powell, Douglas W; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-10-03

    Evidence suggests that Repetitive Head Impacts (RHI) directly influence the brain over the course of a single contact collision season yet do not significantly impact a player's performance on the standard clinical concussion assessment battery. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in static postural control after a season of RHI in Division I football athletes using more sensitive measures of postural control as compared to a non-head contact sports. Fourteen Division I football players (CON) (age=20.4±1.12years) and fourteen non-contact athletes (NON) (2 male, 11 female; age=19.85±1.21years) completed a single trial of two minutes of eyes open quiet upright stance on a force platform (1000Hz) prior to athletic participation (PRE) and at the end of the athletic season (POST). All CON athletes wore helmets outfitted with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) sensors and total number of RHI and linear accelerations forces of each RHI were recorded. Center of pressure root mean square (RMS), peak excursion velocity (PEV), and sample entropy (SampEn) in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were calculated. CON group experienced 649.5±496.8 mean number of impacts, 27.1±3.0 mean linear accelerations, with ≈1% of total player impacts exceeded 98g over the course of the season. There were no significant interactions for group x time RMS in the AP (p=0.434) and ML (p=0.114) directions, PEV in the AP (p=0.262) and ML (p=0.977) directions, and SampEn in the AP (p=0.499) and ML (p=0.984) directions. In addition, no significant interactions for group were observed for RMS in the AP (p=0.105) and ML (p=0.272) directions, PEV in the AP (p=0.081) and ML (p=0.143) directions, and SampEn in the AP (p=0.583) and ML (p=0.129) directions. These results suggest that over the course of a single competitive season, RHI do not negatively impact postural control even when measured with sensitive non-linear metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. Head movements evoked in alert rhesus monkey by vestibular prosthesis stimulation: implications for postural and gaze stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E Mitchell

    Full Text Available The vestibular system detects motion of the head in space and in turn generates reflexes that are vital for our daily activities. The eye movements produced by the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR play an essential role in stabilizing the visual axis (gaze, while vestibulo-spinal reflexes ensure the maintenance of head and body posture. The neuronal pathways from the vestibular periphery to the cervical spinal cord potentially serve a dual role, since they function to stabilize the head relative to inertial space and could thus contribute to gaze (eye-in-head + head-in-space and posture stabilization. To date, however, the functional significance of vestibular-neck pathways in alert primates remains a matter of debate. Here we used a vestibular prosthesis to 1 quantify vestibularly-driven head movements in primates, and 2 assess whether these evoked head movements make a significant contribution to gaze as well as postural stabilization. We stimulated electrodes implanted in the horizontal semicircular canal of alert rhesus monkeys, and measured the head and eye movements evoked during a 100 ms time period for which the contribution of longer latency voluntary inputs to the neck would be minimal. Our results show that prosthetic stimulation evoked significant head movements with latencies consistent with known vestibulo-spinal pathways. Furthermore, while the evoked head movements were substantially smaller than the coincidently evoked eye movements, they made a significant contribution to gaze stabilization, complementing the VOR to ensure that the appropriate gaze response is achieved. We speculate that analogous compensatory head movements will be evoked when implanted prosthetic devices are transitioned to human patients.

  13. Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    . The patients were divided into 4 groups according to fusion in the cervical vertebrae: group I, no fusions (42 subjects); group II, fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 and 3 (15 subjects); group III, occipitalization (10 subjects); and group IV, block fusion (11 subjects). Mean differences of craniofacial...... dimensions between the groups were assessed by unpaired t tests. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between groups I and III. Between groups I and II, significant differences were seen in jaw relationship (P face height and mandibular length deviated...... significantly. No significant differences were seen in head posture. CONCLUSIONS: OSA patients with block fusions in the cervical vertebrae and fusion of 2 vertebrae differed significantly in craniofacial profile from other OSA patients....

  14. Postural ortostatisk takykardisyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  15. Clinical Symptoms of Minor Head Trauma and Abnormal Computed Tomography Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghsoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Minor head trauma accounts for 70% to 90% of all head traumas. Previous studies stated that minor head traumas were associated with 7% - 20% significant abnormal findings in brain computed tomography (CT-scans. Objectives The aim of this study was to reevaluate clinical criteria of taking brain CT scan in patients who suffered from minor head trauma. Patients and Methods We enrolled 680 patients presented to an academic trauma hospital with minor head trauma in a prospective manner. All participants underwent brain CT scan if they met the inclusion criteria and the results of scans were compared with clinical examination finding. Results Loss of consciousness (GCS drop or amnesia was markedly associated with abnormal brain CT scan (P < 0.05. Interestingly, we found 7 patients with normal clinical examination but significant abnormal brain CT scan. Conclusions According to the results of our study, we recommend that all patients with minor head trauma underwent brain CT scan in order not to miss any life-threatening head injuries.

  16. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Kuraya, Kazue; Sumiyoshi, Minoru; Seki, Shuichiro; Murakami, Naoki

    1982-01-01

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Head posture and neck pain of chronic nontraumatic origin: a comparison between patients and pain-free persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Punt, T David; Sharples, Paul; Vilas-Boas, João P; Johnson, Mark I

    2009-04-01

    To compare standing head posture measurements between patients with nontraumatic neck pain (NP) and pain-free individuals. Single-blind (assessor) cross-sectional study. Hospital and general community. Consecutive patients (n=40) with chronic nontraumatic NP and age- and sex-matched pain-free participants (n=40). Not applicable. Three angular measurements: the angle between C7, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal; the angle between the tragus of the ear, the eye, and the horizontal; and the angle between the inferior margins of the right and the left ear and the horizontal were calculated through the digitization of video images. NP patients were found to have a significantly smaller angle between C7, the tragus, and the horizontal, resulting in a more forward head posture than pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 45.4 degrees +/-6.8 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 48.6 degrees +/-7.1 degrees ; P50y) revealed an interaction, with a statistically significant difference in head posture for younger participants with NP compared with younger pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 46.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 51.8 degrees +/-5.9 degrees ; P.05; CI for the difference between groups, -4.9 degrees -4.2 degrees ). No other differences were found between patients and pain-free participants. Younger patients with chronic nontraumatic NP were shown to have a more forward head posture in standing than matched pain-free participants. However, the difference, although statistically significant, was perhaps too small to be clinically meaningful.

  18. Evaluation of head-collision safety of a 7-DOF manipulator according to posture variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong, E-mail: rome582@khu.ac.kr; Park, In Jun, E-mail: demianjun@gmail.com; Choi, Jin-Hwan, E-mail: jhchoi@khu.ac.kr; Rhim, Sungsoo, E-mail: ssrhim@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As the need for the improvement of the productivity in the manufacturing process grows, industrial robots are brought out of the safety fences and used in the direct collaborative operation with human workers. Consequently, the intended and/or unintended contact between the human and the robot in the collaborative operation is no longer an extraordinary event and is a mundane possibility. The level of the risk of the collision depends on various quantities associated with the collision, for example, inertia, velocity, stiffness, and so on. MSI (manipulator safety index) which is based on HIC (head injury criteria) conventionally used in the automotive industry is one of the practically available measures to estimate the risk of the collision between the human and the manipulator. In this paper MSI is applied to evaluate the collision safety of a 7-DOF articulated human-arm-like manipulator. The risk of the collision could be reduced by choosing different postures without deviating from the given end-effector trajectory using the redundant degree of freedom in the 7-DOF manipulator. The paper shows how the redundant degree of the freedom is utilized to design safer trajectories and/or safer manipulator configurations among many available. A parametric analysis and simulation results for a given trajectory illustrate the usefulness of the concept of the trajectory design for alleviating the risk of the manipulator operation in the human–robot coexisting workspace.

  19. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  20. Periodic upright posture negates the suppression of neuroendocrine response to head down bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Vernikos, J.; Evans, J.; Ohara, D.

    1992-01-01

    Head down bedrest (HDT) decreases plasma neurohormone levels, attaining a nadir within four hours. The present study evaluates the effect of periodic standing or exercises (+G(z)) on this acute suppression of plasma neurohormones. Methods: Nine male subjects (mean plus or minus SE age 37 plus or minus 2 yr; height 182 plus or minus 2 cm; weight 83 plus or minus 3 kg) were admitted to the Human Research Facility on three occasions separated by one month. Subjects were assigned to head down tilt (minus 6 degrees) or 15-minutes of standing or moderate exercise at the end of each hour. Initially during an ambulatory period, subjects were placed in a supine position for 45-min and a control blood sample obtained. The next day following 4 hours of HDT with or without standing or exercise a blood sample was taken 45-min (3 3/4 hours into HDT) after the preceding stand or exercise. Blood was withdrawn and all plasma samples frozen for determination of neurohormone levels within the same assay. Plasma aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were measured by electrochemical detection following HPLC. Values were compared by ANOVA, P less than 0.05. Results: Control levels following 45-min supine were not different between treatments. HDT suppressed plasma aldosterone (13.9 plus or minus 3.7 to 6.6 plus or minus 0.7 ng/dl) and NE levels (299 plus or minus 35 to 217 plus or minus 23 pg/dl), E (69 plus or minus 15 to 65 plus or minus 21 pg/ml), and PRA (0.64 plus or minus 0.13 to 0.58 plus or minus 0.17 ngAl/m/hr) were not significantly altered. Standing or exercise negated the decrease in aldosterone and NE levels due to HDT. Conclusions: Periodic upright posture (+G(z)) with or without exercise for 15-min out of each hour negates the acute suppression of aldosterone and NE associated with HDT.

  1. Effect of Head and Tongue Posture on the Pharyngeal Airway Dimensions and Morphology in Three-Dimensional Imaging: a Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurani, Sirwan Fernandez; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Cattaneo, Paolo M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Natural head position is recommended to be optimal at cone-beam computed tomography acquisition. For standardization purposes in control of treatment outcome, it is clinically relevant to discuss, if a change of posture from natural head position may have an effect on the pharyngeal...

  2. Postural ortostatisk takykardi-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  3. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  4. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria L; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-05-01

    To assess the differences in the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in head and neck muscles, forward head posture (FHP) and neck mobility between episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we assess the relationship between these muscle TrPs, FHP, neck mobility, and several clinical variables concerning the intensity and the temporal profile of headache. TTH is a headache in which musculoskeletal disorders of the craniocervical region might play an important role in its pathogenesis. Design.-A blinded, controlled pilot study. Fifteen ETTH subjects and 15 matched controls without headache were studied. TrPs in both upper trapezius, both sternocleidomastoids, and both temporalis muscles were identified according to Simons and Gerwin diagnostic criteria (tenderness in a hypersensible spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain with palpation). Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in both sitting and standing positions, in order to assess FHP by measuring the craniovertebral angle. A cervical goniometer was employed to measure neck mobility. All measures were taken by a blinded assessor. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to assess headache intensity, frequency, and duration. The mean number of TrPs for each ETTH subject was 3.7 (SD: 1.3), of which 1.9 (SD: 0.9) were active, and 1.8 (SD: 0.9) were latent. Control subjects only had latent TrPs (mean: 1.5; SD: 1). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P .05). Differences in the distribution of TrPs were significant for the right upper trapezius muscles (P= .04), the left sternocleidomastoid (P= .03), and both temporalis muscles (P < .001). Within the ETTH group, headache intensity, frequency, and duration outcomes did not differ depending on TrP activity, whether the TrP was active or latent. The craniovertebral angle was smaller, ie, there was a

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  7. Effect of the Oculus Rift head mounted display on postural stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epure, Paula; Gheorghe, Cristina; Nissen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    board controlling a skiing game. Two tests were conducted: full-vision versus blindfolded and HMD versus monitor display. Results were that five of the six balance-impaired adults and six of the eight non-balance-impaired adults showed higher degree of postural stability while using a monitor display......This study explored how a HMD-experienced virtual environment influences physical balance of six balance-impaired adults 59-69 years-of-age, when compared to a control group of eight non-balance-impaired adults, 18-28 years-of-age. The setup included a Microsoft Kinect and a self-created balance....... Conclusions are that HMD, used in this context, leads to postural instability....

  8. Effects of complete denture wearing on the head posture and posterior airway space: A cephalometric study†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Suat Gokce

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Airway protection maintenance with extension and flexion of the head is vital because any rehabilitation involves the head and neck region. Correlation coefficients indicated significant changes in dynamic measurements of the natural head position related to complete dentures. Immediate head extension and alterations of posterior airway dimensions were observed following airway obstruction because of the insertion of complete dentures. The significant changes found in the study should help practitioners understand the mechanisms of craniofacial and cranio-vertical features before planning massive rehabilitations that reduce the oral cavity space.

  9. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  10. The clinical application of head-ring type posture pad used for prone position in performing the placement of central venous catheter in patients with tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meiqian; Wang Chunmei; Chen Feiyin; Zhang Lubing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to observe the effectiveness of head-ring type posture pad used for prone position in performing the procedure of peripheral insertion of central catheter (PICC) via the dorsal forearm vein in patients with neoplasm. Methods: A total of 80 consecutive tumor patients were randomly divided into two groups. PICC was carried out in all patients in prone position. In control group (n=38) PICC was performed with patient's head inclining to one side, while in study group (n=42) PICC was performed with the help of head-ring type pad to keep the patient in comfortable posture. The comfortableness, breathing rhythm, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and the change of heart rate during the procedure were observed. The results were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The results is study group were much better than those in control group. Statistically significant difference in the comfortableness, breathing rhythm, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and heart rate existed between the two groups. Conclusion: The head-ring type posture pad used for prone position can make the patients more comfortable in performing peripheral insertion of central venous catheter via the dorsal forearm vein. (authors)

  11. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Actively Keeping the Head in an Upright Position with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through the Control of an Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ju; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology by applying the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller to the correction of hyperactive limb behavior. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality for improper head position (posture) correction (i.e. actively adjusting abnormal head posture) to assess whether two people with multiple…

  12. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  13. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  14. Immediate changes in masticatory mechanosensitivity, mouth opening, and head posture after myofascial techniques in pain-free healthy participants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Piña-Pozo, Fernando; Luque-Carrasco, Antonio; Herrera-Monge, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the immediate effects on masticatory muscle mechanosensitivity, maximal vertical mouth opening (VMO), and head posture in pain-free healthy participants after intervention with myofascial treatment in the temporalis and masseter muscles. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. The sample group included 48 participants (n=48), with a mean age of 21±2.47 years (18-29). Two subgroups were defined: an intervention group (n=24), who underwent a fascial induction protocol in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and a control group (n=24), who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The pressure pain threshold in 2 locations in the masseter (M1, M2) and temporalis (T1, T2) muscles, maximal VMO, and head posture, by means of the craniovertebral angle, were all measured. Significant improvements were observed in the intragroup comparison in the intervention group for the craniovertebral angle with the participant in seated (P.05). Myofascial induction techniques in the masseter and temporalis muscles show no significant differences in maximal VMO, in the mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles, and in head posture in comparison with a placebo intervention in which the therapist's hands are placed in the temporomandibular joint region without exerting any therapeutic pressure. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of head posture and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Vladanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nasal breathing plays an important role in overall physical growth and mental development, as well as in the growth of the craniofacial complex. Oral breathing over a long period of time, can cause changes in position of the head relative to the cervical spine and jaw relationship. It can cause an open bite and the narrowness of the maxillary arch due to increased pressure of strained face. The aim of this study was to analyze the position of the head and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children, and compare the values obtained compared with those of the same parameters in nasal brething children. Methods. We analyzed the profile cephalometric radiographs of 60 patients who had various orthodontic problems. In the first group there were 30 patients aged 8–14 years, in which oral breathing is confirmed by clinical examination. In the second group there were 30 patients of the same age who had orthodontic problems, but did not show clinical signs of oral breathing. The analyses covered the following: craniocervical angle (NS/OPT, the length of the anterior cranial base (NS, anterior facial height (N-Me, posterior facial height (S-Go, the angle of maxillary prognathism (SNA, angle of mandibular prognathism (SNB, difference between angles SNA and SNB (ANB angle, the angle of the basal planes of the jaws (SpP/MP, cranial base angle (NSB, and the angle of facial convexity (NA/Apg. Results. The average value of the craniocervical angle (NS/OPT was significantly higher in OB children (p = 0.004. There were significantly different values of SNA (p < 0.001, ANB (p < 0.001, NA/APg (p < 0.001 and length of the anterior cranial base (NS (p = 0.024 between groups. Conclusion. Oral breathing children have pronounced retroflexion of the head in relation to the cervical spine compared to nasal breathing children, and the most prominent characteristics of the craniofacial morphology of skeletal jaw relationship of class II and

  16. Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yota; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and total path lengths, as well as root mean square (RMS) of each length, were calculated using the gravicorder. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant acceleration of the head and foot were measured using accelerometers and were evaluated as the ratio of the acceleration of the head to the foot. [Results] There was no significant difference between the two groups in path length or RMS acceleration of the head and foot. However, the ratios of the mediolateral and resultant components were significantly higher in the sprain group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of ankle sprain have a higher head-to-foot acceleration ratio and different postural control characteristics than those of control subjects.

  17. Automatic detection system for multiple region of interest registration to account for posture changes in head and neck radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in

  18. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  19. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolfsson, Thomas; Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  20. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rudolfsson

    Full Text Available Cervical range of motion (ROM is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine.Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition and maximal protraction (low torque condition in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM, from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure.Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour.The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  1. Role of taurine as a treatment for oxidative damage and sperm head abnormalities in irradiated mice and their male offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.; Tawfik, S.S.; EI-Khafif, M.; Ragab, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy in treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied. Irradiated mice showed significant increase in plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and sperm head abnormality counts in all experiment interval times 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water) post-irradiation resulted in significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on MDA level and sperm head abnormalities count. The efficiency of taurine as radiotherapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine was discussed, as it is a sulphydryl, heterocyclic-nitrogenous and pharmacological therapy

  2. Association of a Guardian's Report of a Child Acting Abnormally With Traumatic Brain Injury After Minor Blunt Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Holmes, James F; Dayan, Peter S; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in children is concerning owing to the cancer risk from ionizing radiation, particularly in children younger than 2 years. A guardian report that a child is acting abnormally is a risk factor for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and may be a driving factor for CT use in the emergency department. To determine the prevalence of ciTBIs and TBIs in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings or (2) other concerning findings for TBI. Secondary analysis of a large, prospective, multicenter cohort study that included 43 399 children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma evaluated in 25 emergency departments. The study was conducted on data obtained between June 2004 and September 2006. Data analysis was performed between August 21, 2014, and March 9, 2015. A guardian report that the child was acting abnormally after minor blunt head trauma. The prevalence of ciTBI (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, or hospitalization for ≥2 nights in association with TBI on CT imaging) and TBI on CT imaging in children with a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings and (2) other concerning findings for TBI. Of 43 399 children in the cohort study, a total of 1297 children had reports of acting abnormally, of whom 411 (31.7%) had this report as their only finding. Reported as percentage (95% CI), 1 of 411 (0.2% [0-1.3%]) had a ciTBI, and 4 TBIs were noted on the CT scans in 185 children who underwent imaging (2.2% [0.6%-5.4%]). In children with reports of acting abnormally and other concerning findings for TBI, 29 of 886 (3.3% [2.2%-4.7%]) had ciTBIs and 66 of 674 (9.8% [7.7%-12.3%]) had TBIs on CT. Clinically important TBIs are very uncommon, and TBIs noted on CT are uncommon in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and guardian reports of the child acting

  3. Clinical values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwan Seo [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Jong-Lyel, E-mail: rohjl@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine

  4. Clinical values for abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Seo; Kim, Jae Seung; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Abnormal 18 F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • 18 F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in 18 F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase 18 F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated 18 F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including 18 F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN 18 F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine tonsil (n = 2), and epiglottis (n = 1). The sensitivity and

  5. Comparison of isometric cervical flexor and isometric cervical extensor system exercises on patients with neuromuscular imbalance and cervical crossed syndrome associated forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Dohyeon; Yu, Kyunghoon; Cho, Youngki; You, Joshua H

    2018-01-01

    Isometric cervical flexor system exercise (ICF) and isometric cervical extensor system exercise (ICE) are cervical stabilization techniques that have been used to restore cervical crossed syndrome (CCS)-associated forward head posture. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying motor control mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of present study was investigating the concurrent therapeutic effects of ICF and ICE on muscle size, muscle imbalance ratio, and muscle recruitment sequence using ultrasound imaging and electromyography. A total of 18 participants (7 females; age=24±4.0 years) with CCS associated with forward head posture underwent ICF and ICE. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test analysis showed that sternocleidomastoid thickness was greater during ICF than ICE. Similarly, cross-sectional area and horizontal thickness of the longus colli were greater during ICE than ICF. The upper trapezius/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio and the pectoralis major/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio were significantly decreased during the application of ICE compared to ICF. These results provide compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how ICE is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than ICF in individuals with CCS.

  6. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  7. Foot posture in basketball players with history of the shin splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Forghany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shin splint is one of the common injuries in most athletes. Although the relationship between abnormal foot posture and shin splint has been reported previously but, the relation between foot posture and shin splint has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot postures in basketball players and the history of shin splint. Materials and Methods: Thirty Iranian male basketball players who had experience of shin splint during last three months were participated in this study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 was used as the measure of foot posture. Talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch, abduction /adduction of the forefoot on the rear foot were 6 items which were assessed with FPI in the standing position. Foot posture was defined as ‘normal’, ‘supinated’ or ‘pronated. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS, version16. Results: Most participants showed abnormal foot posture (%80. Fifty-three percent of subjects had pronated foot (%53 and 10% did hyper-pronation. The foot postures of 17% of participants were in supination. The results of this study did not show a significant difference in foot posture between right and left foot (P > 0.05. Conclusion: abnormal foot posture were common (%80 in basketball players with the history of shin splints. These findings could support this idea that the footwear and orthotic prescription both can prevent and treat basketball players with history of shin splints. Keywords: Foot posture, Shin splints, Basketball

  8. The value of HEAD-US system in detecting subclinical abnormalities in joints of patients with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia; Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; Alvarez-Roman, M Teresa; Martin-Salces, Mónica; Martinoli, Carlo; Jimenez-Yuste, Víctor

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of hemarthrosis is the key factor in the adequate management of people with hemophilia (PWH). If hemarthrosis occurs, early diagnosis of joint damage is essential to make personalized treatments. This study is aimed at gaining an understanding of the ability of point-of-care ultrasound (US) using the `Hemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound´ (HEAD-US) protocol to detect abnormalities in joints without history of hemarthrosis and clinically asymptomatic joints of PWH. The sample included 976 joints from 167 PWH (mean age 24.86 years). Data were collected from routine practice over a 3-year period and analyzed based on history of hemarthrosis and results of clinical (HJHS 2.1) and HEAD-US examinations. In our series, 14% of patients exhibited HEAD-US signs of incipient arthropathy in joints with no history of bleeding and with a HJHS 2.1 score of 0. The most severely involved joint was the right ankle. Synovitis, articular cartilage and subchondral bone damage scores in joints with subclinical findings were slower than in joints with previous hemarthroses or HJHS 2.1 > 1 Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that HEAD-US is better than hemarthrosis records and the HJHS 2.1 scale in detecting the early signs of joint damage in PWH.

  9. Liposomal treatment of xerostomia, odor, and taste abnormalities in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Scherer, Elias; Schukraft, Johannes; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Smell and taste disorders, sicca symptoms, can be detected in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of local liposomal application in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers. Ninety-eight patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. The groups were defined as: group 1 = only surgery; group 2 = surgery + adjuvant radiochemotherapy; and group 3 = primarily radiochemotherapy. All patients had finished cancer treatment and received liposomal sprays for the nose and mouth for 2 months (LipoNasal, LipoSaliva; Optima Pharmaceutical GmbH, Germany) and suffered from taste and smell disorders. We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment. After application of liposomes, patients demonstrated a statistically significant increase in smell and taste, and reduced xerostomia. Our results demonstrate that using nonpharmaceutical liposomal sprays improve smell, taste, and symptoms of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1232-E1237, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  12. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  13. Characteristics of infants with positional abnormal head shapes and their physiotherapy service at an Australian community health facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Amy Leung,1 Pauline Watter,2 John Gavranich31Department of Physiotherapy, Royal Children's Hospital, 2Physiotherapy Division, School of Health Rehabilitation Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 3Child and Family Health Services, West Moreton Health Service District, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: There is limited biographic information regarding infants presenting with abnormal head shape in Australia and little discussion of the effect of different cutoff values for diagnosis of plagiocephaly. This study aimed to 1 describe the biographic characteristics of infants with positional abnormal head shapes referred for physiotherapy management; 2 explore their access to physiotherapy services and intervention outcomes; and 3 explore the impact of using different modified Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (mCVAI cutoff points in plagiocephaly classification.Patients and methods: This retrospective community health record audit included the total cohort of infants referred over concerns about abnormal head shape to a pediatric physiotherapy service at a community health center in Australia from January 2004 to December 2007 (N=126 valid cases. Data retrieved included: demographic data; birth history; positioning; initial physiotherapy assessment; and factors associated with physiotherapy intervention and outcomes.Results: Of the 126 charts (65 males, 106 infants (84.1% presented with plagiocephaly, ten (7.9% with brachycephaly, and ten (7.9% with combined deformities. Most biographic data from this study were similar to those reported in the literature. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD of infants at referral was 11.29±7.84 weeks, with about 4-weeks wait for assessment. For the plagiocephalic group, there was significant reduction in mCVAI mean value from assessment (-5.44%±2.95% to discharge (-4.41%±2.66% (t[df=60] =-5.396; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.66%, -0.76%; P<0.001 and significant change in the

  14. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Evaluation of cervical posture improvement of children with cerebral palsy after physical therapy based on head movements and serious games

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, Miguel A.; Raya, Rafael; Muzzioli, Luca; Morelli, Daniela; Otero, Abraham; Iosa, Marco; Cincotti, Febo; Rocón, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background This paper presents the preliminary results of a novel rehabilitation therapy for cervical and trunk control of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on serious videogames and physical exercise. Materials The therapy is based on the use of the ENLAZA Interface, a head mouse based on inertial technology that will be used to control a set of serious videogames with movements of the head. Methods Ten users with CP participated in the study. Whereas the control group (n?=?5) followed...

  16. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT in children with minor head injury

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    Nesrin Alharthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ′fall′ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA, more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  17. Changes in superior sagittal sinus blood velocities due to postural alterations and pressure on the head of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, F; Thoresen, M

    1985-06-01

    A pulsed Doppler bidirectional ultrasound system has been used to measure alterations in the blood velocities in the superior sagittal sinus of the healthy term newborn infant in response to unilateral and bilateral jugular venous occlusion. These maneuvers were performed with the baby lying in different positions: supine, prone, and on the side (both left and right), the neck flexed or extended, and with the head in the midline or turned 90 degrees to the side (both left and right). Transfontanel pressure was also measured in these positions during occlusions. Results show that turning the head effectively occludes the jugular vein on the side to which the head is turned and that occluding the other jugular vein does not force blood through this functional obstruction. The effect of different forms of external pressure to the head on the superior sagittal sinus velocities was also examined. Alterations in velocities were frequently profound although they varied considerably from baby to baby. This work shows how readily large fluctuations in cranial venous velocities and pressures can occur in the course of normal handling of babies.

  18. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Liao, Jay J.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan; Wolf, Gregory T.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO 3 , Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO 3 and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive measures of

  19. Evaluation of cervical posture improvement of children with cerebral palsy after physical therapy based on head movements and serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Miguel A; Raya, Rafael; Muzzioli, Luca; Morelli, Daniela; Otero, Abraham; Iosa, Marco; Cincotti, Febo; Rocon, Eduardo

    2017-08-18

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a novel rehabilitation therapy for cervical and trunk control of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on serious videogames and physical exercise. The therapy is based on the use of the ENLAZA Interface, a head mouse based on inertial technology that will be used to control a set of serious videogames with movements of the head. Ten users with CP participated in the study. Whereas the control group (n = 5) followed traditional therapies, the experimental group (n = 5) complemented these therapies with a series of ten sessions of gaming with ENLAZA to exercise cervical flexion-extensions, rotations and inclinations in a controlled, engaging environment. The ten work sessions yielded improvements in head and trunk control that were higher in the experimental group for Visual Analogue Scale, Goal Attainment Scaling and Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS). Significant differences (27% vs. 2% of percentage improvement) were found between the experimental and control groups for TCMS (p serious games with traditional rehabilitation could allow children with CP to achieve larger function improvements in the trunk and cervical regions. However, given the limited scope of this trial (n = 10) additional studies are needed to corroborate this hypothesis.

  20. Cress oil modulates radiation-induced hormonal, histological, genetic disorders and sperm head abnormalities in albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Azab, KH.SH.; Soliman, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is an aquatic perennial herb of mustard family. The plant is rich in glucosinolates, specially gluconasturtin, which can be hydrolyzed to 2- phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and known to activate detoxification enzymes. Cress oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, by gavage for 2 weeks before whole body gamma irradiation at 7 Gy (single dose) and treatment was continued one week after irradiation. The results obtained showed that cress oil treatment significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations in levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin in serum and also blunted the increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum and testes. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue showed that radiation exposure leads to atrophic testis with marked loss of germ cells, remaining tall pink Sertoli cells, peri tubular fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis. Cress oil treatments ameliorated the intensity of these changes where signs of partial recovery were observed in the histological configuration of leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, spermatocytes and in the structure of interstitial cells. Moreover, administration of cress oil significantly reduced the score of sperm head abnormalities and chromosomal aberration frequencies. It could be concluded that watercress may have a bio protective effect on radiation-induced oxidative stress where phytochemicals present in watercress could protect against hormone-dependent disease

  1. The Comparative Study of the Effect of Stabilization Exercise and Stretching-Strengthening Exercise on Balance Parameters in Forward Head Posture Patients

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    Solmaz Salehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Balance disturbance is one of the observed impairments in patient with forward head posture (FHP. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of stabilization and stretching-strengthening exercises on the improvement of balance in these patients. Materials & Methods: Thirty three females with FHP were randomized into three groups of stabilization training, stretching-strengthening and control. The degree of FHP was measured using plumb line and the crania-vertebral angle. Balance tests performed in three different standing conditions on a force platform. The subjects were evaluated after 6 weeks training and 1 month follow-up by repeated measure ANOVA and T-test through SPSS software. Results: Balance parameters in both stretching-strengthening and control groups showed no significant changes (P>0.05 while in the stabilization group, significant decrease in displacement and velocity of center of pressure were seen under conditions of double-leg, eyes-open, foam-surface and single-leg, eyes-closed, rigid-surface (P0.05. Conclusion: In the conditions of standing that visual and proprioception information from plantar region of foot is challenged, stabilization exercises lead to more balance improvement than stretching-strengthening exercises.

  2. Correlations among visual analogue scale, neck disability index, shoulder joint range of motion, and muscle strength in young women with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Won Hyo; Kim, Seong Gil

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which are indicators of neck pain, shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in women with a slight forward head posture. This study was carried out on 42 female college students attending Uiduk University in Gyeongju, Korea. The neck pain and disability index for each subject was measured using VAS and NDI, respectively. Two physiotherapists measured the shoulder joint ROM and muscle strengths of the subjects using a goniometer and a dynamometer, respectively. External rotation, internal rotation, and abduction of the shoulder joint were measured for each subject. A significant negative correlation between neck pain and shoulder joint ROM in external rotation and the muscle strength of the shoulder joint in abduction was found in the subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between ROM in external rotation and muscle strength in abduction. This study showed a significant negative correlation between neck pain and ROM in external rotation as well as between neck pain and the muscle strength in abduction.

  3. Head-down posture in glaucoma suspects induces changes in IOP, systemic pressure and PERG that predict future loss of optic nerve tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciatti, Vittorio; Feuer, William J.; Monsalve, Pedro; Triolo, Giacinto; Vazquez, Luis; McSoley, John; Ventura, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To obtain pilot data on posture-induced changes of IOP, systemic pressure and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) predictive of future optic nerve tissue loss glaucoma suspects (GS). Methods Mean peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with OCT two times/year in 28 GS aged 58 ± 8.9 years over 5.0 ± 0.73 years. All patients had a baseline PERG, IOP and brachial blood pressure measurements in the seated and – 10 degrees head-down-body-tilt position (HDT). Outcome measures were seated/HDT PERG amplitude and phase, IOP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and estimated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An additional group of 11 similarly-aged controls (SAC) aged 56.9 ± 13 years was tested for comparison. Results While all GS had initial RNFLT in the normal range, 9/28 of them developed significant (P blood pressure, together with their changes upon HDT, may have predictive value for future loss of optic nerve tissue in GS. This study supports the rationale for a full-scale clinical trial to identify patients at high-risk of development of glaucoma. PMID:28263259

  4. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists

  5. Neurological abnormalities in localized scleroderma of the face and head: a case series study for evaluation of imaging findings and clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Święty, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Arasiewicz, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurological manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e.g. headaches), serious neurological complications probably in the course of vasculitis were revealed: epilepsy (in two patients), epilepsy and pyramidal sings (in one patient). Neurological disorders and LoS occurred at the same time (in three patients) or at the course of the disease (nine patients) and no later than 29 years since the onset of the disease. No link between neurological disorders and the LoS clinical morphology, immunological and other laboratory parameters has been established. CNS involvement is not correlated with the clinical course of the facial and head LoS and may occur years after the disease initial symptomatology. Imaging follow-up is not required if there is not any emerging neurological symptom. In some cases, however, both HRCT and MRI are useful for monitoring disease evolution and addressing therapeutic choices.

  6. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  7. Profile injuries and musculoskeletal abnormalities of elite wushu athletes

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    Mohammad Reza Changizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of sports injuries and postural abnormalities of elite wushu athletes. Participants were recruited purposefully (n = 51, age 16.3 (4.9 years, height 165.4 (13.9 cm and weight 52.6 (14.7 kg and informed consent participated in the study. Injury report form (including type, anatomic site, etiology and mechanism of injury was used to record the damage. Posture was assesses using Grid Chart, flexible ruler, calipers and mirror box were performed. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods, chi-square was used. 166 injuries and 167 postural abnormalities were recorded. Injury type, anatomical location, and mechanism of injury and abnormalities in elite status was significantly different (P>0.05. 6.85 injuries per 1000 hours exposure and the risk of 8.91 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures was estimated. The most common types of injury were contusion (36.7%, hematoma (20.5% and abrasions (13.3% respectively. Based on the anatomic site of injury, lower extremities (47.6%, head and face (25.9%, upper extremities (13.9% and trunk (12.7% were injured mostly respectively. Opponent's Blow down technique (24.7%, previous injury (16.3%, lack of physical fitness (12.7% and fatigue (12% were in top priority. Receiving kicks (21%, Receiving punches (13.8% and throwing technique by opponent (12% were the most common mechanisms of injury. Flat foot (29.3%, uneven shoulders (25.7% and scoliosis (16.2% were the most common postural abnormalities.

  8. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

  9. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  10. Postural control among elderly women with and without osteoporosis: is there a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Nogueira Burke

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Little is known about postural control among elderly individuals with osteoporosis and its relationship with falls. It has been suggested that elderly women with kyphosis and osteoporosis are at greater risk of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate posture and postural control among elderly women with and without osteoporosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the Physical Therapy and Electromyography Laboratory, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: Sixty-six elderly women were selected from the bone metabolism disorders clinic, Division of Rheumatology, USP, and were divided into two groups: osteoporosis and controls, according to their bone mineral density (BMD. Postural control was assessed using the Limits of Stability (LOS test and the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIBm and posture, using photometry. RESULTS: The elderly women with osteoporosis swayed at higher velocity on a stable surface with opened eyes (0.30 versus 0.20 degrees/second; P = 0.038. In both groups, the center of pressure (COP was at 30% in the LOS, but with different placements: 156° in the osteoporosis group and 178° in the controls (P = 0.045. Osteoporosis patients fell more than controls did (1.0 versus 0.0; P = 0.036. CONCLUSIONS: The postural control in elderly women with osteoporosis differed from that of the controls, with higher sway velocity and maximum displacement of COP. Despite postural abnormalities such as hyperkyphosis and forward head, the COP position was posteriorized.

  11. Decorticate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 59. Heegaard WG, Biros MH. Head injury. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  13. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  14. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents.DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  15. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  16. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  17. Changes in head and cervical-spine postures and EMG activities of masticatory muscles following treatment with complete upper and partial lower denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A

    1994-10-01

    A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.

  18. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  19. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is how you hold your body. There are two types: Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static ...

  20. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  1. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  2. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  3. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  4. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  5. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Beijnen, J.H.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  6. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  8. Natural Head Posture in the Setting of Sagittal Spinal Deformity: Validation of Chin-Brow Vertical Angle, Slope of Line of Sight, and McGregor's Slope With Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Renaud; Challier, Vincent; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Vira, Shaleen; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Diebo, Bassel G; Liu, Shian; Vital, Jean-Marc; Mazda, Keyvan; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Errico, Thomas J; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of horizontal gaze is an essential function of upright posture and global sagittal spinal alignment. Horizontal gaze is classically measured by the chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA), which is not readily measured on most lateral spine radiographs. To evaluate relations between CBVA and the slope of the line of sight, the slope of McGregor's line (McGS), and Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were identified from a single center database of 531 spine patients who underwent full-body EOS x-rays. Correlations between CBVA, the slope of the line of sight, and McGS were assessed. Using a quadratic regression with Oswestry Disability Index and CBVA, windows of low disability were identified. Comparison of sagittal spinopelvic parameters was carried out between patients with "ascending gaze" and "neutral position." Three hundred three patients were included (74% female, mean age 54.8 years, body mass index 26.6 ± 6.0 kg/m). CBVA strongly correlated with the slope of the line of sight (r = 0.996) and McGS (r = 0.862). Regression studies between Oswestry Disability Index and CBVA yielded a range of values corresponding to low disability (-4.7 degrees to 17.7 degrees). Similarly, a low disability range for the slope of the line of sight (-5.1 degrees to 18.5 degrees) and McGS (-5.7 degrees to 14.3 degrees) was computed. Patients with "ascending gaze" had a worse spinopelvic alignment than "neutral position" patients. The slope of the line of sight and McGS correlated strongly with CBVA and can be used as surrogate measures. The range of values for these measures corresponding to low disability was identified. These values can be used as a general guideline to assess alignment for diagnostic purposes. Cervical compensatory mechanism may modify the natural head position in sagittally misaligned patients. CBVA, chin-brow vertical angleHRQoL, health-related quality of lifeMcGS, slope of McGregor's lineODI, Oswestry Disability IndexSLs, slope of the line of sight.

  9. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  10. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadi, H.A.S.; Riemsdijk, van E.L.C.; Dance, A.L.; Rajamanickam, G.D.; Kastelic, J.P.; Thundathil, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n = 3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in

  11. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  12. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) "relaxed" posture; (2) "ballet" posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  13. Abnormal origins of the long head of the biceps tendon can lead to rotator cuff pathology: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alan L; Gates, Cameron H; Link, Thomas M; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Previous case reports have highlighted various anomalous origins of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) that do not originate from the superior glenoid labrum or supraglenoid tubercle. Yet, these cases were all reported as incidental findings and were not thought to cause any significant shoulder pathology. We present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical treatment of two cases where aberrant intra-articular origins of the long head of the biceps tendon from the anterior edge of the supraspinatus tendon may have contributed to symptomatic rotator cuff pathology. Arthroscopy confirmed MR findings of partial articular-sided supraspinatus lesions in close proximity to the anomalous origins and treatment with tenodesis of the LHBT successfully relieved symptoms. Although rare occurrences with subtle and potentially misleading imaging findings, it is important to be aware of aberrant origins of the LHBT that may contribute to concomitant rotator cuff pathology.

  14. Posture and lumbar puncture headache: a controlled trial in 50 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Handler, C E; Smith, F R; Perkin, G D; Rose, F C

    1982-01-01

    A prospective single blind trial in 50 patients was performed to investigate the effect of posture on post lumbar puncture headache (LPH). A difference between the frequency of headache at five hours between the two groups (prone for four hours, versus 30 degrees head down tilt for 30 minutes followed by supine posture for 3 1/2 hours) did not reach significance. These findings do not support the suggestion that a prone posture, by possibly reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, signific...

  15. Qualitative postural analysis among boys and girls of seven to ten years of age Análise postural qualitativa entre meninos e meninas de sete a dez anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Penha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postural abnormalities are often found in children. At this stage of life, posture undergoes many adjustments and adaptations due to body changes. Objective: To qualitatively identify the postural abnormalities which occur most frequently among children aged OBJECTIVE: Reven and ten years, comparing boys and girls, and to evaluate these subjects' lumbar flexibility. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one children were photographed in the sagittal and frontal planes. The variables analyzed were: ankle (valgus and varus, tibiotarsal angle (opened and closed, knee (hyperextension and semiflexion, valgus and varus, pelvis (anteversion and retroversion; lateral pelvic inclination, trunk (antepulsion and retropulsion, lumbar spine (hyperlordosis and rectification, thoracic spine (hyperkyphosis and rectification, cervical spine (hyperlordosis and rectification, scoliosis, shoulder (imbalance and protraction, scapula (winged, abducted and adducted and head (tilt and protraction. The lumbar flexibility was assessed using Schöber's index. RESULTS: The boys had greater incidence of winged scapula, shoulder imbalance, protraction of shoulders and head and cervical hyperlordosis than the girls did. Conversely, the girls had greater incidence of head tilt and larger Schöber index values. CONCLUSIONS: There were abnormalities in children's postural development that are probably related to muscle, skeletal and flexibility differences between the genders. These differences may influence each child's postural pattern during growth.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alterações posturais são freqüentemente encontradas em crianças. Nessa fase, a postura sofre uma série de ajustes e adaptações às mudanças no próprio corpo. OBJETIVO: Identificar, de maneira qualitativa, quais as alterações posturais mais freqüentes em crianças entre sete e dez anos, comparando meninos e meninas, e avaliar a flexibilidade lombar desses sujeitos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cento e

  16. When dynamic, the head and face alone can express pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2011-08-01

    Prior research suggested that pride is recognized only when a head and facial expression (e.g., tilted head with a slight smile) is combined with a postural expression (e.g., expanded body and arm gestures). However, these studies used static photographs. In the present research, participants labeled the emotion conveyed by four dynamic cues to pride, presented as video clips: head and face alone, body posture alone, voice alone, and an expression in which head and face, body posture, and voice were presented simultaneously. Participants attributed pride to the head and face alone, even when postural or vocal information was absent. Pride can be conveyed without body posture or voice. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  18. Somatosensory evoked potentials and dynamic postural assessment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Mohamed Ezz El Mikkawy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion The study demonstrates abnormal somatosensory and postural function in patients with AIS, and a significant inter-relationship between the scoliotic angle, the somatosensory system, and posture. Thus, optimum assessment and treatment of neurological pathway and balance are important in these patients.

  19. Presbyequilibrium in the oldest old, a combination of vestibular, oculomotor and postural deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunainen, Eeva; Poe, Dennis; Jäntti, Pirkko; Varpa, Kirsi; Rasku, Jyrki; Toppila, Esko; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2011-01-01

    Dizziness, impaired balance and fear of falling are common complaints in the elderly. We evaluated the association of vestibular symptoms with vestibular findings in the elderly by posturography and video-oculography (VOG). We studied 38 oldest old subjects (≥ 85 yrs, mean age 89) living in a residential home. Vestibular symptoms were taken with a structured questionnaire, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was scored and any falls were recorded over a period of 12 months. Posturography was measured with a force platform and eye movements were measured by video-oculography. In the majority of the elderly, vestibular abnormalities were found, such as reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex gain 6/38, spontaneous nystagmus 5/38, gaze deviation nystagmus 5/38, head shaking nystagmus 9/38, pathologic head thrust test 10/38, and positional nystagmus 17/38. Posturography demonstrated two major findings: the body support area was limited and the use of vision for postural control was reduced. In principal component analysis of the vertigo, four major factors described elements of failure in the vestibular and other systems important to maintenance of balance: episodic vertigo, postural instability, multisystem failure (frail) and presyncopal imbalance. These four factors were associated in different degrees to vestibular abnormalities and falls. During the follow-up period, in 19 elderly (19/38), one or more falls were recorded. Progressive loss of balance in the aged, or "presbyequilibrium," is a complex and incompletely understood process involving vestibular, oculomotor, visual acuity, proprioception, motor, organ system and metabolic weaknesses and disorders. These factors provide a potential basis for streamlining diagnostic evaluations and aiding in planning for effective therapy. In oldest old, these problems are magnified, increasing the need for additional expertise in their care, which may be met by training specialized healthcare staff.

  20. Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez Vidal, Aurora

    2018-06-01

    Bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. Using an ad-hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by a Cohen's κ value between 0.855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders and overall posture. While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings.

  1. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlappi Mark

    2005-08-01

    all of the postural reflexes either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. Discussion It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Conclusion Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only

  2. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  3. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  5. Assessment of postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, J W; Orawiec, R; Duda-Kłodowska, D; Opala, G

    2007-10-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we focused on postural instability as the main factor predisposing parkinsonians to falls. For this purpose, changes in sway characteristics during quiet stance due to visual feedback exclusion were studied. We searched for postural sway measures that could be potential discriminators for an increased fall risk. A group of 110 subjects: 55 parkinsonians (Hoehn and Yahr: 1-3), and 55 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing quiet with eyes open and eyes closed were analyzed. We found that an increased mediolateral sway and sway area while standing with eyes closed are characteristic of parkinsonian postural instability and may serve to quantify well a tendency to fall. These sway indices significantly correlated with disease severity rated both by the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as by the Motor Section of the UPDRS. A forward shift of a mean COP position in parkinsonians which reflects their flexed posture was also significantly greater to compare with the elderly subjects and exhibited a high sensitivity to visual conditions. Both groups of postural sway abnormalities identified here may be used as accessible and reliable measures which allow for quantitative assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Posição viciosa de cabeça por astigmatismo mal corrigido: relato de caso Abnormal head position caused by incorrect prescription for astigmatism: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Augusta Attié de Castro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A posição viciosa de cabeça é uma condição compensatória que visa proporcionar aos pacientes melhor rendimento visual. Pode ser causada por problemas oftalmológicos, como distúrbios oculomotores (nistagmos, estrabismos e altos astigmatismos. No entanto, compromete a estética e, a longo prazo, pode causar transtornos ortopédicos (coluna cervical e assimetrias faciais. Relatamos o caso de uma garota, JL, 8 anos, com cabeça inclinada para esquerda havia vários anos. Fazia uso de óculos prescritos em outro serviço para correção de astigmatismo misto: OD= +2,00 DE Ç -5,50 DC a 180º e OE= +2,25 DE Ç -5,75 DC a 180º. No exame oftálmico, a paciente apresentava cabeça inclinada para a esquerda e acuidade visual com correção de 0,5 no OD e 0,7 OE. Os testes de cobertura simples e alternado não evidenciaram desvio ocular. Rotações oculares, biomicroscopia e fundoscopia também não mostraram alterações. Na refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes foram encontrados: OD= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 10º e OE= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 170º, com acuidade visual igual a 1,0 nos olhos direito e esquerdo. Foram prescritas as lentes encontradas no exame e a paciente retornou com a correção nova sem a inclinação de cabeça. Erros refracionais mal corrigidos também podem gerar torcicolo e, muitas vezes, passam despercebidos. Refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes são fundamentais para um diagnóstico preciso.Abnormal head position is a compensatory condition which improves patients' vision. It can be caused by ophthalmological problems such as oculomotor imbalances (strabismus, nystagmus and high astigmatisms. However, it results in esthetic impairment, orthopedic trouble and facial asymmetries. We describe a case of a girl, JL, 8 years, with abnormal head position tilted to the left since the last glasses were prescribed. The correction used by the patient was: right eye = +2.00 sph à -5.5 cyl 180° and left eye = +2

  7. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  8. Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Richard F; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Chernoff, Miriam C; Bui, Hoan X; Lavelle, James; Yoon, Sujung J; Kim, Jieun E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-11-01

    A pilot study of South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who had been incarcerated in Vietnamese reeducation camps and resettled in the United States disclosed significant mental health problems associated with torture and traumatic head injury (THI). To identify structural brain alterations associated with THI and to investigate whether these deficits are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Cross-sectional neuroimaging study. Massachusetts General Hospital and McLean Hospital. A subsample of Vietnamese ex-political detainees (n = 42) and comparison subjects (n = 16) selected from a community study of 337 ex-political detainees and 82 comparison subjects. Scores on the Vietnamese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, respectively; cerebral regional cortical thickness; and manual volumetric morphometry of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Ex-political detainees exposed to THI (n = 16) showed a higher rate of depression (odds ratio, 10.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-90.0) than those without THI exposure (n = 26). Ex-political detainees with THI had thinner prefrontotemporal cortices than those without THI exposure (P brain map) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral superior temporal cortices, controlling for age, handedness, and number of trauma/torture events (left superior frontal cortex [SFC], P = .006; left middle frontal cortex, P = .01; left superior temporal cortex [STC], P = .007; right STC, P = .01). Trauma/torture events were associated with bilateral amygdala volume loss (left, P = .045; right, P = .003). Cortical thinning associated with THI in the left SFC and bilateral STC was related to HSCL depression scores in THI-exposed (vs non-THI-exposed) ex-political detainees (left SFC, P for interaction = .007; left STC, P for interaction = .03; right STC, P for interaction = .02). Structural deficits in

  9. Craniocervical posture analysis in patients with temporomandibular disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iunes,DH; Carvalho,LCF; Oliveira,AS; Bevilaqua-Grossi,D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare head positioning and cervical spine alignment between individuals with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), by means of positional evaluation using photographs, radiographs and visual observation, and to investigate whether the type of TMD influences head posture and cervical spine positioning. METHODS: Ninety randomly chosen women were diagnosed using the research diagnostic criteria for TMDs (RDC/TMD) by a trained examiner and were divided into three groups:...

  10. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head trauma Brain tumor Stroke Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the vertebrae in ... spinal cord) Steppage gait: Guillain-Barre syndrome Herniated lumbar disk Multiple sclerosis Muscle weakness of the tibia ...

  11. Ergonomic assessment of the posture of surgeons performing endoscopic transurethral resections in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sökeland Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During transurethral endoscopic prostate and bladder operations the influence of an ergonomic redesign of the arrangement of the operation equipment - including the introduction of a video-assisted resection method ('monitor endoscopy' instead of directly viewing onto the operation area via the endoscope ('direct endoscopy' - was studied with respect to the postures of the surgeons. Methods Postures were analysed on the basis of video recordings of the surgeons performed in the operation theatre during live operations and subsequent visual posture estimation executed by an observer. In particular, head, trunk and arm positions were assigned to posture categories according to a newly developed posture classification schema. 10 urological operations with direct endoscopy and 9 with monitor endoscopy were included. Results Application of direct endoscopy coincides with distinct lateral and sagittal trunk and head inclinations, trunk torsion and strong forearm and upper arm elevations of the surgeons whereas operations with monitor endoscopy were performed with an almost upright head and trunk and hanging arms. The disadvantageous postures observed during direct endoscopy are mainly caused by the necessity to hold the endoscope continuously in close contact with the eye. Conclusion From an ergonomic point of view, application of the video-assisted resection method should be preferred in transurethral endoscopic operations in order to prevent awkward postures of the surgeons and to limit muscular strain and fatigue. Furthermore, the application of the monitor method enables the use of a chair equipped with back support and armrests and benefits the reduction of postural stress.

  12. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  13. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  15. [Clinical research of the otolith abnormal migration during canalith repositioning procedures for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yongkang; Zheng, Yiging; Zhu, Honglei; Chen, Ling; Zhong, Junwei; Tang, Xiaowu; Huang, Qiuhong; Xu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the risk factor,type and characteristic nystagmus of the otolith abnormal migration during diagnosis and treatment for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PSC-BPPV). The therapy and prevention is also discussed. Four hundred and seventy-nine patients with PSC-BPPV were treated by Epley's canalith repositioning procedures(CRP) from March 2009 to March 2012. We observed otolith abnormal migration complicating during diagnosis and treatment. According the type of otolith abnormal migration, the additional repositioning maneuver was performed. The rate of complication was 8. 1%(39/479), with canal conversion in 5.4%(26/479) and primarily canal reentry in 2.7%(13/479). The rate of incidence of conversion to horizontal canal conversion and anterior canal were 4. 8%(23/479)and 0. 6%(3/479) respectively. All the patient was cured in follow up. The risk factors were unappropriated head movement during or after CRP, including another Dix-Hallpike were performed immediately. To prevent the complications,the pathognostic positioning sequence and angle of head rotation are commenced during CRP. Appropriate short time postural restrictions post-treatment is necessary. Careful observation of nystagrnus variation is crucial to determine the otolith abnormal migration.

  16. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F; Jandl, Nico M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  17. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sprenger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC, visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs. Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly

  18. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F.; Jandl, Nico M.; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  19. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  20. Cervical posture analysis in dental students and its correlation with temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara-Souza, Mariana Barbosa; Figueredo, Olívia Maria Costa; Maia, Paulo Raphael Leite; Dantas, Isabelle de Sousa; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and craniocervical posture in the sagittal plane measured from lateral radiographs of the head. The sample was comprised of 80 randomly selected students of dentistry at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used to evaluate the signs and symptoms of TMD. Lateral radiographs of each individual were used to measure the position of the hyoid bone, the craniocervical angle, and the occiput-atlas distance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between craniocervical posture measures and TMD. No relationship was found between TMD and the craniocervical posture measured by the positioning of the hyoid bone, head rotation, and the extension/flexion of the head (p > 0.05). It can be concluded, therefore, that no relationship exists between cervical posture in the sagittal plane and TMD.

  1. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  3. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  4. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  5. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo M. Ruivo; Pedro Pezarat-Correia; Ana I. Carita

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two...

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following alexander technique lessons in a person with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Horak, Fay B; Henry, Sharon M

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between abnormal postural coordination and back pain is unclear. The Alexander Technique (AT) aims to improve postural coordination by using conscious processes to alter automatic postural coordination and ongoing muscular activity, and it has been reported to reduce low back pain. This case report describes the use of the AT with a client with low back pain and the observed changes in automatic postural responses and back pain. The client was a 49-year-old woman with a 25-year history of left-sided, idiopathic, lumbrosacral back pain. Automatic postural coordination was measured using a force plate during horizontal platform translations and one-legged standing. The client was tested monthly for 4 months before AT lessons and for 3 months after lessons. Before lessons, she consistently had laterally asymmetric automatic postural responses to translations. After AT lessons, the magnitude and asymmetry of her responses and balance improved and her low back pain decreased. Further research is warranted to study whether AT lessons improve low back pain-associated abnormalities in automatic postural coordination and whether improving automatic postural coordination helps to reduce low back pain.

  8. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Hove

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate.

  9. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  10. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  11. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise

    2007-01-01

    (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I...

  12. Altered head orientation patterns in children with idiopathic scoliosis in conditions with sensory conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgelaar, P. N.; Wapstra, F. H.; Otten, E.; Veldhuizen, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common spinal deformity in adolescents. Defective postural equilibrium may be a contributing factor. The information of the three sensory systems combined enables the formation of a central representation of head position and body posture. Comparison of head

  13. Can Postural Instability Respond to Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS activates the vestibular afferents, and these changes in vestibular input exert a strong influence on the subject’s posture or standing balance. In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, vestibular dysfunction might contribute to postural instability and gait disorders. Methods Current intensity was increased to 0.7 mA, and the current was applied to the patients for 20 minutes. To perform a sham stimulation, the current intensity was increased as described and then decreased to 0 mA over the course of 10 seconds. The patient’s status was recorded continuously for 20 minutes with the patient in the supine position. Results Three out of 5 patients diagnosed with PD with postural instability and/or abnormal axial posture showed a reduction in postural instability after GVS. The score for item 12 of the revised Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part 3 was decreased in these patients. Conclusions The mechanism of postural instability is complex and not completely understood. In 2 out of the 5 patients, postural instability was not changed in response to GVS. Nonetheless, the GVS-induced change in postural instability for 3 patients in our study suggests that GVS might be a therapeutic option for postural instability.

  14. An analysis of posture and back pain in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E; Conner-Kerr, T

    1998-09-01

    While the incidence of back pain during pregnancy has been shown to be high, few studies have investigated postural changes that occur during pregnancy and their relationship to back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if posture and back pain changed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was a relationship between the two. Twelve healthy women who were having uncomplicated pregnancies participated in the study. During the first and third trimesters, each subject had their standing posture and back pain assessed by a Metrecom Skeletal Analysis System and a 0- to 10-cm line pain scale, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated on or between back pain and nine posture variables and revealed significant increases in third trimester back pain and postures compared with first trimester back pain (p postures for lumbar angle (p change in posture and back pain. These results suggest that in the standing position the lumbar lordosis and sagittal pelvic tilt increased and head position become more posterior as women progressed from the first trimester to the last trimester of pregnancy. These postural changes, however, were not related to back pain. This suggests that many of the posture-correcting clinical exercise regimens given to pregnant women need to be investigated.

  15. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  16. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  17. Usefulness of posture training for patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E F; Domenech, M A; Fischer, J R

    2000-02-01

    Many practitioners have found that posture training has a positive impact on temporomandibular, or TMD, symptoms. The authors conducted a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Sixty patients with TMD and a primary muscle disorder were randomized into two groups: one group received posture training and TMD self-management instructions while the control group received TMD self-management instructions only. Four weeks after the study began, the authors reexamined the subjects for changes in symptoms, pain-free opening and pressure algometer pain thresholds. In addition, pretreatment and posttreatment posture measurements were recorded for subjects in the treatment group. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated by the modified symptom severity index, maximum pain-free opening and pressure algometer threshold measurements, as well as by the subjects' perceived TMD and neck symptoms. Subjects in the treatment group reported having experienced a mean reduction in TMD and neck symptoms of 41.9 and 38.2 percent, respectively, while subjects in the control group reported a mean reduction in these symptoms of 8.1 and 9.3 percent. Within the treatment group, the authors found significant correlations between improvements in TMD symptoms and improvements in neck symptoms (P head and shoulder posture measurements at the outset of treatment (P Posture training and TMD self-management instructions are significantly more effective than TMD self-management instructions alone for patients with TMD who have a primary muscle disorder. Patients with TMD who hold their heads farther forward relative to the shoulders have a high probability of experiencing symptom improvement as a result of posture training and being provided with selfmanagement instructions.

  18. Evaluation of work posture and quantification of fatigue by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), poor body postures, and low back injuries are the most common problems occurring in many industries including small-medium industries. This study presents assessment and evaluation of ergonomic postures of material handling worker. That evaluation was carried out using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). REBA is a technique to quantize the fatigue experienced by the worker while manually lifting loads. Fatigue due to abnormal work posture leads to complaints of labor-perceived pain. REBA methods were used to an assessment of working postures for the existing process by a procedural analysis of body postures involved. This study shows that parts of the body have a high risk of work are the back, neck, and upper arms with REBA score 9, so action should be taken as soon as possible. Controlling actions were implemented to those process with high risk then substantial risk reduction was achieved.

  19. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  20. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region. Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear −60 ± 21 dB; Left ear −61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination. A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R2) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation. Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls. PMID:29620637

  1. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling.The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region.Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear -60 ± 21 dB; Left ear -61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination.A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation.Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls.

  2. Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Harrison, G R; Troyanovich, S; Harrison, D E; Harrison, S O

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses linear algebra as applied to human posture in chiropractic, specifically chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP). Rotations, reflections and translations are geometric functions studied in vector spaces in linear algebra. These mathematical functions are termed rigid body transformations and are applied to segmental spinal movement in the literature. Review of the literature indicates that these linear algebra concepts have been used to describe vertebral motion. However, these rigid body movers are presented here as applying to the global postural movements of the head, thoracic cage and pelvis. The unique inverse functions of rotations, reflections and translations provide a theoretical basis for making postural corrections in neutral static resting posture. Chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP) uses these concepts in examination procedures, manual spinal manipulation, instrument assisted spinal manipulation, postural exercises, extension traction and clinical outcome measures.

  3. Evaluation of body posture in individuals with internal temporomandibular joint derangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Marques, Amélia Pasqual; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli

    2005-10-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMD) comprise a great number of disruptions that may affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the masticatory muscles, or both. TMJ internal derangement is a specific type of TMD, of which the etiology and physiopathology are broadly unknown, but have been suggested to be linked to head, neck, and body posture factors. This study aimed at verifying possible relationships between body posture and TMJ internal derangements (TMJ-id), by comparing 30 subjects presenting typical TMJ-id signs to 20 healthy subjects. Subjects' clinical evaluations included anamnesis, stomatognatic system evaluation, and plotting analysis on body posture photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups. Results do not support the assertion that body posture plays a role in causing or enhancing TMD; however, these results should be cautiously considered because of the small number of subjects evaluated and the many posture variables submitted to statistical procedures that lead to high standard deviations.

  4. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  5. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  6. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  7. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  8. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance: A Novel Laboratory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Havey, Robert M; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Muriuki, Muturi G; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Schuit, Dale; Patel, Alpesh A; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William

    2015-06-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. To study postural compensations in lordosis angles that are necessary to maintain horizontal gaze in the presence of forward head posture and increasing T1 sagittal tilt. Forward head posture relative to the shoulders, assessed radiographically using the horizontal offset distance between the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 [sagittal vertical alignment] SVA), is a measure of global cervical imbalance. This may result from kyphotic alignment of cervical segments, muscle imbalance, as well as malalignment of thoracolumbar spine. Ten cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-T1) were tested. The T1 vertebra was anchored to a tilting and translating base. The occiput was free to move vertically but its angular orientation was constrained to ensure horizontal gaze regardless of sagittal imbalance. A 5-kg mass was attached to the occiput to mimic head weight. Forward head posture magnitude and T1 tilt were varied and motions of individual vertebrae were measured to calculate C2-C7 SVA and lordosis across C0-C2 and C2-C7. Increasing C2-C7 SVA caused flexion of lower cervical (C2-C7) segments and hyperextension of suboccipital (C0-C1-C2) segments to maintain horizontal gaze. Increasing kyphotic T1 tilt primarily increased lordosis across the C2-C7 segments. Regression models were developed to predict the compensatory C0-C2 and C2-C7 angulation needed to maintain horizontal gaze given values of C2-C7 SVA and T1 tilt. This study established predictive relationships between radiographical measures of forward head posture, T1 tilt, and postural compensations in the cervical lordosis angles needed to maintain horizontal gaze. The laboratory model predicted that normalization of C2-C7 SVA will reduce suboccipital (C0-C2) hyperextension, whereas T1 tilt reduction will reduce the hyperextension in the C2-C7 segments. The predictive relationships may help in planning corrective strategy in patients experiencing neck pain, which may be

  9. Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation, and Gaze Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad., III

    1999-01-01

    In addition to adapting to microgravity, major neurovestibular problems of space flight include postflight difficulties with standing, walking, turning corners, and other activities that require stable upright posture and gaze stability. These difficulties inhibit astronauts' ability to stand or escape from their vehicle during emergencies. The long-ter7n goal of the NSBRI is the development of countermeasures to ameliorate the effects of long duration space flight. These countermeasures must be tested with valid and reliable tools. This project aims to develop quantitative, parametric approaches for assessing gaze stability and spatial orientation during normal gait and when gait is perturbed. Two of this year's most important findings concern head fixation distance and ideal trajectory analysis. During a normal cycle of walking the head moves up and down linearly. A simultaneous angular pitching motion of the head keeps it aligned toward an imaginary point in space at a distance of about one meter in front of a subject and along the line of march. This distance is called the head fixation distance. Head fixation distance provides the fundamental framework necessary for understanding the functional significance of the vestibular reflexes that couple head motion to eye motion. This framework facilitates the intelligent design of counter-measures for the effects of exposure to microgravity upon the vestibular ocular reflexes. Ideal trajectory analysis is a simple candidate countermeasure based upon quantifying body sway during repeated up and down stair stepping. It provides one number that estimates the body sway deviation from an ideal sinusoidal body sway trajectory normalized on the subject's height. This concept has been developed with NSBRI funding in less than one year. These findings are explained in more detail below. Compared to assessments of the vestibuo-ocular reflex, analysis of vestibular effects on locomotor function is relatively less well developed

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  12. Is there a relationship between foetal position and both preferred lying posture after birth and pattern of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D; Michael, S; Kirkwood, C

    2010-09-01

    A pattern of postural deformity was observed in a previous study that included an association between direction of spinal curvature and direction of windsweeping with more windswept deformities occurring to the right and lateral spinal curvatures occurring convex to the left. The direction of this pattern was found to be associated with preferred lying posture in early life. The aim of this study was to test the association between foetal position and both the preferred lying posture after birth, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 60 participants at level five on the gross motor function classification for CP. Foetal position during the last month of pregnancy was taken from antenatal records and parents were interviewed to identify preferred lying posture in the first year of life. At the time of the physical assessment ages ranged from 1 year and 1 month to 19 years with a median age of 13 years and 1 month. Foetal presentation was found to be associated with the preferred lying posture with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral position more likely to adopt a supine head right lying posture, and vice versa. An association was also observed between the foetal position and asymmetrical postural deformity occurring later in life with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral presentation more likely to have a convex left spinal curve, a lower left pelvic obliquity, and a windswept hip pattern to the right. Clinicians should be aware of the association between foetal presentation, asymmetrical lying posture, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity for severely disabled children. A hypothesis is described that might help to explain these findings.

  13. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Fay B

    2006-09-01

    Postural control is no longer considered simply a summation of static reflexes but, rather, a complex skill based on the interaction of dynamic sensorimotor processes. The two main functional goals of postural behaviour are postural orientation and postural equilibrium. Postural orientation involves the active alignment of the trunk and head with respect to gravity, support surfaces, the visual surround and internal references. Sensory information from somatosensory, vestibular and visual systems is integrated, and the relative weights placed on each of these inputs are dependent on the goals of the movement task and the environmental context. Postural equilibrium involves the coordination of movement strategies to stabilise the centre of body mass during both self-initiated and externally triggered disturbances of stability. The specific response strategy selected depends not only on the characteristics of the external postural displacement but also on the individual's expectations, goals and prior experience. Anticipatory postural adjustments, prior to voluntary limb movement, serve to maintain postural stability by compensating for destabilising forces associated with moving a limb. The amount of cognitive processing required for postural control depends both on the complexity of the postural task and on the capability of the subject's postural control system. The control of posture involves many different underlying physiological systems that can be affected by pathology or sub-clinical constraints. Damage to any of the underlying systems will result in different, context-specific instabilities. The effective rehabilitation of balance to improve mobility and to prevent falls requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms underlying postural control.

  14. SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATOR STRENGTH IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SITTING POSTURES: A CONTROLLED LABORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Steven; Haydt, Richard; Gottstein, Thomas; Grasso, Anthony; Lombard, Nicholas; Stone, Brandon

    2018-02-01

    The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position. A cohort study, with subjects serving as their own controls. One hundred subjects ages 20-26 participated in the study. Each subject was placed in a neutral cervical sitting (NCS) posture which was maintained for five minutes after which the strength of the dominant shoulder external rotators was immediately tested with the glenohumeral joint in the neutral position using a Micro-FET3 Hand Held Muscle Testing Dynamometer (HHMTD). Each subject was returned to the NCS posture for subsequent external rotator strength testing after five minutes in a FHRS sitting posture, five additional minutes in the NCS posture and five minutes in a retracted cervical sitting (RCS) posture resulting in each subjects' external rotator strength being tested on four occasions. Subjects were randomized for order between the FHRS and RCS postures. Mean strength values for each condition were normalized to the mean strength value for the 1 st NCS condition for each subject. A statistically significant decline in shoulder external rotator strength following the FHRS sitting posture occurred compared to the appropriate postural conditions (pexternal rotator strength following five minutes in the FHRS sitting posture. The average percentage of strength decline in those with greater than a 10% reduction in external rotator strength was 19%. Sixty-four percent of the subjects experienced less than a 10% decline in shoulder external rotator strength in response to the FHRS sitting posture

  15. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  16. Heads Up

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    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  17. Postural sway and regional cerebellar volume in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Biederman, Joseph; Li, Zhi; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor abnormalities, including impaired balance and increased postural sway, are commonly reported in children with ADHD, but have yet to be investigated in adults with ADHD. Furthermore, although these abnormalities are thought to stem from cerebellar deficits, evidence for an association between the cerebellum and these motor deficits has yet to be provided for either adults or children with ADHD. Method In this study, we measured postural sway in adults with ADHD and controls, examining the relationship between sway and regional cerebellar gray matter volume. Thirty-two ADHD and 28 control participants completed various standing-posture tasks on a Wii balance board. Results Postural sway was significantly higher for the ADHD group compared to the healthy controls. Higher sway was positively associated with regional gray matter volume in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII/IX). Conclusion These findings show that sway abnormalities commonly reported in children with ADHD are also present in adults, and for the first time show a relationship between postural control atypicalities and the cerebellum in this group. Our findings extend the literature on motor abnormalities in ADHD and contribute to our knowledge of their neural substrate. PMID:26106567

  18. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  19. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  20. A review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    A 21-year-old female reports an 18-month history of light-headedness on standing. This is often associated with palpitations and a feeling of intense anxiety. She has had two black-outs in the past 12 months. She is not taking any regular medications. Her supine blood pressure was 126\\/84 mmHg with a heart rate of 76 bpm, and her upright blood pressure was 122\\/80 mmHg with a heart rate of 114 bpm. A full system examination was otherwise normal. She had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed which was unremarkable. She was referred for head-up tilt testing. She was symptomatic during the test and lost consciousness at 16 min. Figure 1 summarizes her blood pressure and heart rate response to tilting. A diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with overlapping vasovagal syncope was made.

  1. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  2. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI. Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG, and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG. Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group, age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years, and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2. We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization.

  3. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: The effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, J.L.B.; Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Johnson, P.W.; Raina, S.M.; Rynell, P.; Huysmans, M.A.; Dieën, J.H. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were

  4. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: the effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno-Garza, J.L.; Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Johnson, P.W.; Raina, S.M.; Rynell, P.; Huijsmans, M.A.; van Dieen, J.H.; van der Beek, A.J.; Blatter, B.M.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were

  5. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  6. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

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    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  7. Adolescent standing postural response to backpack loads: a randomised controlled experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirunsan Ubon

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Backpack loads produce changes in standing posture when compared with unloaded posture. Although 'poor' unloaded standing posture has been related to spinal pain, there is little evidence of whether, and how much, exposure to posterior load produces injurious effects on spinal tissue. The objective of this study was to describe the effect on adolescent sagittal plane standing posture of different loads and positions of a common design of school backpack. The underlying study aim was to test the appropriateness of two adult 'rules-of-thumb'-that for postural efficiency, backpacks should be worn high on the spine, and loads should be limited to 10% of body weight. Method A randomised controlled experimental study was conducted on 250 adolescents (12–18 years, randomly selected from five South Australian metropolitan high schools. Sagittal view anatomical points were marked on head, neck, shoulder, hip, thigh, knee and ankle. There were nine experimental conditions: combinations of backpack loads (3, 5 or 10% of body weight and positions (backpack centred at T7, T12 or L3. Sagittal plane photographs were taken of unloaded standing posture (baseline, and standing posture under the experimental conditions. Posture was quantified from the x (horizontal coordinate of each anatomical point under each experimental condition. Differences in postural response were described, and differences between conditions were determined using Analysis of Variance models. Results Neither age nor gender was a significant factor when comparing postural response to backpack loads or conditions. Backpacks positioned at T7 produced the largest forward (horizontal displacement at all the anatomical points. The horizontal position of all anatomical points increased linearly with load. Conclusion There is evidence refuting the 'rule-of-thumb' to carry the backpack high on the back. Typical school backpacks should be positioned with the centre at waist or

  8. Body posture and pulmonary function in mouth and nose breathing children: cross-sectional study

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    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Mouth breathing can lead to changes in body posture and pulmonary function. However, the consequences are still inconclusive and a number of studies are controversial. Objective: Evaluate and correlate spirometric parameters and postural measures in mouth breathing children, and compare them to nose breathers. Methods: two groups of 6 to 12 year-old children were evaluated: mouth breathers (MB, n = 55 and nose breathers (NB, n = 45. Spirometry and body posture analysis using photogrammetry (SAPo 0.68® v were carried out. The following spirometric measures were evaluated: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio (% and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75%. Biophotogrammetric measures analyzed were: horizontal alignment of acromions (HAA and anterior superior iliac spine (HAASIS, Charpy angle, horizontal alignment of the head (HAH, cervical lordosis (CL, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, cervical distance (CD and lumbar distance (LD. Results: There were no intergroup differences in spirometric and postural variables. Positive and moderate correlations were found between CL and CD measures with PEF, FEV1, FVC and FEF 25-75%, while weak correlations were observed between lumbar lordosis and PEF, FEV1 and FVC. Conclusion: The breathing mode had no influence on postural and respiratory measures. However, greater forward head posture, with smaller cervical lordosis, was related to higher lung volumes and flows in both groups.

  9. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  10. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  11. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-08-05

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert

  12. The posture of adolescent male handball players: A two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2018-02-06

    Young athletes at the stage of growth acceleration tend to exhibit increased susceptibility to postural abnormalities, especially in the trunk region. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the posture in male adolescent handball players over two years of regular training sessions. The study group comprised 21 handball players. At the start of the study 15 participants were aged 14 and 6 participants were aged 15 (mean 14.25 ± 0.58). The measurements were repeated three times. Posture was assessed with a photogrammetric method based on the moiré phenomenon. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not reveal any significant differences between posture indicators obtained during the successive measurements. Sagittal plane posture indicators revealed significant changes in torso forward inclination angle and the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures. The latter consisted of significant deepening of the upper thoracic curve (angle α) and flattening of the lumbosacral curve (angle γ). A two-year period of handball training did not result in posture asymmetries in young male handball players. The observed changes in the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures might be related both to sports training and somatic parameters.

  13. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  14. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuga, Kenneth A; Ho, Natalie; Shields, Robert W; Cremer, Paul; Rodriguez, L Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS.

  15. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Mayuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS.

  16. Visual Information and Support Surface for Postural Control in Visual Search Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Chun; Yang, Chih-Mei

    2016-10-01

    When standing on a reduced support surface, people increase their reliance on visual information to control posture. This assertion was tested in the current study. The effects of imposed motion and support surface on postural control during visual search were investigated. Twelve participants (aged 21 ± 1.8 years; six men and six women) stood on a reduced support surface (45% base of support). In a room that moved back and forth along the anteroposterior axis, participants performed visual search for a given letter in an article. Postural sway variability and head-room coupling were measured. The results of head-room coupling, but not postural sway, supported the assertion that people increase reliance on visual information when standing on a reduced support surface. Whether standing on a whole or reduced surface, people stabilized their posture to perform the visual search tasks. Compared to a fixed target, searching on a hand-held target showed greater head-room coupling when standing on a reduced surface. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  18. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  19. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  1. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vinay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  2. Evaluation of Intracranial Pressure in Different Body Postures and Disease Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Hadi, Amer; Juhler, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We currently do not have sufficient knowledge regarding appropriate boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" intracranial pressure (ICP) in humans. Our objective in this study was to quantify the effects of postural changes on ICP in normal and ill subjects. As a model for normal patients, we i...

  3. Knee posture during gait and global functioning post-stroke: a theoretical ICF framework using current measures in stroke rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Neves Rosa, Marlene Cristina; Marques, Alda; Demain, Sara; Metcalf, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterise the global functioning post-stroke in patients with normal knee posture (NKP) and abnormal knee posture (AKP) during loading-response. Methods: 35 people, 6 months post-stroke. with NKP and AKP were identified and assessed using clinical measures classified into the corresponding International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains: weight function (body mass index); muscle power (knee isometric strength); muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Sca...

  4. Gender difference in mobile phone use and the impact of digital device exposure on neck posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Chen, Zhengqi; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Annan; Gu, Guangfei; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; He, Shisheng

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify gender differences in the cervical postures when young adults were using mobile phones, as well as the correlations between the postures and the digital devices use (computer and mobile phone). Questionnaires regarding the habits of computer and mobile phone use were administrated to 429 subjects aged from 17 to 33 years old (19.75 ± 2.58 years old). Subjects were instructed to stand habitually and use a mobile phone as in daily life; the sagittal head and cervical postures were measured by head flexion, neck flexion angle and gaze angle. Male participants had a significantly larger head flexion angle (96.41° ± 12.23° vs. 93.57° ± 12.62°, p  =  0.018) and neck flexion angle (51.92°  ±  9.55° vs. 47.09° ± 9.45°, p  mobile phones, as well as the potential correlations between these postures and digital device use. We found that males displayed larger head and neck flexion angles than females, which were associated with the amount of computer use.

  5. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  6. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  7. Characteristic of bio-geometric profile of students’ posture and physical fitness in process of physical education

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    M.V. Dudko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine specific features of bio-geometric profile of posture and physical fitness of students in process of physical education. Material: 250 students were tested. Video-recording and analysis of bio-geometric profile of human posture were fulfilled. Program Torso was used for this purpose. Results: it was found out that only 15.2% of students had correct posture. The most quantity of posture abnormalities was detected in 36.4% of the tested. In sagittal plane we observed the following types of abnormalities: round back - in 24.4% of students, slouching back - in 24% of students. We found that 63.3% of students with normal posture are in zone of risk. Low backbone flexibility, mobility of hip joints and elasticity of hamstrings was detected on students. Conclusions: students with unsatisfactory bio-geometric profile of posture (scoliosis posture - 43.33%; round back - 23. 33%; slouching back - 22. 73% are in the called pre-morbid state of muscular-skeletal apparatus.

  8. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  9. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    performed a battery of standard clinical tests of dynamic posture, whereas the fourth subject performed the stereotyped postures (e.g. movements restricted...Processing & Control [2] Napoli A, Ward C, Glass S, Tucker C, Obeid I (2016) “Automated Assessment of Postural Stability System,” IEEE Engineering in

  10. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán Oporto; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. METHODS The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18–24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. RESULTS The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). CONCLUSION This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. PMID:26768173

  11. Constrained posture in dentistry - a kinematic analysis of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Erbe, Christina; Nowak, Jennifer; Hauck, Imke; Hermanns, Ingo; Ditchen, Dirk; Ellegast, Rolf; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-05

    How a dentist works, such as the patterns of movements performed daily, is also largely affected by the workstation Dental tasks are often executed in awkward body positions, thereby causing a very high degree of strain on the corresponding muscles. The objective of this study is to detect those dental tasks, during which awkward postures occur most frequently. The isolated analysis of static postures will examine the duration for which these postures are maintained during the corresponding dental, respectively non-dental, activities. 21 (11f/10 m) dentists (age: 40.1 ± 10.4 years) participated in this study. An average dental workday was collected for every subject. To collect kinematic data of all activities, the CUELA system was used. Parallel to the kinematic examination, a detailed computer-based task analysis was conducted. Afterwards, both data sets were synchronized based on the chronological order of the postures assumed in the trunk and the head region. All tasks performed were assigned to the categories "treatment" (I), "office" (II) and "other activities" (III). The angle values of each body region (evaluation parameter) were examined and assessed corresponding to ergonomic standards. Moreover, this study placed a particular focus on static positions, which are held statically for 4 s and longer. For "treatment" (I), the entire head and trunk area is anteriorly tilted while the back is twisted to the right, in (II) and (III) the back is anteriorly tilted and twisted to the right (non-neutral position). Static positions in (I) last for 4-10s, static postures (approx. 60%) can be observed while in (II) and (III) in the back area static positions for more than 30 s are most common. Moreover, in (II) the back is twisted to the right for more than 60 s in 26.8%. Awkward positions are a major part of a dentists' work. This mainly pertains to static positions of the trunk and head in contrast to "office work." These insights facilitate the quantitative

  12. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  13. A new symmetry-based scoring method for posture assessment: evaluation of the effect of insoles with mineral derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, M; Gaillardetz, C; Cron, C; Abribat, T

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for a validated rapid procedure for the evaluation of posture, defined as lateral balance/imbalance at the pelvic, shoulder, and neck levels. This would enable clinicians to determine the importance of symmetry in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders and to assess the efficacy of devices and treatments claiming to normalize or improve posture. In this investigation, the efficacy of such a device, a set of insoles with a hypothesized proprioceptive-like action, was evaluated through use of the described procedure. To develop a new scoring system to evaluate body posture on the basis of symmetry and to use this scoring system to investigate the efficacy of insoles containing a combination of mineral derivatives designed to balance posture through a neurophysiological effect. The posture score was based on the evaluation of 4 postural parameters: pelvic and shoulder lateral balance/imbalance, static shoulder rotation, and amplitude of head rotation. In the placebo-controlled study, 32 patients were tested in a double-blind fashion, either with placebo insoles or with insoles containing mineral derivatives. The same study was repeated in unblind conditions in 137 patients selected from 2 chiropractic clinics in an open-label protocol. A crossover placebo-controlled, double-blind study and a multicenter, large-scale, open-label study in patients selected from chiropractic clinics. A basal postural evaluation in 137 patients revealed that no patient had a perfect symmetry-ie, a perfectly or nearly perfectly balanced posture. The insoles with mineral derivatives induced a highly significant and similar improvement in the postural score in both the crossover double-blind study (32 patients; 56.7% improvement) and the open-label study (137 patients; 60.7% improvement, P postural imbalances according to the newly developed scoring method, and this method was successful in assessing the efficacy of insoles exerting a profound and immediate postural

  14. STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE CONTROL IN POSTLINGUAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTED PATIENTS: Effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD DEMANZE eLaurence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body’s position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of post-lingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static and dynamic conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC conditions, with the cochlear implant activated (ON or not (OFF. Results showed that the CI patients significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on as well as dual-tasking did not really improve the dynamic postural performance of the CI patients. We conclude that CI patients become strongly visual dependent mainly in challenging postural conditions.

  15. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  16. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  17. Body posture in children with obesity - the relationship to physical activity (PA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Sołtys, Jacek; Gallert-Kopyto, Weronika; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Plinta, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    The modern world of electronic devices offers children and young people various forms of leisure activities, while reducing the need for natural movement, necessary for normal psychomotor development. Sedentary life contributes to an increased body weight and, thereby, to the development of body posture abnormalities. The aim of the study was to evaluate body posture, leisure activities, and the number of hours spent using electronic devices among children with obesity. The study involved 51 children with obesity (BMI above 95 percentile) - A group, and 69 children with normal body weight at the age of 9-13 years (10.98 ± 1.29) - B group (control). Body posture has been evaluated with the scoliometer, the digital inclinometer and the plumb line. The hump ratio has been calculated on the basis of SOSORT recommendations. Time spent in front of electronic devices based on a questionnaire results has also been calculated. Children with obesity have more body posture defects in the sagittal plane than children with normal z-scores (pchildren in group A have distorted depth of the two curvatures of the spine. In the control group, the majority of deviations have been observed in the evaluation of the ATR (Angle Trunk Rotation) at the lumbar spine (pelectronic devices at least 3 days a week (p>0.05). Obese children often use mobile devices, while children with normal body weight often use desktop equipment. Definitely more body posture abnormalities are found in the group of obese children. Children use electronic devices regardless of weight. It is worth to expand educational activities with programs that improve the quality of body posture through a daily change of abnormal patterns. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  18. Functional morphology of the primate head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, Thierra K; Grider-Potter, Neysa

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral column plays a key role in maintaining posture, locomotion, and transmitting loads between body components. Cervical vertebrae act as a bridge between the torso and head and play a crucial role in the maintenance of head position and the visual field. Despite its importance in positional behaviors, the functional morphology of the cervical region remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal column. This study tests whether morphological variation in the primate cervical vertebrae correlates with differences in postural behavior. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares analyses were performed on a taxonomically broad sample of 26 extant primate taxa to test the link between vertebral morphology and posture. Kinematic data on primate head and neck postures were used instead of behavioral categories in an effort to provide a more direct analysis of our functional hypothesis. Results provide evidence for a function-form link between cervical vertebral shape and postural behaviors. Specifically, taxa with more pronograde heads and necks and less kyphotic orbits exhibit cervical vertebrae with longer spinous processes, indicating increased mechanical advantage for deep nuchal musculature, and craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies and more coronally oriented zygapophyseal articular facets, suggesting an emphasis on curve formation and maintenance within the cervical lordosis, coupled with a greater resistance to translation and ventral displacement. These results not only document support for functional relationships in cervical vertebrae features across a wide range of primate taxa, but highlight the utility of quantitative behavioral data in functional investigations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Postural evaluation of patients with temporomandibular disorders under use of occlusal splints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulinne Junqueira Silva Andresen Strini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the temporomandibular complex can reflect in adaptations of the individual's entire muscular system, intervening with the head position and scapular waist, developing postural alterations and modifying all corporal biomechanics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the head position (HP and head postural alterations before and after installation of occlusal splints. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD underwent clinical and postural examination, before the installation of an occlusal splint, and after 1 week and 1 month of use. RESULTS: There were statistically differences for HP, between the initial values and after 1 week of use of the occlusal device (p= 0.048 and also between 1 week and 1 month of evaluation (p= 0.001. Decrease of the painful symptomatology and maintenance of the rectification were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The individual's postural position can suffer biomechanical alterations due to stomatognathic alterations, causing clinically visible changes in dysfunctional individuals and affecting the performance of the involved structures.

  20. Shift of the Muscular Inhibition Latency during On-Line Acquisition of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Barlaam

    Full Text Available During action, Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs cancel the consequences of a movement on postural stabilization. Their muscular expression is characterized by early changes in the activity of the postural muscles, before the movement begins. To explore the mechanisms enabling the acquisition of APAs, a learning paradigm was designed in which the voluntary lifting of a load with one hand triggered the unloading of another load suspended below the contralateral forearm. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the muscular expression that uncovers the progressive learning of new APAs. A trial-by-trial analysis of kinematic and electromyographic signals recorded on the right arm was conducted in twelve adults through six sessions of learning. Kinematic results reported an enhancement of the postural stabilization across learning. The main EMG pattern found during learning consisted of a flexor inhibition, where latency was shifted towards an earlier occurrence in parallel with the improvement of the postural performance. A linear regression analysis conducted between the inhibition latency and the maximal amplitude of elbow rotation showed that the earlier the inhibition onset, the better the postural stabilization. This study revealed that the progressive shift of the postural flexor inhibition latency could be considered as a reliable neurophysiological marker of the progressive learning of new APAs. Importantly, this marker could be used to track motor learning abnormalities in pathology. We relate our findings to the update of a forward predictive model of action, defined as a system that predicts beforehand the consequences of the action on posture.

  1. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    overt goals. It follows that an essential characteristic of postural behavior is the effective maintenance of the orientation and stability of the sensory and motor "platforms" (e.g., head or shoulders) over variations in the human, the environment and the task. This general skill suggests that individuals should be sensitive to the functional consequences of body configuration and stability. In other words, individuals should perceive the relation between configuration, stability, and performance so that they can adaptively control their interaction with the surroundings. Human-environment interactions constitute robust systems in that individuals can maintain the stability of such interactions over uncertainty about and variations in the dynamics of the interaction. Robust interactions allow individuals to adopt orientations and configurations that are not optimal with respect to purely energetic criteria. Individuals can tolerate variation in postural states, and such variation can serve an important function in adaptive systems. Postural variability generates stimulation which is "textured" by the dynamics of the human-environment system. The texture or structure in stimulation provides information about variation in dynamics, and such information can be sufficient to guide adaption in control strategies. Our method were designed to measure informative patterns of movement variability.

  2. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  3. Do adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS neglect proprioceptive information in sensory integration of postural control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Assaiante

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. METHODS: 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS with moderate spinal deformity (10° 35° and 10 control adolescents (CA had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. RESULTS: Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. CONCLUSIONS: AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected.

  4. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  5. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  6. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  9. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  10. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  11. Research progress of the relationship between abnormal vestibular reflexes and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is an agnogenic structural scoliosis occurring in adolescence, and the main diagnostic criteria is coronal Cobb angle >10°in total spine X-ray. Studies have shown that AIS may be associated with abnormal postural reflexes, vestibular system is an important component of postural reflexes and its mechanism in the occurrence and development of scoliosis has received wide attention in recent years. In the study, the research progress on the role of abnormal vestibular reflexes in the pathogenesis of AIS was mainly introduced to help the clinicians better understand the pathogenesis of AIS and provide new ideas for AIS study.

  12. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  13. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  14. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Celletti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT, is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods. The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results. Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research.

  16. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background . Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods . The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results . Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research.

  17. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  18. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  19. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  20. Absence of rotation perception during warm water caloric irrigation in some seniors with postural instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied.Twenty senior subjects were included in the study separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls. We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video-head impulse test (vHIT, caloric tests, and cervical and ocular VEMPs. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All of the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or greater than 15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All of the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions.These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, amongst other factors, from a

  1. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  2. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  3. The effect of moderate running on foot posture index and plantar pressure distribution in male recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns. A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec). Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the foot posture index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel. Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport.

  4. State-dependent sensorimotor processing: gaze and posture stability during simulated flight in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Kimberly L; Dickman, J David

    2011-04-01

    Vestibular responses play an important role in maintaining gaze and posture stability during rotational motion. Previous studies suggest that these responses are state dependent, their expression varying with the environmental and locomotor conditions of the animal. In this study, we simulated an ethologically relevant state in the laboratory to study state-dependent vestibular responses in birds. We used frontal airflow to simulate gliding flight and measured pigeons' eye, head, and tail responses to rotational motion in darkness, under both head-fixed and head-free conditions. We show that both eye and head response gains are significantly higher during flight, thus enhancing gaze and head-in-space stability. We also characterize state-specific tail responses to pitch and roll rotation that would help to maintain body-in-space orientation during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular sensorimotor processing is not fixed but depends instead on the animal's behavioral state.

  5. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Ruivo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture.

  6. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture.

  7. Is there a relationship between preferred posture and positioning in early life and the direction of subsequent asymmetrical postural deformity in non ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David; Michael, Shona; Kirkwood, Craig

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that asymmetrical positioning of an infant with reduced mobility may lead to postural deformity becoming established over time. However, evidence to support or question this line of thinking is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to test the association between asymmetrical positioning in the first 12 months of life and the subsequent direction of postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy. The direction of scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and windswept hip pattern and also the side of unilateral hip subluxation/dislocation were determined for 246 young people ranging in age from 1 year and 2 months to 19 years (median age 10 years and 3 months). Parents/carers of the participants were interviewed to establish holding and feeding positions and preferred lying posture adopted in early life. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. The study provided evidence of an association between asymmetrical lying posture adopted in the first year of life and the direction of the subsequent pattern of postural deformity. If the child's head had been rotated to the right during supine lying, it was more likely that the scoliosis would be convex to the left, pelvic obliquity would be lower on the left, windswept hip pattern would be to the right and hip subluxation/dislocation would occur on the left. The likelihood of the deformities occurring in the same direction was also increased if consistent side lying on the right had been preferred. Clinicians should be aware of positioning for children with severe disabilities particularly those who prefer supine lying with their head rotated to the side and those who prefer consistent side lying.

  8. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  9. Ambulatory monitoring of left ventricular function in patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nappi, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Iazzetta, N. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Ferrara, L.A. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Marotta, T. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Pace, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); De Michele, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Campanella, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, M. [National Cancer Inst., Naples (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy)

    1994-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function was continuously monitored using a radionuclide detector (VEST) after intravenous injection of 25 mCi technetium-99m labelled red blood cells in nine patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension (group 1) and ten patients with Parkinson`s disease but without postural hypotension (group 2). LV function and blood pressure were monitored in the supine position for 15 min (period A), upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position for 10 min (period B), and upon returning to the supine position for 10 min (period C). In group 1, the passage from period A to period B induced a significant decrease in end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction (all P<0.01). In group 2, ejection fraction increased (P<0.05) upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position. Ejection fraction (F=33, P<0.01), end-diastolic volume (F=9, P<0.05) and end-systolic volume (F=10, P<0.05) were significantly different between the two groups. In group 1, stroke volume, cardiac output and vascular peripheral resistance decreased from period A to period B (all P<0.001). In group 2, no changes in stroke volume, cardiac output and vascular peripheral resistance were observed from period A to period B. All parameters were similar in the two groups during the periods A and C. Upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position, patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension showed marked changes in parameters of LV function induced by vascular abnormalities. The results of this study may help to clarify the potential risk of sudden postural changes in such patients, which may cause fainting, syncope and increased risk of ischaemic coronary and cerebrovascular attacks and of lower limb fractures. (orig.)

  10. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  11. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  12. Motor deficits in schizophrenia quantified by nonlinear analysis of postural sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerillyn S Kent

    Full Text Available Motor dysfunction is a consistently reported but understudied aspect of schizophrenia. Postural sway area was examined in individuals with schizophrenia under four conditions with different amounts of visual and proprioceptive feedback: eyes open or closed and feet together or shoulder width apart. The nonlinear complexity of postural sway was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The schizophrenia group (n = 27 exhibited greater sway area compared to controls (n = 37. Participants with schizophrenia showed increased sway area following the removal of visual input, while this pattern was absent in controls. Examination of DFA revealed decreased complexity of postural sway and abnormal changes in complexity upon removal of visual input in individuals with schizophrenia. Additionally, less complex postural sway was associated with increased symptom severity in participants with schizophrenia. Given the critical involvement of the cerebellum and related circuits in postural stability and sensorimotor integration, these results are consistent with growing evidence of motor, cerebellar, and sensory integration dysfunction in the disorder, and with theoretical models that implicate cerebellar deficits and more general disconnection of function in schizophrenia.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study for Screening of Postural Deficits among University Students

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    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural deviations are frequent in university students and may cause pain and functional impairment. Few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in university students, and to determine whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, and physical activity might explain these deviations, this study helping in preventing aggravation of postural deviations and providing the young adolescent students with exercises and help tips for correcting these problems. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The posture of 48 students in Hail University was assessed by DIER formetric 4D. Their mean age was 20.35 ± 2.678, height was 185.56 ± 7.128 and weight was 54.19 ± 7.085. Results: results revealed positive correlation between height and weight, height and self-image, weight and surface rotation, self-image and pelvic tilting, kyphotic angle and lordotic angle, pelvic tilt and trunk imbalance, lateral deviation and trunk imbalance. Conclusion: high prevalence of abnormalities among students, so it is recommended that all instructors place more emphasis on training and using corrective actions in course one of general physical education. Furthermore, teaching the correct sleeping, sitting and carrying ways will stop high expenses and devoting long times for clinical remedies.

  14. Postural control in restless legs syndrome with medication intervention using pramipexole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgrén-Rimpiläinen, Aulikki; Lauerma, Hannu; Kähkönen, Seppo; Aalto, Heikki; Tuisku, Katinka; Holi, Matti; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Rimpiläinen, Ilpo

    2014-02-01

    Central dopamine regulation is involved in postural control and in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Postural control abnormalities have been detected in PD, but there are no earlier studies with regard to RLS and postural control. Computerized force platform posturography was applied to measure the shift and the velocity (CPFV) of center point of forces (CPF) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in controls (n = 12) and prior and after a single day intervention with pramipexole in RLS subjects (n = 12). CPFV (EO) was significantly lower in the RLS group (p < 0.05) than in controls. After pramipexole intake, the difference disappeared and the subjective symptom severity diminished. Pramipexole did not significantly influence CPFV (EC) or CPF shift direction. Subjects with RLS used extensively visual mechanisms to control vestibule-spinal reflexes to improve or compensate the postural stability. Further research is needed to clarify altered feedback in the central nervous system and involvement of dopamine and vision in the postural control in RLS.

  15. Classification of Posture in Poststroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Potential Decision Tool for Botulinum Toxin A Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Harald; Jost, Wolfgang H.; Reissig, Andrea; Zakine, Benjamin; Bakheit, Abdel Magid; Wissel, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    A significant percentage of patients suffering from a stroke involving motor-relevant central nervous system regions will develop a spastic movement disorder. Hyperactivity of different muscle combinations forces the limbs affected into abnormal postures or movement patterns. As muscular hyperactivity can effectively and safely be treated with…

  16. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  17. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

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    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  18. Prevalence of postural deviations and associated factors in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Mariana Vieira Batistão

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Postural deviations are frequent in childhood and may cause pain and functional impairment. Previously, only a few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in school children, and to determine, using multiple logistic regression analysis, whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, handedness and physical activity might explain these deviations. Methods: The posture of 288 students was assessed by observation. Subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, 59.4% (n = 171 of which were female. The mean age was 10.6 (± 2.4 years. Mean body weight was 38.6 (± 12.7 kg and mean height was 1.5 (± 0.1 m. A digital scale, a tapeline, a plumb line and standardized forms were used to collect data. The data were analyzed descriptively using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis (significance level of 5%. Results: We found the following deviations to be prevalent among schoolchildren: forward head posture, 53.5%, shoulder elevation, 74.3%, asymmetry of the iliac crests, 51.7%, valgus knees, 43.1%, thoracic hyperkyphosis, 30.2%, lumbar hyperlordosis, 37.2% and winged shoulder blades, 66.3%. The associated factors were age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of postural deviations and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors partially explain the postural deviations. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of how and why these deviations develop, and to the implementation of preventive and rehabilitation programs, given that some of the associated factors are modifiable.

  19. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  20. The effects of healthy aging on cerebral hemodynamic responses to posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, Brian L; Greenberg, Joel H; Detre, John A; Kim, Meeri N; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, Arjun G; Putt, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension, impairment of the baroreceptor reflex and lower baseline cerebral blood flow. The effect of aging on cerebrovascular autoregulation, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We used a novel optical instrument to assess microvascular cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe cortex of 60 healthy subjects ranging from ages 20–78. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), total hemoglobin concentration (THC), oxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb). Cerebral hemodynamics were monitored for 5 min at each of the following postures: head-of-bed 30°, supine, standing and supine. Supine-to-standing posture change caused significant declines in rCBF, THC and HbO 2 , and an increase in Hb, across the age continuum (p < 0.01). Healthy aging did not alter postural changes in frontal cortical rCBF (p = 0.23) and was associated with a smaller magnitude of decline in HbO 2 (p < 0.05) during supine-to-standing posture change. We conclude that healthy aging does not alter postural changes in frontal cortical perfusion

  1. Static trunk posture in sitting and standing during pregnancy and early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Wendy L; Crosbie, Jack; Smith, Richard

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the postural alignment of the upper body in the sagittal plane during sitting and standing postures as pregnancy progressed and then in the postpartum period. Longitudinal, repeated-measures design. Biomechanics laboratory in an Australian university. A volunteer convenience sample of 9 primiparous and multiparous women and 12 nulliparous women serving as a control group. Not applicable. Subjects were filmed while sitting and during quiet standing at intervals throughout pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess systematic changes in the alignment of the pelvic, thoracic, and head segments, and the thoracolumbar and cervicothoracic spines. Student t tests were used to compare the postpartum and nulliparous control groups. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on the upper-body posture, although there was a tendency in some subjects for a flatter thoracolumbar spinal curve in sitting as pregnancy progressed. Postpartum during standing, the pelvic segment had a reduced sagittal plane anterior orientation, and the thoracolumbar spine was less extended, indicating a flatter spinal curve compared with the control group. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on upper-body posture during sitting and standing, although individuals varied in their postural response. A flatter spinal curve was found during standing postpartum. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  2. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

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    Anna Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the future derivation of physiotherapeutic programming to remediate acute and chronic decline. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to partition which measures are more associated with balance efficacy, fitness, or postural control. One hundred eleven community-dwelling older adults participated and were asked to complete the Balance Efficacy Scale (BES, a functional fitness measure (the Senior Fitness Test [SFT], and a measure of postural control (the Sensory Organization Test [SOT].We found that the SFT was more significantly associated with balance efficacy (R2 = .37 than the SOT (R2 = .08 in older adults. Overall, aerobic endurance, functional mobility in the SFT, and the vestibular score on the SOT were significantly associated with balance efficacy. We concluded that clinicians utilizing the BES as a preliminary screen should recommend physiotherapy follow-up activities that build endurance (walking, lower extremity functional mobility (sit-to-stand, and vestibular function (head movement while walking. Understanding the links between a preliminary screening tool and the physiological needs of the patient will allow for targeted activities to be prescribed.

  3. Effects of neck and circumoesophageal connective lesions on posture and locomotion in the cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2005-06-01

    Few studies in arthropods have documented to what extent local control centers in the thorax can support locomotion in absence of inputs from head ganglia. Posture, walking, and leg motor activity was examined in cockroaches with lesions of neck or circumoesophageal connectives. Early in recovery, cockroaches with neck lesions had hyper-extended postures and did not walk. After recovery, posture was less hyper-extended and animals initiated slow leg movements for multiple cycles. Neck lesioned individuals showed an increase in walking after injection of either octopamine or pilocarpine. The phase of leg movement between segments was reduced in neck lesioned cockroaches from that seen in intact animals, while phases in the same segment remained constant. Neither octopamine nor pilocarpine initiated changes in coordination between segments in neck lesioned individuals. Animals with lesions of the circumoesophageal connectives had postures similar to intact individuals but walked in a tripod gait for extended periods of time. Changes in activity of slow tibial extensor and coxal depressor motor neurons and concomitant changes in leg joint angles were present after the lesions. This suggests that thoracic circuits are sufficient to produce leg movements but coordinated walking with normal motor patterns requires descending input from head ganglia.

  4. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

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    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  5. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  6. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  7. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  8. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  9. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  10. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  11. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  12. DESAIN STASIUN KERJA DAN POSTUR KERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS BIOMEKANIK UNTUK MENGURANGI BEBAN STATIS DAN KELUHAN PADA OTOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Purwaningsih

    2017-03-01

    unsuitable to operator. In the laundry workers ironing clothes activity is monotonous and repetitive work which is lacking in appropriate facilities. Work posture by standing up, often bent and twist. Ironing operator do their activities for more than 8 hours. The research aims to redesign the work station in order to obtain a good working posture. The design of work stations using Jack software 8.2. Work station consisting of a table and chairs designed with anthropometric and consider the motion of operator. Work station design used Jack Software 8.2. Evaluation of work posture used biomechanic analysis covering analysis of SSP, LBA, RULA, and OWAS. The result of evaluation is a posture suggested that the worker should sit on a chair with a sturdy body, the head is parallel toward to the direction of the object, and workers are prevented from bending and twist position.

  13. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  15. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  16. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  17. Effect of Pregnancy on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7±2.6; nulliparous, 2.1±2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6±12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3±10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1±22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9±14.9 beats/min; P=.07). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children. PMID:20516426

  18. Heart rate variability analysis in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Calabrò

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of 36 year old male patient with idiopathic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS diagnosed during head-up tilt testing. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV during the tilt test revealed that the ratio of low and high frequency powers (LF/HF increased with the onset of orthostatic intolerance. This analysis confirmed in our patient a strong activation in sympathetic tone.

  19. A Case Report and Review of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lide, Brianna; Haeri, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance characterized by an increased heart rate upon transition from supine to standing, and head-up tilt without orthostatic hypotension. Its etiology is multifactorial, and no clear cause has been identified. Common symptoms include light-headedness, blurred vision, weakness, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue and are often accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, syncope, or gastrointestinal ...

  20. Avaliação postural em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Postural assessment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Aparecida Stellutti Pachioni

    2011-12-01

    scanned and subsequently evaluated ten postural changes with SPA [lateral head tilting (LHT, shoulder asymmetry (SA1, anterior pelvic asymmetry (APA, lateral trunk tilting (LTT, scapular asymmetry (SA2, posterior pelvic asymmetry (PPA, head protrusion (HP, shoulder protrusion (SP, anterior pelvic tilting (ABT, and thoracic kyphosis (TK]. These postural changes, obtained in the control group, were compared with the normal range for young adults, proposed in a previous study. For the comparison of postural changes between the control and COPD groups was used Mann-Whitney test in the control group, and young adults, the unpaired Students's t-test. The level of statistical significance was 5%. Among the ten postural changes, the control group had seven (LHT, APA, SA2, PPA, HP, SP, ABT outside the normal range for young adults, with significantly higher angular values. When compared to healthy elderly, patients with COPD showed a significant increase in the angle of three postural changes (ABT, PPA, and TK. Patients with COPD have three postural changes that are probably related to the disease.

  1. A research on the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot by the HAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Minsu; Kim, Yeongmin; Lee, Yoseph; Jeon, Doyoung

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a method of detecting the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot with the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model. Previous studies have shown that the human posture is stable when the CoM(Center of Mass) of the human body is placed on the BoS(Base of Support). In the case of the lower limb exoskeletal robot, the motion data, which are used for the CoM estimation, are acquired by sensors in the robot. The upper body, however, does not have sensors in each segment so that it may cause the error of the CoM estimation. In this paper, the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model which combines head, arms, and torso into a single segment is considered because the motion of head and arms are unknown due to the lack of sensors. To verify the feasibility of HAT model, the reflecting markers are attached to each segment of the whole human body and the exact motion data are acquired by the VICON to compare the COM of the full body model and HAT model. The difference between the CoM with full body and that with HAT model is within 20mm for the various motions of head and arms. Based on the HAT model, the XCoM(Extrapolated Center of Mass) which includes the velocity of the CoM is used for prediction of the postural stability. The experiment of making unstable posture shows that the XCoM of the whole body based on the HAT model is feasible to detect the instance of postural instability earlier than the CoM by 20-250 msec. This result may be used for the lower limb exoskeletal robot to prepare for any action to prevent the falling down.

  2. SPERM MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES AS INDICATORS OF DNA FRAGMENTATION AND FERTILIZATION IN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dariš

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine the relationship between sperm morphological abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and fertilization rate in IVF and ICSI. Methods. Sperm samples from 10 IVF and 20 ICSI cycles were analyzed. Morphology was assessed according to strict criteria, and DNA fragmentation was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL using a flow cytometry. Results. There was a significant difference in the amount of morphological abnormalities between sperm samples with low (< 20 % and high (≥ 20 % degree of DNA fragmentation. The percentages of amorphous heads (10 vs. 4 % and overall head abnormalities (42 vs. 30 % were significantly higher in sperm samples with elevated degree of DNA fragmentation. No correlation was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and fertilization rate after IVF and ICSI. When the predominant morphological abnormality in sperm samples was determined, a negative correlation was found between the percentage of spermatozoa with elongated heads and fertilization rate in ICSI (r = –0.45, P < 0.05. The fertilization rate after IVF was lower in the case of acrosomal abnormalities (35.3 %, compared to the cases of other predominant morphological abnormalities. Conclusions. Head abnormalities, especially amorphous heads, are related to elevated degree of DNA fragmentation. Predominant abnormal form in sperm samples, such as elongated heads and acrosomal abnormalities, may affect fertilization in ART.

  3. The Influence of Natural Head Position on the Cervical Sagittal Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between the parameters related to the natural head position and cervical segmental angles and alignment of patients with neck pain. Material and Methods. The lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were collected from 103 patients and were used to retrospectively analyze the correlation between the natural head position, cervical local sagittal angles, and alignment. Sagittal measurements were as follows: cervical curvature classification, slope of McGregor’s line (McGS, local sagittal angles (C0–C2 angle, C2–C5 angle, C5–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle, T1 slope, center of gravity of the head to sagittal vertical axis (CG–C7 SVA, and local sagittal alignment (C0–C2 SVA and C2–C7 SVA. Results. McGS was significantly correlated to C0–C2 angle (r=0.57, C0–C2 SVA (r=−0.53, C2–C7 SVA (r=−0.28, and CG–C7 SVA (r=−0.47. CG–C7 SVA was also significantly correlated to curvature type (r=0.27, C5–C7 angle (r=−0.37, and C2–C7 angle (r=−0.39. Conclusions. A backward shift with an extended head position may accompany a relatively normal curvature of the cervical spine. The effect of posture control in relieving abnormal mechanical state of the cervical spine needs to be further confirmed by biomechanical analysis.

  4. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  5. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2005-01-01

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions

  6. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  7. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-21

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  8. Effects of experimental insoles on body posture, mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles activity. A pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra

    2015-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Natural Head Position in Different Anteroposterior Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient’s natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion.Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32, class II (n=40 and class III (n=30. Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor, three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests.Results: PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05 among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population.Conclusion: A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion

  10. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postures of the subjects were analysed by means of photographic images using the pro forma of Barlow (1956, 1990). The majority of the executives had malposture with 2.3%, 23.3%, 58.1% and 16.3% and 6.3% of the subjects being categorised with slight postural defects, severe postural defects, very severe postural ...

  11. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  16. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  17. Effect of Kinesiotaping and Stretching Exercise on Forward Shoulder Angle in Females with Rounded Shoulder Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Hajibashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rounded shoulder posture is a common abnormal posture in upper quarter. Kinesiotape is a new intervention that recently used in rehabilitation. There are no studies have examined the effect of kinesiotape on rounded shoulder posture. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of scapular kinesiotaping and pectoralis minor stretching exercise on forward shoulder angle in female subjects with rounded shoulder posture. Methods: Twenty female students aged between 18 to 25 years old with rounded shoulder posture participated in this study. Then, the subjects were randomly and equally assigned to two groups: the stretch group and the stretch plus kinesiotape group. Both groups were trained for doing home exercise to stretch Pectoralis minor bilaterally for two weeks. Kinesiotape group received kinesiotape on scapular area additionally. Forward shoulder angle was measured in four sessions including pre-intervention (first session, immediately after the first intervention (second session, fourth day (third session and at the end of two weeks (fourth session. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (4×2 was used for data analysis. Results: kinesiotape group showed significant within-group decrease in forward shoulder angle between first session with three other sessions (P≤0.05.There was no significant within-group difference in stretch group and between groups (P=0.20 forward shoulder angle-by-group interaction in measurement sessions was significantly different (P=0.02 Conclusion: scapular kinesiotaping along with pectoralis minor stretching exercise improved rounded shoulder posture in subjects of the present study. kinesiotape is suggested as a complem

  18. Central haemodynamics in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Trap-Jensen, J

    1991-01-01

    Central haemodynamics in the supine and head-up tilted positions were studied in 24 patients with severe postural hypotension with and without supine hypertension. Results were compared with those obtained in eight normotensive and eight untreated hypertensive controls. In the supine position...... the patients had higher vascular resistances, lower stroke volumes and longer left ventricular ejection time indexes compared to controls, whereas left ventricular ejection fractions did not differ significantly. The patients with supine hypertension had significantly higher vascular resistance compared...... to those with supine normotension. The highest supine blood pressure levels were found in patients with multiple system atrophy. During tilt, vascular resistance and heart rates were increased and stroke volumes and left ventricular ejection time indexes were decreased in the controls. The patients were...

  19. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  20. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  1. Postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Homéria Leite de Morais Sampaio

    Full Text Available Abstract Postural changes and pain in the spine of children and adolescents of school age are influenced by the permanent incorrect sitting position, misuse of furniture and weight of the backpack. The aim of this study was to verify postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students. It was a cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach. The subjects were 83 elementary students, aged 8 to 12 years, of Kindergarten and Elementary Education at Paulo Sarasate Municipal School, Ceará. It was performed from March to June 2008. In the physical examination it was used an evaluation form, based on Global Postural reeducation, by Souchard method, which included the variables: compromised anterior, posterior, superior shoulder muscle chains and pain and, in academic performance, a semi-structured questionnaire with the variables: behavior, attendance and performance. The data was stored in the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. In the descriptive analysis, absolute and relative frequencies were used, and in the inferential analysis, the following tests were applied: Mann-Whitney, to verify the existence of significant differences in changes in groups A and B, at a significance level of 5%, and the F statistical test, for comparing postural changes and pain, in the three grades. Results: it was noted that the majority of the students presented postural changes, such as forward head, lifted shoulders, dorsal hyperkyphosis and pain, which predominantly occurred in the anterior chain, when compared with the posterior and superior chains. These changes in both groups were statistically significant only in subjects of the fifth grade with satisfactory academic performance and behavior. It was concluded that there was no association between postural changes and school performance, although it was influenced by pain.

  2. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola É.; Speciali, José G.; Gonçalves, Maria C.; Chaves, Thais C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). Conclusion The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD. PMID:24675909

  3. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives : To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method: Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD, 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG and 22 women in the control group (CG. Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results: Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60. For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42. The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54 and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48. Conclusion : The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD.

  4. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Methods Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). Results We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; Pposture, but these differences were very small (mean difference =1.44 cm for HP; 6.24 mm for SMD). The effect sizes reached by these values were estimated to be small for SMD (d=0.38) and medium for HP (d=0.76). Conclusion The results showed no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and variables of pain-related disability, but a strong correlation between the two variables of disability was found. Our findings suggest that small differences between CCFP patients and asymptomatic subjects exist with respect to the two measurements used to assess craniocervical posture (HP and SMD), and these measures demonstrated high test–retest intrarater reliability for

  5. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertekin C, Keskin A, Kiylioglu N, Kirazli Y, On AY,. Tarlaci S, et al. The effect of head and neck positions on oropharyngeal swallowing: a clinical and electrophysio- logic study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilita- tion. 2001;829:1255-60. Epub 2001/09/12. 17. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas.

  6. The effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy on the calculation of induced current densities at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, P.; Findlay, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting. (authors)

  7. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  8. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  9. Postural effects when cycling in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen E; Cooper, Karen A; Boyce, E Stewart; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed if upright cycling is preferable to semi-recumbent cycling during pregnancy. Healthy women with low risk singleton pregnancies were tested at 34-38 weeks gestation. They cycled for 12 min, either semi-recumbent (45 degrees, n = 27) or upright (n = 23), at 135-145 beats min(-1). When semi-recumbent, minute ventilation was greater (pposture-independent. All increased with exercise (p0.05). Small post-exercise fetal heart rate increases (by 8 beats min(-1), ppostures (n = 11 in each sub-group), with no adverse changes. Fetal heart rate accelerations and uterine activity (n = 11 in each sub-group) were not influenced by posture or exercise. (1) Neither posture had a distinct advantage. (2) Both postures were safe for short duration cycling. (3) The same target maternal heart rates are suitable for both postures because they resulted in similar oxygen consumptions and fetal heart rates.

  10. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post...

  11. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  12. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  13. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  14. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  15. Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: II. Postural Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2017-06-15

    Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right. Two stepping strategies for obstacle circumvention were identified: 1) side step: increase in step width by the foot ipsilateral to the side of circumvention; 2) cross step: decrease in step width by the foot contralateral to the side of circumvention. The side step strategy was favoured by post-stroke individuals in circumventing stationary and head-on approaching obstacles. In circumventing diagonally approaching obstacles, healthy controls generally veered opposite to obstacle approach (>60% trials), whereas the majority of post-stroke participants (7/12) veered to the same side of obstacle approach (V same ). Post-stroke participants who veered to the opposite side (V opp , 5/12) were more independent and faster ambulators who favoured the side step strategy in circumventing obstacles approaching from the paretic side and cross step strategy for obstacles approaching from the non-paretic side. V same participants generally favoured the side step strategy for both diagonal approaches. Segmental rotation amplitudes and latencies were largest in the V same group, and significantly greater in post-stroke participants than controls for all obstacle conditions. All participants initiated circumvention with the feet followed by the pelvis and thorax, demonstrating a caudal-rostral sequence of reorientation. Postural coordination strategies for obstacle circumvention

  16. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  17. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  18. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  19. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  20. Protocol to assess the neurophysiology associated with multi-segmental postural coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomond, Karen V; Henry, Sharon M; Jacobs, Jesse V; Hitt, Juvena R; Horak, Fay B; Cohen, Rajal G; Schwartz, Daniel; Dumas, Julie A; Naylor, Magdalena R; Watts, Richard; DeSarno, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) stabilize potential disturbances to posture caused by movement. Impaired APAs are common with disease and injury. Brain functions associated with generating APAs remain uncertain due to a lack of paired tasks that require similar limb motion from similar postural orientations, but differ in eliciting an APA while also being compatible with brain imaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI). This study developed fMRI-compatible tasks differentiated by the presence or absence of APAs during leg movement. Eighteen healthy subjects performed two leg movement tasks, supported leg raise (SLR) and unsupported leg raise (ULR), to elicit isolated limb motion (no APA) versus multi-segmental coordination patterns (including APA), respectively. Ground reaction forces under the feet and electromyographic activation amplitudes were assessed to determine the coordination strategy elicited for each task. Results demonstrated that the ULR task elicited a multi-segmental coordination that was either minimized or absent in the SLR task, indicating that it would serve as an adequate control task for fMRI protocols. A pilot study with a single subject performing each task in an MRI scanner demonstrated minimal head movement in both tasks and brain activation patterns consistent with an isolated limb movement for the SLR task versus multi-segmental postural coordination for the ULR task. (note)

  1. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  2. Effects of experimental occlusal interference on body posture: an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, I; Gatto, M R; Bartolucci, M L; Bortolotti, F; Alessandri Bonetti, G; Michelotti, A

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between dental occlusion and body posture both among people and in scientific literature. The aim of the present longitudinal study is to investigate the effects of an experimental occlusal interference on body posture by means of a force platform and an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis. An occlusal interference of a 0- to 2-mm-thick glass composite was prepared to disturb the intercuspal position while not creating interference during lateral or protrusive mandibular excursions. Frontal and sagittal kinematic parameters, dynamic gait measurements and superficial electromyographic (SEMG) activity of head and neck muscles were performed on 12 healthy subjects. Measurements were taken 10 days before the application of the occlusal interference, and then immediately before the application, the day after it, and at a distance of 7 and 14 days under four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of this study show that an occlusal interference does not modify significantly over time static and dynamic parameters of body posture under different exteroceptive conditions. It has a minimal influence only on the frontal kinematic parameters related to mandibular position, and it induces a transient increase of the activity of masticatory muscles. In this study, the experimental occlusal interference did not significantly influence the body posture during a 14-day follow-up period. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of neck exercise on high-school students' neck-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck-shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck-shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture.

  4. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of Postural Control in Patients with Glaucoma Using a Virtual Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; van Driel, Nienke; Yang, Zhiyong; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate postural control using a dynamic virtual reality environment and the relationship between postural metrics and history of falls in patients with glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. The study involved 42 patients with glaucoma with repeatable visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) and 38 control healthy subjects. Patients underwent evaluation of postural stability by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli on stereoscopic head-mounted goggles. The dynamic visual stimuli presented rotational and translational ecologically valid peripheral background perturbations. Postural stability was also tested in a completely dark field to assess somatosensory and vestibular contributions to postural control. History of falls was evaluated by a standard questionnaire. Torque moments around the center of foot pressure on the force platform were measured, and the standard deviations of the torque moments (STD) were calculated as a measurement of postural stability and reported in Newton meters (Nm). The association with history of falls was investigated using Poisson regression models. Age, gender, body mass index, severity of visual field defect, best-corrected visual acuity, and STD on dark field condition were included as confounding factors. Patients with glaucoma had larger overall STD than controls during both translational (5.12 ± 2.39 Nm vs. 3.85 ± 1.82 Nm, respectively; P = 0.005) and rotational stimuli (5.60 ± 3.82 Nm vs. 3.93 ± 2.07 Nm, respectively; P = 0.022). Postural metrics obtained during dynamic visual stimuli performed better in explaining history of falls compared with those obtained in static and dark field condition. In the multivariable model, STD values in the mediolateral direction during translational stimulus were significantly associated with a history of falls in patients with glaucoma (incidence rate ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.63; P = 0.001). The study presented and

  6. Using impedance cardiography with postural change to stratify patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2011-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension could initiate appropriate treatment to control blood pressure and prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to show how impedance cardiography waveform analysis with postural change can be used to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had impedance cardiography data obtained in two positions, standing upright and supine. In 50 adults, impedance cardiography indicated that all patients had abnormal data, with 44 (88%) having multiple abnormalities. Impedance cardiography showed 32 (64%) had ventricular dysfunction, 48 (96%) had vascular load abnormalities, 34 (68%) had hemodynamic abnormalities, 2 (4%) had hypovolemia, and 3 (6%) had hypervolemia. Hypertensive patients have diverse cardiovascular abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment could be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms with the potential to rapidly control blood pressure, prevent progression of cardiovascular disease, and possibly reverse remodeling.

  7. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  8. Prevalence of postural alterations in students of Basic Education in the city of Vila Velha, Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lopes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Introduction Human posture goes through a series of changes in the course of body growth and development, i.e., in childhood and adolescence. Moreover, during these phases, individuals are subject to risk behaviors for spinal problems, especially those related to the use of backpacks and to poor sitting posture. Objective This study aimed to detect the prevalence of postural alterations in school children enrolled in the UMEF Vila Olímpica, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. Methods We evaluated 513 schoolchildren in the orthostatic position and in the anterior, posterior and side view. The following structures were analyzed: head, shoulder, the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvis and lower limbs. Results There was a high prevalence of postural deviations: rotated or tilted head, elevated shoulder and pelvis, valgus or varus knee, head protraction, alterations of the thoracic spine, anteriorized shoulders, pelvis in anteversion, knees semiflexion or hyperextension and cavus or planus feet. Conclusion Our results suggest that there is a high prevalence of postural alterations in students in the school network of Vila Velha (ES. This could be detected through public health policies, such as the federal government´s Health at School Program (PSE.

  9. External load application in gait and posture reeducation after diffuse axonal injury of the corpus callosum. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zawadka

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury caused car accidents is the one of the most common causes of diffuse axonal injury typically located at the grey-white matter junction, in the corpus callosum. A 58-year-old female patient Caucasian race was admitted to the Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Unit with head injury, broken right ulnar bone, numerous broken ribs and broken right iliac crest. Neurological examination resulted in right-sided hemiparesis. There were also coordination and balance disorders while sitting and standing. The patient was unable to walk. After physiotherapy treatment included external load application (ankle weights and rucksack with weights in gait and posture reeducation, patient has improved balance, locomotion and body posture. However, application of external loads during walk and posture reeducation needs to be further investigated with greater number of participants and control group.

  10. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  11. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  12. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  13. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  14. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points and blood pressure responses to postural changes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice Y M; Kwan, Y L; Leung, Nathan T F; Yu, Rachel P W; Wu, Cindy M Y; Warburton, Darren E R

    2011-05-01

    Application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation over acupuncture points (Acu-TENS) facilitates heart rate recovery after exercise and restores hemodynamic stability after open heart surgery. The role of Acu-TENS on cardiovascular parameters in response to postural changes has not been reported. To investigate (1) the effect of Acu-TENS on blood pressure responses to -10º head-down postural change and (2) whether such effects were associated with modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Sixteen healthy volunteers, mean age 22.8 (SD, 3.1) years, were subjected to a -10º head-down tilt from the supine position on 3 separate occasions and received in random order the following 3 intervention protocols for 40 minutes before the postural change: Acu-TENS (over bilateral acupuncture points, PC6), sham-TENS (TENS applied to the skin over the patellae), and control (no electrical output from the TENS device applied at PC6). Mean arterial pressure, large artery elasticity index, cardiac output, and heart rate were recorded and compared at different stimulation protocols in the supine and -10º head-down tilt positions. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to determine any modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Change in large artery elasticity index was observed only in the Acu-TENS group (P pressure appeared most stable during Acu-TENS. Autonomic nervous system modulation was not apparent with spectral analysis, irrespective of intervention. Sympathetic activity predominated in all positions. Acu-TENS seems to reduce blood pressure changes with -10º head-down tilt with concomitant changes in arterial vessel tone.

  15. Lateral head turning affects temporal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Martino, Davide; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Fuggetta, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    Spatial attention is a key factor in the exploration and processing of the surrounding environment, and plays a role in linking magnitudes such as space, time, and numbers. The present work evaluates whether shifting the coordinates of spatial attention through rotational head movements may affect the ability to estimate the duration of different time intervals. A computer-based implicit timing task was employed, in which participants were asked to concentrate and report verbally on colour changes of sequential stimuli displayed on a computer screen; subsequently, they were required to reproduce the temporal duration (ranging between 5 and 80 sec.) of the perceived stimuli using the computer keyboard. There was statistically significant overestimation of the 80-sec. intervals exclusively on the rightward rotation head posture, whereas head posture did not affect timing performances on shorter intervals. These findings support the hypothesis that the coordinates of spatial attention influence the ability to process time, consistent with the existence of common cortical metrics of space and time in healthy humans.

  16. Primary postural instability: a cause of recurrent sudden falls in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaldetti, R; Lorberboym, M; Melamed, E

    2006-12-01

    Elderly patients with recurrent falls are frequently diagnosed with an extrapyramidal syndrome. This study aims to characterise a distinct group of patients with recurrent falls and postural instability as a hallmark of the clinical examination. The study took place in the Movement Disorders Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel among 26 patients with recurrent falls who had no clinical evidence of a neurodegenerative disease. Medical records, neurological examination and brain imaging studies were assessed. Falls in these patients were sudden, unprovoked, with no vertigo or loss of consciousness. All had postural instability with minimal or no abnormality on the neurological examination. Brain imaging showed diffuse ischaemic changes in 65%. [(123)I]-FPCIT SPECT with the dopamine transporter ligand, performed in five patients, was normal in all. Recurrent falls might be caused by a neurological syndrome that primarily affects balance control. The importance of identifying this disorder is its distinction from other parkinsonian syndromes causing falls.

  17. The relationship between sitting posture and seated-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain in computing South African adolescents: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Jordaan, Esmè

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that consistent sitting for prolonged periods is associated with upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP). It is unclear whether postural alignment is a significant risk factor. The aim of the prospective study (2010-2011) was to ascertain if three-dimensional sitting postural angles, measured in a real-life school computer classroom setting, predict seated-related UQMP. Asymptomatic Grade 10 high-school students, aged 15-17 years, undertaking Computer Application Technology, were eligible to participate. Using the 3D Posture Analysis Tool, sitting posture was measured while students used desk-top computers. Posture was reported as five upper quadrant angles (Head flexion, Neck flexion; Craniocervical angle, Trunk flexion and Head lateral bending). The Computer Usage Questionnaire measured seated-related UQMP and hours of computer use. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children assessed psychosocial factors. Sitting posture, computer use and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline. UQMP was measured at six months and one-year follow-up. 211, 190 and 153 students participated at baseline, six months and one-year follow-up respectively. 34.2% students complained of seated-related UQMP during the follow-up period. Increased head flexion (HF) predicted seated-related UQMP developing over time for a small group of students with pain scores greater than the 90th pain percentile, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, computer use and psychosocial factors (p = 0.003). The pain score increased 0.22 points per 1° increase in HF. Classroom ergonomics and postural hygiene should therefore focus on reducing large HF angles among computing adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Cardiopulmonary Activity and Related Abnormal Events Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Chahl, Javaan

    2018-03-20

    Monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity is a challenge when attempted under adverse conditions, including different sleeping postures, environmental settings, and an unclear region of interest (ROI). This study proposes an efficient remote imaging system based on a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the observation of cardiopulmonary-signal-and-detection-related abnormal cardiopulmonary events (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, bradypnea, and central apnoea) in many possible sleeping postures within varying environmental settings including in total darkness and whether the subject is covered by a blanket or not. The proposed system extracts the signal from the abdominal-thoracic region where cardiopulmonary activity is most pronounced, using a real-time image sequence captured by Kinect v2 sensor. The proposed system shows promising results in any sleep posture, regardless of illumination conditions and unclear ROI even in the presence of a blanket, whilst being reliable, safe, and cost-effective.

  19. Detection of Cardiopulmonary Activity and Related Abnormal Events Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Naji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity is a challenge when attempted under adverse conditions, including different sleeping postures, environmental settings, and an unclear region of interest (ROI. This study proposes an efficient remote imaging system based on a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the observation of cardiopulmonary-signal-and-detection-related abnormal cardiopulmonary events (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, bradypnea, and central apnoea in many possible sleeping postures within varying environmental settings including in total darkness and whether the subject is covered by a blanket or not. The proposed system extracts the signal from the abdominal-thoracic region where cardiopulmonary activity is most pronounced, using a real-time image sequence captured by Kinect v2 sensor. The proposed system shows promising results in any sleep posture, regardless of illumination conditions and unclear ROI even in the presence of a blanket, whilst being reliable, safe, and cost-effective.

  20. Differential effects of beta-adrenoceptor partial agonists in patients with postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C; Trap-Jensen, J

    1993-01-01

    patients with postural hypotension of different aetiologies. Blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume were measured in the supine and head-up tilted positions. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured in the supine position, and vascular resistance, left ventricular volume, and left.......min-1 and LVEF from 0.57 to 0.52, and reduced mean arterial blood pressure from 103 mm Hg to 93 mm Hg. Xamoterol showed beta-adrenoceptor agonistic effects in the supine position through increments in heart rate from 72 to 90 beats.min-1 and LVEF from 0.58 to 0.66, and raised mean arterial blood...... pressure from 108 to 123 mm Hg. It is concluded that the degree of agonist activity of a beta-adrenergic agent is of importance if it is given to a patient with postural hypotension....

  1. Global body posture and plantar pressure distribution in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Juliana A; Pasinato, Fernanda; Corrêa, Eliane C R; da Silva, Ana Maria T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate body posture and the distribution of plantar pressure at physiologic rest of the mandible and during maximal intercuspal positions in subjects with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifty-one subjects were assessed by the Diagnostic Criteria for Research on Temporomandibular Disorders and divided into a symptomatic group (21) and an asymptomatic group (30). Postural analysis for both groups was conducted using photogrammetry (SAPo version 0.68; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil). The distribution of plantar pressures was evaluated by means of baropodometry (Footwork software), at physiologic rest and maximal intercuspal positions. Of 18 angular measurements, 3 (17%) were statistically different between the groups in photogrammetric evaluation. The symptomatic group showed more pronounced cervical distance (P = .0002), valgus of the right calcaneus (P = .0122), and lower pelvic tilt (P = .0124). The baropodometry results showed the TMD subjects presented significantly higher rearfoot and lower forefoot distribution than those in the asymptomatic group. No differences were verified in maximal intercuspal position in the between-group analysis and between the 2 mandibular positions in the within-group analysis. Subjects with and without TMD presented with global body posture misalignment. Postural changes were more pronounced in the subjects with TMD. In addition, symptomatic subjects presented with abnormal plantar pressure distribution, suggesting that TMD may have an influence on the postural system. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  3. BODY POSTURES AND ASYMMETRIES IN FRONTAL AND TRANSVERSE PLANES IN THE TRUNK AREA IN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Barczyk-Pawelec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the body posture within the trunk area in table tennis players and to estimate the correlations between the specific body posture types, their asymmetries and table tennis practice (training experience. To evaluate body posture the photogrammetric method based on the Moiré phenomenon with equipment by CQ Electronic was applied. Tests of significance of difference and correlation were used to estimate the correlation of the observed asymmetries with the training experience. 40 table tennis players and 43 subjects not practising sports participated in the research. The analysis of the results revealed that table tennis players, unlike non-players, are characterized by kyphotic body posture. It probably results from a specific trunk, head and limb position during table tennis matches. Thus, many asymmetries in frontal and transverse planes were observed in the examined table tennis players. Perhaps table tennis, which is characterized by intensive and one-sided trunk muscle work during its performance, is in favour of creating asymmetries. The majority of subjects did not reveal any statistically significant correlations between the observed body posture types, their asymmetries and training experience. However, it was observed that training experience is significantly related to the considerable asymmetry of the inclination angle of shoulder line (KLB. It may result from the negative influence of very intensive, one-sided work and constant work of the shoulder girdle muscles of the playing limb with negligence of exercises of the second limb.

  4. Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, F; Paillard, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the postural performance of two groups of male skiers competing at different levels and the consequences on postural control of the suppression of visual afferences by eye closure.

  5. Postural reactions of girls and boys aged 12–15 years evaluated using the Romberg test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The complex system controlling human posture includes a gaze stabilisation system, which comprises the control of direction and visual acuity during head and body movements, and a posture stabilisation system, keeping the body in balance at rest and in movement. Aim of the research: To analyse the postural reaction of SOX and SOY using the Romberg test with eyes open (EO and closed (CE in girls and boys aged 12–15 years. Material and methods : The study included 503 students of Primary School No. 13 and School No. 4 in Starachowice. Postural reactions were tested on a Cosmogamma platform by Emildue R50300. Postural reactions were analysed, and mean sway X (MSX and mean sway Y (MSY were calculated. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences of MSX only between girls and boys (p < 0.036. MSX was significantly lower in girls in both tests with EO and CE. Although there was no apparent significant difference of MSX between the Romberg test with EO and CE, a slight progression was observed in the test with CE. Analysis of variance of MSY with a single classification showed a significant effect of study options (p < 0.048, a significant interaction of gender and options of the study (p < 0.048, and a significant interaction of age and options of the study (p < 0.026. Analysis of variance of MSY showed a significant progression of MSY in the test with CE. Conclusions : Our research showed that balance with CE does not worsen, so it can be assumed that children have limited skills of using vision to maintain balance because there is a lack of appropriate coordination between vision and motor abilities, which in children are in development.

  6. Postural imbalance and falls in PSP correlate with functional pathology of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwergal, A; la Fougère, C; Lorenzl, S; Rominger, A; Xiong, G; Deutschenbaur, L; Linn, J; Krafczyk, S; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T; Strupp, M; Bartenstein, P; Jahn, K

    2011-07-12

    To determine how postural imbalance and falls are related to regional cerebral glucose metabolism (PET) and functional activation of the cerebral postural network (fMRI) in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Sixteen patients with PSP, who had self-monitored their frequency of falls, underwent a standardized clinical assessment, posturographic measurement of balance during modified sensory input, and a resting [¹⁸F]FDG-PET. In addition, patients performed an fMRI paradigm using mental imagery of standing. Results were compared to healthy controls (n = 16). The frequency of falls/month in patients (range 1-40) correlated with total PSP rating score (r = 0.90). Total sway path in PSP significantly correlated with frequency of falls, especially during modulated sensory input (eyes open: r = 0.62, eyes closed: r = 0.67, eyes open/head extended: r = 0.84, eyes open/foam-padded platform: r = 0.87). Higher sway path values and frequency of falls were associated with decreased regional glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the thalamus (sway path: r = -0.80, falls: r = -0.64) and increased rCGM in the precentral gyrus (sway path: r = 0.79, falls: r = 0.64). Mental imagery of standing during fMRI revealed a reduced activation of the mesencephalic brainstem tegmentum and the thalamus in patients with postural imbalance and falls. The new and clinically relevant finding of this study is that imbalance and falls in PSP are closely associated with thalamic dysfunction. Deficits in thalamic postural control get most evident when balance is assessed during modified sensory input. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced thalamic activation via the ascending brainstem projections may cause postural imbalance in PSP.

  7. Day/Night Variability in Blood Pressure: Influence of Posture and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) is highest during the day and lowest at night. Absence of this rhythm is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contributions of changes in posture and physical activity to the 24-hour day/night rhythm in BP are not well understood. We hypothesized that postural changes and physical activity contribute substantially to the day/night rhythm in BP. METHODS Fourteen healthy, sedentary, nonobese, normotensive men (aged 19–50 years) each completed an ambulatory and a bed rest condition during which BP was measured every 30–60 minutes for 24 hours. When ambulatory, subjects followed their usual routines without restrictions to capture the “normal” condition. During bed rest, subjects were constantly confined to bed in a 6-degree head-down position; therefore posture was constant, and physical activity was minimized. Two subjects were excluded from analysis because of irregular sleep timing. RESULTS The systolic and diastolic BP reduction during the sleep period was similar in ambulatory (−11±2mmHg/−8±1mmHg) and bed rest conditions (−8±3mmHg/−4±2mmHg; P = 0.38/P = 0.12). The morning surge in diastolic BP was attenuated during bed rest (P = 0.001), and there was a statistical trend for the same effect in systolic BP (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of the 24-hour BP rhythm remained during bed rest, indicating that typical daily changes in posture and/or physical activity do not entirely explain 24-hour BP variation under normal ambulatory conditions. However, the morning BP increase was attenuated during bed rest, suggesting that the adoption of an upright posture and/or physical activity in the morning contributes to the morning BP surge. PMID:23535155

  8. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  9. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  10. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  11. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  12. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  13. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  14. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  15. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  16. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  17. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  18. A preliminary study of static and dynamic balance in sedentary obese young adults: the relationship between BMI, posture and postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, J A; Silva, C C; Dos Santos, H H; de Almeida Ferreira, J J; de Andrade, P R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the postural control of obese young adults with normal body mass index during different static (bipedic and unipedic support) and dynamic postural conditions (gait velocity and limits of stability) in order to compare the static and dynamic balance of these individuals. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out to evaluate static and dynamic balance in 25 sedentary individuals. The sample was divided into two groups, 10 in the normal-weight group (24.70 ± 3.89 years and 21.5 ± 1.66 kg m -2 ) and 15 in the obese group (26.80 ± 5.16 years and 35.66 ± 4.29 kg m -2 ). Postural evaluation was performed through visual inspection, and balance analyses were performed using the Timed Up & Go test (TUGT) and Balance System (Biodex). Descriptive analyses, Fisher's exact test and Mann Whitney U-tests were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - 20.0, Armonk, NY) software. Most of the obese volunteers presented postural alterations, such as head protrusion (47.6%), hyperkyphosis (46.7%) and hyperlordosis (26.7%). Medial-lateral dynamic displacement, risk of falls and mean time to perform the limits of stability test and TUGT were higher for obese subjects (P  0.05) for static balance tests for either bipedal or unipedal tasks. The disadvantage presented by the young obese subjects occurs in dynamic activities, representing worse balance and an increase in time needed to accomplish these activities. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. Confronting hip resurfacing and big femoral head replacement gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Karampinas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved hip kinematics and bone preservation have been reported after resurfacing total hip replacement (THRS. On the other hand, hip kinematics with standard total hip replacement (THR is optimized with large diameter femoral heads (BFH-THR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcomes of THRS and BFH-THR and correlate these results to bone preservation or the large femoral heads. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Gait speed, postural balance, proprioception and overall performance. Our results demonstrated a non-statistically significant improvement in gait, postural balance and proprioception in the THRS confronting to BFH-THR group. THRS provide identical outcomes to traditional BFH-THR. The THRS choice as bone preserving procedure in younger patients is still to be evaluated.

  1. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  3. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  6. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  7. Smart rehabilitation garment for posture monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, W.; Timmermans, A.A.A.; Karachristos, C.; Martens, J.B.O.S.; Markopoulos, P.

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and

  8. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  9. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  10. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  11. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Fernandes Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. METHOD The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. RESULTS The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (p< 0.00, except for the angle of the Thales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03, knee flexion (p< 0.00 and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00. CONCLUSION All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position.

  12. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Posture changes and subfoveal choroidal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Geiser, Martial H; Riva, Charles E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change on subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in normal volunteers. The pulsatile, nonpulsatile, and mean ChBF were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 32 +/- 13 (SD) years. The posture of the subjects was changed from standing (90 degrees ), to supine (-8 degrees ), and back to standing, with a mechanically driven table. During the whole experimental procedure, ChBF and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. After 30 seconds in standing position, the subjects were tilted to supine during approximately 30 seconds. They remained in this position for approximately 2 minutes, after which they were tilted back to the standing position (recovery), where they remained for another approximately 2 minutes. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure (BP) was measured in the baseline, supine, and recovery positions. This procedure was repeated to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) at the different postures. Mean BP did not change significantly throughout the experimental procedure. As the body was tilted from standing to supine, HR decreased by 16% (P blood velocity. Based on previously reported experimental data that indicate that the ocular perfusion pressure increases less than predicted by purely hydrostatic considerations when the body is tilted from the standing to the supine position, the observed increase in ChBF suggests a passive response of the choroidal circulation to the posture change.

  14. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  16. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  17. Further observations on the "bobble-headed doll syndrome".

    OpenAIRE

    Dell, S

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with a head-bobblng "tic" classically associated with a suprasellar cyst. The first of these showed hypothalamic, neuroendocrinological and limbic abnormalities not previously described, although with a classic arachnoidal suprasellar cyst. The second of these patients showed head-bobbling behaviour during the first years of life as a manifestation of one out of many episodes of ventricular shunt obstruction. This case is therefore the first reported whose head bobb...

  18. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  19. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  20. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1992. Five abnormal occurrences are discussed in this report. One involved an extended loss of high-head safety injection capability at the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant. The other four involved medical misadministrations (three therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  2. Interrelations between orthostatic postural deviations and subjects' age, sex, malocclusion, and specific signs and symptoms of functional pathologies of the temporomandibular system: a preliminary correlation and regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Hsing, Wu Tu

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationships between postural deviations and the temporomandibular system (TS) functional health are controversial and inconclusive. This study stems from the hypothesis that such inconclusiveness is due to authors considering functional pathologies of the TS (FPTS) as a whole, without taking into account subjects' specific FPTS signs and symptoms. Based on the author and collaborators' previous studies, the present study analyzed data on body posture from a sample of 50 subjects with (30) and without (20) FPTS. Correlation analyses were applied, taking as independent variables age, sex, Helkimo anamnestic, occlusal, and dysfunction indices, as well as FPTS specific signs and symptoms. Postural assessments of the head, cervical spine, shoulders, lumbar spine, and hips were the dependent variables. Linear regression equations were built that proved to partially predict the presence and magnitude of body posture deviations by drawing on subjects' characteristics and specific FPTS symptoms. Determination coefficients for these equations ranged from 0.082 to 0.199 in the univariate, and from 0.121 to 0.502 in the multivariate regression analyses. Results show that factors intrinsic to the subjects or the TS may potentially interfere in results of studies that analyze relationships between FPTS and body posture. Furthermore, a trend to specificity was found, e.g. the degree of cervical lordosis was found to correlate to age and FPTS degree of severity, suggesting that some TS pathological features, or malocclusion, age or sex, may be more strongly correlated than others with specific posture patterns.

  3. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  4. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are

  6. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance.Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional

  7. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  8. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  9. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  10. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and other autonomic disorders in antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, J R; Blitshteyn, S; Shoenfeld, Y; Hughes, G R V

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune hypercoagulable disorder that has been shown to cause a large number of cardiac and neurological manifestations. Two recent studies have demonstrated abnormalities in cardiovascular autonomic function testing in APS patients without other cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. However, an association between autonomic disorders such as postural tachycardia syndrome and APS has not previously been described. Data were obtained by retrospective chart review. We identified 15 patients who have been diagnosed with APS and an autonomic disorder. The median age of the patients at the time of data analysis was 39 years. The autonomic disorders seen in these patients included postural tachycardia syndrome, neurocardiogenic syncope and orthostatic hypotension. The majority of patients (14/15) were female and the majority (14/15) had non-thrombotic neurological manifestations of APS, most commonly migraine, memory loss and balance disorder. Many also had livedo reticularis (11/15) and Raynaud's phenomenon (nine of 15). In some patients, the autonomic manifestations improved with anticoagulation and/or anti-platelet therapy; in others they did not. Two patients with postural tachycardia syndrome who failed to improve with the usual treatment of APS have been treated with intravenous immunoglobulin with significant improvement in their autonomic symptoms. We believe that autonomic disorders in APS may represent an important clinical association with significant implications for treatment. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Diabetic Foot and Exercise Therapy: Step by Step The Role of Rigid Posture and Biomechanics Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient’s lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity. PMID:24807636

  12. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  13. Effect of vestibular neuritis on postural control using wavelets and fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, P; Manceau, C; Foubert, F

    2010-01-01

    What is the status of postural control a few months after an attack of vestibular neuritis (VN)? Using dynamic posturography and stabilometric signal treatment with wavelets and fractal analysis, we tried to answer this question by isolating the pathological postural parameters of VN. The study involved a group of 15 patients (GP) who suffered from VN and were compared to a group of control subjects (GC). Both groups underwent videonystagmography (VNG), dynamic posturography (PDY), and assessment using symptomatic scales (ES). GP and GC were comparable in terms of age mean, sex-ratio, average height and weight. The differences between GP and GC were the following videonystagmography criteria: Spontaneous nystagmus (NS) (P= 0.005), head shaking test (HST) (p= 0.001), vibratory test (TVO) (p= 0.009). There were also differences in the symptomatic scales scores for the vertigo symptom scale (VSS) (p= 0.011), the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) (p= 0.001), and the short form 36 (SF36) (p= 0.01). All the 84 new parameters of both GP and GC differ. This difference was significant (p conditions were found to be non-discriminating. Vestibular neuritis affects new stabilometric parameters. These parameters are more adapted to the present setup compared to previous parameters which are used to analyse non-periodic oscillations of posture. They are important in follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.

  14. Somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The study included 28 girls aged 7-18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The selection of the subjects was deliberate. Height measurements were conducted with an anthropometer and weight measurements were done with an electronic scale. Body posture tests were performed using Exhibeon 3D digital photogrammetry and digital radiographs. The significant Spearman correlations between postural variables for the sagittal plane and the somatic variables regarded: trunk inclination angle and BMI (R= 0,4553, p= p=0,015, Abs of the trunk inclination angle and BMI (R = 0.5522, p = 0.002, length of thoracic kyphosis and BMI (R=0,4147, p=0.028, lumbar lordosis and BMI (R=0,4509, p=0,016. The significant Spearman correlations between scoliotic posture variables and the somatic variables concerned: length of primary lordosis and body height (R =0,4923, p=0.008, the length of the primary lordosis and body mass (R = 0.3932, p = 0.038, the length of the primary lordosis and BMI (R=0,4923, p=0.008. Variation analysis regarding postural (Exhibeon and somatic variables showed significant correlations between the direction of the primary curvature and body mass (p=0,0432, body height and primary angle location (p=0,0290 and between the height of the body and the location of the secondary angle (p = 0,0278.

  15. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Okazaki

    Full Text Available People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR, the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  18. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  19. An abattoir survey of equine dental abnormalities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkangsadarn, T; Wilson, G J; Greer, R M; Pollitt, C C; Bird, P S

    2015-06-01

    A cadaver study to estimate the prevalence of dental disorders in horses presented at an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. Cadaver heads at a Queensland abattoir were examined for the presence of dental abnormalities and categorised into age groups. The prevalence of abnormalities was analysed by binomial observation of observed proportion, Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact correlation test. Strength of association was evaluated using Cramer's V test. Heads from horses (n=400) estimated to be between 1 and 30 years of age were placed into four age groups. The most common abnormalities were sharp enamel points (55.3%) and hooks (43%). The highest frequency of dental diseases and abnormalities were in horses 11-15 years old (97.5%). Common abnormalities were found in all groups and the prevalence increased with age. This study suggests that all horses should have regular complete dental examinations to detect and treat dental disorders in order to limit more severe dental pathologies later in life. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing.Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials.(1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity.Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  1. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  2. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  3. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  4. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  5. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper proposes a human posture identification scheme based on height and a Doppler radar cross section (RCS as estimated by a MIMO array. This scheme allows smart home applications to dispense with contact and wearable devices. Experiments demonstrate that this method can identify the supine position (i.e., after a fall with 100% accuracy, and the average identification rate is 95.0%.

  7. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  8. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  9. Correlation between occlusion and cervical posture in patients with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Guilherme Manna; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Ap

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate head and neck posture in the rest position of patients with bruxism and patients without temporomandibular disorder signs or symptoms to further relate them with Angle's class of malocclusion. Fifty-six volunteers participated in this study, ages 18 to 27 years with an average age of 22.5 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Group B--28 subjects with parafunctions (teeth grinding or clenching); and Group C--28 subjects without parafunctional habits (control group). All participants were photographed, and their pictures were analyzed and compared with the software Alcimagem (Instrumental Concept and Movement Analysis Laboratory, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The results demonstrated that variation of angular values did not present statistical difference for the studied groups. Regarding Angle's class of malocclusion, class I was predominant in Group C, and classes II and III were predominant in Group B. The mental-sternal angle calculated did not present statistical significance between the groups; however, there was a greater variation between the smaller angle and the higher angle in Group B, contrary to Group C.

  10. Motion sickness and postural sway in console video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Faugloire, Elise; Yoshida, Ken; Flanagan, Moira B; Merhi, Omar

    2008-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (a) participants might develop motion sickness while playing "off-the-shelf" console video games and (b) postural motion would differ between sick and well participants, prior to the onset of motion sickness. There have been many anecdotal reports of motion sickness among people who play console video games (e.g., Xbox, PlayStation). Participants (40 undergraduate students) played a game continuously for up to 50 min while standing or sitting. We varied the distance to the display screen (and, consequently, the visual angle of the display). Across conditions, the incidence of motion sickness ranged from 42% to 56%; incidence did not differ across conditions. During game play, head and torso motion differed between sick and well participants prior to the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness. The results indicate that console video games carry a significant risk of motion sickness. Potential applications of this research include changes in the design of console video games and recommendations for how such systems should be used.

  11. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dependency of blood pressure upon cardiac filling in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H

    1994-01-01

    by vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe......Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension....... Seven patients were studied during head-up tilt at three different tilt angles using intra-arterial blood pressure recordings and estimates of left ventricular volumes by radioisotope ventriculography. Blood pressure fell dramatically during head-up tilt due to reductions in cardiac output unopposed...

  13. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...... hemodynamic variables were equivalent, and the cerebrovascular autoregulatory capacity was not significantly affected by tilt or by clamping Pet(CO(2)). In the first minute of tilt, the decline in MCA V(mean) (10 +/- 4 vs. 3 +/- 4 cm/s; mean +/- SE; P

  14. Dependency of blood pressure upon cardiac filling in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H

    1994-01-01

    Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension....... Seven patients were studied during head-up tilt at three different tilt angles using intra-arterial blood pressure recordings and estimates of left ventricular volumes by radioisotope ventriculography. Blood pressure fell dramatically during head-up tilt due to reductions in cardiac output unopposed...... by vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe...

  15. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (pcomposta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exceção do ângulo triângulo de Tales. Reavaliando os mesmos estudantes, houve diferença significativa nos ângulos da articulação acromioclavicular (p=0,03), da flexão de joelhos (p< 0,00) e no ângulo tibiotársico (p< 0,00). Todos os estudantes apresentaram alterações, comparadas aos valores de normalidade. Os segmentos com diferença significativa, comparando-se antes e após a prática, foram o ângulo acromioclavicular, flexo de joelho e ângulo tibiotársico, sendo os dois últimos na posição de rolamento.

  16. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Sasakawa; Naoki Honma; Takeshi Nakayama; Shoichi Iizuka

    2018-01-01

    The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper pr...

  17. Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Lockhart, Tamara L; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Allan M

    2005-11-01

    Personal floatation devices maintain either a semirecumbent flotation posture with the head and upper chest out of the water or a horizontal flotation posture with the dorsal head and whole body immersed. The contribution of dorsal head and upper chest immersion to core cooling in cold water was isolated when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was inhibited with meperidine (Demerol, 2.5 mg/kg). Six male volunteers were immersed four times for up to 60 min, or until esophageal temperature = 34 degrees C. An insulated hoodless dry suit or two different personal floatation devices were used to create four conditions: 1) body insulated, head out; 2) body insulated, dorsal head immersed; 3) body exposed, head (and upper chest) out; and 4) body exposed, dorsal head (and upper chest) immersed. When the body was insulated, dorsal head immersion did not affect core cooling rate (1.1 degrees C/h) compared with head-out conditions (0.7 degrees C/h). When the body was exposed, however, the rate of core cooling increased by 40% from 3.6 degrees C/h with the head out to 5.0 degrees C/h with the dorsal head and upper chest immersed (P immersed (approximately 10%). The exaggerated core cooling during dorsal head immersion (40% increase) may result from the extra heat loss affecting a smaller thermal core due to intense thermal stimulation of the body and head and resultant peripheral vasoconstriction. Dorsal head and upper chest immersion in cold water increases the rate of core cooling and decreases potential survival time.

  18. Photogrammetry as a tool for the postural evaluation of the spine: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Tássia Silveira; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-02-18

    To evaluate the use of photogrammetry and identify the mathematical procedures applied when evaluating spinal posture. A systematic search using keywords was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Science and Medicine(®) databases. The following inclusion criteria adopted were: (1) the use of photogrammetry as a method to evaluate spinal posture; (2) evaluations of spinal curvature in the sagittal and/or frontal plane; (3) studies published within the last three decades; and (4) written entirely in English. The exclusion criteria were: (1) studies which objective involved the verification of some aspect of validation of instruments; (2) studies published as abstracts and those published in scientific events; and (3) studies using evaluation of the anteriorization of the head to determine the angular positioning of the cervical spine. The articles in this review were included and evaluated for their methodological quality, based on the Downs and Black scale, by two independent reviewers. Initially, 1758 articles were found, 76 of which were included upon reading the full texts and 29 were included in accordance with the predetermined criteria. In addition, after analyzing the references in those articles, a further six articles were selected, so that 35 articles were included in this review. This systematic review revealed that the photogrammetry has been using in observational studies. Furthermore, it was also found that, although the data collection methodologies are similar across the studies, in relation to aspects of data analysis, the methodologies are very different, especially regarding the mathematical routines employed to support different postural evaluation software. With photogrammetry, the aim of the assessment, whether it is for clinical, research or collective health purposes, must be considered when choosing which protocol to use to evaluate spinal posture.

  19. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  20. A postural `stressed` cerebral HMPAO case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M. [Wangaratta District Hospital, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia.

  1. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A postural 'stressed' cerebral HMPAO case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia

  3. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  4. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people’s postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future. PMID:27999324

  5. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-12-17

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people's postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future.

  6. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  8. The effects of brief swaying on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Sara; Maheu, Maxime; Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-12-06

    Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise. These data suggest that a basic exercise can rapidly improve postural control and reduce the risk of falls.

  9. Postural steadiness and ankle force variability in peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897

  10. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  11. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  12. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  13. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  14. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  15. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  16. Simulation of Cardiovascular Response to the Head-Up/Head-Down Tilt at Different Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Jiao, Chun; Zhang, Li-Fan

    2008-06-01

    The disappearance of hydrostatic pressure is the original factor that causes the changes of cardiovascular system under microgravity. The hydrostatical changes can be simulated by postural changes. Especially the head-down position can be used to simulate the effects of microgravity. The goal of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model for simulation of the human cardiovascular responses to acute and prolonged exposure under microgravity environment. We were particularly interested in the redistribution of transmural pressures, flows, blood volume, and the consequent alterations in local hemodynamics in different cardiovascular compartments during acute exposure and chronic adjustments. As a preliminary study, we first developed a multi-element, distributed hemodynamic model of human cardiovascular system, and verified the model to simulate cardiovascular changes during head up/down tilt at various angles.

  17. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takeshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1990-01-01

    T1-weighted MR images of thirty-six hips in 25 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were obtained two to five times during the course of 2 to 26 months. We investigated these MR images in the light of the chronological change and compared them with plain radiographs. MR images changes in 16 femoral head; in general, the abnormal low intensity area in the femoral head reduced in extent and the internal high intensity area became smaller of disappeared. Thirteen femoral heads among them became more flattened on plain radiographs in the same period. It is noted that four different zones are defined in the femoral head after bone necrosis takes place: the dead bone marrow, the dead marrow which still contains fat, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow. In T1-weighted MR images, the dead bone marrow, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow are demonstrated as low intensity area, while the dead marrow containing fat may remain high in intensity. On the basis of this knowledge of histopathology and MR images of this disease, we suggest that reduction of the abnormal low intensity area and disappearance of the internal high intensity area on MR images can be regarded as diminution of hyperemia in the living bone marrow and loss of fat in the dead bone marrow, respectively. (author)

  18. Photogrammetry on the identification of postural asymmetries in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian air force academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rodrigo V; Amaral, Artur C; Shimano, Antônio C

    2012-01-01

    To identify whether flight training activities cause postural changes in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA). Eighty subjects were assessed through photographic images in anterior and right side views. Four groups of cadets (n=20 per group) divided according to the year since enlistment and a fifth group of fifteen pilots from the Air Demonstration Squadron (ADS) were included. Pictures were analyzed using the Postural Analysis Program (SAPO) and angles related to head vertical alignment (HVA), head horizontal alignment (HHA), acromion horizontal alignment (AHA) and anterior-superior iliac spine horizontal alignment (HAS) were plotted. We did not find statistical significant differences in the angles: HVA, HHA and AHA. However, a significant difference was found for the HAS angle with pilots having lower values than cadets, suggesting greater postural stability for this variable in pilots. The horizontal alignment of the anterior-superior iliac spine was the only measure that showed significant difference in the comparison between pilots and cadets. The remaining alignments were not different, possibility because of the strict criteria used for admission of cadets at the AFA and the efficiency of the physical training that is performed periodically.

  19. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  20. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  1. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  2. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  3. Bird-Headed Dwarf of Seckel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Vardhan B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder characterized by growth delays prior to birth resulting in low birth weight. Growth delays continue after birth resulting in short stature (dwarfism. This syndrome is associated with an abnormally small head, varying degrees of mental retardation and unusual "beak like" protrusion of nose. Other facial features may include abnormally large eyes, a narrow face, malformed ears and an unusually small jaw. This syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. A case of the Seckel syndrome is presented.

  4. Avaliação postural em mulheres com dor pélvica crônica Postural evaluation in women with chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miranda

    2009-07-01

    analysis of the ankle, the knee in the saggittal plan, pelvis, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, adducted/abducted scapula, shoulders, head and third finger on the floor test were obtained. The qualitative variables studied were the knee (varus, valgus or normal, the presence or not of winged scapula and leveling of shoulders. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0 was used for the statistical analyses. Fisher's exact test and Monte-Carlo method were used to compare the qualitative variables, and for the quantitative data, t or Mann-Whitney test was used. The comparisons among continuous data, corrected for possible confusion variables were realized by the univariate covariance analysis. Significance level was established at 0.05 or 5%. RESULTS: there were significant differences between cases and controls for protruded head (47.5 and 52.0º, respectively; p<0.0001 and for protruded shoulders (1.9 and 1.6 cm, respectively; p=0.03. The other variables did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: based on these results, attention to head and shoulder posture, to antalgic postures and to the emotional factor is recommended. Women with chronic pelvic pain should be treated, taking into consideration individual muscle-skeletal changes, and social and emotional conditions.

  5. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  6. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  7. On the functional integration between postural and supra-postural tasks on the basis of contextual cues and task constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Andrea Cristina; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2010-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of uncertainty about direction of mechanical perturbation and supra-postural task constraint on postural control, young adults had their upright stance perturbed while holding a tray in a horizontal position. Stance was perturbed by moving forward or backward a supporting platform, contrasting situations of certainty versus uncertainty of direction of displacement. Increased constraint on postural stability was imposed by a supra-postural task of equilibrating a cylinder on the tray. Performance was assessed through EMG of anterior leg muscles, angular displacement of the main joints involved in the postural reactions and displacement of the tray. Results showed that both certainty on the direction of perturbation and increased supra-postural task constraint led to decreased angular displacement of the knee and the hip. Furthermore, combination of certainty and high supra-postural task constraint produced shorter latency of muscular activation. Such postural responses were paralleled by decreased displacement of the tray. These results suggest a functional integration between the tasks, with central set priming reactive postural responses from contextual cues and increased stability demand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI for early diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takashi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in forty patients on long-term oral steroid therapy for early detection of avascular necrosis (AN) of the femoral head. In 13 patients, AN was diagnosed in the unilateral femoral head from abnormal plain radiographs while the contralateral femoral head was normal radiographically. In the other 27 patients, radiographs were normal. A total of 67 femoral heads with normal radiographs is studied in this paper. In 36 of 67 femoral heads (54 %), MRI demonstrated abnormal low intensity area. The abnormal findings on MRI were divided into five patterns: whole type (type A), peripheral type (type B), ring or band type (type C), small change type (type D) and distal type (type E). Type A, B, C, D and E were found in 2, 11, 5, 16 and 2 femoral heads, respectively. In cases to be followed up over 6 months, AN was manifested radiographically in 4 femoral heads of 5 in type C and in one of 14 in type D. Meanwhile, in 6 of 41 femoral heads examined (15 %), bone scintigrams was abnormal. Followed-up study over 6 months revealed that AN was manifested radiographically in one femoral head of 6 with abnormal scintigram. However, in 4 of 30 with normal scintigram, AN was manifested subsequently. MRI was a better diagnostic modality for early AN. Ring or band-like low intensity (type C) on MRI was considered to be characteristic pattern of early AN. (author)

  9. MRI for early diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubo, Takashi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1988-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in forty patients on long-term oral steroid therapy for early detection of avascular necrosis (AN) of the femoral head. In 13 patients, AN was diagnosed in the unilateral femoral head from abnormal plain radiographs while the contralateral femoral head was normal radiographically. In the other 27 patients, radiographs were normal. A total of 67 femoral heads with normal radiographs is studied in this paper. In 36 of 67 femoral heads (54 %), MRI demonstrated abnormal low intensity area. The abnormal findings on MRI were divided into five patterns: whole type (type A), peripheral type (type B), ring or band type (type C), small change type (type D) and distal type (type E). Type A, B, C, D and E were found in 2, 11, 5, 16 and 2 femoral heads, respectively. In cases to be followed up over 6 months, AN was manifested radiographically in 4 femoral heads of 5 in type C and in one of 14 in type D. Meanwhile, in 6 of 41 femoral heads examined (15 %), bone scintigrams was abnormal. Followed-up study over 6 months revealed that AN was manifested radiographically in one femoral head of 6 with abnormal scintigram. However, in 4 of 30 with normal scintigram, AN was manifested subsequently. MRI was a better diagnostic modality for early AN. Ring or band-like low intensity (type C) on MRI was considered to be characteristic pattern of early AN.

  10. Clinical evaluation of postural posture of patients with previous stroke subjected to early rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impairment disorders are often found in patients with stroke and impairment of motor and cognitive functions. This is a very serious complication because, by imposing a motor impairment, it aggravates the condition of disability and makes it difficult to conduct physical rehabilitation.The resulting neurological deficits due to stroke determine functional disorders. The possibility of locomotion is usually compromised, therefore the risk of falls increases significantly. The aim of the work is to present Postural Assesment Scale for Strock PASS with the postural stroke assessment scale, the impact of early rehabilitation of patients staying in the neurology ward.Material and methods: Postural examination was carried out among 17 people, of which 8 were women, and 9 were male. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage occurred immediately after the stroke and the second one before the patient was discharged from the ward. Research was carried out at the Biegański Specialist Hospital in Grudziądz in the Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroimmunology and Impact Department.Conclusions: The results of the postural studies carried out in people with previous stroke subjected to early physiotherapy have a beneficial effect of the conducted therapy. There are positive changes between the first and the final examination of the patients.

  11. Assessment of the postural control strategies used to play two Wii Fit™ videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, A; Glazebrook, C M; Martin, A J; Wong, W W N; Kim, A J W; Moody, K D; Salbach, N M; Steinnagel, B; Andrysek, J; Torres-Moreno, R; Zabjek, K F

    2012-07-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit™ may provide an affordable alternative to traditional biofeedback or virtual reality systems for retraining or improving motor function in populations with impaired balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postural control strategies healthy individuals use to play Wii Fit™ videogames. Sixteen young adults played 10 trials of Ski Slalom and Soccer Heading respectively. Centre of pressure (COP) excursion and three-dimensional movement data were acquired to determine variability in medial-lateral COP sway and shoulder-pelvic movement. While there was no difference in medial-lateral COP variability between games during trial 1, there was a significant difference after 10 trials. COP sway increased (59-75 mm) for Soccer Heading while it decreased (67-33 mm) for Ski Slalom from trial 1 to trial 10. During Ski Slalom participants demonstrated decreased shoulder and pelvic movement combined with increased pelvic-shoulder coupling. Conversely, participants demonstrated greater initial shoulder tilt when playing Soccer Heading, with no reduction in pelvic rotation and tilt. Participants decreased pelvic and trunk movements when skiing, suggesting a greater contribution of lower extremity control while they primarily used a trunk strategy to play Soccer Heading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

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    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  13. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

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    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  14. Effects of Corrective Exercise for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis on Posture, Balance, and Well-Being in Older Women: A Double-Blind, Group-Matched Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jeong; Hughes, Lynne C; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Suhn-Yeop

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a corrective exercise for thoracic hyperkyphosis on posture, balance, and well-being in Korean community-dwelling older women. Fifty women 65 years of age and older, recruited from 2 senior centers, participated in this study. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG) on the basis of convenience of location, and 22 in each were analyzed. Participants in the EG underwent a thoracic corrective exercise program 1 hour each session, twice per week for 8 weeks (a total of 16 sessions), which consisted of specific exercises to enhance breathing, thoracic mobility and stability, and awareness of thoracic alignment. The CG received education on the same thoracic corrective exercise program and a booklet of the exercises. Outcome measures included the extent of postural abnormality (angle of thoracic kyphosis, kyphosis index calculated both in relaxed- and best posture using flexicurve, the ratio of the kyphosis index calculated best posture/relaxed posture, craniovertebral angle, and tragus-to-wall distance), balance (Short Physical Performance Battery and limit of stability), and well-being (Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]). All data were collected by 6 blinded assessors at baseline, at 8 weeks after the completion of intervention, and at 16 weeks for follow-up. For participants of the EG, means of all parameters showed significant improvements over time (P posture, balance, and well-being in older women with thoracic hyperkyphosis. We recommend the use of the therapeutic strategies utilized in this study to enhance thoracic posture, balance, and well-being of older women with thoracic hyperkyphosis. Future research is needed to apply this exercise protocol on a larger and more diverse population.

  15. A importância da avaliação postural no paciente com disfunção da articulação temporomandibular The importance of the postural evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction

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    Daniela Vieira Amantéa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O equilíbrio do corpo bem como os movimentos da cabeça são originados pelo posicionamento do crânio sobre a região cervical determinando assim a postura do indivíduo. Estando a articulação temporomandibular (ATM diretamente relacionada com a região cervical e escapular através de um sistema neuromuscular comum, alterações posturais da coluna cervical podem acarretar em distúrbios na ATM e vice-versa. O número crescente de pacientes com disfunção da articulação temporomandibular (DTM que apresentavam alterações posturais levou ao desenvolvimento de estudos que procuram demonstrar suas relações. Este trabalho propôs-se realizar uma revisão de literatura que demonstre a relação entre má postura e DTM. Salienta ainda a necessidade de uma equipe multidisciplinar, formada pelo médico ortopedista, o cirurgião dentista e o fisioterapeuta, para realizarem juntos o diagnóstico e o tratamento de tais alterações.The position of the head over the neck determines the posture of the body and is responsible for the body balance and head movements. The temporomandibular joint (TMA is directly related to the cervical and the scapular region by a common neuromuscular system. Changes in the cervical spine can cause lead to TMA disorders and contra wise. The increasing number of patients with TMA disorders who also had postural disorders led to the development of studies to evaluate their interactions. The present study aimed to review the papers that have shown a relationship between wrong posture and TMA disorders. It emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary team formed by an orthopedist, dental surgeon, and physiotherapist in the diagnosis and treatment of TMA disorders and wrong posture.

  16. Cognitive function, health-related quality of life and symptoms of depression and anxiety sensitivity are impaired in patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS

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    Jake W Anderson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS is a condition in which heart rate increases abnormally when the individual assumes an upright position. In addition to the marked tachycardia, presyncope and syncope, patients with POTS often complain of light-headedness, fatigue and difficulty in concentrating. The present study assessed individuals with POTS for psychiatric comorbidity, anxiety sensitivity and health related quality of life and examined general cognitive ability. Data was obtained from patients with POTS (n=15, 12 female, aged 30±3 years and age matched healthy subjects (n=30, 21 female, aged 32±2 years. Patients with POTS commonly presented with symptoms of depression, elevated anxiety and increased anxiety sensitivity, particularly with regards to cardiac symptoms, and had a poorer health related quality of life in both the physical and mental health domains. While patients with POTS performed worse in tests of current intellectual functioning (verbal and non-verbal IQ and in measures of focused attention (digits forward and short term memory (digits back, test results were influenced largely by years of education and the underlying level of depression and anxiety. Acute changes in cognitive performance in response to head up tilt were evident in the POTS patients. From results obtained, it was concluded that participants with POTS have an increased prevalence of depression and higher levels of anxiety. These underlying symptoms impact on cognition in patients with POTS, particularly in the cognitive domains of attention and short-term memory. Our results indicate that psychological interventions may aid in recovery and facilitate uptake and adherence of other treatment modalities in patients with POTS.

  17. Determining the Position of Head and Shoulders in Neurological Practice with the use of Cameras

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    P. Kutílek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The posture of the head and shoulders can be influenced negatively by many diseases of the nervous system, visual and vestibular systems. We have designed a system and a set of procedures for evaluating the inclination (roll, flexion (pitch and rotation (yaw of the head and the inclination (roll and rotation (yaw of the shoulders. A new computational algorithm allows non-invasive and non-contact head and shoulder position measurement using two cameras mounted opposite each other, and the displacement of the optical axis of the cameras is also corrected.

  18. Safeguards technology: present posture and future impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    With widespread and growing concern over the issues of nuclear safeguards, international nuclear trade and nuclear weapons proliferation, the full development of the world's nuclear energy potential could well depend on how effectively the strategic nuclear materials that fuel nuclear power are controlled and safeguarded. The broad U.S. program in nuclear safeguards and security is directed toward a balanced safeguards system incorporating the two major components of physical security and materials control. The current posture of modern safeguards technology, its impact on plant operations, and the key role it must play in the implementation of stringent cost-effective safeguards systems in facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are outlined

  19. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF THE REARFOOT POSTURE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Gilleard

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural abnormalities of the foot may cause abnormal subtalar joint compensatory motion in order to attain normal function of the lower extremity during gait although studies have not been conclusive. Current conflict in the literature may be related to the differing measures focused on the varying protocols and also the absence of a control group in some studies. This study investigated the rearfoot posture including Subtalar Joint Neutral Position (STJN and Relaxed Calcaneal Standing (RCS measurements in patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS and healthy subjects. The angle of STJN during non-weight bearing position and the two dimensional (2D rearfoot RCS posture was measured using a goniometer in 14 healthy females and 13 females with PFPS. The RCS posture was also measured three dimensionally (3D by attaching external markers to a tibia shell and the calcaneus and videoing with a four-camera three-dimensional motion analysis system. A one way ANOVA was used to assess the differences between the groups. The 2D and 3D RCS were significantly different between the groups (p ¡Ü 0.001 with mean -0.23¡ã ¡À 1.35¡ã , 2.52¡ã ¡À 3.11¡ã for the control group and 2.35¡ã ¡À 1.4¡ã, 7.02¡ã ¡À 3.33¡ã for the clinical group respectively. STJN showed a slight rearfoot varus (although significant p = 0.04 in PFPS (-2.20¡ã ¡À 1.51¡ã compared to the control group (-1.00¡ã ¡À 1.36¡ã. Negative values indicated inversion and positive values indicated eversion. The 2D and 3D RCS showed a significantly more everted posture of the rearfoot for the PFPS group. Subtalar joint varus may contribute to the increased eversion during relaxed standing in the PFPS group. Rearfoot measurements may be an important addition to other clinical measurements taken to explore the underlying aetiology of subjects with PFPS.

  1. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  2. 3D.03: INFLUENCE OF AORTIC ATHEROSCLEROSIS ON THE PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF POSTURAL BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courand, P Y; Fay, H; Harbaoui, B; Khettab, F; Fauvel, J P; Bricca, G; Milon, H; Lantelme, P

    2015-06-01

    Orthostatic blood pressure (BP) variations have been related with cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients; they are associated with autonomic and neurohormonal abnormalities. Large vessels damages, i.e. aortic atherosclerosis (ATS), may exaggerate this BP deregulation and thus, amplify its prognostic consequence. This study aimed at investigating the interaction of ATS on the prognostic value of postural BP changes. In a cohort of 958 hypertensive patients with an aortography available (mean age 44 ± 11 years, 61% of men, 26.5% of secondary prevention), BP was measured with a manual sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position and in the standing position, one minute after assuming the upright position. Supine and standing SBP were each the average of six measurements. Postural BP change was recalculated as absolute value of the difference between mean supine SBP and mean standing SBP. ATS was assessed by a 2-modality score: absent or mild vs. moderate or severe. All-cause and cardiovascular deaths were assessed after 15 years of follow-up. BP was 182/110 mm Hg, on average. During the follow-up, 167 cardiovascular and 280 all-cause death occurred. As illustrated in the figure, an increased risk of death was observed across tertiles of increasing level of postural BP changes in the presence of moderate or severe ATS but not if ATS was absent or mild. In a multivariable Cox Regression analysis adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors, postural BP change was statistically associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality only in the presence of moderate or severe ATS: tertile 2 vs. 1: 2.19 [1.10-4.39] and 2.02 [0.82-4.96] respectively; tertile 3 vs. 1: 3.21 [1.73-5.94] and 4.65 [2.20-9.80] respectively (P for interaction 0.006 for all-cause mortality and 0.002 for cardiovascular mortality). We did not observe such interaction with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy, history of heart failure and anti-hypertensive treatment

  3. Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Sandberg, Lisa; Ressman, John; Diamantoglou, Nicolas; Johansson, Elin; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2018-01-08

    Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP). We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending. The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC validity (Spearman reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012). This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

  4. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  5. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Johnson, Blair D; van Helmond, Noud; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Anna G; Joyner, Michael J; Cortelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBRS with the sequence technique in healthy male subjects during passive head-up tilt test (HUTT, n = 58), during supine wakefulness, supine slow-wave sleep (SWS), and in the seated and active standing positions ( n = 8), and during progressive loss of 1 L blood ( n = 8) to decrease central venous pressure in the supine position. HUTT, SWS, the seated, and the standing positions, but not blood loss, entailed significant increases in the positive correlation between HP and the previous SAP values, which is the expected result of arterial baroreflex control, compared with baseline recordings in the supine position during wakefulness. These increases were mirrored by increases in the low-frequency variability of SAP in each condition but SWS. cBRS decreased significantly during HUTT, in the seated and standing positions, and after blood loss compared with baseline during wakefulness. These decreases were mirrored by decreases in the RMSSD index, which reflects cardiac vagal modulation. These results support the view that the cBRS decrease associated with the upright posture is a byproduct of decreased cardiac vagal modulation, triggered by the arterial baroreflex in response to central hypovolemia. Conversely, the greater baroreflex contribution to cardiac control associated with upright posture may be explained, at least in part, by enhanced fluctuations of SAP, which elicit a more effective entrainment of HP fluctuations by the arterial baroreflex. These SAP fluctuations may result

  6. Independent walking as a major skill for the development of anticipatory postural control: evidence from adjustments to predictable perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cignetti

    Full Text Available Although there is suggestive evidence that a link exists between independent walking and the ability to establish anticipatory strategy to stabilize posture, the extent to which this skill facilitates the development of anticipatory postural control remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of independent walking on the infants' ability to anticipate predictable external perturbations. Non-walking infants, walking infants and adults were sitting on a platform that produced continuous rotation in the frontal plane. Surface electromyography (EMG of neck and lower back muscles and the positions of markers located on the platform, the upper body and the head were recorded. Results from cross-correlation analysis between rectified and filtered EMGs and platform movement indicated that although muscle activation already occurred before platform movement in non-walking infants, only walking infants demonstrated an adult-like ability for anticipation. Moreover, results from further cross-correlation analysis between segmental angular displacement and platform movement together with measures of balance control at the end-points of rotation of the platform evidenced two sorts of behaviour. The adults behaved as a non-rigid non-inverted pendulum, rather stabilizing head in space, while both the walking and non-walking infants followed the platform, behaving as a rigid inverted pendulum. These results suggest that the acquisition of independent walking plays a role in the development of anticipatory postural control, likely improving the internal model for the sensorimotor control of posture. However, despite such improvement, integrating the dynamics of an external object, here the platform, within the model to maintain balance still remains challenging in infants.

  7. Neural basis of postural focus effect on concurrent postural and motor tasks: phase-locked electroencephalogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Zhao, Chen-Guang; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-11-01

    Dual-task performance is strongly affected by the direction of attentional focus. This study investigated neural control of a postural-suprapostural procedure when postural focus strategy varied. Twelve adults concurrently conducted force-matching and maintained stabilometer stance with visual feedback on ankle movement (visual internal focus, VIF) and on stabilometer movement (visual external focus, VEF). Force-matching error, dynamics of ankle and stabilometer movements, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered. Postural control with VEF caused superior force-matching performance, more complex ankle movement, and stronger kinematic coupling between the ankle and stabilometer movements than postural control with VIF. The postural focus strategy also altered ERP temporal-spatial patterns. Postural control with VEF resulted in later N1 with less negativity around the bilateral fronto-central and contralateral sensorimotor areas, earlier P2 deflection with more positivity around the bilateral fronto-central and ipsilateral temporal areas, and late movement-related potential commencing in the left frontal-central area, as compared with postural control with VIF. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP principal component revealed phase-locked neural oscillations in the delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), and beta (13-35Hz) rhythms. The delta and theta rhythms were more pronounced prior to the timing of P2 positive deflection, and beta rebound was greater after the completion of force-matching in VEF condition than VIF condition. This study is the first to reveal the neural correlation of postural focusing effect on a postural-suprapostural task. Postural control with VEF takes advantage of efficient task-switching to facilitate autonomous postural response, in agreement with the "constrained-action" hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.